Trying to be perfect in an imperfect world: A person-centred test of perfectionism and health in fibromyalgia patients versus healthy controls
Publication date: 15 January 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 137Author(s): Fuschia M. Sirois, Loren Toussaint, Jameson K. Hirsch, Niko Kohls, Annemarie Weber, Martin OffenbächerAbstractThe Stress and Coping Cyclical Amplification Model of Perfectionism in Illness posits, that in the context of a chronic illness, both perfectionistic strivings and concerns contribute to poor health outcomes. Similarly, person-centred models, such as the tripartite model of perfectionism, claim that high levels of both perfectionism concerns and strivings reflect an “unhealthy” perfectionism that t...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Chinese fathers' emotion socialization profiles and adolescents' emotion regulation
Publication date: 15 January 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 137Author(s): Mingzhu Wang, Yue Liang, Nan Zhou, Hong ZouAbstractThe present study examined the various configurations of Chinese fathers' emotion socialization behaviors and how these configurations relate to adolescents' emotion regulation (ER). A total of 731 Chinese secondary school students completed measures of paternal reactions to their negative emotions, their use of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression strategies, and overall ER ability. Four profiles of paternal emotion socialization were identified: the supportiv...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Alcohol expectancies and distress tolerance: Potential mechanisms in the relationship between posttraumatic stress and alcohol use
Publication date: 15 January 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 137Author(s): Sara Himmerich, Holly OrcuttAbstractIndividual reactions following trauma exposure vary, with up to one-third of survivors developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Kessler, Chiu, Demler, & Walters, 2005). Individuals exposed to trauma have high rates of co-occurring psychiatric disorders, with alcohol abuse among the most common comorbid conditions (Kessler et al., 2005). One factor that may influence this relationship is alcohol expectancies (Hruska & Delahanty, 2012), where individuals who believe that usi...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Individual differences in social hypersensitivity predict the interpretation of ambiguous feedback and self-esteem
ConclusionsIndividuals who are socially hypersensitive interpret ambiguous feedback more negatively and have a lower tolerance for uncertainty than people who are less socially hypersensitive, and this in turn predicts lower self-esteem. (Source: Personality and Individual Differences)
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Emotional Intelligence and Day-To-Day Emotion Regulation Processes: Examining Motives for Social Sharing
This study uses experience sampling to examine whether the emotional intelligence (EI) of undergraduate students (N = 84) relates to their day-to-day use of five emotion regulation processes over a five-day period. We also test whether EI predicts motives for one of the emotion regulation processes (social sharing). We measure both ability EI (the brief Situational Test of Emotion Management) and self-rated EI (the Self-Rated Emotional Intelligence Scale). Self-rated EI significantly predicts more social sharing, direct situation modification and reappraisal. Ability EI does not significantly predict any of the five re...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Perceptions of positive and negative changes for posttraumatic growth and depreciation: Judgments from Japanese undergraduates
Publication date: 15 January 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 137Author(s): Rei Oshiro, Jessica Kopitz, Takafumi Soejima, Satoshi Kibi, Kiyoko Kamibeppu, Shinji Sakamoto, Kanako TakuAbstractThe present study examined whether psychological changes after trauma, operationally defined as posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic depreciation (PTD), were judged as positive or negative within a sample of Japanese adults. Furthermore, potential gender differences in perceptions for changes in PTG and PTD were also assessed. Undergraduate students (n = 257, Mage = 19.91) completed a questionna...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Externalizing and internalizing, but not rationalizing: Some psychodynamic biases associated with the Dark Triad traits
Publication date: 15 January 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 137Author(s): Peter K. Jonason, Stephen A. Fletcher, Talia HashmaniAbstractIn American MTurk workers (N = 288), we examined the psychodynamic biases of externalizing (i.e., turning against the object, projection), internalizing (i.e., turning against the self), and rationalizing (i.e., principalization, reversal) in relation to the Dark Triad traits (i.e., narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism). The traits had an externalizing bias, none were associated with a rationalizing bias, and only psychopathy and Machiavellianism wer...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A preliminary investigation into the relationship between empathy, autistic like traits and emotion recognition
ConclusionsHigh levels of ALTs and a lack of situational cues resulted in poorer emotion recognition. Future research should seek to control possible confounds, including processing style. Potential implications of the current study are discussed. (Source: Personality and Individual Differences)
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Structural equation modeling of multiple-indicator multimethod-multioccasion data: A primer
We present different models for multiple-indicator MM-MO data and discuss a modeling strategy that begins with basic single-method longitudinal confirmatory factor models and ends with more sophisticated MM-MO models. Our proposed strategy allows researchers to identify a well-fitting and possibly parsimonious model through a series of model comparisons. We illustrate our proposed MM-MO modeling strategy based on mother and father reports of inattention in a sample of N = 805 Spanish children. (Source: Personality and Individual Differences)
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Stability and variability of personality networks. A tutorial on recent developments in network psychometrics
Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017Source: Personality and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Giulio Costantini, Juliette Richetin, Emanuele Preti, Erica Casini, Sacha Epskamp, Marco PeruginiAbstractNetworks have been recently proposed for modeling dynamics in several kinds of psychological phenomena, such as personality and psychopathology. In this work, we introduce techniques that allow disentangling between-subject networks, which encode dynamics that involve stable individual differences, from within-subject networks, which encode dynamics that involve momentary levels of certain individual characteristics. ...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Relating emotional arousal to work vigour: A dynamic systems perspective
We examined the emotional basis of work engagement by focusing on the relationship between arousal and work vigour. Drawing on the DynAff model of Kuppens, Oravecz, and Tuerlinckx (2010), we looked at three elements underlying the temporal dynamics of arousal: (1) the level of baseline arousal (i.e., the attractor state around which arousal fluctuates), (2) the amount of variability in arousal around this baseline, and (3) the swiftness with which people return to their arousal baseline once they deviated from it. We conducted a five-day experience sampling study, in which 88 employees reported on their momentary core affe...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Private self-consciousness in daily life: Relationships between rumination and reflection and well-being, and meaning in daily life
Publication date: Available online 3 July 2017Source: Personality and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): David B. Newman, John B. NezlekAbstractThe present study moved beyond trait reports of rumination, reflection, and meaning in life (presence and search) by examining within-person relationships between daily states of these constructs and well-being. Participants (N = 130) completed reports at the end of the day for 14 days. When analyzed together, daily rumination was negatively related to daily well-being whereas daily reflection was not (with one exception). In contrast, daily reflection was positively r...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Linking longitudinal dynamics of justice sensitivity and moral disengagement
Publication date: Available online 4 July 2017Source: Personality and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Simona Maltese, Anna BaumertAbstractDespite conceptual overlap between justice and morality, dispositional justice sensitivity (JS) has not been linked to processes of moral self-regulation. In a 1-year longitudinal study with four timepoints (N = 515) we tested how intra-individual changes in JS (from the perpetrator and beneficiary perspectives) and dispositional moral disengagement (MD) were associated. Both JS perspectives were negatively correlated with the inclination to use MD strategies at each timepoint...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Personality architecture and dynamics: The new agenda and what's new about it
Publication date: Available online 13 July 2017Source: Personality and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Daniel Cervone, Brian R. LittleAbstractThis overview of the psychology of personality dynamics locates contemporary trends within the field's long history. Investigators of the 19th and 20th centuries are recognized as having identified scientific challenges that must be addressed today if one is to attain a comprehensive understanding of personality architecture and dynamics. We outline four themes that were highlighted by investigators of the past. We then consider how theoretical and methodological challenges associat...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

An initial broad-level mapping of personality-situation contingencies in self-report data
Publication date: Available online 23 July 2017Source: Personality and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Marie N. Conley, Gerard SaucierAbstractIt is commonplace observation that situations can affect the expression of personality dispositions. But psychology has typically addressed this relationship in a broad, unspecific way, with little attention yet to which situations might particularly affect which dispositions. Here, our premise is that critical information might arise from examining how a range of specific situations are perceived to affect each of a range of specific personality tendencies. 500 participants complet...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A snapshot of person and thing orientations: How individual differences in interest manifest in everyday life
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2017Source: Personality and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Miranda M. McIntyre, William G. GrazianoAbstractIndividuals selectively orient toward their social environment (people) and toward their physical environment (things/objects). These orientations are key predictors of important life outcomes, including career decisions. However, research has not yet examined whether orientations toward people and things manifest in naturalistic environments. The present two-part study addressed this gap. In part one, participants rated their interest in person- and thing-related books (...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Using functional fields to formally represent the meaning and logic of behavior: A worked example using Dark Triad-related actions
We describe and illustrate how functional fields can be used to represent the psychological situation, and consequently to understand the meaning and logic of different types of behavior, using the example of actions related to Dark Triad personality dimensions: narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. In doing so, we describe how functional field representations connect to expectancy-value and rational actor models of psychological processes (e.g., Bandura, 1977; Feather, 1982; Heckhausen, 1977), and provide a number of guidelines for estimating these models empirically through the use of elaborated situational judg...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Analyzing dynamic data: A tutorial
Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017Source: Personality and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): William Revelle, Joshua WiltAbstractModern data collection techniques allow for intensive measurement within subjects. Analyzing this type of data requires analyzing data at the within subject as well as between subject level. Although sometimes conclusions will be the same at both levels, it is frequently the case that examining within subject data will show much more complex patterns of results than when they are simply aggregated. This tutorial is a simple introduction to the kind of data analytic strategies that...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Who am I and how often?: Variation in self-essentialism beliefs, cognitive style, and well-being
Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017Source: Personality and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Ellen S. Dulaney, Verena Graupmann, Kimberly A. QuinnAbstractScientific and lay theories about personality as a stable entity reflect how people think about people, including themselves. The idea of immutable core attributes in others has been related to essentialist thinking in social cognition research, and to the belief in a “true self” in research on identity and well-being. Here items examining individual self-essentialism were used to examine to what extent said beliefs relate to well-being, cognitiv...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A drunk heart speaks a sober mind: Alcohol does not influence the selection of short-term partners with dark triad traits
In this study, we tested the influence of alcohol on mate choice and perceptions of danger in dark triad faces. Women (N = 96) were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: control; alcohol; or placebo. In two alternative forced-choice (2-AFC) tasks, participants were first asked to choose between high and low morphs as short-term partners, and then to identify the face they found more dangerous. Analyses indicate that women were averse to male faces with high levels of psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and narcissism for short-term relationships. Women also perceived men whose faces displayed high levels of p...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Using neural networks as models of personality process: A tutorial
Publication date: Available online 21 November 2017Source: Personality and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Stephen J. Read, Vita Droutman, Benjamin J. Smith, Lynn C. MillerAbstractThis paper presents a tutorial for creating neural network models of personality processes. Such models enable researchers to create explicit models of both personality structure and personality dynamics, and to address issues of recent concern in personality, such as, “If personality is stable, then how is it possible that within subject variability in personality states can be as large as or larger than between subject variability in per...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Big Five, everyday contexts and activities, and affective experience
Publication date: Available online 29 December 2017Source: Personality and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Joshua Wilt, William RevelleAbstractPrior research shows that personality traits predict time spent with different people and frequency of engagement in different activities. Further, personality traits, company, and activity are related to the experience of affect. However, little research has examined personality, context, and affect together in the same study. In the current study, 78 people described their Big Five traits and took part in a 1-week experience sampling study using mobile phones as a means for data ...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A psychometric investigation of the Assessment of Sadistic Personality
This study reports on a new measure of subclinical sadism: The Assessment of Sadistic Personality (ASP). We investigated dimensionality, invariance, and convergent validity of the ASP using a sample of 638 Canadian university students. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the factor structure of the ASP. Metric invariance was supported, and consistent with past findings, evidence for scalar invariance was not found, with men scoring higher than women on the ASP and Short Dark Triad. The ASP correlated in expected directions with the Dark Triad, the HEXACO traits, and the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 variables. Val...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Intellect and openness differentially predict affect: Perceived and objective cognitive ability contexts
Publication date: 15 January 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 137Author(s): Marcin Zajenkowski, Gerald MatthewsAbstractThe characteristics of Openness and Intellect suggest they may be differentially correlated with affect. In Study 1 (n = 224) we examined associations between Openness/Intellect and well-being. Additionally, we included variables related to ability perception: subjectively assessed intelligence and satisfaction with intelligence. In Study 2 (n = 216) we explored how Intellect/Openness predict subjective stress states related to performance of intelligence tests. Across stu...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Testing evolutionary and cultural theories regarding mate selection in Turkey
Publication date: 1 December 2018Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 135Author(s): İlyas Göz, Hasan G. Bahçekapili, Onurcan YilmazAbstractMost studies on mate selection criteria have focused on women and rely on Western samples. In the present study, we tested both women's and men's mate preferences from evolutionary and cultural perspectives in a large, mostly Muslim sample (N = 1114). Results showed that (1) the relation between women's families' income level and the income level they prefer in their potential mates is inconsistent with the cultural similarity hypothesis; (2) women pla...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Gender differences in the predictors of life satisfaction across 150 nations
This study used multi-level modeling to explore gender differences in the predictors of life satisfaction in a sample of 952,739 individuals from 150 countries. A wide set of demographic, social, and psychological predictors (N = 31) were examined. The results revealed a large degree of similarity in the predictors of life satisfaction across gender. However, nontrivial gender differences also emerged. With some exceptions, the results generally suggest that socio-political, employment-related, and education-related variables are more important in determining life satisfaction in men, whereas variables related to marit...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Call for The 19th Dr. Sybil Eysenck Award
Publication date: 1 November 2018Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 134Author(s): (Source: Personality and Individual Differences)
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Guilt, shame, and apologizing behavior: A laboratory study
Publication date: 1 December 2018Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 135Author(s): Mariam Chrdileli, Tim KasserAbstractStudies show that people's proclivity to apologize is positively associated with dispositional guilt and negatively associated with dispositional shame, but apologizing in those studies was assessed via self-report. The current study therefore developed a means of systematically coding participants' apologizing behavior in a laboratory-based situation that provided participants with an opportunity to actually apologize (or not). Specifically, after completing measures of dispositional gu...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - August 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Dark Tetrad traits and problematic online gaming: The mediating role of online gaming motives and moderating role of game types
Publication date: 1 December 2018Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 135Author(s): Kagan Kircaburun, Peter K. Jonason, Mark D. GriffithsAbstractDifferent personality traits are correlated with problematic internet use and online gaming. However, associations between dark personality traits and problematic online gaming (POG) have received less attention. The present study investigated direct and indirect associations of the Dark Tetrad traits (i.e., Machiavellianism, psychopathy, narcissism, sadism) with POG via online gaming motives (controlling for hours spent gaming) among 421 online gamers. Mediation...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - July 31, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The role of the dark triad in perceptions of academic incivility
This study seeks to determine the relationship between the Dark Triad personalities (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) and perceptions of appropriateness and frequency of academic incivilities. A sample of 519 university students indicated the degree to which each of 20 uncivil academic behaviors was perceived appropriate and how often students perceived those behaviors in the classroom. Factor analysis of the academic incivilities produced six factors: Low Class Engagement, Poor Class Presence, Student Retaliation, Cheating, Class Disruption, and Attempted Domination. Hierarchical linear regression analysis s...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - July 29, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Self-esteem as a mediator of the link between perfectionism and the impostor phenomenon
Publication date: 1 December 2018Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 135Author(s): Kevin Cokley, Steven Stone, Nolan Krueger, Marlon Bailey, Ramya Garba, Ashley HurstAbstractPerfectionism has been linked to the impostor phenomenon; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this relationship. Self-esteem was examined for its potential mediating role in the relationship between dimensions of perfectionism (e.g., discrepancy and standards) and the impostor phenomenon among 468 college students. Analyses indicated that self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between perfectionism an...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - July 29, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The loneliness of the zero-sum game loser. The balance of social exchange and belief in a zero-sum game as predictors of loneliness
Publication date: 1 December 2018Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 135Author(s): Dominik BorawskiAbstractThe purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between loneliness and the two variables that refer to the perception of social relations as exchange – the balance of social exchange (BSE) and the belief in a zero-sum game (BZSG), taking into consideration self-esteem as a control variable. A total of 298 Polish university students completed instruments measuring BZSG, BSE, self-esteem, and loneliness. It was revealed that BZSG was positively associated with loneliness even when the ...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - July 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Life history strategy and stress: An effect of stressful life events, coping strategies, or both?
Publication date: 1 December 2018Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 135Author(s): Dimitri van der Linden, Curtis S. Dunkel, Mattie Tops, Michael P. Hengartner, Paraskevas PetrouAbstractLife history (LH) theory provides an evolutionary account of individual differences in various traits, including wellbeing. The theory distinguishes between a fast LH strategy, indicated by a short-term perspective (e.g., impulsivity), versus a slow LH strategy, indicated by a long-term perspective (e.g., more constraint behavior). Previous studies have reported an association between a fast LH strategy and more stress, b...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - July 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Dark Tetrad traits and problematic social media use: The mediating role of cyberbullying and cyberstalking
Publication date: 1 December 2018Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 135Author(s): Kagan Kircaburun, Peter K. Jonason, Mark D. GriffithsAbstractThe Dark Tetrad traits (i.e., Machiavellianism, psychopathy, narcissism, sadism) are associated with antisocial online behaviors. However, the mediating role of these behaviors between the Dark Tetrad and problematic social media use (PSMU) is unclear. Among a sample of 761 participants, we investigated direct and indirect associations of the Dark Tetrad traits with PSMU via cyberbullying, cyberstalking, and cybertrolling. Multiple mediation analyses demonstrated...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - July 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Is anxiety sensitivity a risk factor for, or complication of, alcohol misuse? A meta-analysis
Publication date: 1 December 2018Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 135Author(s): Sara J. Bartel, Simon B. Sherry, Martin M. Smith, Vanja V. Vidovic, Sherry H. StewartAbstractAnxiety sensitivity (AS) refers to a dispositional tendency to respond to one's anxiety sensations with fear. Longstanding theoretical accounts implicate AS in alcohol misuse; however, the relationship between AS and alcohol misuse remains unclear. We addressed this by testing whether AS is a risk factor for, and/or complication of, alcohol misuse by conducting a rigorous meta-analysis using random effect models. Our literature sea...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - July 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Coupled individuals adjust their ideal mate preferences according to their actual partner
Publication date: 1 December 2018Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 135Author(s): Radka Kučerová, Zsófia Csajbók, Jan HavlíčekAbstractIt has been suggested that coupled individuals tend to adjust their ideal partner preferences according to their actual partner. In Study 1, we developed a mate preference trait-list and found a four-factor structure (Physical attractiveness, Status/Resources, Vitality, and Warmth/Trustworthiness), which we confirmed in Study 2. In Study 3, we compared ideal and actual partner preferences in continually-coupled and newly-coupled individuals. ...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - July 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Family factors and development of creative thinking
Publication date: Available online 23 July 2018Source: Personality and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Dorota M. Jankowska, Maciej KarwowskiAbstractDevelopment of creative ability is influenced by multiple factors. This paper explores the role played by family's socioeconomic status (SES) and parents' involvement in their children's creative thinking development. Longitudinal data were collected four times in 5-month intervals from 75 primary school students and their parents. Latent growth curve model has demonstrated that although there was a significant linear increase in children's figural creative thinking, this leve...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - July 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Early predictors of trait extraversion in adulthood: Findings from a nationally representative sample
Publication date: 1 December 2018Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 135Author(s): Adrian Furnham, Helen ChengAbstractIn total, 5663 participants provided information on family social background measured at birth; family social life at age 7 years; childhood intelligence, childhood speech difficulties and oral ability assessed at 11 years; leisure activities (parties and sports) measured at age 16 years; optimism and educational qualifications measured at 33 years; occupational levels at 42 years; and trait Extraversion measured at 50 years. Parental social status, childhood social life, chil...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - July 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Measuring emotion regulation ability across negative and positive emotions: The Perth Emotion Regulation Competency Inventory (PERCI)
Publication date: 1 December 2018Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 135Author(s): David A. Preece, Rodrigo Becerra, Ken Robinson, Justine Dandy, Alfred AllanAbstractEmotion regulation problems underlie the abnormal levels of negative or positive emotion that characterise many forms of psychopathology. Several self-report measures of emotion regulation ability exist, but many are inconsistent with contemporary emotion regulation theory, and none comprehensively assess this construct across both negative and positive emotions. In this paper, we report our attempt to remedy these measurement limitations by...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - July 22, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Interpretation bias toward ambiguous information in burnout and depression
This study supports the view that burnout is associated with a depressive cognitive style. (Source: Personality and Individual Differences)
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - July 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

g, mutualism, and development: Cross-sectional evidence from Iranian schoolchildren
In conclusion, the findings were consistent with the g model. (Source: Personality and Individual Differences)
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - July 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

If only I wasn't so impulsive: Counterfactual thinking and delay-discounting
We examined the use of counterfactual thinking, based on an individual's levels of impulsivity. Confirming hypotheses, results suggest that highly impulsive individuals are less likely to engage in functional counterfactual thinking (i.e., upward-additive counterfactuals). Interestingly, these results held only for individuals who were high on behavioral, but not self-reported impulsivity. Implications for the role of counterfactual thinking in impulsive individuals are discussed. (Source: Personality and Individual Differences)
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - July 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Mate value at a glance: Facial attractiveness reveals women's waist-to-hip ratio and men's household income
Publication date: 1 December 2018Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 135Author(s): Ji-eun Shin, Eunkook M. Suh, Dayk JangAbstractCan people make valid inferences about the person's mate value by a glance of his/her face? Eighty-seven independent coders rated how attractive neutral facial pictures of 297 (152 males) undergraduate students were, after viewing each image for 3 s. The facial attractiveness rating significantly correlated with important sex-specific mate qualities. In case of female targets, facial attractiveness predicted their body shape (waist-to-hip ratio; WHR), whereas among males, it ...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - July 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The moderating effect of trait anxiety on anxiety-related thoughts and actions whilst driving
Publication date: 1 December 2018Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 135Author(s): M.P. Barnard, P. ChapmanAbstractWhilst there is evidence for the impact of driving anxiety on behaviour, less exists for the impact of trait anxiety and what does exist is inconclusive. The current study explored the possibility that trait anxiety interacts with driving anxiety to impact the frequency of negative on-road thoughts and behaviours. An online survey was administered to drivers, and the State-Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety, the Driving Cognitions Questionnaire, and the Driving Behaviour Surve...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - July 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Self-esteem and depression among Chinese adults: A moderated mediation model of relationship satisfaction and positive affect
Publication date: 1 December 2018Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 135Author(s): Xingchao Wang, Wei Wang, Xiaochun Xie, Pengcheng Wang, Yuhui Wang, Jia Nie, Li LeiAbstractBased on the integration of the vulnerability model of low self-esteem and depression and the marital discord model of depression, we examined whether relationship satisfaction mediated the relation between self-esteem and depression and positive affect moderated the relation between self-esteem and relationship satisfaction as well as relationship satisfaction and depression. This model was examined with 429 Chinese adults. Participa...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - July 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Narcissism and authentic self: An unfeasible marriage?
Publication date: 1 December 2018Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 135Author(s): Silvia Casale, Laura Rugai, Giulia Fioravanti, Camilla PuccettiAbstractPrevious studies have shown that both grandiose and vulnerable narcissists tend to project an image of perfection in order to gain admiration from others. The intrapersonal costs of this tendency have never been explored. The present study hypothesized that a systematic attempt on behalf of narcissists to both actively promote an image of perfection and hide imperfections (i.e. perfectionistic self-presentation) might be responsible for low authenticity...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - July 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The moderating role of trait hope in the association between adolescent depressive symptoms and nonsuicidal self-injury
Publication date: 1 December 2018Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 135Author(s): Yongqiang Jiang, Yaxuan Ren, Qunjun Liang, Jianing YouAbstractThe present study examined the relationship between trait hope (including two dimensions: pathways thinking and agency thinking) and adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury and whether and how trait hope moderated the association between depressive symptoms and nonsuicidal self-injury. Participants included 1026 Chinese secondary school students (447 girls; Mage = 13.76, SD = 1.27). Adolescents reported their depressive symptoms, trait hope, and nonsuicidal s...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - July 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Future-outlook mediates the association between self-compassion and well-being
This study investigated whether three indicators of future-outlook – balanced time perspective, optimism, and savouring-anticipating – mediate these relationships. A sample of 157 undergraduates (Mage = 33.21, SD = 11.32) completed an online survey. As hypothesised, multiple mediation analyses found that balanced time perspective and savouring-anticipating mediated self-compassion's relationships with life satisfaction and depressive symptoms; where high trait self-compassion was associated with a well-balanced time perspective and high savouring-anticipating tendencies which, in turn, were associated w...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - July 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Error value tradeoffs in social decision-making, and beyond: Do personality values consistently map onto tradeoff preferences?
Publication date: 1 December 2018Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 135Author(s): Gary L. Brase, Taylor M. Beashore, Kevin L. KenneyAbstractMany decisions in life involve tradeoffs between two incommensurate options, so that one's choice reveals the values placed on the options. For example, judicial decisions weigh the possibilities of false convictions versus false acquittals. Using a signal detection model, this research demonstrate that Americans generally prefer a judicial error value tradeoff that favors relatively more false acquittals, a pattern generally consistent with the “Blackstone ra...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - July 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Investigating the association between fantasy proneness and emotional distress: the mediating role of cognitive coping strategies
We examined whether the FP-emotional distress relationship is mediated by coping strategy. Participants completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire measure of coping strategies, the Creative Experiences Questionnaire FP scale (Study 1; N = 248) and the newly developed Fantasy Questionnaire which measures fantasy across two subscales, creative and imaginative (Study 2; N = 208). In Study 1, FP presented positive associations with emotional distress, with maladaptive coping strategies self-blame, rumination and catastrophizing, and with adaptive strategies positi...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - July 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research