On the spatial distribution of seismicity and the 3D tectonic stress field in western Greece
Publication date: Available online 23 March 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Ioannis Kassaras, Vasilis Kapetanidis, Andreas Karakonstantis We analyzed a large number of focal mechanisms and relocated earthquake hypocenters to investigate the geodynamics of western Greece, the most seismically active part of the Aegean plate-boundary zone. This region was seismically activated multiple times during the last decade, providing a large amount of enhanced quality new information that was obtained by the Hellenic Unified Seismological Network (HUSN). Relocated seismicity using a double-...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 22, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Critical Pollution levels in Umguza River, Zimbabwe
This study investigated the levels of pollution in Umguza River that would affect its self-purification capacity. This was achieved by characterising the spatial distribution of a selected range of water quality parameters as well as determining the self-purification capacity of a stretch of the river. Critical pollutant concentrations were determined for some of the parameters that showed high values along the stretch. The selected parameters of interest were dissolved oxygen, suspended solids, phosphates, nitrates, COD, turbidity, ammonia, pH, alkalinity and temperature. The study was carried out from January 2014 to Apr...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 21, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Determination of background concentrations of hydrochemical parameters and water quality assessment in the Akhuryan River Basin (Armenia)
This study highlights the usefulness of application of site-specific background concentrations for the evaluation, interpretation of surface water quality and for determination of pollution sources. (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 21, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Evaluation of Borehole Water Quality in Rural-Areas Of Northern Malawi: Case of Zombwe in Mzimba
This study was conducted to evaluate quality of water from boreholes (n=20) in Zombwe Extension Planning Area (EPA), Mzimba in Northern Malawi to ascertain their safety. Desktop studies and participatory approaches were employed to assess the socio-economic activities and water supply regime in the study areas. Water samples were analyzed for selected physico-chemical parameters: pH, conductivity (EC), turbidity, water temperature, nitrate ( NO 3 − ), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), fluoride (F-), and sulphate ( SO 4 2 − ). In-situ and laboratory analyses were carried out using portable meters and ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 21, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

High resolution WRF climatic simulations for the Iberian Peninsula: Model validation
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Martinho Marta-Almeida, João C. Teixeira, Maria João Carvalho, Paulo Melo-Gonçalves, Alfredo M. Rocha A high resolution atmospheric modelling study was done for a 20-year recent historical period. The dynamic downscaling approach adopted used the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) to drive the WRF running in climate mode. Three online nested domains were used covering part of the North Atlantic and Europe, with a resolution 81 km, and reaching 9 km in the innermost do...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 21, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Climate Change induced by Southern Hemisphere Desertification
Publication date: Available online 21 March 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Ye Wang, Xiaodong Yan Some 10 to 20% of global dry-lands are already degraded, and the ongoing desertification threatens the world’s poorest populations. Studies on desertification effects are essential for humans to adapt to the environmental challenges posed by desertification. Given the importance of the much larger southern ocean to the global climate and the Southern Hemisphere (SH) climate changes in phase with those in the north, the biogeophysical effects of the SH desertification on climate ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 21, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

The effect of roughness in simultaneously retrieval of land surface parameters
In this study, a model called Simultaneous Land Parameters Retrieval Model (SLPRM) that is an iterative least-squares minimization method is proposed. The algorithm estimates surface soil moisture, land surface temperature and canopy temperature simultaneously in vegetated areas using AMSR-E (Advance Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS) brightness temperature data. The simultaneous estimations of the three parameters are based on a multi-parameter inversion algorithm which includes model construction, calibration and validation using observations carried out for the SMEX03 (Soil Moisture Experiment 2003) region in the South ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 21, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Application of satellite products and hydrological modeling for flood early warning
In this study, we propose a satellite based flood index to identify the runoff source areas that largely contribute to extreme runoff production and floods in the basin. Satellite based products used for development of the flood index are CMORPH (0.250 by 0.250, daily) product for calculation of the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) and a SRTM digital elevation model for calculation of the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI). Other satellite products used in this study are for rainfall-runoff modelling to represent rainfall, potential evapotranspiration, vegetation cover and topography. Results of the study show that assessme...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 20, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Micrometeorological Measurements and Vapour Pressure Deficit Relations under In-field Rainwater Harvesting
Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Weldemichael A. Tesfuhuney, Sue Walker, Leon D. Van Rensburg, A. Stephan Steyn In a cropped field, microclimate and thermal stability conditions depend on the canopy structures and the prevailing weather. The main aim of the study therefore was to characterize the vertical profiles of weather variables within and above a maize (Zea mays L.) canopy and to describe the water vapour pressure deficit (VPD) under different atmospheric and soil surface conditions for both wide and narrow runoff strips with the...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 11, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

The hydrology of sand rivers in Zimbabwe and the use of remote sensing to assess their level of saturation
Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): S.C. Mpala, A.S. Gagnon, M.G. Mansell, S.W. Hussey Sand rivers are ephemeral watercourses containing sand that are occasionally flooded with rainwater runoff during the rainy season. Although the riverbed appears dry for most of the year, there is perennial groundwater flow within the sand. This water flowing beneath the surface is a valuable resource for local communities; nonetheless our understanding of such river systems is limited. Hence, this paper aims to improve our understanding of the hydrology...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 11, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

How is water availability related to the land use and morphology of an inland valley wetland in Kenya?
Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Beate Böhme, Mathias Becker, Bernd Diekkrüger, Gerd Förch Small inland valley wetlands contribute substantially to the livelihoods of rural communities in East Africa. Their conversion into farmland is driven by water availability. We quantified spatial-temporal dynamics of water availability in a headwater wetland in the humid zone of Kenya. Climatic conditions, soil moisture contents, groundwater levels and discharge data were monitored. A land-use map and a digital elevation model of th...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 11, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Land use/land cover change and implications for ecosystems services in the Likangala River Catchment, Malawi
Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Deepa Pullanikkatil, Lobina G. Palamuleni, Tabukeli M. Ruhiiga Likangala River catchment in Zomba District of Southern Malawi is important for water resources, agriculture and provides many ecosystem services. Provisioning ecosystem services accrued by the populations within the catchment include water, fish, medicinal plants and timber among others. In spite of its importance, the River catchment is under threat from anthropogenic activities and land use change. This paper studies land uses and land cove...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 11, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Water supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in low-income areas of Lilongwe City, Malawi
This study explored supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in four LIAs of Lilongwe City in Malawi using qualitative and quantitative methods. Household-level surveys (n=120) and transect walks were employed to determine the socio-economic activities in the areas. One-on-one discussions were made with water source owners (SSIPs) (n=24). Data on policy and institutional frameworks was collected through desktop study and Key Informant Interviews (n=25). Quality of the water sources (shallow wells and boreholes) was determined by collecting grab samples (n=24) in triplicate using 500 mL bottles. Selected phy...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 11, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

From standard to fractional structural visco-elastodynamics: Application to seismic site response
Publication date: Available online 12 February 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): C. Germoso, A. Fraile, E. Alarcon, J.V. Aguado, F. Chinesta This paper revisits viscoelastodynamics from its most standard formulation to some more advanced description involving frequency-dependent damping (or viscosity), analyzing the effects of considering fractional derivatives for representing such viscous contributions. We will prove that such a choice results in richer models that can accommodate different constraints related to the dissipated power, response amplitude and phase angle. Moreove...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 13, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Seismic Moment Tensor Inversion Using 3D Velocity Model and Its Application to the 2013 Lushan Earthquake Sequence
In this study, we developed a new inversion method called gCAP3D for determining general moment tensor of a seismic source using Green’s functions of 3D models. It inherits the advantageous features of the “Cut-and-Paste” (CAP) method to break a full seismogram into the Pnl and surface-wave segments and to allow time shift between observed and predicted waveforms. It uses grid search for 5 source parameters (relative strengths of the isotropic and compensated-linear-vector-dipole components and the strike, dip, and rake of the double-couple component) that minimize the waveform misfit. The scalar moment i...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 5, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

On the relationship between atmospheric water vapour transport and extra-tropical cyclones development
This study suggests that atmospheric rivers tend to favour the conditions for explosive extra-tropical storms’ development in the three case studies, as simulations performed without the existence of atmospheric rivers produce shallow mid-latitudes cyclones, that is, cyclones that are not so intense as those on the reference simulations. (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 4, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Moment tensors, state of stress and their relation to faulting processes in Gujarat, Western India
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Sandeep Kumar Aggarwal, Prosanta Kumar Khan, Sarada Prasad Mohanty, Zafeiria Roumelioti Time domain moment tensor analysis of 145 earthquakes (Mw 3.2 to 5.1), occurring during the period 2006-2014 in Gujarat region, has been performed. The events are mainly confined in the Kachchh area demarcated by the Island belt and Kachchh Mainland faults to its north and south, and two transverse faults to its east and west. Libraries of Green’s functions were established using the 1D velocity model of Kachc...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 4, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Analysis of the 2012–2013 Torreperogil-Sabiote seismic swarm
This study analyses the temporal clustering, spatial clustering, and statistics of the 2012–2013 Torreperogil-Sabiote (southern Spain) seismic swarm. During the swarm, more than 2200 events were located, mostly at depths of 2–5 km, with magnitude event up to m bLg 3.9 (M w 3.7). On the basis of daily activity rate, three main temporal phases are identified and analysed. The analysis combines different seismological relationships to improve our understanding of the physical processes related to the swarm’s occurrence. Each temporal phase is characterized by its cumulative seismic moment. Using several diff...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 4, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Estimation of Groundwater Vulnerability to Pollution based on DRASTIC in the Niipele sub-Basin of the Cuvelai Etosha Basin, Namibia
This study explores vulnerability mapping as a basic tool for protecting groundwater resources from pollution. It estimates groundwater vulnerability to pollution in the upper Niipele sub-basin of the Cuvelai-Etosha in Northern Namibia using the DRASTIC index. The DRASTIC index uses GIS to estimate groundwater vulnerability by overlaying different spatially referenced hydrogeological parameters that affect groundwater contamination. The study assesses the discontinuous perched aquifer (KDP) and the Ohangwena multi-layered aquifer 1 (KOH-1). For perched aquifers, point data was regionalized by a hydrotope approach whereas f...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 24, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Degradation of organic matter from wastewater using advanced primary treatment by O3 and O3/UV in a pilot plant
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Yaneth Bustos-Terrones, Jesús Gabriel Rangel-Peraza, Antonio Sanhouse, Erick R. Bandala, Luis G. Torres The oxidation of organic matter from wastewater using ozone, ultraviolet radiation and ozone/UV oxidation was evaluated in a pilot plant, applying a continuous effluent arising from the Autonomous Metropolitan University wastewater treatment plant. The oxidation was measured as the efficiency to remove organic load, measured as chemical oxygen demand. The use of ozone and UV was evaluated sep...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 24, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Spatial scale impact on daily surface water and sediment fluxes in Thukela river, South Africa
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Macdex Mutema, Graham Jewitt, Pauline Chivenge, Samuel Kusangaya, Vincent Chaplot The on- and off-site effects of soil erosion in many environments are well known, but there is still limited understanding of the soil loss fluxes in downstream direction due, among other factors, to scarce and poor quality. A four year study to (i) evaluate water and sediment fluxes at different spatio-temporal scales and (ii) interpret the results in terms of processes involved and the controlling factors, was conducted...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 22, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Influence of deposition of fine plant debris in river floodplain shrubs on flood flow conditions – The Warta River case study
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Robert Mazur, Tomasz Kałuża, Joanna Chmist, Natalia Walczak, Ireneusz Laks, Paweł Strzeliński This paper presents problems caused by organic material transported by flowing water. This material is usually referred to as plant debris or organic debris. Its composition depends on the characteristic of the watercourse. For lowland rivers, the share of the so-called small organic matter in plant debris is considerable. This includes both various parts of water plants and floodplain vegetation (leave...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 12, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Land use mapping from CBERS-2 images with open source tools by applying different classification algorithms
Publication date: Available online 29 December 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Antonio J. Sanhouse-Garcia, Jesús Gabriel Rangel-Peraza, Yaneth Bustos-Terrones, Alfonso García-Ferrer, Francisco J. Mesas-Carrascosa Land cover classification is often based on different characteristics between their classes, but with great homogeneity within each one of them. This cover is obtained through field work or by mean of processing satellite images. Field work involves high costs; therefore, digital image processing techniques have become an important alternative to perform ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 11, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Recent trends of extreme temperature indices for the Iberian Peninsula
In this study, we perform a high resolution downscaling simulation to evaluate recent trends of extreme temperature indices. The model used was Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) forced by MPI-ESM-LR, which has been shown to be one of the more robust models to simulate European climate. The domain used in the simulations includes the Iberian Peninsula and the simulation covers the 1986 − 2005 period (i.e. recent past). In order to study extreme temperature events, trends were computed using the Theil-Sen method for a set of temperature indexes defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCD...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 11, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Knowledge and Practices regarding Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) among mothers of under-fives in Mawabeni rural area, Zimbabwe
Publication date: Available online 9 January 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Tendai Demberere, Tayedza Chidziya, Tatenda Ncozana, Norman Manyeruke The research study sought to assess knowledge and practices of mothers of under-fives regarding WASH in Mawabeni communal area in Zimbabwe. Focus group discussions, interviews, questionnaires and observation checklists were used to collect data. Data was analysed by developing specific themes related to the objectives and then frequencies were computed in Microsoft Excel. The mean score on WASH knowledge for the mothers of under-fives...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 11, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

State of Tectonic Stress in Shillong Plateau of Northeast India
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Santanu Baruah, Saurabh Baruah, Sowrav Saikia, Mahesh N. Shrivastava, Antara Sharma, C.D. Reddy, J.R. Kayal Tectonic stress regime in the Shillong plateau, northeast region of India, is examined by stress tensor inversion. Some 97 reliable fault plane solutions are used for stress inversion by the Michael and Gauss methods. Although an overall NNW-SSE compressional stress is observed in the area, the stress regime varies from western part to eastern part of the plateau. The eastern part of the plat...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 23, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

QLg tomography in Gujarat, Western India
This study is the first attempt and can be utilized as pivotal criteria for scenario hazard assessment, as maximum hazard has been reported in highly attenuating tectonically active Kachchh region and in low attenuating Cambay, Narmada and Surendranagar regions. The site and source terms are also obtained along with the QLg inversion. The estimated site responses are comparable with observed local geological condition and agree with the previously reported site amplifications at the same sites. The source terms are comparable with local magnitude estimated from Network. The Mw (Lg) is nearly equivalent to ML (GSN) and the ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 23, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Influence of Deposition of Fine Plant Debris in River Floodplain Shrubs on Flood Flow Conditions - the Warta River Case Study
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Robert Mazur, Tomasz Kałuża, Joanna Chmist, Natalia Walczak, Ireneusz Laks, Paweł Strzeliński This paper presents problems caused by organic material transported by flowing water. This material is usually referred to as plant debris or organic debris. Its composition depends on the characteristic of the watercourse. For lowland rivers, the share of the so-called small organic matter in plant debris is considerable. This includes both various parts of water plants and floodplain vegetation (leave...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 22, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Nanosized iron based permeable reactive barriers for nitrate removal – Systematic review
This study’s outcomes show that the permeable reactive barriers are, indeed, a suitable technology for denitrification and with good performance record but the long-term impact of the use of nanosized zero valent iron in this remediation process, in both on the environment and on the human health, is far to be conveniently known. As a consequence, further work is required on this matter, so that nanosized iron based permeable reactive barriers for the removal of nitrate from drinking water can be genuinely considered an eco-efficient technology. (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 16, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

An exploratory study of spatial annual maximum of monthly precipitation in the northern region of Portugal
Publication date: Available online 15 December 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): D.P. Gomes, M.M. Neves, E. Moreira Adequately analyzing and modeling the extreme rainfall events is of great importance because of the effects that their magnitude and frequency can have on human life, agricultural productivity and economic aspects, among others. A single extreme event may affect several locations, and their spatial dependence has to be appropriately taken into account. Classical geostatistics is a well-developed field for dealing with location referenced data, but it is largely based ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 16, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Water use efficiency and integrated water resource management for river basin
Publication date: 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volumes 89–90 Author(s): Xiangzheng Deng, R.B. Singh, Junguo Liu, Burak Güneralp (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 8, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

A dependence modelling study of extreme rainfall in Madeira Island
Publication date: Available online 2 December 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Délia Gouveia-Reis, Luiz Guerreiro Lopes, Sandra Mendonça The dependence between variables plays a central role in multivariate extremes. In this paper, spatial dependence of Madeira Island’s rainfall data is addressed within an extreme value copula approach through an analysis of maximum annual data. The impact of altitude, slope orientation, distance between rain gauge stations and distance from the stations to the sea are investigated for two different periods of time. The results...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 4, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Identification of nitrate sources in groundwater and potential impact on drinking water reservoir (Goczałkowice reservoir, Poland)
Publication date: Available online 30 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Joanna Czekaj, Sabina Jakóbczyk – Karpierz, Hanna Rubin, Sławomir Sitek, Andrzej J. Witkowski Goczałkowice dammed reservoir (area - 26 km2) is a strategic object for flood control in the Upper Vistula River catchment and one of the most important source of drinking water in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (Southern Poland). Main aims of the investigation were identification of sources of nitrate and assessment of their significance in potential risk to groundwater quality. In the ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 1, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Water quality monitoring in the Paul do Boquilobo Biosphere Reserve
Publication date: Available online 30 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): C. Baptista, L. Santos The Paul do Boquilobo is an important wetland ecosystem classified by Unesco as a MAB Biosphere reserve also awarded Ramsar site status, representing one of the most important habitats for the resident nesting colony of Cattle Egret (Bulbucus ibis). Yet owing to its location, it suffers from human induced impacts which include industrial and domestic effluent discharges as well as agricultural land use which have negatively impacted water quality. The current study reports the res...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 30, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Timescale Differences between SC-PDSI and SPEI for Drought Monitoring in China
In this study, we selected monthly average air temperature and precipitation data from 589 meteorological stations of China's National Meteorological Information Center, to compare the effects of applying a self-calibrating PDSI (SC-PDSI) and SPEI to monitor drought events in the station regions, with a special focus on differences of event timescale. The results show the following. 1) Comparative analysis using SC-PDSI and SPEI for drought years and characters of three dry periods from 1961–2011 in the Beijing region showed that durations of SC-PDSI-based dry spells were longer than those of 3-month and 6-month SPEI...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 22, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessment of the effectiveness of combined adsorption and photocatalysis for removal of the herbicide isoproturon
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Martín M. Dávila-Jiménez, María P. Elizalde-González, Esmeralda García-Díaz, Alba M. Santes-Aquino The aim of this research was to decompose isoproturon and adsorb its photoproducts by developing a carbon material from a juice industry waste. Carbon-TiO2 hybrid materials were obtained by impregnating carbonized guava seeds with TiO2 gels prepared from TiOSO4⋅xH2O and NH4OH using glycerol as a binder and thermally treating the materials at 500°C...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 17, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

SPI drought class prediction using log-linear models applied to wet and dry seasons
Publication date: Available online 11 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Elsa E. Moreira A log-linear modelling for 3-dimensional contingency tables was used with categorical time series of SPI drought class transitions for prediction of monthly drought severity. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) time series in 12- and 6-month time scales were computed for 10 precipitation time series relative to GPCC datasets with 2.5 degrees spatial resolution located over Portugal and with 112 years length (1902 to 2014). The aim was modelling two-month step class transitions for the ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 13, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Ground and surface water quality along a dambo transect in Chihota smallholder farming area, Marondera district, Zimbabwe
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): M. Wuta, G. Nyamadzawo, J. Mlambo, P. Nyamugafata In many smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa dambos are used for grazing and crop production especially horticultural crops. Increased use of dambos especially for crop production can result in ground and surface water pollution. Ground and surface water quality along a dambo transect in Chihota, Zimbabwe, was investigated between October 2013 and February 2014. The transect was divided into; upland (control), dambo gardens (mid-slope) and the river...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 13, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

A comparison of integrated river basin management strategies: a global perspective
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Chunhong Zhao, Pei Wang, Guanghong Zhang In order to achieve the integrated river basin management in the arid and rapid developing region, the Heihe River Basin (HRB) in Northwestern China, one of critical river basins were selected as a representative example, while the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) in Australia and the Colorado River Basin (CRB) in the USA were selected for comparative analysis in this paper. Firstly, the comparable characters and hydrological contexts of these three watersheds were in...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 13, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Cloning and expression of vgb gene in Bacillus cereus, improve phenol and p-nitrophenol biodegradation
Publication date: Available online 11 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Angel Eduardo Vélez-Lee, Felipe Cordova-Lozano, Erick R. Bandala, Jose Luis Sanchez-Salas In this work, the vgb gene from Vitrocilla stercoraria was used to genetically modify a Bacillus cereus strain isolated from pulp and paper wastewater effluent. The gene was cloned in a multicopy plasmid (pUB110) or uni-copy gene using a chromosome integrative vector (pTrpBG1). B. cereus and its recombinant strains were used for phenol and p-nitrophenol biodegradation using aerobic or micro-aerobic conditi...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 11, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Joint Venture Schemes in Limpopo Province and their outcomes on smallholder farmers Livelihoods
Publication date: Available online 11 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Everisto Mapedza, Barbara van Koppen, Pinimidzai Sithole, Magalie Bourblanc Joint Venture schemes based on the floppy irrigation technology are being promoted in the post-Apartheid South Africa’s Limpopo Province. Access to land and water resources in South Africa are largely viewed as a mechanism for re-dressing the Apartheid injustices. This research was part of a broader applied research to help inform irrigation practise in the Limpopo Province. The research used literature review, key infor...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 11, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Dry spells assessment with reference to the maize crop in the Luvuvhu River catchment of South Africa
Publication date: Available online 11 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Teboho Elisa Masupha, Mokhele Edmond Moeletsi, Mitsuru Tsubo Agricultural productivity in South Africa is negatively affected by drought as a result of frequent periodic dry spells and increasing crop water demands resulting in poor crop development and low yields. Thus, we embarked on this study which aims at investigating dry spell occurrences in relation to growing season of maize in the Luvuvhu River Catchment. Daily rainfall data (1945-2014) from 12 stations which represent the catchment fairly we...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 11, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Oil refinery wastewater treatment using coupled electrocoagulation and fixed film biological processes
Publication date: Available online 11 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Laura S. Pérez, Oscar M. Rodriguez, Silvia Reyna, José Luis Sánchez-Salas, J. Daniel Lozada, Marco A. Quiroz, Erick R. Bandala Oil refinery wastewater was treated using a coupled treatment process including electrocoagulation (EC) and a fixed film aerobic bioreactor. Different variables were tested to identify the best conditions using this procedure. After EC, the effluent was treated in an aerobic biofilter. EC was capable to remove over 88% of the overall chemical oxygen dem...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 11, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Anthropogenic pressures on productive soils in Corlu and Cerkezkoy
This study aims to identify the land use transformations by using Remote Sensing and GIS due to prior socio-economic return focused politics resulting in environmental degradations. Additionally, this paper presents an analysis of the transformation of fertile lands into industrial/urban zones with respect to Land Capability Classes. The study area is one of the most urbanized and industrialized zones in Turkey. The reason behind this transformation lies solely in the fact that the aforementioned area is quite appealing to industrialization due to its easy access to infrastructure and its compliance with the spatial requir...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 10, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Rural food insecurity and poverty mappings and their linkage with water resources in the Limpopo River Basin
Publication date: Available online 10 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): M.S. Magombeyi, A.E. Taigbenu, J. Barron The mappings of poverty and food insecurity were carried out for the rural districts of the four riparian countries (Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe) of the Limpopo river basin using the results of national surveys that were conducted between 2003 and 2013. The analysis shows lower range of food insecure persons (0 – 40%) than poverty stricken persons (0 – 95%) that is attributable to enhanced government and non-government food safety...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 10, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Hydraulic design to optimize the treatment capacity of Multi-Stage filtration units
Publication date: Available online 10 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): C.N. Mushila, G.M.M. Ochieng, F.A.O. Otieno, S.M. Shitote, C.W. Sitters Multi-Stage Filtration (MSF) can provide a robust treatment alternative for surface water sources of variable water quality in rural communities at low operation and maintenance costs. MSF is a combination of Slow Sand Filters (SSFs) and Pre-treatment systems. The general objective of this research was to optimize the treatment capacity of MSF. A pilot plant study was undertaken to meet this objective. The pilot plant was monitor...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 10, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Electrokinetic treatment of polluted soil at pilot level coupled to an advanced oxidation process of its wastewater
Publication date: Available online 6 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): B. Ochoa, L. Ramos, A. Garibay, M. Pérez - Corona, M.C. Cuevas, J. Cárdenas, M. Teutli, E. Bustos Soil contaminated with hydrocarbons is a current problem of great importance. These contaminants may be toxic, can retain water and block gas exchange with the atmosphere, which produces a poor-quality soil unsuitable for ecological health. Electroremediation is among the treatments for the removal of such contaminants. In this research, a pilot-level electroremediation test was applied u...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 7, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Comparative assessment of water treatment using polymeric and inorganic coagulants
Publication date: Available online 5 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): I.K.M. Manda, R.C.G. Chidya, J.D.K. Saka, T. Biswick Portable water plays a vital role in improving human life, particularly in controlling the spread of diseases. However, problems associated with lack of potable water are still common especially in developing countries including Malawi. Until now little information exists on the effectiveness of available commercial coagulants used by national water boards in Malawi. Therefore, this study was undertaken in Southern Region Water Board (SRWB) to invest...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 6, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Determination of the water quality index ratings of water in the Mpumalanga and North West Provinces, South Africa
This study reports on the water quality index (WQI) of wastewater and drinking water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces of South Africa. The WQI is one of the most effective tools available to water sustainability researchers, because it provides an easily intelligible ranking of water quality on a rating scale from 0 to 100, based on the ascription of different weightings to several different parameters. In this study the WQI index ratings of wastewater and drinking water samples were computed according to the levels of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), E.coli, temperature, turbidi...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 3, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessment of impact of climate change and adaptation strategies on maize production in Uganda
This study quantified the impacts of climate change and variability in Uganda and how coping strategies can enhance crop production against climate change and/or variability. The study used statistical methods to establish various climate change and variability indicators across the country, and uses the FAO AquaCrop model to simulate yields under possible future climate scenarios with and without adaptation strategies. Maize, the most widely grown crop was used for the study. Meteorological, soil and crop data were collected for various districts representing the maize growing ecological zones in the country. Based on thi...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 31, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research