Stimulation of nitrogen turnover due to nutrients release from aggregates affected by freeze-thaw in wetland soils
Publication date: Available online 29 December 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Yang Song, Yuanchun Zou, Guoping Wang, Xiaofei Yu The freeze-thaw phenomenon will occur more frequently in mid-high latitude ecosystems under climate change which has a remarkable effect on biogeochemical processes in wetland soils. Here, we used a wet sieving procedure and a barometric process separation (BaPS) technique to examine the responses of wetland soil aggregates and related carbon and nitrogen turnover affected by the freeze-thaw treatment. Wetland soil samples were divided into a treatment grou...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 29, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Measuring environmental performance of industrial sub-sectors in China: a stochastic metafrontier approach
Publication date: Available online 28 December 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Yuping Bai, Xiangzheng Deng, Qian Zhang, Zhan Wang In this paper, we quantitatively measure the environmental performance and potential capacities of carbon emission mitigation of 39 industrial sectors in China during 2005-2011 by adopting a stochastic metafrontier approach. We also analyze the differences of environmental performance and technology gap ratios (TGRs) across three categorized industrial groups. Cluster analysis of carbon intensity provides the categorized groups. The results show that due t...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 28, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Hydrochemical modelling of water quality in terms of emerging micropollutants in Mpumalanga, Gauteng and North West Provinces
This study was therefore conducted to determine major hydrochemical processes controlling water quality and the occurrence of EMPs mainly, carbamazepine (CBZ), tonalide (AHTN), galaxolide (HHCB), caffeine (CAF), technical 4-nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in water from Mpumalanga, Gauteng and North West Provinces in South Africa. Grab water samples were collected bi-monthly between June 2014 and April 2016 from 44 water sources using standard sampling procedures. BPA, NP, CAF, HHCB, AHTN, CBZ were extracted, cleaned and enriched using autotrace-SPE at neutral pH and analyzed using GC × GC-TOFMS. Krus...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 27, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Detrimental effects of commercial zinc oxide and silver nanomaterials on bacterial populations and performance of wastewater systems
In this study the effect of various concentrations of zinc oxide NMs (nZnO) and silver NMs (nAg) on the selected wastewater bacterial species (Bacillus licheniformis, Brevibacillus laterosporus and Pseudomonas putida) was ascertained at different pH levels (pH 2, 7 and 10). Lethal concentrations (LC) of NMs and parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved oxygen (DO) were taken into consideration to assess the performance of a wastewater batch reactor. Bacterial isolates were susceptible to varying concentrations of both nZnO and nAg at pH 2, 7 and 10. It was found that a change in pH did not significantly...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 27, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Rethinking the role of edaphic condition in halophyte vegetation degradation on salt marshes due to coastal defense structure
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Tian Xie, Baoshan Cui, Junhong Bai, Shanze Li, Shuyan Zhang Determining how human disturbance affects plant community persistence and species conservation is one of the most pressing ecological challenges. The large-scale disturbance form defense structures usually have a long-term and potential effect on phytocommunity in coastal saltmarshes. Coastal defense structures usually remove the effect of tidal wave on tidal salt marshes. As a consequence, edaphic factors such as the salinity and moisture contents...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 10, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Heavy metals pollution in soil profiles from seasonal-flooding riparian wetlands in a Chinese Delta: Levels, distributions and toxic risks
Publication date: Available online 29 November 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Guangliang Zhang, Junhong Bai, Qingqing Zhao, Jia Jia, Xiaojun Wen Soil profile samples were collected in seasonal-flooding riparian wetlands in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) of China in autumn and spring to investigate the levels, distributions and toxic risks of heavy metals in soil profiles. Total elemental contents of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry (ICP-AAS). Results indicated that the contents of determined heavy metals ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 30, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Retraction notice to “Status of groundwater arsenic pollution in Holocene aquifers from parts of the Ghaghara Basin, India: Its relation to geomorphology and hydrogeological setting”[Phys. Chem. Earth 58–60C (2013) 68–76]
Publication date: December 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 96 Author(s): Babar Ali Shah (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 30, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Water productivity and integrated water resources management
Publication date: December 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 96 Author(s): Xiangzheng Deng, R.B. Singh, Junguo Liu, Burak Güneralp (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 30, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Seasonal variation in pans in relation to limno-chemistry, size, hydroperiod, and river connectivity in a semi-arid subtropical region
Publication date: Available online 24 November 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Tamuka Nhiwatiwa, Tatenda Dalu Seasonal pans are hydrologically dynamic, with significant changes in water volume and depth in response to high evaporation, infiltration rates and inundation events. Intra-seasonal and inter-seasonal changes in endorheic and floodplain pans in relation to limnology, size, hydroperiod, and river connectivity were studied over two rainfall seasons across 36 pans at the Save Valley Conservancy. In the study region, floodplain pans were identified as pans that had connectivity ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 25, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Living with floods – household perception and satellite observations in the Barotse Floodplain, Zambia
Publication date: Available online 11 November 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Xueliang Cai, Alemseged Haile, James Magidi, Everisto Mapedza, Luxon Nhamo The Barotse Floodplain, a designated Ramsar site, is home to thousands of indigenous people along with an extensive wetland ecosystem and food production system. Increasingly it is also a popular tourist destination with its annual Kuomboka festival which celebrates the relocation of the king and the Lozi people to higher ground before the onset of the flood season. This paper presents an integrated approach which cross validates an...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 12, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Impact of salinity and Pb on enzyme activities of a saline soil from the Yellow River delta: A microcosm study
In this study, the influence of salinity and Pb on the soil enzyme (catalase, CAT; invertase, IA; urease, UA) activities regarding the soil aggregate size classes was investigated. We selected a saline soil from the Yellow River delta, and adopted an orthogonal experiment designed with five Pb concentration levels and five salinity levels. The soil was dry sieved into three soil aggregate size classes: >2000 μm, 250–2000 μm, and <250 μm. All three enzyme activities significantly decreased with the increase of soil salinity (P < 0.05). Pb had an inhibition effect ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 11, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Modeling phytoremediation of nitrogen-polluted water using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)
Publication date: Available online 30 October 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Aloyce W. Mayo, Emmanuel E. Hanai Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has a great potential for purification of wastewater through physical, chemical and biological mechanisms. In an attempt to improve the quality of effluents discharged from waste stabilization ponds at the University of Dar es Salaam, a pilot plant was constructed to experiment the effectiveness of this plants for transformation and removal of nitrogen. Samples of wastewater were collected and examined for water quality parameters, incl...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 9, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibers functionalized with EDTA for adsorption of ionic dyes
Publication date: Available online 1 November 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): E.F.C. Chaúque, J.C. Ngila, Adedeji A. Adelodun, C.J. Greyling, L.N. Dlamini The manipulation of nanofibers’ surface chemistry could enhance their potential application toward the removal of ionic dyes in wastewater. For this purpose, surface modification of electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and ethylenediamine (EDA) crosslinker was experimented. The functionalized EDTA-EDA-PAN nanofibers were characterized using Fourier transform infrare...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 2, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Studying seismic sources: Theory, methods and applications
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 95 Author(s): Seabstiano D'Amico, Christos Evangelidis, Efthimios Sokos (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 1, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Development of probabilistic operating rules for Hluhluwe Dam, South Africa
Publication date: Available online 30 October 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): J. Ndiritu, J. Odiyo, R. Makungo, B. Mwaka, N. Mthethwa, C. Ntuli, A. Andanje Hluhluwe Dam, with a 30 million m3 reservoir that supplies water for irrigation and Hluhluwe municipality in Kwa-Zulu Natal Province, South Africa, was consistently experiencing low storage levels over several non-drought years since 2001. The dam was operated by rules of thumb and there were no records of water releases for irrigation - the main user of the dam. This paper describes an assessment of the historic behaviour of the ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 31, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Modelling phytoremediation of nitrogen-polluted water using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)
Publication date: Available online 30 October 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Aloyce W. Mayo, Emmanuel E. Hanai Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has a great potential for purification of wastewater through physical, chemical and biological mechanisms. In an attempt to improve the quality of effluents discharged from waste stabilization ponds at the University of Dar es Salaam, a pilot plant was constructed to experiment the effectiveness of this plants for transformation and removal of nitrogen. Samples of wastewater were collected and examined for water quality parameters, incl...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 31, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Results from shallow geophysical investigations in the northwestern sector of the island of Malta
Publication date: Available online 25 October 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): M. Pischiutta, F. Villani, S. D’Amico, M. Vassallo, F. Cara, D. Di Naccio, D. Farrugia, G. Di Giulio, S. Amoroso, L. Cantore, A. Mercuri, D. Famiani, P. Galea, A. Akinci, A. Rovelli We performed geophysical investigations in the northwestern sector of the island of Malta to reconstruct velocity-depth models and provide shear-wave velocity profiles. We have chosen two sites, one located in Rabat (Malta) and another in the Golden Bay area. We used both active (seismic and electrical 2D-tomography, Multi...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 25, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

H/V measurements as an effective tool for the reliable detection of landslide slip surfaces: case studies of Castagnola (La Spezia, Italy) and Roccalbegna (Grosseto, Italy)
Publication date: Available online 25 October 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Veronica Pazzi, Luca Tanteri, Gabriele Bicocchi, Michele D’Ambrosio, Andrea Caselli, Riccardo Fanti A variety of methods (detailed geomorphological surveys, geotechnical investigations, local instrumentation, satellite data, and radar interferometry) along with geophysical techniques may be used to investigate slope instabilities and to detect the inhomogeneities of materials as well as their properties, boundaries, and sliding surfaces. Of these techniques, the method based on seismic noise measureme...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 25, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

A multidisciplinary approach to the seismic characterization of a mountain top (Monteluco, central Italy)
This study provides a seismic characterization of the flat top area of Monteluco carbonate mountain using a multidisciplinary approach. Recordings of ambient vibrations and local earthquakes, geophysical and borehole data, detailed geological surveys and rock mass characterizations were used to investigate the ground-motion amplification observed on the flat top of Monteluco. Weak motion measurements carried out on the top area gave resonance frequency (f0) in the range of 2-4 Hz, likely due to the occurrence of fractured rocks, tens of meters thick. In this frequency range and in the same target area, it was also possible...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 25, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Development of a Silicone-membrane Passive Sampler for Monitoring Cylindrospermopsin and Microcystin LR-YR-RR in Natural Waters
Publication date: Available online 21 October 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Hlengilizwe Nyoni, Bhekie B. Mamba, Titus A.M. Msagati Silicone membrane tubes were functionalised by filling them with synthesised γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles and used as a passive sampling device for monitoring microcystins and cylindrospermopsin in aquatic environments. This novel device was calibrated for the measurement of microcystin and cylindrospermopsin concentrations in water. The effect of temperature and hydrodynamics on the sampler performance was studied in a flow-through system under controll...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 22, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

The Effects of Material Loading and Flow Rate on the Disinfection of Pathogenic Microorganisms Using Cation Resin-Silver Nanoparticle Filter System
Publication date: Available online 21 October 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): L. Mpenyana-Monyatsi, N.H. Mthombeni, M.S. Onyango, M.N.B. Momba Waterborne diseases have a negative impact on public health in instances where the available drinking water is of a poor quality. Decentralised systems are needed to provide safe drinking water to rural communities. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop and investigate the point-of-use (POU) water treatment filter packed with resin-coated silver nanoparticles. The filter performance was evaluated by investigating the effects of various...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 21, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Economic accounting of water: The Botswana experience
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): T. Setlhogile, J. Arntzen, O.B. Pule Water accounts aim to capture the value of water resources and their use within the economy. The accounts complement the National Accounts as the latter’s main indicator (GDP) does not reflect changes in natural capital. Botswana developed water accounts for the period 2010/11 – 2014/15 using the UN’s standard System of Environmental Economic Accounting for water (SEEA-water). The article focuses both on the construction of physical flow accounts as wel...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 11, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Generation of climate change scenarios for precipitation and temperature at local scales using SDSM in Wami-Ruvu river basin Tanzania
Publication date: Available online 8 October 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Metekiya M. Gulacha, Deogratias M.M. Mulungu The Wami-Ruvu River Basin is important for socio-economic activities in country such as water supply for Dar es Salaam and Morogoro cities, and major agricultural activities such as sugarcane irrigation at Mtibwa and Bagamoyo. Due to projected climate change and its impacts at global scale, it is important to understand future climate change impacts on water resources of Wami-Ruvu River basin. Rainfall and temeparature are key variables for analysis of water resou...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 10, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessment of Drinking Water Quality and Rural Household Water Treatment in Balaka District, Malawi
This study was, therefore, conducted to help bridge the knowledge gap by evaluating drinking water quality and adoption rate of household water treatment and storage (HWTS) practices in Nkaya, Balaka District. Water samples were collected from eleven systematically selected sites and analyzed for physico-chemical and microbiological parameters: pH, TDS, electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity, F-, Cl-, NO3 -, Na, K, Fe, Faecal Coliform (FC) and Faecal Streptococcus (FS) bacteria using standard methods. The mean results were compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) and Malawi Bureau of Standards (MBS) (MS 733:2005) t...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 7, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Effect of monthly areal rainfall uncertainty on streamflow simulation
This study set out to quantify monthly areal rainfall uncertainties and assess their effect on streamflow simulation. This was achieved by; i) quantifying areal rainfall uncertainties and using these to generate stochastic monthly areal rainfalls, and ii) finding out how the quality of monthly streamflow simulation and streamflow variability change if stochastic areal rainfalls are used instead of historic areal rainfalls. Tests on monthly rainfall uncertainty were carried out using data from two South African catchments while streamflow simulation was confined to one of them. A non-parametric model that had been applied a...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 5, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Chitosan-based nanocomposites for de-nitrification of water
Publication date: Available online 4 October 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Monaheng L. Masheane, Lebea N. Nthunya, Soraya P. Malinga, Edward N. Nxumalo, Sabelo D. Mhlanga Novel chitosan (CTs) nanocomposite beads containing alumina (Al2O3, denoted as Al in the nanocomposites) and functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) (CTsAl/f-MWCNTs) were prepared using an environmentally benign phase inversion method and subsequently used for the removal of nitrates (NO3 -) in water. The ellipsoidal beads with an average size of 3 mm were readily formed at room temperature and cont...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 5, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Managing Water Supply Systems Using Free-Market Economy Approaches: A Detailed Review of the Implications for Developing Countries
Publication date: Available online 4 October 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): C. Chikozho, K. Kujinga Decision makers in developing countries are often confronted by difficult choices regarding the selection and deployment of appropriate water supply governance regimes that sufficiently take into account national socio-economic and political realities. Indeed, scholars and practitioners alike continue to grapple with the need to create the optimum water supply and allocation decision-making space applicable to specific developing countries. In this paper, we review documented case stu...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 5, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessing and mapping the severity of soil erosion using the 30-m Landsat multispectral satellite data in the former South African homelands of Transkei
Publication date: Available online 4 October 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Khoboso Seutloali, Timothy Dube, Onisimo Mutanga Soil erosion is increasingly recognised as the principal cause of land degradation, loss of agricultural land area and siltation of surrounding water waterbodies. Accurate and up-to-date soil erosion mapping is key in understanding its severity if these negative impacts are to be minimised and affected areas rehabilitated. The aim of this work was to investigate map the severity of soil erosion, based on the 30-m Landsat series multispectral satellite data in ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 5, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Profiles of innovators in a semi-arid smallholder agricultural environment in south west Zimbabwe
Publication date: Available online 21 September 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Eness P. Mutsvangwa-Sammie, Emmanuel Manzungu, Shephard Siziba Innovations are regarded as critical to improving the efficiency, productivity and effectiveness of African agriculture. However, few efforts have been directed at understanding ‘agricultural innovators’, especially among smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa who face low agricultural productivity and widespread food insecurity. This paper investigates the profile of innovators from a local perspective in a semi-arid smallholde...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - September 23, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

A comparative analysis of site-specific response spectral amplification models
Publication date: Available online 16 September 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Valerio Poggi, Benjamin Edwards, Donat Fäh In the framework of the Seismic Hazard Harmonization in Europe (SHARE) project, the Swiss Seismological Service (SED) has performed an evaluation of two procedures developed to produce soil amplification models for 5% damped pseudo-spectral acceleration response spectra, each using different parameters to describe the soil properties. The goal of the work presented here is to evaluate the statistical consistency of the methods, with particular regard to thei...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - September 18, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Seasonal drought predictability in Portugal using statistical –dynamical techniques
This study estimates hybrid (statistical–dynamical) long-range forecasts of the regional drought index SPI (3-months) over homogeneous regions from mainland Portugal, based on forecasts from the UKMO operational forecasting system, with lead-times up to 6months. ERA-Interim reanalysis data is used for the purpose of building a set of SPI predictors integrating recent past information prior to the forecast launching. Then, the advantage of combining predictors with both dynamical and statistical background in the prediction of drought conditions at different lags is evaluated. A two-step hybridization procedure is per...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - September 14, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

3rd International Conference on Ecohydrology, Soil and Climate Change, EcoHCC'14
Publication date: August 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 94 Author(s): Cristina Andrade, Samantha Hughes, João A. Santos (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - September 14, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Water Ecological Function Zoning in Heihe River Basin, Northwest China
In this study, through depicting the characteristics of natural environment, human activities, water ecosystem services and other factors in Heihe River Basin we delineated the water ecological function in Heihe River using the principal components analysis and the K-means clustering method. In the study, Heihe river Basin is divided into 3 primary level areas and 8 secondary level sub-areas. Water ecological characteristics analysis showed that the spatial distribution of the water ecological function of Heihe River Basin was not uniform, which are mainly showed in three aspects, function of windproof and sand fixation, f...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - September 9, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Modelling analysis of water-use efficiency of Maize in Heihe river basin
Publication date: Available online 6 September 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Guofeng Wang, Jiancheng Chen, Qing Zhou, Xi Chu, Xiaoxue Zhou (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - September 7, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Effects of salinity on dynamics of soil carbon in degraded coastal wetlands: implications on wetland restoration
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Qingqing Zhao, Junhong Bai, Qiongqiong Lu, Guangliang Zhang To investigate the effects of salinity on dynamics of soil carbon contents and stocks, soil samples were collected at a depth of 30 cm at four sampling sites (Sites B, T, S and P) along a salinity gradient in a drained coastal wetland, the Yellow River Delta, China. The salinity of these four sites ranked in the order: B (8.68 ± 4.25 ms/cm) > T (5.89 ± 3.17 ms/cm) > S (3.19 ± 1.01 ms/cm) > P (2.26 ± 0...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 31, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

A Method to Correct Eddy Covariance Flux Underestimates under an Advective Environment for Arid or Semi-arid Regions
In this study, a new method is proposed to account for advection in order to correct EC data under advective environments. This advection based method was applied to data from Bushland, TX, which is subject to dry air and strong winds. Observations from two identical EC systems as well as two precision monolithic weighing lysimeters were used in this analysis. Both EC sites showed significant underestimates of evapotranspiration (ET) compared with lysimeter measurements. The daily energy balance closure for NE01 and SE02 sites were 0.78 and 0.74 respectively. The advection correction method provided improved performance in...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 31, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

The 24 May 2014 (Mw6.8) earthquake (North Aegean Trough): spatiotemporal evolution, source and slip model from teleseismic data
Publication date: Available online 28 August 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Anastasia Kiratzi, Eva Tsakiroudi, Christoforos Benetatos, George Karakaisis We use teleseismic data to calculate the source model of the 24 May 2014 earthquake and regional catalogues to examine the spatial-temporal characteristics of the sequence. The sequence started in Saros Basin but almost simultaneously aftershocks spread along a ∼200 km zone, activating the entire North Aegean Trough. The aftershock sequence was rich in moderate (M<4) size events, but very deficient in strong events &ndash...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 29, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Electrospun and functionalized PVDF/PAN composite for the removal of trace metals in contaminated water
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): R.M. Nthumbi, A.A. Adelodun, J.C. Ngila The electrospinning of a nanofiber composite of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in a dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent was carried out prior to functionalization by free radical grafting of acrylic acid (AA) brushes. Subsequent application for the removal of Pb2+ and Cd2+ from contaminated water is reported. Free radicals were initiated on the polymeric nanofiber composite using 5% 2,2′-Azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) (AIBN) in acetone. Upo...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 29, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

When good practices by water committees are not relevant: sustainability of small water infrastructures in semi-arid mozambique
Publication date: Available online 24 August 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Raphaelle Ducrot This paper explores the contradiction between the need for large scale interventions in rural water supplies and the need for flexibility when providing support for community institutions, by investigating the implementation of the Mozambique - National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Program in a semi-arid district of the Limpopo Basin. Our results showed that coordinated leadership by key committee members, and the level of village governance was more important for borehole sustainabilit...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 24, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Surface geology and morphologic effects on seismic site response: the study case of Lampedusa, Italy
Publication date: Available online 22 August 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): F. Panzera, G. Lombardo, S. Sicali, S. D’Amico A joint Italo-Maltese research project (Costituzione di un Sistema Integrato di Protezione Civile Transfrontaliero Italo-Maltese, SIMIT) was financially supported by the European community with the aim to produce hazard maps in the area between the south-eastern Sicilian coast and the Sicily Channel including the islands of Lampedusa and Malta. In the frame of this project, the present study investigates the characteristics of the local seismic response in...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 23, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Polyethyleneimine-carbon nanotube polymeric nanocomposite adsorbents for the removal of Cr6+ from water
Publication date: Available online 17 August 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Shepherd S. Sambaza, Monaheng L. Masheane, Soraya P. Malinga, Edward N. Nxumalo, Sabelo D. Mhlanga This work reports on the synthesis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and their use in branched polyethyleneimine-multiwalled carbon nanotube (PEI-MWCNT) polymeric nanocomposite adsorbents for the removal of Cr6+ from contaminated water. The nanostructured materials were characterized using TEM, Raman, FTIR, BET surface area and zeta potental measurements. TEM confirmed the average diameter of the MWCNTs...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 18, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Ungauged runoff simulation in Upper Manyame Catchment, Zimbabwe: Application of the HEC-HMS model
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Webster Gumindoga, Donald T. Rwasoka, Innocent Nhapi, Timothy Dube The Hydrologic Engineering Center Hydrologic Modelling System (HEC-HMS) model was applied to simulate runoff in the ten gauged and ungauged Upper Manyame subcatchments in Zimbabwe. Remote sensing and Geographic Information System techniques were used to determine the geometric and hydrologic parameters required for estimating model parameters. The Snyder Unit Hydrograph method was used for ungauged subcatchment simulations based on parameter tra...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 17, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Reception conditions of low frequency (LF) transmitter signals onboard DEMETER micro-satellite
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): M.Y. Boudjada, P.F. Biagi, E. Al-Haddad, P.H.M. Galopeau, B. Besser, D. Wolbang, G. Prattes, H. Eichelberger, G. Stangl, M. Parrot, K. Schwingenschuh We analyse the flux density variation associated to low frequency (LF) broadcasting transmitters observed by the ICE electric field experiment onboard DEMETER micro-satellite, observed from 01st Jan. to 09th Dec. 2010. We select five stations localised around the Mediterranean and the Black seas: Tipaza (252 kHz, 02°28’E, 36°33’N, Algeria), ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 13, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Forecast and optimal allocation of production, living and ecology water consumption in Zhangye, China
Publication date: Available online 6 August 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Qian Xu, Wei Song, Ying Zhang The water crisis is one of three crises that are persecuting the world. China is among the countries that face severe water shortages. Water scarcity and water pollution have seriously affected China's sustainable development in terms of the economy and society. Water resources per capita of China is only one quarter of the world's average. In addition, about 70 percent of China’s rivers, lakes, and reservoirs are affected by pollution. Due to limited water resources, a cru...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 8, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Site amplification at the city scale in Basel (Switzerland) from geophysical site characterization and spectral modelling of recorded earthquakes
Publication date: Available online 6 August 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Clotaire Michel, Donat Fäh, Benjamin Edwards, Carlo Cauzzi Hazard assessment at the city scale requires a detailed characterization of the effect of surface geology on ground motion (site effects). Though this analysis is commonly achieved using geophysical site characterization and site response modelling, we propose here a complementary analysis based on amplification functions retrieved from Empirical Spectral Modelling (ESM) of earthquake recordings. We applied this method to the city of Basel (Switz...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 8, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Seismic amplification in a fractured rock site. The case study of San Gregorio (L'Aquila, Italy)
Publication date: Available online 6 August 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Di Naccio Deborah, Vassallo Maurizio, Di Giulio Giuseppe, Amoroso Sara, Cantore Luciana, Hailemikael Salomon, Falcucci Emanuela, Gori Stefano, Giuliano Milana The village of San Gregorio (SG), eight kilometres away from L’Aquila (central Italy), was severely damaged by the April 6, 2009 L’Aquila earthquake (MW 6.1). A coseismic fracture zone was mapped along SW-dipping fault segments crossing SG, which is situated at the base of a carbonate relief bounded by the Aterno river alluvial plain. An int...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 7, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Is small-scale irrigation an efficient pro-poor strategy in the upper Limpopo Basin in Mozambique?
Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Raphaelle Ducrot In Sub-Saharan Africa, there is evidence that households with access to small-scale irrigation are significantly less poor than households that do not have access to irrigation. However, private motopumps tend to be distributed inequitably. This paper investigates the success of explicit pro-poor interventions with emphasis on small-scale irrigation in the semi-arid Limpopo Basin in Mozambique. It reveals that high irrigation costs are progressively excluding the poor, who are unable to genera...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 6, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Recent trends of extreme precipitation indices in the Iberian Peninsula using observations and WRF model results
Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): S. Bartolomeu, M.J. Carvalho, M. Marta-Almeida, P. Melo-Gonçalves, A. Rocha Spatial and temporal distributions of the trends of extreme precipitation indices were analysed between 1986 and 2005, over the Iberian Peninsula (IP). The knowledge of the patterns of extreme precipitation is important for impacts assessment, development of adaptation and mitigation strategies. As such, there is a growing need for a more detailed knowledge of precipitation climate change. This analysis was performed for Portugu...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 6, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Strategy for Management of Lake-Catchment System Integrated with Natural and Anthropogenic Factors in China
In this study, we detected its major driving factors based on an observed dataset and assessed the impacts of these factors. Firstly, empirical econometric models were used to ascertain the Per capita GDP and the percentage of impervious surface, which are significantly related with the eutrophication level. Eutrophication is slightly affected by anthropogenic disturbance, but is negatively related to the supply coefficient. Secondly, all driving factors are divided into two categories, including the stresses caused by human activities and the comprehensive health status, which are expressed as the two coordinate axes of a...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 6, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

The impact of land use change on water balance in Zhangye city, China
Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Zhongxiao Sun, Feng Wu, Chenchen Shi, Jinyan Zhan Land use change has a significant effect on water balance, especially in arid region, such as Northwest China. In this paper, we analyze the effect of land use change on water balance in terms of the amount of water supply and demand from economic perspective. It's the first time to extend the basic 48 sectors input-output table to include water and land accounts that involved into multiple production processes for Zhangye city. We then perform the improved ORA...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 6, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research