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“I'll teach you differences”: Taxometric analysis of the Dark Triad, trait sadism, and the Dark Core of personality
Publication date: 1 May 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 126 Author(s): Ulrich S. Tran, Bianca Bertl, Michael Kossmeier, Jakob Pietschnig, Stefan Stieger, Martin Voracek The Dark Triad of personality (Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy) is widely considered conceptually important for individual differences research into personality and interpersonal behavior. Recent research suggests to add trait sadism to its defining constructs (i.e., to form a Dark Tetrad), and that a single common dimension (the Dark Core) underlies these dark personality traits. Taxometric studies suggest the Dark Tri...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - January 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Understanding the joint effects of perceived parental psychological control and insecure attachment styles: A differentiated approach to adolescent autonomy
Publication date: 1 May 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 126 Author(s): Shiyuan Xiang, Yan Liu With a sample of 469 Chinese adolescents aged 12–16, the present study aimed to examine the joint effects of perceived parental psychological control and insecure attachment styles on adolescents' autonomy, and whether these effects could be extended to adolescents' well-being. Guided by recent clarification of two prevailing conceptualizations of autonomy (volitional functioning and independent decision making), we adopted both. Our findings indicated that both psychological control and insecure ...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - January 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Gender differences in two motivational pathways to political conservatism
Publication date: 15 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 125 Author(s): John S. Kubinski, C. David Navarrete, Peter K. Jonason Gender differences in strategic interests provide a theoretical framework to account for the heterogeneous landscape of gender differences in political preferences. Men's greater scores on social dominance orientation are consistent with a preference for social hierarchy, and women's greater scores on sexual disgust, a construct tapping aversions to sexually adventurous behavior, are consistent with a preference for restricted sexuality. We analyze how these psychologi...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - January 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Linking shyness to loneliness in Chinese adolescents: The mediating role of core self-evaluation and social support
This study examined the validity of two models predicting the relationship between shyness and loneliness: the cognitive bias and social network mediation models. Four hundred and eighty adolescents, with their age range between 14 and 18 years, were administered the Cheek and Buss Shyness Scale, Core Self-Evaluation Scale, Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Emotional and Social Loneliness Scale. Structural equation modeling showed that core self-evaluation and social support partially mediated the association between shyness and loneliness, and the mediating effect of social support was larger than th...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - January 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Emotion regulation and affective experience among extremely low birth weight adult survivors in their 30's
Publication date: 15 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 125 Author(s): Raha Hassan, Kristie L. Poole, Louis A. Schmidt, Saroj Saigal, Ryan J. Van Lieshout Although emotion regulatory processes and affective experiences have been explored among extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000g) survivors in childhood, little is known about these processes among ELBW survivors in adulthood. Furthermore, still less is known about whether ELBW survivors with neurosensory impairments (NSI) differ in emotion regulatory processes than ELBW survivors without NSI. Participants comprised 100 ELBW survivo...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - January 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Adolescent bullying and personality: A cross-cultural approach
Publication date: 15 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 125 Author(s): Anthony A. Volk, Katerina Schiralli, Xiaoyang Xia, Junru Zhao, Andrew V. Dane Researchers have suggested that heritable personality traits may predispose individuals to be willing to engage in the behavior. In particular, previous research has demonstrated a link between bullying perpetration and low levels of the HEXACO personality factor Honesty-Humility, which is a measure of an individual's willingness to exploit others. However, to date, evidence for the importance of low Honesty-Humility (versus low Agreeableness or ...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - January 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Adolescents' sociosexual orientation is related to attachment to their same-sex parent
Publication date: 1 May 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 126 Author(s): Pascal Mallet, Cécile Kindelberger We set out to show that sociosexual orientation (SSO) and erotophilia are two different traits that can be evidenced as early as middle adolescence, and to examine their associations with attachment to parents. Self-report scales measuring SSO, erotophilia, and attachment to the mother and the father were administered to 289 12- to 17-year-olds. Based on an exploratory factor analysis, SSO and erotophilia are two different, consistent dimensions in this age range. A six-month test-ret...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - January 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Examining how the personality, self-efficacy, and anticipatory cognitions of potential entrepreneurs shape their entrepreneurial intentions
Publication date: 15 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 125 Author(s): Bryan Fuller, Yan Liu, Saleh Bajaba, Laura E. Marler, Jon Pratt Using an expanded view of entrepreneurial feasibility, we hypothesize a model in which entrepreneurial intentions are fostered by proactive personality and trait competitiveness. In doing so, our study expands the concept of entrepreneurial feasibility to include anticipatory thinking and a generative view of entrepreneurial self-efficacy by considering broader forms of self-efficacy that proactive and competitive people are likely to develop – creative ...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - January 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The effect of self-control on drinking outcomes is mediated by automatic appetitive responses to alcohol
Publication date: 15 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 125 Author(s): Peter Luehring-Jones, Kelli D. Tahaney, Tibor P. Palfai While trait self-control has typically been conceptualized as the ability to successfully inhibit responses to temptation, recent research has suggested that those who report higher levels of self-control may also experience less responsivity to tempting cues. To explore the question of whether the association between trait self-control and alcohol use among drinkers may be a function of weakened appetitive responses to alcohol cues, we utilized an alcohol-specific Im...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - January 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The role of trait emotional intelligence in body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms in preadolescents and adolescents
Publication date: 1 May 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 126 Author(s): Cristina Cuesta-Zamora, Irene González-Martí, Luis Miguel García-López (Source: Personality and Individual Differences)
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - January 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A longitudinal analysis of coping style and cardiovascular reactivity to laboratory stressors
Publication date: 15 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 125 Author(s): Tyson J. Florence, Robert G. Kent de Grey, Bert N. Uchino, Sierra Cronan The association between active and passive coping and cardiovascular reactivity has been of interest because of its theoretical implications. However, most past studies utilized laboratory manipulations and cross-sectional data. A complementary approach would be to examine individual differences in active and passive coping and their links to lab-based reactivity over time. The present longitudinal study used the COPE Inventory to assess active and pa...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - January 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Negative correlation between salivary testosterone concentration and preference for sophisticated music in males
Publication date: 15 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 125 Author(s): Hirokazu Doi, Ilaria Basadonne, Paola Venuti, Kazuyuki Shinohara Music constitutes an integral part of everyday life. There is great variation in preference patterns for music. However, the cause of such individual differences has not been fully elucidated to date. Many behavioral traits, including personality, are known to be influenced by steroid-hormone testosterone. On this basis, we conjectured that testosterone partly determines individual differences in music preference. To examine this hypothesis, in the present st...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - January 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A gender role view of the Dark Triad traits
Publication date: 15 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 125 Author(s): Peter K. Jonason, Mark D. Davis In two college-student samples from Australia (N =305) and Alabama (N =207), we examined how the Dark Triad traits (i.e., narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism) were correlated with individual differences in gender roles and whether gender roles can account for sex differences in the Dark Triad traits. In Study 1, the Dark Triad traits were associated with less femininity and more masculinity and sex differences in the traits were mediated by femininity only. In Study 2, psychopathy ...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - January 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Degree of handedness: A unique individual differences factor for predicting and understanding hindsight bias
Publication date: 15 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 125 Author(s): Chandrima Bhattacharya, John D. Jasper Hindsight bias is a pervasive error in judgment and decision making. Thus, predicting when and why it occurs is an important task. The present study was designed to directly compare two methods that elicit potentially different kinds of hindsight bias and to relate the magnitude of the bias to degree of handedness, a neurologically-related individual difference variable associated with differences in both memory performance and anchoring. 160 introductory psychology students were give...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - January 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Dispositional self-compassion impacts immediate and delayed reactions to social evaluation
This study contributes to the understanding of how trait self-compassion beneficially influences the processing of stressful situations. (Source: Personality and Individual Differences)
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - January 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Exploring aesthetic experiences of females: Affect-related traits predict complexity and arousal responses to music and affective pictures
Publication date: 15 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 125 Author(s): Manuela M. Marin, Helmut Leder Empirical studies testing Berlyne's (1971) psychobiological model have led to conflicting results, and individual differences have been proposed as a possible explanation. We explored whether top-down influences related to personality may play a role and studied how affect-related personality traits are related to complexity and arousal responses. Two hundred and six females rated either affective environmental scenes, environmental scenes converted into cartoons, or representational painting...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - January 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The role of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and mother's emotional warmth in predicting adulthood sociability
This study used data from 2289 (55% female) participants from the ongoing prospective Young Finns Study. Maternal emotional warmth was assessed in 1980 when the participants were 3–18years old. Participants' sociability temperament was measured at five follow-ups, from 1992 to 2012. Emotional warmth in childhood and OXTR genotype were not directly associated with temperamental sociability. We found a nominally significant gene–environment interaction (p =.03) suggesting that participants with a genetic profile of rs1042778 T-allele and rs2254298 A-allele are affected high versus low emotional warmth, whereas ho...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - January 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Testing the state-dependent behavior models in humans: Environmental harshness moderates the link between personality and mating
Publication date: 15 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 125 Author(s): Janko Međedović In behavioral ecology, state-dependent models are frequently used for the explanation of inter-individual variance in personality traits. Environmental characteristics are one of the external states which could influence this variance. The model predicts that environmental harshness should be related to fast life-history personality traits and that these traits should be more beneficial for fitness-related behavior in a harsh environment. In order to test the state-dependent behavior models in humans, we ...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - January 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Why do exercisers with a higher trait self-control experience higher subjective well-being? The mediating effects of amount of leisure-time physical activity, perceived goal progress, and self-efficacy
Publication date: 15 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 125 Author(s): Walid Briki A first goal of the present study consisted in examining the interrelationships between trait self-control, amount of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), goal progress, self-efficacy and subjective well-being. A second goal of this study was to examine whether LTPA amount, goal progress and self-efficacy could mediate the beneficial effect of trait self-control on subjective well-being. Five hundred one individuals, who reported to perform LTPA regularly, took part voluntarily in the study. Preliminary analy...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - January 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Self-concealment and perfectionistic self-presentation in concealment of psychache and suicide ideation
We examined the relationship of traits of self-concealment and perfectionistic self-presentation to suicide ideation and psychache, as well as the role of social support. Both traits were predictors of suicide ideation, and concealment of psychache mediated the relationship of suicide ideation with self-concealment and two subcomponents of perfectionistic self-presentation. Individuals higher on self-concealment and perfectionistic self-presentation were more likely to report psychache as well as concealment of psychache. Social support mediated the relationship between one subcomponent of perfectionistic self-presentation...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - January 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Thinking styles: Distinct from personality?
Publication date: 15 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 125 Author(s): Jieqiong Fan, Li-fang Zhang, Chunjin Chen This research examined whether thinking styles are distinct from or they are part of personality traits. Nine hundred and twenty-six students responded to measures of thinking styles, personality traits, and career decision-making self-efficacy. The results revealed that personality traits only explained a small part of variance in thinking styles, thinking styles uniquely contributed to career decision-making self-efficacy beyond personality traits, and that the malleability of th...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - January 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Anxious attachment and belief in conspiracy theories
Publication date: 15 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 125 Author(s): Ricky Green, Karen M. Douglas This research examined the link between attachment styles and belief in conspiracy theories. It was hypothesized, due to the tendency to exaggerate the intensity of threats, that higher anxiously attached individuals would be more likely to hold conspiracy beliefs, even when accounting for other variables such as right-wing authoritarianism, interpersonal trust, and demographic factors that have been found to predict conspiracy belief in previous research. In Study 1 (N =246 Amazon Mechanical ...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - January 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Looking beyond the generation of creative ideas: Confidence in evaluating ideas predicts creative outcomes
Publication date: 15 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 125 Author(s): Logan M. Steele, Genevieve Johnson, Kelsey E. Medeiros Since its inception 15years ago, creative self-efficacy has been identified as an important predictor of creativity, the generation of new and useful ideas. Over 50 studies examining this relationship suggest a strong, positive correlation. Nevertheless, like most research on creativity, the research on creative self-efficacy has overemphasized its generative aspects and largely ignored the evaluative aspects, both of which are critical to the production of new and use...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - January 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Dark personality, job performance ratings, and the role of political skill: An indication of why toxic people may get ahead at work
In this study, an indirect effect chain model was tested which proposes that dark employees receive good performance ratings through political skill. Dark personality was operationalized by low scores on the honesty-humility factor of the HEXACO personality model. One hundred and ten employees provided self-ratings on honesty-humility and political skill. Their supervisors provided observer ratings on political skill and job performance. Results show a positive direct effect of honesty-humility on the performance measure of team facilitation and support at the same time the opposing indirect effect hypothesis: Dark, as opp...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - December 24, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Trait anger and aggression: A moderated mediation model of anger rumination and moral disengagement
Publication date: 15 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 125 Author(s): Xingchao Wang, Li Yang, Jiping Yang, Ling Gao, Fengqing Zhao, Xiaochun Xie, Li Lei Although trait anger has been shown to play an important role in aggression, little is known about mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this relation. Based on the general aggression model, we investigated the mediating role of anger rumination in the association between trait anger and aggression and the moderating role of moral disengagement. Four hundred and sixty-four Chinese young adults completed the measures of trait anger, ...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - December 24, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Gender differences among adolescent gamblers
This study analyzed gender differences in risk factors and gambling-related patterns. The sample comprised 1756 adolescents aged 14 to 17years. Chi-square and t-tests were performed to examine differences between male and female gamblers (n =699). Multiple regressions were conducted to explore predictors of gambling severity by gender. Male gamblers reported more gambling activity within the last year and showed a more severe gambling pattern. Impulsivity, last year prevalence of bingo, and other casino games were associated with higher gambling severity in both genders. Enhancement and coping motives were related to gambl...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - December 24, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The development and validation of the Lovingkindness-Compassion Scale
This study was to examine the construct of Lovingkindness-Compassion and to development of the Lovingkindness-Compassion Scale (LCS). Five Buddhist monks were interviewed for a definition of lovingkindness-compassion. Based on their responses, potential items related to the LCS were created. This study analyzed the validity and reliability of the LCS in a sample of 469 university students. The results showed a three-factor structure using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) as well as confirmatory factor analysis (CFA): compassion, lovingkindness, and self-centeredness. Also, the results indicated that the LCS was significan...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Personality and online environment factors differ for posters, trolls, lurkers, and confessors on Yik Yak
Publication date: 1 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 124 Author(s): Kathryn C. Seigfried-Spellar, Claire M. Lankford Anonymous social media applications, such as Yik Yak, continue to rise in popularity, but little research has examined the individual differences and influence of online environment on different posting behaviors. 173 undergraduate students completed an anonymous online survey assessing the dark-triad, sadism, the five-factor model, online environmental factors, and different behaviors on Yik Yak (i.e., posting, trolling, confessing, lurking). Results suggested different pers...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The relationship between everyday sadism, violent video game play, and fascination with weapons
Publication date: 1 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 124 Author(s): Jeanette M. Gonzalez, Tobias Greitemeyer Previous research has shown that everyday sadism is positively related to the amount of violent video game play. The present research extends this line of work by examining whether everyday sadists are attracted to violent video games because they are fascinated with weapons. In fact, a survey (N =613) showed that everyday sadism was significantly related to both violent video game play and the fascination with weapons. These relationships remained significant when controlling for th...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Anxiety profiles and protective factors: A latent profile analysis in children
Publication date: 1 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 124 Author(s): Irene C. Mammarella, Enrica Donolato, Sara Caviola, David Giofrè (Source: Personality and Individual Differences)
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Interest in partner orgasm: Sex differences and relationships with attachment strategies
Publication date: 1 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 124 Author(s): Michael D. Barnett, Jenna M. Moore, Brittany A. Woolford, Shelley A. Riggs A large body of research has investigated relationship and sexual satisfaction; however, little extant research has investigated interest in partner orgasm. The purpose of this study was to investigate sex differences in interest in partner orgasm, as well as the relationship between adult attachment and interest in partner orgasm among college men (n =262) and women (n =745) who are in committed romantic relationships. Women indicated having greater...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Finding middle ground between intellectual arrogance and intellectual servility: Development and assessment of the limitations-owning intellectual humility scale
Publication date: 1 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 124 Author(s): Megan Haggard, Wade C. Rowatt, Joseph C. Leman, Benjamin Meagher, Courtney Moore, Thomas Fergus, Dennis Whitcomb, Heather Battaly, Jason Baehr, Dan Howard-Snyder Recent scholarship in intellectual humility (IH) has attempted to provide deeper understanding of the virtue as personality trait and its impact on an individual's thoughts, beliefs, and actions. A limitations-owning perspective of IH focuses on a proper recognition of the impact of intellectual limitations and a motivation to overcome them, placing it as the mean ...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Coping mediates the association between empathy and psychological distress among Japanese workers
Publication date: 1 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 124 Author(s): Tomomi Noda, Yusuke Takahashi, Toshiya Murai Previous studies have demonstrated an association between low empathy and high psychological distress. However, few studies have explored the mediators of this association. The present study examined how coping mediates the effect of empathy on psychological distress. Participants were 1232 Japanese workers who completed a comprehensive coping scale comprising eight subscales. We conducted a cross-sectional mediation analysis. The findings showed that low empathy was associated w...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Do vulnerable narcissists profit more from Facebook use than grandiose narcissists? An examination of narcissistic Facebook use in the light of self-regulation and social comparison theory
Publication date: 1 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 124 Author(s): Phillip Ozimek, Hans-Werner Bierhoff, Stephanie Hanke This work examines the assumption that grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, although positively correlated, have different consequences for frequency and time expenditure of Facebook use and, additionally, the importance of social comparisons for both constructs. Participants completed measures of Facebook use, grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism, social comparison orientation, and self-esteem. Four studies (Ns=384, 175, 289, and 520) provided evidence that vulne...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Self-criticism, intensity of perceived negative life events, and distress: Results from a two-wave study
Publication date: 1 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 124 Author(s): Rui C. Campos, Ronald R. Holden, Berta Caçador, Ana Sofia Fragata, Cristina Baleizão The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether changes in the maladaptive personality trait of self-criticism and changes in the interaction between this trait and the intensity of perceived negative life events predict changes in distress over a period of five months. A final sample of 207 young adults participated, responding to the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire, the Life Experiences Survey, and the Brief Sympto...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The evolution of same-sex attraction: Exploring women's willingness to have sex with other women in order to satisfy their partners
Publication date: 1 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 124 Author(s): Menelaos Apostolou, Christoforos Christoforou About one in five women are not attracted exclusively to members of the opposite sex. This high prevalence of same-sex attractions constitutes an evolutionary puzzle as they appear to impair reproductive success. It has recently been proposed that, one reason behind such high prevalence is a male preference for same-sex attraction in women. The male choice hypothesis predicts that heterosexual women who experience same-sex attractions would be more willing than heterosexual wome...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Psychological flexibility moderates the relation between PTSD symptoms and daily pain interference
Publication date: 1 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 124 Author(s): Christopher R. Berghoff, Michael J. McDermott, Katherine L. Dixon-Gordon Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are associated with increased physical health problems, including chronic pain. Although researchers have identified several risk factors that partially account for the co-occurrence of PTSD symptoms and pain, a substantial amount of variance remains unexplained in these models. The present study evaluated psychological flexibility (PF) as a potential moderator of the relation between probable PTSD diagnosi...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Direct and indirect effects of relationship status through unmet need to belong and fear of being single on young adults' romantic loneliness
Publication date: 1 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 124 Author(s): Katarzyna Adamczyk Prior research has extensively documented the association between marital and relationship status and romantic loneliness; however, the mechanism explaining this association has not yet been fully explored. Therefore, the current study was intended to investigate the link between relationship status and romantic loneliness among young adults by testing a model in which unmet need to belong and fear of being single would operate as mediators in serial in this link. In the present study, data were collected...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Openness and Intellect differentially predict Right-Wing Authoritarianism
Publication date: 1 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 124 Author(s): Victoria Hotchin, Keon West The Big Five factor of Openness/Intellect has shown a robust relationship with Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) across multiple studies, but few have investigated the relative contribution of the Big Five Aspects of Openness and Intellect, with mixed findings. The present correlational study of 304 participants expands previous research by using a multi-dimensional measure of authoritarianism that resolves methodological concerns regarding prior RWA scales. Specifically, structural equation mode...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A tale of two general factors of personality in relation to intelligence and validity measures
Publication date: 1 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 124 Author(s): Julie Aitken Schermer, Richard D. Goffin Four general factors of personality (GFP) were computed by analyzing two different personality measures using two different GFP extraction methods within a sample of job candidates. GFP scores were computed by both examining the first unrotated factor of the scales and by examining the higher order factor following a factor analysis of the scales allowing for multiple first-order factors. The two GFP scores within each personality scale had high correlations (although for one measure...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The association between COMT rs4680 and OPRM1 rs1799971 polymorphisms and temperamental traits in combat athletes
Publication date: 1 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 124 Author(s): Katarzyna Leźnicka, Marta Niewczas, Mateusz Kurzawski, Paweł Cięszczyk, Krzysztof Safranow, Maria Ligocka, Monika Białecka The aim of this study is to analyse associations between functional polymorphisms in the COMT and OPRM1 genes and temperamental traits in athletes. The study involved 364 healthy men, aged 18 to 43years. 199 combat athletes participated in the experimental group. The control group consisted of 165 healthy men. All subjects were genotyped for common variants of the COMT and OPRM1 genes, and were incl...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Sociosexuality in Brazil: Validation of the SOI-R and its correlates with personality, self-perceived mate value, and ideal partner preferences
Publication date: 1 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 124 Author(s): Bruna S. Nascimento, Paul P.H. Hanel, Renan P. Monteiro, Valdiney V. Gouveia, Anthony C. Little Sociosexuality describes the willingness to engage in sexual activities outside of committed relationships. Across two studies, we tested the factorial structure and reliability of the Revised Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI-R) in Brazil. Study 1 explored the factor structure of the instrument within a sample of 178 individuals from the general population, supporting the proposed three-factorial structure of the SOI-R and ...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Individual differences explain regional differences in honor-related outcomes
Publication date: 1 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 124 Author(s): Donald A. Saucier, Stuart S. Miller, Amanda L. Martens, Conor J. O'Dea, Tucker L. Jones Much research has been devoted to the investigation of both the culture of honor residing in the American South and the individual difference ideologies that stem from this culture. The purpose of our study was to investigate the ability of individual differences in masculine honor beliefs (Saucier et al., 2016) to explain the regional differences that Southern and Northern men showed on the original measures of honor-related outcomes em...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Optimism, hope, and attention for emotional stimuli
Publication date: 1 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 124 Author(s): Lucas J.A. Kelberer, Morganne A. Kraines, Tony T. Wells Optimism and hope are individual difference factors that protect against the development of psychological disorders. They also are associated with more positive cognitive processes, such as positive appraisal of ambiguous events. Attention to emotional information is a cognitive process that has been implicated in the development and maintenance of emotional disorders, but there is a relative dearth of information investigating the relationships between hope, optimism,...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Does personal distress enhance empathic interaction or block it?
Publication date: 1 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 124 Author(s): Hwan Kim, Sumi Han Personal distress, an index of emotional empathy, is a tendency to feel pain when exposed to the misfortune or suffering of others. However, it is doubtful whether measuring personal distress tendencies with a self-reporting scale is appropriate for measuring other-orienting empathic tendencies. Batson (1991) argued that personal distress had an aversive self-focused attribute; therefore, in this study, we administered a series of correlational studies to identify the nature of personal distress more clea...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Self-compassionate and apologetic? How and why having compassion toward the self relates to a willingness to apologize
Publication date: 1 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 124 Author(s): Anna Vazeou-Nieuwenhuis, Karina Schumann After offending someone, transgressors can offer an apology to attenuate the destructive consequences of their actions. Unfortunately, even though apologies can be immensely beneficial, transgressors often withhold an apology because it can feel uncomfortable to accept blame for wrongful behavior. We sought to enhance our understanding of factors that shape transgressors' responses by investigating whether self-compassion is associated with greater willingness to apologize. Because s...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Social anxiety is related to dominance but not to affiliation as perceived by self and others: A real-life investigation into the psychobiological perspective on social anxiety
Publication date: 1 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 124 Author(s): Corine Dijk, Arnold A.P. van Emmerik, Raoul P.P.P. Grasman From a biopsychological perspective, social anxiety can be seen as a proneness to act submissively in order to reduce conflict and avoid rejection by others. Research into this framework so far specifically focused on the self-perceived social world. Less is known about the relation between social anxiety and one's actual position within a group, as perceived by group members. In addition, research to date showed that social anxiety seems related to social rejection...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Unmasking the association between psychopathic traits and adaptive functioning in children
We examined associations between psychopathic-like features and two measures of adaptive functioning: psychometric intelligence and (immunity to) internalizing problems. Ratings of psychopathy and behavioral problems were obtained in a community sample of children (N =1210). A bifactor model was fit to the psychopathic personality items to capture the underlying variance common to all traits (i.e., general factor) and to isolate a unique cluster of interpersonal traits. We hypothesized that the general psychopathy factor and specific interpersonal factor would exhibit opposing patterns of associations with external criteri...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Social media use, personality characteristics, and social isolation among young adults in the United States
Publication date: 1 April 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 124 Author(s): Erin O. Whaite, Ariel Shensa, Jaime E. Sidani, Jason B. Colditz, Brian A. Primack Although increased social media use (SMU) has been linearly associated with increased real-life social isolation (SI), it is unknown whether these associations differ by personality characteristics. With a nationally-representative sample of 1768U.S. young adults aged 19–32, we assessed SI using a 4-item Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System scale, and personality using the 10-item Big Five Inventory. Using ordered log...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Relationships between perceived risk of terrorism, fear, and avoidance behaviors among Pakistani university students: A multigroup study
This article investigates the relationships between perceived risk of terrorism, fear of terrorism, and avoidance behaviors among high and low terrorism exposure groups. The two groups consisted of undergraduate business students enrolled in public sector universities in two Pakistani cities, Peshawar and Islamabad. The participants from Peshawar (N =277) comprised the high exposure group whereas the participants from Islamabad (N =259) comprised the low exposure group, based on the level of terrorist activity in the regions. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using covariance-based st...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research