Less than human: psychopathy, dehumanization, and sexist and violent attitudes towards women
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Tabitha Methot-Jones, Angela Book, Nathalie Y. GauthierAbstractPsychopathy is associated with a variety of negative attitudes and behaviours towards women; however, the mechanisms that underlie these associations have yet to be fully examined. The current work examined dehumanization, a social-psychological construct, as a potential mechanism facilitating the association between sub-clinical psychopathy and negative attitudes towards women. Two online studies with all-male samples were conducted to examine whether dehumani...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

An experimental task to measure proactive aggression under incentive condition: A Reward-Interference Task
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Wenfeng Zhu, Huan Wang, Ling-Xiang XiaAbstractProactive aggression refers to attaining personal goals or gains through aggressive means with prior deliberation and moral disengagement, and it can occur without provocation and with a low-level of anger arousal. The current study introduces a new task, a Reward-Interference Task (RIT), to induce and measure proactive aggression in the laboratory under incentive conditions and develops a task-related questionnaire (Interference/Non-interference Motivation Questionnaire, INIMQ...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Purposely stoic, accidentally alone? Self-monitoring moderates the relationship between emotion suppression and loneliness
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): C. Veronica Smith, Elicia C. Lair, Sean M. O'BrienAbstractResearchers have claimed that loneliness is a public health crisis, resulting in higher rates of morbidity and mortality. Previous research has found that self-monitoring (one's tendency to be aware of and fit one's behavior to norms of social appropriateness) and emotion suppression (the act of inhibiting behavioral and non-verbal expressions of emotion) are predictors of increased loneliness. The current study examined these connections further, proposing that the...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The impact of homonegativity on gynephilic men's visual attention toward non-preferred sexual targets
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Dan Tassone, Samantha J. Dawson, Meredith L. ChiversAbstractConsistent with men's gender-specific patterns of sexual arousal, men tend to look longer at their preferred gender when viewing mixed-sex sexual stimuli. But gynephilic men do attend to males featured in sexual stimuli, and individual differences in negative affect may explain some variability in their sustained attention toward male targets. We explored the influence of homonegativity and affective reactions on visual attention toward sexual stimuli and subseque...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Unpacking the differential effects of dispositional envy on happiness among adolescents and young adults: The mediated moderation role of self-esteem
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Jacky C.K. Ng, Vince W.T. Cheung, Victor C.Y. LauAbstractA robust association between dispositional envy and happiness was primarily concluded among young adults. As social contexts can vary across developmental stages, the effect of dispositional envy may be enhanced or diminished in different age groups. Thus, the present research attempted to quantify the differential associations between dispositional envy and happiness among adolescents and young adults (N = 586). Moreover, we examined another important question o...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Psychophysiological indices of cognitive style: A triangulated study incorporating neuroimaging, eye-tracking, psychometric and behavioral measures” [Personality and Individual Differences 144 (2019) 68–78]
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Robert C.A. Bendall, Sarah Lambert, Adam Galpin, Lynne P. Marrow, Simon Cassidy (Source: Personality and Individual Differences)
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Interaction of craving and functional coping styles in heterosexual males with varying degrees of unregulated Internet-pornography use
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Stephanie Antons, Patrick Trotzke, Elisa Wegmann, Matthias BrandAbstractUnregulated Internet-pornography (IP) use is characterized by diminished control over IP use and the continued use albeit negative consequences. There is evidence that craving mediates the effect of symptom severity of unregulated IP use on the amount of IP use. Functional coping styles may help individuals to regain control over their behavior by better dealing with craving. This raises the question whether the effect of craving on IP use is moderated...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Does your partner's personality affect your health? Actor and partner effects of the Big Five personality traits
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Lynn Williams, Sarah Ashford-Smith, Laura Cobban, Rebecca Fitzsimmons, Vedika Sukhatme, Simon C. HunterAbstractThe Big Five personality traits are powerful predictors of health and longevity. However, few studies have addressed partner effects of personality on health, whereby the personalities of people close to us affect our health. The current study examined the partner effects of Big Five traits on health behaviours, mood, and quality of life in romantic couples. Here, 182 romantic couples (N = 364 participants; Ma...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Editorial Board/Publication Information
Publication date: 1 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 148Author(s): (Source: Personality and Individual Differences)
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

ISSID Pages
Publication date: 1 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 148Author(s): (Source: Personality and Individual Differences)
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Do Type D personality and job demands-resources predict emotional exhaustion and work engagement? A 3-wave prospective study
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Mark W.G. Bosmans, Ilaria Setti, Valentina Sommovigo, Peter G. van der VeldenAbstractCross-sectional studies suggest that Type D personality is a risk factor for work-related exhaustion and engagement, but longitudinal evidence is lacking. The present 3-wave study examined its longitudinal effects, taking into account existing job demands and resources, exhaustion, engagement, and neuroticism. Data were extracted from the LISS-panel, based on a random sample of the Dutch population. Hierarchical multiple regression analyse...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Making decisions for oneself and others: How regulatory focus influences the ‘decision maker role effect’ for intertemporal choices
We examined self-other differences in an intertemporal choice context, investigating whether choices vary according to different types of regulatory focus. In Study 1, the role of chronic regulatory focus on self-other intertemporal choice was investigated. In Study 2, we designed a causal chain of studies (Study 2a and 2b) to further examine the role of situational regulatory focus in the context of self-other intertemporal choice. Overall, we found a self-other difference for intertemporal choice: individuals who make choices for themselves or for an intimate friend prefer later and larger (LL) rewards than those making ...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cultural differences in the implicit and explicit attitudes toward emotion regulation
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Xinmei Deng, Sieun An, Chen ChengAbstractCulture has a strong influence on how people evaluate and regulate their emotions. Previous findings suggest that Easterners tend to prefer controlling their emotions more than do Westerners. However, there is still little evidence on the prevalence of cultural differences in implicit attitudes towards emotion regulation. The goal of the present study is to investigate cross-cultural differences in the implicit and explicit attitudes towards emotion regulation to help bridge this ga...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Dark personality traits and problematic smartphone use: The mediating role of fearful attachment
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Sabah Balta, Peter Jonason, Amanda Denes, Emrah Emirtekin, Şule Betül Tosuntaş, Kagan Kircaburun, Mark D. GriffithsAbstractRecently, empirical research has shown dark personality traits (i.e., Machiavellianism, psychopathy, narcissism, sadism, spitefulness) to be associated with problematic and addictive online behaviors. However, their direct relationships with problematic smartphone use (PSU) have yet to be examined. The present study investigated the direct and indirect associations of dark personality traits wit...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The pushes and pulls of the past: The effects of attachment-related avoidance and nostalgia on approach-oriented social goals
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Andrew A. Abeyta, Taylor A. Nelson, Clay RoutledgeAbstractNostalgia, a mostly positive emotional experience that involves revisiting cherished memories/experiences, instigates the pursuit of approach-oriented social goals of affiliation and growth. Attachment-related avoidance describes the extent to which people do not rely on relationships for psychological comfort and avoid interpersonal closeness. The purpose of the present research was to determine if individual differences in attachment-related avoidance moderate nos...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Trait forgiveness as a predictor of state forgiveness and positive work outcomes after victimization
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Madelynn R.D. StackhouseAbstractPrior research shows that trait forgiveness impacts interpersonal outcomes, but its impact on state forgiveness and broader work outcomes is less clear. This paper investigated whether trait forgiveness predicts state forgiveness and three work outcomes (job satisfaction, affective commitment, and leave intentions). In studying these relationships, three potential mediators were tested as part of a perceptual model of trait forgiveness. Two hundred and fifty participants described a situatio...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Sexual assault history and self-destructive behaviors in women college students: Testing the perniciousness of perfectionism in predicting non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Edward C. Chang, Miranda R. Schaffer, Claire J. Novak, Devin B. Ablow, Alaina E. Gregory, Olivia D. Chang, Abigael G. Lucas, Jameson K. HirschAbstractThe present study examined presence of sexual assault history and perfectionism (viz., positive strivings & evaluative concerns) as predictors of self-destructive behaviors (viz., NSSI & suicidal behaviors) in a sample of 287 women college students. Results obtained from conducting a series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated several notable patterns. Sexual...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Political skill and outcomes in social life
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Michael Z. Wang, Judith A. HallAbstractThe concept of political skill has been extensively studied in work and professional life but not yet in social life. To study how political skill relates to social life outcomes, participants engaged in a videotaped interaction in the laboratory that was rated for likeability and intelligence by naïve perceivers and coded for behavior by trained coders. Participants also took the Political Skill Scale (PSI; Ferris et al., 2005) (with workplace references removed) and other perso...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Individual difference predictors of transgender beliefs: Expanding our conceptualization of conservatism
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): B.J. Rye, Olivia A. Merritt, Derek StraatsmaAbstractWith grounding in the Integrated Threat Theory of Prejudice, we explore individual difference predictors of attitudes toward transgender people. In particular, we measure general and gender conservatism, as well as the previously unexplored predictors of erotophobia–erotophilia (comfort with sexuality) and quality of previous contact with sexual minorities. In this North American student sample (N = 218), attitudes toward lesbians and gay men (ATLG) correlated s...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Higher self-control predicts engagement in undesirable moralistic aggression
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Tage S. RaiAbstractLack of self-control is considered to be a key factor in generating aggression and violence. However, across two studies, aggression was associated with greater self-control when participants felt that violence was undesirable but morally required. Using a within-subjects retrospective method, in Study 1 (N = 95) participants recalled having greater self-control when they themselves engaged in aggression as a perpetrator that they felt was automatically aversive but morally right compared to when the...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Holism and pro-environmental commitment: An examination on the mediating roles of affective and cognitive determinants
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Kenichi Ito, Liman Man Wai LiAbstractTo advance the understanding of great individual variations in pro-environmental tendencies, the current research examined the role of holistic versus analytic thinking, which is non-specific to environmental issues, and explored the underlying mechanisms via both affective and cognitive determinants, i.e., affective affinity toward nature and awareness of risk to nature, respectively. Study 1 found that stronger holistic (vs. analytic) thinking predicted greater pro-environmental commi...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The structural neuroanatomy of self-disgust: A VBM analysis with a non-clinical sample
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Anne Schienle, Albert WabneggerAbstractThe personality trait self-disgust describes the tendency of individuals to appraise themselves as repulsive. This may refer to their own body and personality (‘personal self-disgust’) and/or to their behaviors (‘behavioral self-disgust’). The current voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study aimed at identifying associations between grey matter volume (GMV) in specific brain regions of the ‘disgust network’ (e.g., insula, prefrontal cortex) and reported ...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Factors associated with inattentive responding in online survey research
We describe a method assessing inattentive responding in internet-based studies and explore factors associated with this problem. We inserted ‘bogus’ items into an online questionnaire completed by 210 participants and looked at associations between items and possible predictors. We found evidence of inattentive responding despite all participants being willing volunteers. Inattentive responding was related to being male and lower scores on conscientiousness, openness to experience and agreeableness. Researchers carrying out internet-based research should use methods, such as inserting ‘bogus’ items...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Examining the impact of emotional intelligence on career adaptability: A two-wave cross-lagged study
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2019Source: Personality and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Michaël Parmentier, Thomas Pirsoul, Frédéric NilsAbstractDeveloping career meta-competencies has become crucial to cope with the unpredictability of today's global work context, both at the emotional and cognitive levels. It is often argued that individuals rely on both emotional intelligence (Di Fabio & Kenny, 2014) and career adapt-abilities (Savickas, 2005) to respond to career changes. Though the link between emotional intelligence and career adaptability has been previously demonstrated, no lon...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Deconstructing the association between psychopathy and political orientation: Is it attributable to moral intuitions or moral competency?
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Jeremy G. Gay, David A. Lishner, Michael J. Vitacco, Courtney BeussinkAbstractPast research has found evidence for an association between psychopathy and political orientation. We suggest this relationship could be explained by individual differences in psychopathic traits and location along the conservative-liberal continuum corresponds to similar variability in moral competence or reliance on certain moral intuitions. To explore these possibilities, two direct replication studies were conducted in which measures of psych...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Religiosity, intrasexual rivalry, and mate retention behaviors in Iran
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Farzan Karimi-Malekabadi, Maryam EsmaeilinasabAbstractReligiosity as a significant cultural aspect can impact an array of reproductive behaviors. In particular, religiosity can influence intrasexual rivalry as a competitive strategy and content of mate retention behaviors among men and women. However, a few studies have examined the relationship between religiosity, intrasexual rivalry, and mate retention behaviors in non-Western cultures. In Study 1, we examine the province-level relationship between religiosity and repro...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Thinking into the future: how a future time perspective improves self-control
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Parker A. Dreves, Ginette C. BlackhartAbstractThe dual motive model posits that self-control is the prioritization of distal motives over proximal motives when the two compete. A logical extension of this view is that any factor that increases the incentive value of a distal motive or decreases the incentive value of a proximal motive will make self-control more likely. Here it is proposed that time perspective, or an individual's tendency to attend to thoughts of the past, present, or future, is one factor that influences...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Motivations for faking orgasm and orgasm consistency among young adult women
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Michael D. Barnett, Idalia V. Maciel, Samuel Van Vleet, Arthur D. MarsdenAbstractWomen fake orgasm for partner-focused reasons and self-focused reasons, the latter of which include elevating their own sexual arousal. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between motivations for faking orgasm and orgasm consistency within the sexual activities of receiving oral sex and sexual intercourse among young adult women (N = 998). For both receiving oral sex and sexual intercourse, women who faked orgasm...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A further look at the five-dimensional curiosity construct
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Menucha Birenbaum, Fadia Nasser-Abu Alhija, Hany Shilton, Helena Kimron, Rovena Rosanski, Neria ShahorAbstractThe five-dimensional curiosity construct, recently advanced by Kashdan and his colleagues (2018a), was examined using open-ended and Likert type questionnaires to further understand the nomological network and correlates of the five curiosity dimensions. The nature of each dimension (Joyous Exploration, Deprivation Sensitivity, Stress Tolerance, Social curiosity, and Thrill-Seeking) and of profiles based on those d...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Gender differences in self-esteem, unvarnished self-evaluation, future orientation, self-enhancement and self-derogation in a U.S. national sample
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): William Magee, Laura UpenieksAbstractAmerican men tend to score slightly higher on measures of self-esteem than American women. We ask whether this is because of gender differences in responsiveness to the positive and negative phrasing of self-related survey statements used to assess self-esteem. We argue that self-enhancing and self-derogatory tendencies can be inferred from wording valence effects that are common to both self-esteem and optimism. Including latent factors for those response tendencies in a bifactor measu...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Dark Triad and the quality of sexual life
This study investigated sexual functioning with respect to differences in the Dark Triad traits in a large community sample (N = 1116). The participants completed an online survey examining dark traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy domains: boldness, meanness and disinhibition) and measures of sexual functioning. The Dark Triad traits were positively associated with sexual preoccupation in both sexes. Compared to the participants lower in dark traits, those with higher narcissism and boldness reported higher sexual motivation, sexual self-esteem and sexual assertiveness and lower negative emotions in t...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The influence of familial factors on the association between IQ and educational and occupational achievement: A sibling approach
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Emilie Rune Hegelund, Trine Flensborg-Madsen, Jesper Dammeyer, Laust Hvas Mortensen, Erik Lykke MortensenAbstractThe present register-based study investigated the influence of familial factors on the association of IQ with educational and occupational achievement among young men in Denmark. The study population comprised all men with at least one full brother where both the individual and his brothers were born from 1950 and appeared before a draft board in 1968–1984 and 1987–2015 (N = 364,193 individuals)....
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Development of a new abbreviated form of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised with multidimensional item response theory
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Daiana Colledani, Pasquale Anselmi, Egidio RobustoAbstractThe present work consists of two studies. In the first study, a new abbreviated form of the EPQ-R (six items per scale) was developed from the 100 items of the full-length version of the questionnaire. Methods and procedures developed within the framework of multidimensional IRT were used for this purpose. In the second study, the abbreviated questionnaire was validated on a new data sample. In addition, latent profile analysis was used to identify groups of individ...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The unique role of attachment dimensions and peer drinking in adolescent alcohol use
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Laura E. Anderson, Jason P. Connor, Joanne Voisey, Ross McD. Young, Matthew J. GulloAbstractAdolescent alcohol use can result in adverse health and social outcomes, including elevated risk of future substance use disorders. Insecure attachment and heavy peer use are both linked to early problematic drinking, but the precise relationship between these variables is poorly understood. Further, mixed findings in prior literature highlight the importance of distinguishing between both dimensions of insecure attachment – a...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Dark Triad traits in Australia and Turkey
This study provided the first attempt to understand country-level differences in the Dark Triad traits using a life history framework. (Source: Personality and Individual Differences)
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The influence of power on online sexual activities among Chinese men and women in committed relationships
This study investigated the influence of power on online sexual activity (OSA), as a form of online infidelity, among Chinese men and women in committed relationships. We also explored the potential mediating effect of attitude toward infidelity on the relationship between power and OSA. We hypothesized that powerful individuals would engage in OSA more frequently than would less powerful individuals. Participants (N = 425) completed questionnaires assessing their OSA experience within the past 12 months, as well as their own sense of power and their attitude toward infidelity. The OSAs were categorized as viewing se...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Rumination selectively mediates the association between actual-ideal (but not actual-ought) self-discrepancy and anxious and depressive symptoms
This study tested this prediction and extended it to consider whether rumination mediates these relationships. One hundred and thirty-eight students (48 males, 90 females) listed four adjectives describing how they would ideally hope to be and four adjectives describing how they ought to be. Participants then rated how distant they perceived themselves to be from each of their ideal and ought selves, as well as the importance of each ideal and ought self. Finally, participants self-reported levels of negative rumination, anxious and depressive symptoms. Actual-ideal self-discrepancy was independently associated with both a...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Associations between internal and external sexual consent in a diverse national sample of women
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Malachi Willis, Heather D. Blunt-Vinti, Kristen N. JozkowskiAbstractSexual consent can be conceptualized as an internal willingness to engage in sexual behavior. To communicate this internal feeling, people use and interpret cues—both active and passive. We proposed and tested a model for the potential mechanisms underlying women's sexual consent, which predicted associations between women's internal feelings of consent and the consent cues communicated and interpreted in a given sexual encounter. Because research on...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Moral foundations and cognitive ability: Results from a Japanese sample
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Tetsuya Kawamoto, Takahiro Mieda, Atsushi OshioAbstractResearch has indicated that human morality is associated with cognitive ability. However, morality is not a unified concept but rather is a multi-faceted concept. Moral Foundation Theory suggests that human beings have at least five innate moral foundations: Care/Injury, Fairness/Deception, Loyalty/Betrayal, Authority/Subversion, and Sacred/Fallen. The present study aimed to investigate the associations between these moral values and cognitive ability. A large-scale cr...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The role of implicit sexual desire in romantic relationships
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): David C. de Jong, Harry T. Reis, Brett J. Peters, Cody DeHaan, Gurit E. BirnbaumAbstractPeople might not be able or willing to accurately report how much they sexually desire their romantic partners due to concerns over the well-being of one's relationship or impression management. This research assessed the predictive validity of a sexual desire implicit association task. First, a pilot study determined the psychometrically optimal length for the task. Study 1, using a dyadic weekly diary method, found that people with hi...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - June 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Linking inferiority feelings to subjective happiness: Self-concealment and loneliness as serial mediators
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Ramazan Akdoğan, Elif ÇimşirAbstractDespite recent research associating inferiority feelings with two of the social disruptors of happiness, namely self-concealment (Cimsir & Akdoğan, 2019) and loneliness (Akdoğan, 2017), neither the nature nor the mechanism of the connection between inferiority feelings and happiness have been investigated. The main objective of this study was, therefore, to test if inferiority feelings are associated with subjective happiness, while proposing a process in which inferiority...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - May 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Exploring a proactive measure of making items of a personality questionnaire resistant to faking: An employee selection setting
This study examined resistance of item parameters of a personality questionnaire to faking. We proposed seven construct-irrelevant item attributes (CIIAs), each composing of two opposite values, representing degrees of adherence to the respective CIIAs (e.g., based on the time frame embedded in the stem, items were divided into past and present). We developed a personality inventory that measured conscientiousness. Items of the questionnaire were written to embody all the seven CIIAs. Participants of the study (N = 543) were divided into two groups: honest and faking groups. Those in the honest group were instructed to...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - May 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A modest proposal to link shyness and modesty: Investigating the relation within the framework of Big Five personality traits
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Maria Magdalena Kwiatkowska, Radosław RogozaAbstractShyness and modesty are similar constructs, but to date no study has investigated their relationship empirically, hence the goal of this study was to examine this relationship and how shyness and modesty are related to the Big Five model of personality. We administered a set of self-report measures of shyness, modesty and Big Five personality traits to 727 adults in Poland. The results conformed our expectations, revealing that shyness and modesty are positively correlat...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - May 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Narcissism and romantic relationship presentation on social media: The role of motivations and partner attractiveness
Publication date: 15 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 149Author(s): Gwendolyn Seidman, Allison Roberts, Virgil Zeigler-HillAbstractTwo studies assessed the associations that narcissistic admiration (an agentic form of narcissism characterized by assertive self-enhancement and self-promotion) and narcissistic rivalry (an antagonistic form of narcissism characterized by self-protection and self-defense) have with self-enhancing and communal motivations for sharing romantic relationship information on social media, and how the partner's physical attractiveness relates to the likelihood of sha...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - May 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Accurate inferences of others' thoughts depend on where they stand on the empathic trait continuum
Publication date: 1 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 148Author(s): Wenjie Wu, Peter MitchellAbstractThis research explores the possibility that a person's (perceiver's) prospects of making a correct inference of another person's (target's) inner states depends on the personal characteristics of the target, potentially relating to how readable they are. Twenty-seven targets completed the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and were classified as having low, average or high EQ. They were unobtrusively videoed while thinking of an event of happiness, gratitude, anger and sadness. After observing targets th...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - May 29, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Measuring repetitive thinking in Iran: Psychometric properties of Persian version of Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire
ConclusionsThe findings provided preliminary support for validity and reliability of the scores derived from Persian version of the PTQ. (Source: Personality and Individual Differences)
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - May 29, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The influence of personality traits and gender on noise annoyance in laboratory studies
Publication date: 1 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 148Author(s): Mohammad Hossein Beheshti, Ebrahim Taban, Seyed Ehsan Samaei, Mohammad Faridan, Farahnaz Khajehnasiri, Leila Tajik Khaveh, Maryam Borhani Jebeli, Ahmad Mehri, Ali TajpoorAbstractThe aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality traits (extraversion and neuroticism) and noise-induced annoyance. The effect of exposure to the single-frequency noise stimuli with low (65 dB) and high (85 dB) intensity on noise-induced annoyance levels of 169 students was studied. A tone generator software was used...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - May 29, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The quality of online knowledge sharing signals general intelligence
Publication date: 1 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 148Author(s): Christian N. Yoder, Scott A. ReidAbstractSome people share knowledge online, often without tangible compensation. Who does this, when, and why? According to costly signaling theory people use behavioral displays to provide observers with useful information about traits or states in exchange for fitness benefits. We tested whether individuals higher in general intelligence, g, provided better quality contributions to an information pool under high than low identifiability, and whether observers could infer signaler g from co...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - May 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Sexuality and sexism: Differences in ambivalent sexism across gender and sexual identity
Publication date: 1 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 148Author(s): Lucy J. Cowie, Lara M. Greaves, Chris G. SibleyAbstractHeterosexual intimacy is theorised to play a key role in Ambivalent Sexism, yet gay, lesbian, and bisexual people's levels of Hostile and Benevolent Sexism have not been previously examined. This paper draws upon data from the national probability New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (N = 18,266) to examine levels of Hostile and Benevolent sexism across gender (men and women) and sexual identity (gay/lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual individuals). Overall, we fo...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - May 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Nature and evoked culture: Sex differences in personality are uniquely correlated with ecological stress
Publication date: 1 October 2019Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 148Author(s): Tim KaiserAbstractSex differences in personality were found to be larger in more developed and more gender-equal societies. However, the studies that report this effect either have methodological shortcomings or do not take into account possible underlying effects of ecological variables.Here, a large, multinational (N = 867,782) dataset of personality profiles was used to examine sex differences in Big Five facet scores for 50 countries. Gender differences were related to estimates of ecological stress as well as socio...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - May 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research