Modelling nitrogen transformation and removal in mara river basin wetlands upstream of lake victoria
Publication date: Available online 26 March 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Aloyce W. Mayo, Marwa Muraza, Joel Norbert Lake Victoria, the largest lake in Africa, is a resource of social-economic potential in East Africa. This lake receives water from numerous tributaries including Mara River, which contributes about 4.8% of the total Lake water inflow. Unfortunately, Mara River basin faces environmental problems because of intensive settlement, agriculture, overgrazing in the basin and mining activities, which has lead to water pollution in the river, soil erosion and degradation, de...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 27, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Estimating soil organic and aboveground woody carbon stock in a protected dry Miombo ecosystem, Zimbabwe: Landsat 8 OLI data applications
Publication date: Available online 26 March 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Timothy Dube, Mhosisi Masocha, Cletah Shoko Accurate and reliable soil organic carbon stock estimation is critical in understanding forest role to regional carbon cycles. So far, the total carbon pool in dry Miombo ecosystems is often under-estimated. In that regard this study sought to model the relationship between the aboveground woody carbon pool and the soil carbon pool, using both ground-based and remote sensing methods. To achieve this objective, the Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI), Normalized Difference ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 27, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Residual antibiotics, antibiotic resistant superbugs and antibiotic resistance genes in surface water catchments: Public health impact
Publication date: Available online 26 March 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Adegoke Anthony A, Faleye Adekunle C, Stenstrӧm Thor A Antibiotics are released to the surface water through different routes, like for example the wastewater treatment plants, from human and animal metabolic waste, agriculture run off, industrial antibiotic waste. The release of the antibiotics to the water catchment and/or the environments in sub-lethal concentrations for the microorganisms lead to the emergence of antibiotic resistance (AR) and selection for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The bacteri...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 27, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

An assessment of groundwater potential and vulnerability in the Upper Manyame Sub-Catchment of Zimbabwe
This study assessed GP and vulnerability in the UMSC using Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing techniques. Groundwater conditioning factors: geology, slope, land-use, drainage density, topographic index, altitude, recharge and rainfall were used to develop GP zones. Validation of the GP map was done by correlating estimated GP with historical borehole yields. An assessment of groundwater vulnerability was done at micro-catchment level (Marimba) using the GOD model; a three parameter Index Overlay Model. Marimba is the most urbanised and has the second highest borehole density. It also exhibits similar landuse...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 27, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

The potential use of natural resources in urban informal settlements as substitutes for financial capital during flooding emergencies
Publication date: Available online 13 March 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Mwazvita T.B. Dalu, Charlie M. Shackleton Rapid and widespread land cover change and the subsequent loss of the buffering capacity provided by healthy ecosystems against natural hazards has resulted in increased vulnerability to natural hazards. There is an insufficient understanding of natural resource contribution to the resilience of poor urban communities living in informal settlements and the financial implications thereof. Thus, household strategies used to recover from the October 2012 flood shock were...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 14, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Spatial feature analysis of a cosmic-ray sensor for measuring the soil water content: Comparison of four weighting methods
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Jingya Cai, Zhiguo Pang, Jun'e Fu To quantitatively analyze the spatial features of a cosmic-ray sensor (CRS) (i.e., the measurement support volume of the CRS and the weight of the in situ point-scale soil water content (SWC) in terms of the regionally averaged SWC derived from the CRS) in measuring the SWC, cooperative observations based on CRS, oven drying and frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) methods are performed at the point and regional scales in a desert steppe area of the Inner Mongolia Autonomou...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 6, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Investigating waste rock, tailings, slag and coal ash clinker as adsorbents for heavy metals: Batch and column studies
Publication date: Available online 5 March 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): D. Letina, W.M. Letshwenyo Wastewater from the mining industry is a concern because most of the time it contains heavy metals with concentrations above permissible levels, posing a threat to terrestrial and aquatic life. The study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of locally available waste materials (waste rock, tailings, coal ash clinker, and slag) generated by BCL (Ltd) mine, a copper and nickel mining and smelting company in Botswana, for removal of nickel and copper from the real mining wastewat...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 6, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Synthesized af-PFCl and GG-g-P(AN)/TEOS hydrogel composite used in hybridized technique applied for AMD treatment
Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Elvis Fosso-Kankeu In the present study af-PFCl, GL-g-P(AN) hydrogel and GL-g-P(AN)/TEOS hydrogel composite were synthesized. The hydrogels were characterized using the fourier transformed infra-red (FTIR) and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. The coagulant af-PFCl and the hydrogels were applied consecutively in flocculation and adsorption processes respectively for the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). It was observed that the grafting process increased the amount of binding groups on th...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 6, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Key attributes of agricultural innovations in semi-arid smallholder farming systems in south-west Zimbabwe
Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Eness P. Mutsvangwa-Sammie, Emmanuel Manzungu, Shephard Siziba In Sub-Sahara Africa, which includes Zimbabwe, about 80% of the population depends on agriculture for subsistence, employment and income. Agricultural production and productivity are, however, low. This has been attributed to a lack of appropriate innovations despite the huge investments that have been made to promote ‘innovations’ as a means to safeguarding agriculture-based livelihoods, which raises the question of how innovations are...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 3, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessment of quality of water provided for wildlife in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve, Botswana
Publication date: Available online 1 March 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Moses Selebatso, Glyn Maude, Richard W.S. Fynn Arid and semi-arid environments have low and unpredictable rainfall patterns resulting in limited availability of surface water for wildlife. In the Central Kalahari Game Reserve (CKGR) wildlife populations have lost access to natural surface water through cordon fences, livestock and human encroachment along the access routes. Artificial waterholes have been developed in the reserve to compensate for this loss. However, there have not been any assessments of the ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 2, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Determinants of farmers' participation in collective maintenance of irrigation infrastructure in KwaZulu-Natal
This study identifies the factors influencing farmers'’ decision to, and extent of participation in the maintenance of irrigation infrastructure in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa based on cross-section data collected from 320 randomly selected smallholder irrigating farmers. A two-step Heckman regression model was applied in the analysis. It was established that households whose heads were older, block committee members, with larger irrigation plots, good soil quality and experiencing severe irrigation water shortages are more likely to participate in maintenance of irrigation infrastructure. On the other hand,...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 1, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Wetland biogeochemical processes and simulation modeling
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 103 Author(s): Junhong Bai, Laibin Huang, Haifeng Gao, Jia Jia, Xin Wang (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 24, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Heavy metal contents and transfer capacities of Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa in the Yellow River Delta, China
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Shuai Zhang, Junhong Bai, Wei Wang, Laibing Huang, Guangliang Zhang, Dawei Wang Plant samples including roots, stems and leaves of Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa were collected in the short-term-flooding and tidal-flooding wetlands of the Yellow River Delta of China. Six heavy metals (e.g., As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) were measured in roots, stems and leaves of each plant species using inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry (ICP-AAS) to investigate the levels, and transfer capabil...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 16, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Influence of urbanization-driven land use/cover change on climate: The case of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Bisrat Kifle Arsiso, G. Mengistu Tsidu, Gerrit Hendrik Stoffberg, Tsegaye Tadesse Land use change is the second most important anthropogenic influence on climate beside the emission of greenhouse gases. Urbanization is leading to significant land use changes in Africa since the continent is undergoing rapid urbanization and population growth in recent decades. Addis Ababa is one of these fast growing cities in the continent. Therefore, detection of land use change is very important to identify its impact o...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 14, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Sanitation and hygiene practices among primary school learners in Ngamiland district, Botswana
This study explored hygiene education, personal hygiene practices among learners, environmental sanitation and hygiene within three primary schools in the Ngamiland district, Botswana. From the three schools, a total sample of 285 pupils was selected using proportionate stratified random sampling technique, and 15 teachers purposively selected as key informants. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires with key informants and social survey instrument for learners. Results show that very few learners linked poor hygiene to the following diseases; diarrhea/upset stomach (31.7%); malaria (23%); bilharzia (16.4%...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 10, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Validation of satellite-based rainfall in Kalahari
This study highlighted SREs as valuable source of daily rainfall data providing good spatio-temporal data coverage especially suitable for areas with limited rain gauges, such as the CKB, but also emphasized SREs' drawbacks, creating avenue for follow up research. (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 10, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Preparation and application of a tyre-based activated carbon solid phase extraction of heavy metals in wastewater samples
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): K. Mogolodi Dimpe, J.C. Ngila, P.N. Nomngongo In this paper, the tyre-based activated carbon solid phase extraction (SPE) method was successfully developed for simultaneous preconcentration of metal ions in the model and real water samples before their determination using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The activation of carbon was achieved by chemical activation and the tyre-based activated carbon was used as a sorbent for solid phase extraction. The prepared activated carbon was characterized...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 10, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Quantification of water resources uncertainties in the Luvuvhu sub-basin of the Limpopo river basin
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): N. Oosthuizen, D. Hughes, E. Kapangaziwiri, J. Mwenge Kahinda, V. Mvandaba In the absence of historical observed data, models are generally used to describe the different hydrological processes and generate data and information that will inform management and policy decision making. Ideally, any hydrological model should be based on a sound conceptual understanding of the processes in the basin and be backed by quantitative information for the parameterization of the model. However, these data are often ina...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 10, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Flood hazard vulnerability assessment in Kashmir Valley, India using geospatial approach
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Tauseef Ahmad, Arvind Chandra Pandey, Amit Kumar (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 10, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Urban flood simulation and prioritization of critical urban sub-catchments using SWMM model and PROMETHEE II approach
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Sahar Babaei, Reza Ghazavi, Mahdi Erfanian Urban runoff increased due to augment of impervious surfaces. In order to flood mitigation during rainy season, determination of critical urban sub-catchments is very important for urban planners. Due to lack of information, adopting a simulation approach is one of the practical ways to identify the surcharged junctions and critical sub-catchments. Occurrence of destructive floods in the rainy seasons indicates the inappropriateness of the urban drainage system in ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 10, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Changes in streamflow contributions with increasing spatial scale in Thukela basin, South Africa
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Macdex Mutema, Vincent Chaplot Sustainable management of river basins requires precise understanding of the origin and variability of water fluxes. Water samples were collected in Thukela Basin (30,000 km2), South Africa, over the 2012 rainy season, from fifteen 1 m2 runoff microplots (for OF), a 5-m deep piezometer (SW) and 20-m deep borehole (GW), in the basin headwater and nested catchment outlets (microcatchment, 0.23 km2; subcatchment, 1.20 km2; catchment, 9.75 km2; sub-basin, 253 km2). The...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 10, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Relating the dynamics of climatological and hydrological droughts in semiarid Botswana
This study attempts to determine drought timescale that is suitable for monitoring the effects of drought on hydrological systems which can then be used to assess the long term persistence or reversion and forecasts of the dynamics. Based on this, climatological and hydrological drought indices characterized by Standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) and Standardized flow index (SFI) respectively have been determined using monthly rainfall, temperature and flow data from two major river systems. The association between climatological and hydrological droughts in Botswana has been investigated using these...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 10, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Physicochemical and microbial assessment of spring water quality for drinking supply in Piedmont of B éni-Mellal Atlas (Morocco)
Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Ahmed Barakat, Redouane Meddah, Mustapha Afdali, Fatima Touhami The present study was conducted to examine the water quality of karst springs located along the Piedmont of Béni-Mellal Atlas (Morocco) for drinking purposes. Twenty-five water samples were collected from seven springs in June, July, August and September 2013, and May 2016 have been analyzed for their physicochemical and microbial characteristics. The analytical data of temperature, pH, DO, TAC, TH, oxidizability and NH4 + showed that al...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 2, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Integrating environmental variables and geospatial technologies in landscape scale habitat modelling of edible stink bugs in Zimbabwe
In this study maximum entropy model was used to predict the probability of presence of E. delegorguei in southern Zimbabwe. The environmental factors governing its geographic distribution in Zimbabwe were also evaluated. Presence/absence data were selected along thirty-five randomly selected transects. The climatic and topographic variables used to predict the distribution of E. delegorguei were: maximum temperature of the warmest month; minimum temperature of the coldest month; the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI); altitude; slope; and aspect. It was found that E. delegorguei is most likely to occur on steep ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 2, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

A geomorphological characterisation of river systems in South Africa: A case study of the Sabie River
This study reports on a case study to characterise the geomorphology of different river systems in South Africa, with the aim of better understanding their properties, controls, and implications for biophysical interactions including water quality, biodiversity (aquatic and riparian), and human activity within the catchment. The approach adopted is based on the River Styles® framework (RSF), a geomorphology-based approach developed for rivers in New Zealand and Australia, but applied here for the first time to South Africa. Based on analysis of remote sensing imagery, SRTM-2 digital topographic data and field observati...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 2, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Trace element geochemistry and mineralogy of coal from Samaleswari open cast coal block (S-OCB), Eastern India
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Debasree Saha, Debashis Chatterjee, Sanchita Chakravarty, Madhurina Mazumder Coal samples of Samaleswari open cast coal block (S-OCB) are high ash (Aad, mean value 35.43%) and low sulphur content (St, on dry basis, mean value 0.91% < 1%) in quality. The stratigraphic variation of volatile matter and fixed carbon (dry ash-free) reflect a progress of coal metamorphism with depth that accordance to the coal rank variation from lignite to high volatile bituminous in the studied borehole. The younger ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 1, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Modelling climate change impact: A case of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea)
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi, Tendai Polite Chibarabada, Vimbayi Grace Petrova Chimonyo, Albert Thembinkosi Modi Climate change projections for southern Africa indicate low and erratic rainfall as well as increasing frequency and intensity of rainfall extremes such as drought. The 2015/16 drought devastated large parts of southern Africa and highlighted the need for drought tolerant crops. Bambara groundnut is an African indigenous crop, commonly cultivated in southern Africa, with a higher potential for drought...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 31, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Fertility status of cultivated floodplain soils in the Zambezi Valley, northern Zimbabwe
The objective of this study was to determine the fertility status of cultivated Zambezi Valley floodplain soils, in northern Zimbabwe. The study was conducted at three sites, along tributaries of Musengezi River. Soil samples were taken at 0.20 m depth increments to 0.60 m from hydromorphologically stratified fields, during the cropping season. Sampling points were replicated twice in each stratum at points equidistant from river edges. Relative elevations of sampling points were measured using levelling equipment. Soil was analysed using: core method for bulk density, hydrometer method for texture, loss on ignit...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 2, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Scenario planning for water resource management in semi arid zone
Publication date: Available online 30 December 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Rajiv Gupta, Gaurav Kumar Scenario planning for water resource management in semi arid zone is performed using systems Input-Output approach of time domain analysis. This approach derived the future weights of input variables of the hydrological system from their precedent weights. Input variables considered here are precipitation, evaporation, population and crop irrigation. Ingles & De Souza's method and Thornthwaite model have been used to estimate runoff and evaporation respectively. Difference...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 30, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Perceptions on the use of bottled water in restaurants in Harare's Central Business District (CBD)
Publication date: Available online 27 December 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Olivia Sakhile Juba, Vincent Itai Tanyanyiwa Bottled water use continues to expand worldwide and in the last two decades, a significant number of consumers have shifted from tap water to bottled water due to Cryptosporidium outbreaks. Bottled water consumption has increased in Harare due to erratic tap water supplies. Since 2011, forty bottled water brands have been banned because of failure to meet safety and quality standards due to contamination, unsuitable packaging, and wrong labelling. Nevertheless, ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 27, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Evaluation of ecosystem service based on scenario simulation of land use in Yunnan Province
Publication date: Available online 26 December 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Hong Zhang, Xiaoli Liao, Tianlin Zhai Climate change and rapid urbanization are important factors restricting future land use. Situational analysis, as an important foundation for the optimization of land use, needs to focus on the impact of climate factors and socio-economic factors. In this paper, the Markov model and the DLS (Simulation of Land System Dynamics) model are combined for the first time, and the land use pattern in 2020 is simulated based on the data of land use in 2000 and 2010 as well as t...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 26, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Validation and verification of lawful water use in South Africa: An overview of the process in the KwaZulu-Natal Province.
The objective of the process is to determine how much water is allocated for: (1) existing lawful use in accordance with specific requirements of the NWA, and; (2) current water uses. The process identified users with or without registered use entitlements, whether claims for registered uses were correct, under-estimated, over-estimated or false; and confirmed the lawfulness of each water use in accordance with water legislation that pre-dated the NWA. The process included identifying land and non-land based water uses (industrial, mining and bulk potable water supplies, irrigation, crop types and impoundments) using remot...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 25, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Physical and Economic Processes of Ecosystem Services Flows
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 101 Author(s): Hongbo Su, Sudhagar Nagarajan, Jinwei Dong (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 16, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Hydro-meteorological trends in the Gidabo catchment of the Rift Valley Lakes Basin of Ethiopia
This study examines the long term hydroclimatic changes, analyses of the hydro-climate variability and detect whether there exist significant trend or not in the Gidabo catchment, rift valley lakes basin of Ethiopia. Precipitation, temperature and stream flow time series data were used in monthly, seasonal and annual time scales. The precipitation and temperature data span is between 1982 and 2014 and that of stream flow is between 1976 and 2006. To detect trends the analysis were done by using Mann Kendal (MK), Sen's graphical method and to detect change point using the Pettit test. The comparison of trend analysis betwee...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 16, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Association between forestry ecological engineering and dust weather in Inner Mongolia: A panel study
Publication date: Available online 2 November 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Huang Jixia, Zhang Qibin, Tan Jing, Yue Depeng, Ge Quansheng Forestry ecological engineering projects in Western China include the Three-North Shelter Forest Project (TNSFP), the Natural Forest Protection Project (NFPP), the Grain for Green Project (GGP) and the Beijing-Tianjin Sandstorm Source Project (BTSSP). Such projects play an important role in the control of dust weather in Western China. In this research, data on the frequency of sandstorms, sand-blowing and dust-floating weather, the area of four f...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 16, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Projected land use changes impacts on water yields in the karst mountain areas of China
Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Yanqing Lang, Wei Song, Xiangzheng Deng Human-induced land use changes over short time scales have significant impacts on water yield, especially in China because of the rapid social economic development. As the biggest developing country of the world, China's economy is expected to continuously grow with a high speed in the next few decades. Therefore, what kind of land use changes will occur in the future in China? How these changes will influence the water yields? To address this issue, we assessed the w...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 16, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Seasonal variations in the water quality of a tropical wetland dominated by floating meadows and its implication for conservation of Ramsar wetlands
We examined the seasonal pattern of water quality of Loktak Lake and compared it with the Keibul Lamjao National Park with a view to suggest measures for removal of this wetland from the Montreux record and for improved conservation. The evaluation of spatio-temporal variations in the water quality parameters over two years was carried out using multivariate statistical analysis. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped the 11 sampling sites into four groups, less polluted, medium polluted, highly polluted and most polluted and the 12 months into three time periods. Principal Component Analysis identified three factors in the...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 7, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Integrated water resources management and infrastructure planning for water security in Southern Africa
Publication date: August 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 100 Author(s): Benjamin Mapani, Lapologang Magole, Hodson Makurira, Maideyi Meck, Theresa Mkandawire, Marloes Mul, Cosmo Ngongondo (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - September 9, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Use of standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index to investigate drought relative to maize, in the Luvuvhu River catchment area, South Africa
Publication date: Available online 7 September 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Teboho Elisa Masupha, Mokhele Edmond Moeletsi Drought frequency and severity analysis during the growing period of maize was carried out by means of the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) based on climatic data from seven weather stations (1975–2014). The index was aggregated at different time scales following three consecutive planting dates (October, November and December), relative to the average start of the rainy season in the area. Temporal analysis of droughts was condu...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - September 8, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Field assessment of surface runoff, sediment yield and soil erosion in the opencast mines in Chirimiri area, Chhattisgarh, India
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): G.K. Nigam, R.K. Sahu, M.K. Sinha, X. Deng, R.B. Singh, P. Kumar Chirimiri Coal field is located in the Koriya district of Chhattisgarh state of India. It lies in the valley of the Hasdeo River and is spread over 125 km2 area. Ever increasing problem of declining forest resources and water quality is a cause of concern particularly due to excessive soil erosion resulting in soil sediment deposition from the overburdened dump. Dwindling resources has compelled the policy makers to search for alternatives s...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 10, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Field assessment of surface runoff, sediment yield and soil erosion in opencast mines in Chirimiri area, Chhattisgarh, India
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): G.K. Nigam, R.K. Sahu, M.K. Sinha, X. Deng, R.B. Singh, P. Kumar Chirimiri Coal field is located in the Koriya district of Chhattisgarh state of India. It lies in the valley of the Hasdeo River and is spread over 125 km2 area. Ever increasing problem of declining forest resources and water quality is a cause of concern particularly due to excessive soil erosion resulting into soil debris deposition from the overburdened dump. Dwindling resources has compelled the policy makers to search for alternative su...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 19, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

River flow availability for environmental flow allocation downstream of hydropower facilities in the Kafue Basin of Zambia
Publication date: Available online 14 July 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Mulenga Kalumba, Edwin Nyirenda The Government of the Republic Zambia (GRZ) will install a new hydropower station Kafue Gorge Lower downstream of the existing Kafue Gorge Station (KGS) and plans to start operating the Itezhi-Tezhi (ITT) hydropower facility in the Kafue Basin. The Basin has significant biodiversity hot spots such as the Luangwa National park and Kafue Flats. It is described as a Man-Biosphere reserve and the National Park is a designated World Heritage Site hosting a variety of wildlife species...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 15, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Balancing water demand for the Heihe River Basin in Northwest China
In this study, we investigated the mutual feedback mechanism between economic systems and eco-hydrological processes in the Heihe River Basin of China with a Water Economic Model (WEM). The WEM is built based on input-output table that embeds water-land resource factors and focuses on the interactive route between water resource and economic elements. On one hand, we investigated the routes and patterns of how eco-hydrological processes acted on economic systems in the upstream of Heihe River Basin, and analyzed how climate change disturbed the economic systems through its impacts on water yield. On the other hand, we expl...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 12, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Scenario analysis of land use change in Kabul River Basin – A river basin with rapid socio-economic changes in Afghanistan
Publication date: Available online 5 June 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Omaid Najmuddin, Xiangzheng Deng, Jia Siqi Land use management has a great importance in socio-economic development of countries and regions. Recently, Afghanistan has, at one hand, experienced significant socio-economic changes through political and economic transformation and, on the other hand it is considered amongst vulnerable countries to climate and other natural changes. For this, understanding the interactions between socio-economic and natural changes with land use change under different development s...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Characterization of soil salinization in typical estuarine area of the Jiaozhou Bay, China
In this study, the characteristics of soil salinization and the effects of main land use/land cover and other factors in typical estuarine area of the Jiaozhou Bay are investigated. Soil samples were collected in the parallel coastal zone, vertical coastal zone and longitudinal profile depth in the area to determine the soil salt content. The correlation analysis and principal component analysis are used to address the general characteristics of soil salinization in the study area. In the horizontal direction, there are moderate salinization, severe salinization and saline soil state. The farther from the sea (within 1.1 k...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - June 24, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Impact Assessment of Climate Change on Poverty Reduction: A Global Perspective
This study selects three countries, China, India and Senegal, to investigate the impacts of climate change on poverty reduction. Contrast to previous work what analyze climate changes’ impacts most concentrated on coastal urban areas, this paper is concentrating on the rural poor areas in different income group countries and on a contrastive analysis. The correlation analysis results show the same is that the indicators of climate change are in significant correlations with indicators of poverty and that of agriculture and human well-being in China, India and Senegal. However, China performs poorly in terms of person...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - June 24, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Sensitivity of the mayfly Adenophlebia auriculata (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) to MgSO4 and Na2SO4
In this study, the sensitivity of nymphs of the mayfly Adenophlebia auriculata (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) was investigated by exposing the organisms to magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) and sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) as models of mining salinisation in short-term (96 hours) and long-term (240 hours) in static system tests. Short-term and long-term lethal concentrations of each salt were estimated using regression analyses. The results indicated that A. auriculata was more sensitive to MgSO4 (LC50 = 3.81 g/L) than Na2SO4 (LC50 = 8.78 g/L). However, this species became sensitive to Na2SO4 (LC10 = 0.19 g/L) but tolerant to MgSO4...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - June 23, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Dynamic characteristics of soil respiration in Yellow River Delta wetlands, China
In this study, the diurnal and seasonal variation of soil respiration rate in the reed wetland land (RL) and the bare wetland land (BL) was measured in situ with the dynamic gas-infrared CO2 method in for seasons, and the factors impacted on the dynamic characteristics of soil respiration were investigated. The results showed that the diurnal variation of soil respiration rate consistently presented a “U” curve pattern in April, July, and September, with the maximum values at 12:00 AM and the minimum values at 6:00 AM. In the same season, the diurnal soil respiration rate in RL was significantly greater than th...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - June 22, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Can Potamonautids be used as umbrella invertebrate species for conservation: identifying opportunities and challenges related to community sustainable livelihoods
In this study, we assessed direct or indirect community livelihoods impacts on the preservation of Potamonautes spp., in the Eastern Highlands region of Zimbabwe and attempted to identify opportunities and constraints to conservation of crabs within the pre-existing livelihoods of community households. Random and snowball sampling methods were used to select households for informal open-ended interviews and participants for the focus group discussions. We found that increasing human populations, poverty, crab consumption, and illegal mining (i.e. resulting in water pollution, degradation of habitats) are threatening freshw...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - June 21, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Diffused impact of grassland degradation over space: A case study in Qinghai province
Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Pei Wang, Xiangzheng Deng, Sijian Jiang Our study aims to simulate and detect the interregional association of livestock production induced by grassland degradation in Qinghai province by TERM (The Enormous Regional Model). The shock variable, grassland degradation, is set and calculated by using its proxy, change of grassland area. We conclude that grassland area is decreasing during 1990-2008 in Qinghai province, and the average reduction rate is 1.591%. And grassland degradation in Qinghai province has a ma...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - June 17, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research