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Interactive effect of motivational motor action and emotion on divergent thinking
Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 131 Author(s): Huan Yuan, Kelong Lu, Ning Hao The present study aimed to investigate the integrated effect of approach/avoidance motor action and emotion on divergent thinking. A total of 115 participants were randomly assigned to one of the four experimental conditions (i.e., approach-positive, approach-negative, avoidance-positive and avoidance-negative). Participants' emotion was induced by videos. They were then asked to solve two Alternative Uses Tasks (AUT) while performing motivational motor action (i.e., arm flexion or extensi...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Body dissatisfaction, narcissism and self-esteem in young men and women: A moderated mediation analysis
Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 131 Author(s): Terry Purton, Charlotte Officer, Bianca Bullivant, Deborah Mitchison, Scott Griffiths, Stuart B. Murray, Jonathan Mond We sought to examine the associations between grandiose (GN) and vulnerable (VN) subtypes of narcissism and body dissatisfaction (BD), and moderation of these associations by sex, in young men and women, controlling for self-esteem (SE). Three hundred and fifty seven men and women aged 18 to 30 completed an online survey that included measures of GN, VN, BD, and SE. For both men and women, VN was positi...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Individual differences in sociosexuality predict picture-based mobile dating app use
This study investigates individual differences, sex differences and predictors of current and prior use of Picture-Based Mobile Dating Apps (PBMDA), including level and type of PBMDA activity, and reasons for PBMDA use. Six hundred and forty-one Norwegian university students aged between 19 and 29 years completed a questionnaire in lecture breaks. Nearly half of the participants reported former or current PBMDA use. One in five was current users. We found that PBMDA-users tend to report being less restricted in their sociosexuality (as measured with the SOI-R) than participants who have never used PBMDAs. This effect was...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The relationship between exposure to adverse life events in childhood and adolescent years and subsequent adult psychopathology in 49,163 adult prisoners: A systematic review
Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 131 Author(s): Katharine Bowen, Manuela Jarrett, Daniel Stahl, Andrew Forrester, Lucia Valmaggia There is empirical support for an association between childhood adverse life events and psychopathology in adult offenders. This systematic review aims to summarise the literature that measures the predictive value of childhood adverse life events on mental illness and personality disorders in prisoners in custody. Forty-seven studies were identified. The studies examined a total of 49,163 participants (36,055 males, 13,108 females). The n...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Personality profiles in substance use disorders: Do they differ in clinical symptomatology, personality disorders and coping?
Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 131 Author(s): E. Santens, L. Claes, E. Dierckx, K. Luyckx, H. Peuskens, G. Dom We explored whether it is possible to establish subgroups of patients with a substance use disorder (SUD) based on differences in Behavioral Activation System Reactivity (BAS), Behavioral Inhibition System Reactivity (BIS) and Effortful control (EC). Further, we investigated if the identified subgroups differ on clinical symptoms, personality disorders and coping styles. Computerized self-report questionnaires were administered to 712 adult patients admitt...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 22, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Does processing speed exert an influence on the special relationship of fluid and general intelligence?
Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 131 Author(s): Karl Schweizer, Stefan J. Troche, Thomas H. Rammsayer The paper investigates why the virtual correspondence of the ability component of fluid reasoning scores and general intelligence observed by Schweizer, Troche, and Rammsayer (2011) was not replicated by Lozano (2015). It is shown that the time limit of the scale used in the former study caused a speed effect that strengthened the relationship, whereas the scale used by Lozano (2015) that was considered as unspeeded did not cause such an effect. Modifying the statist...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Nomological network of two-dimensional Machiavellianism
Publication date: 1 August 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 130 Author(s): Conal Monaghan, Boris Bizumic, Martin Sellbom Machiavellianism captures one's cynical view of humanity and willingness to use immoral means to achieve one's goals. Although Machiavellianism consists of views and tactics dimensions, a unitary approach dominates our understanding of this construct. Therefore, we aimed to further substantiate its dimensionality and elucidate each dimension's unique characteristics. An international collaboration (k = 15, N = 17,004; 57.39% male; aged 11–85, M = 26.97) contri...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Predicting counterproductive work behavior with narrow personality traits: A nuanced examination using quantile regression
This study investigates narrow personality traits as predictors of counterproductive workplace behavior using quantile methods with 952 working adults. Results show that quantile regression analysis provides a more nuanced representation of the relationship that personality traits have with counterproductive workplace behavior. We demonstrate that the conditional mean (i.e., regression coefficient) observed with standard ordinary least squares regression overestimates regression parameters at low levels of counterproductive work behavior, and underestimates it at high levels. The findings from this study suggest that relia...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The effects of similarity in the dark triad traits on the relationship quality in dating couples
This study suggests that different methods of assessment of (dis)similarity could add to the more thorough understanding of the associations between personality traits and relationship outcomes. (Source: Personality and Individual Differences)
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

WeChat Moments use and self-esteem among Chinese adults: The mediating roles of personal power and social acceptance and the moderating roles of gender and age
Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 131 Author(s): Yi'’nan Wang, Ruihong Nie, Ziyi Li, Nan Zhou The present study examined whether and how specific use behaviors of WeChat Moments, the most popular social network site (SNS) in China, relate to users' self-esteem. Three hundred and twenty-five Chinese adults (53.85% female; M age  = 32.67, SD = 7.70) completed online measures of WeChat Moments use behaviors, personal power, social acceptance, and self-esteem. We found that WeChat Moments use intensity and received likes are positively associated with self-e...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Same-sex attraction and contact in an opposite sex partner: Exploring sex, religiosity, porn consumption and participation effects
Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 131 Author(s): Menelaos Apostolou, Christoforos Christoforou It has been recently argued that heterosexual men, as opposed to heterosexual women, find same-sex attraction and contact desirable in a partner. The current paper employs an online sample of 775 heterosexual participants in order to examine this sex difference and asses its evolutionary implications. Results showed that just over half of heterosexual men preferred some level of same-sex attraction and contact in a female partner. On the other hand, the vast majority of hete...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Conservative Syndrome and the understanding of negative correlations between religiosity and cognitive abilities
We present new data about the correlation between religiosity and cognitive abilities. At the individual level of analysis the correlation is r = −0.199 and at the country level of analysis the correlation is r = −0.420 with a test of fluid intelligence and r = −0.536 with PISA 2015 science scores. These correlations can be reduced by partialling out measures of traditional values, power distance and conservatism/liberalism. They can also be reduced by partialling out economic and political indices. Our findings indicate that it is the broad Conservative Syndrome that correlates negatively wit...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Between universalistic and defensive forms of group attachment. The indirect effects of national identification on intergroup forgiveness
Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 131 Author(s): Katarzyna Hamer, Marta Penczek, Michał Bilewicz (Source: Personality and Individual Differences)
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Beauty stereotypes affect the generalization of behavioral traits associated with previously seen faces
In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of positive and negative behavioral descriptions on perceived trustworthiness of male faces varying in attractiveness. We created four categories of faces: attractive and trustworthy faces paired with either positive or negative descriptions, and unattractive and untrustworthy faces paired with either positive or negative descriptions. Furthermore, we generated a composite face from the individual faces within each category (4 composites in total). We applied two conditions: in the first condition, participants saw the stimuli 5 times during the learning phase; in the second,...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Body dysmorphic disorder patients: Their affective states, personality disorder functioning styles and body image concerns
Conclusions Our study identified more body image concerns and personality and affective dysfunctions; revealed the associations between body image concerns and personality and affective characteristics; and determined that depression and hypomania were mediators between body image concerns and personality features in patients with body dysmorphic disorder. (Source: Personality and Individual Differences)
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

An increase of intelligence in Libya from 2008 to 2017
Publication date: 1 August 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 130 Author(s): Alsedig Abdalgadr Al-Shahomee, Saleh El-Ghmary Abdalla, Richard Lynn Data are reported for the Standard Progressive Matrices for adolescents aged 13 through 18 years tested in 2008 and 2017. There was an increase of 8.5 IQ points over the nine years. (Source: Personality and Individual Differences)
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Why do middle-class couples of European descent adopt children from Africa and Asia? Some support for the differential K model
Publication date: 1 August 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 130 Author(s): Edward Dutton, Guy Madison Patterns of adoption behaviour are starkly asymmetric across populations. To better understand this phenomenon we conducted a systematic review of transracial adoption and adoption in general. We found six quantitative studies from the USA (with representative samples comprising a total of 117,000 participants) which had examined sex, race, and SES in relation to differences in behaviours and attitudes regarding both transracial adoption and adoption in general. A secondary analysis of these data...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cross-cultural comparison of the association between trait emotional intelligence and emotion regulation in European-American and Japanese populations
Publication date: 1 August 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 130 Author(s): Yuki Nozaki Although a large body of evidence supports trait emotional intelligence as a positive indicator of well-being, the processes that underlie trait emotional intelligence remain unclear. Emotion regulation is considered a core component of trait emotional intelligence. Given that the consequences of emotion regulation strategies differ between European-American and Eastern Asian populations, culture could moderate the association between these strategies and trait emotional intelligence. Two studies examined wheth...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Mate competition in Pakistan: Mate value, mate retention, and competitor derogation
Publication date: 1 August 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 130 Author(s): Nabiha Chaudhary, Laith Al-Shawaf, David M. Buss Mate retention and competitor derogation are two key components of human mate competition. In a conservative, religious sample from Pakistan (N = 255), the current study investigated evolutionarily informed hypotheses regarding a) sex differences in competitor derogation and mate retention, b) the relationship between mate value and mate retention tactics, and c) the role religiosity plays in predicting the type of mate retention behaviors. The results indicated that acr...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Self-other agreement in DSM-5 Section III Dimensional Personality Traits: A study on Italian community individuals
Publication date: 1 August 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 130 Author(s): Gioia Bottesi, Marta Ghisi, Anna Martignon, Claudio Sica Integrating self- and other-reports allows gaining complementary information while assessing personality traits of a target individual. The current study aimed at exploring self-other agreement in personality through the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and the PID-5-Informant Form (PID-5-IRF) in an Italian community sample. Data from 80 pairs (80 targets and 80 informants) were collected. Informants were spouse/life partners, dating partners, family membe...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The exacerbating role of perceived social support and the “buffering” role of depression in the relation between sensation seeking and adolescent smartphone addiction
Publication date: 1 August 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 130 Author(s): Pengcheng Wang, Li Lei, Xingchao Wang, Jia Nie, Xiaoyuan Chu, Shuining Jin The present study examined the relation between sensation seeking and adolescent smartphone addiction, and tested both the moderating roles of perceived social support and depression on the relation between sensation seeking and smartphone addiction among Chinese adolescents. Six hundred and fifty-five adolescents completed measures regarding sensation seeking, smartphone addiction, perceived social support, and depression. The findings indicated th...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Gratitude and life satisfaction in early adolescence: The mediating role of social support and emotional difficulties
Publication date: 1 August 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 130 Author(s): Sukkyung You, June Lee, Yunoug Lee, Euikyung Kim The current study examined the relationship between gratitude and life satisfaction among 877 Korean adolescents, and the mediating effects of social support and emotional difficulties in the relationship. The study's results revealed that those experiencing higher gratitude during early adolescents reported having more feelings of positive life satisfaction. Furthermore, social support and emotional difficulties were found to mediate the relationship between gratitude and l...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The relationship of perfectionism to suicide ideation and attempts in a large online sample
Publication date: 1 August 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 130 Author(s): Arezoo Shahnaz, Boaz Y. Saffer, E. David Klonsky Perfectionism is a personality construct hypothesized to increase suicide risk. Previous research observed greater levels of perfectionism among those with histories of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. However, it is unclear whether perfectionism is best conceptualized as a predictor of suicide ideation, suicide attempts among ideators, or both. To answer this question, we recruited a large online US-based sample to examine differences on two self-report measures of perfecti...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Core self-evaluations are associated with judgments of satisfaction with life via positive but not negative affect
Publication date: 1 August 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 130 Author(s): Natalio Extremera, Lourdes Rey Core self-evaluations (CSE) are associated with a range of indicators of positive personal and job outcomes. Current research suggests that CSE may be a precursor of judgment of life satisfaction but little is known about the factors that mediate the relationship. Affect is a potential mediator of the relationship and so we investigated whether positive and negative affect mediated the relationship between CSE and life satisfaction in two independent Spanish samples. Three hundred and fifty-t...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

New evidence shows self-esteem moderates the relationship between narcissism and selfies
Publication date: 1 August 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 130 Author(s): Evita March, Tayla McBean Recent statistics show that millions of ‘selfies’ (defined as a self-portrait taken with a hand-held smart phone or camera) are posted on social media every day, and research has shown trait narcissism as a stable positive predictor of this behaviour. However, results regarding subtypes of narcissism and self-esteem as predictors are limited and inconsistent. As such, the current study sought to extend this research by exploring the utility of subtypes of narcissism, individual self-es...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The populist effect: Threat and the handover of freedom
Publication date: 1 August 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 130 Author(s): Karim Bettache, Chi-yue Chiu People universally value autonomy, and this is the case particularly in individualist societies. Nevertheless, we hypothesize that even in the US, an individualist society, people are willing to relinquish personal control and choose to be an amorphous entity in a behaviorally homogeneous group when under physical threat because such groups increase the effectiveness in mobilizing collective effort. We found evidence for this hypothesis in two studies. In Study 1, individual differences in perc...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Gender moderates the effect of darkness on ethical behaviors: An explanation of disinhibition
Publication date: 1 August 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 130 Author(s): Guofang Liu, Xiaoxiao Niu, Lin Lin The relationship between darkness and ethical behaviors is confusing. The mixed findings may be explained by the general process of disinhibition. In this view, gender may moderate the effect of darkness on ethical behaviors. The results of two experiments support this prediction. In Experiment 1, male participants in dimly lit streets exhibited lower levels of prosocial behaviors than those in well-lit streets, whereas women in dimly lit streets exhibited significantly higher levels of p...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Self-compassion and psychological well-being among adolescents in Hong Kong: Exploring gender differences” [Pers. Individ. Diff. 101 (2016) 290]
Publication date: 15 July 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 129 Author(s): Xiaoyan Sun, David W. Chan, Lai-kwan Chan (Source: Personality and Individual Differences)
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Sensation-seeking in women does not affect their preference for Dark Triad male faces
Publication date: 1 August 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 130 Author(s): Gayle Brewer, Gregory Louis Carter, Minna Lyons, Jessica Green Women (N = 356) aged 16–68 years were recruited via online social networking sites and research participation websites. Participants were presented with 15 facial composite pairs (each pair including a high and low Dark Triad trait facial morph), and were asked to identify the most attractive individual either in the context of a short-term (n = 171) or long-term relationship (n = 185). Women also completed the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS-V...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Social vigilantism and the extremity, superiority, and defense of attitudes toward climate change
Publication date: 1 August 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 130 Author(s): Conor J. O'Dea, Angelica M. Castro Bueno, Donald A. Saucier Public polarization toward the issue of climate change has increased in recent years. SV is the extent to which individuals believe their opinions are superior to others' and should be impressed onto others. We assert social vigilantism (SV) may provide important explanation of attitudes toward, as well as the resistance to and perceptions of those who challenge individuals' attitudes toward, climate change.' SV has been previously shown to predict more extreme at...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Agentic and communal behavioral biases in the Dark Triad traits
Publication date: 1 August 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 130 Author(s): Peter K. Jonason, Stephen A. Fletcher We assessed the correlations between the Dark Triad traits (i.e., narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism) and behavioroid manifestations of agency and communion (N = 294). All three traits were positively associated with more agentic behavioral intentions and narcissism was also positively associated with communal behavioral intentions. The agency association was driven mostly by the shared variance as opposed to the unique variance in the traits, but both the unique and sha...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Intellectual humility's links to religion and spirituality and the role of authoritarianism
Publication date: 1 August 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 130 Author(s): Elizabeth J. Krumrei-Mancuso A US community sample of 302 adults completed surveys suggesting small, negative links between intellectual humility and a variety of religious/spiritual variables as well as parabolic relationships with highest levels of intellectual humility occurring among those with low and high levels of religion/spirituality. Longitudinal analyses (N = 100) indicated a number of religious/spiritual variables predicted less intellectual humility 3 years later. Right-wing authoritarianism accounted fo...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Who wants to sound straight? Sexual majority and minority stereotypes, beliefs and desires about auditory gaydar
We examined sexual majority and minority speakers' (N = 241) beliefs about the extent to which their voices act as a ‘gaydar’ clue to others, and speakers' desire to be so disclosed. Men believed their voices were more revealing of their sexual orientation than women did. Moreover, sexual majority participants, particularly masculine-sounding heterosexual men, desired to be disclosed the most of all. Sexual majority participants perceived their voices as gender typical and sexual minority participants perceived their voices as gender atypical, and participants whose beliefs were most consistent with this pa...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The effect of cognitive load on nonverbal behavior in the cognitive interview for suspects
Publication date: 1 August 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 130 Author(s): P. Frosina, M. Logue, A. Book, T. Huizinga, S. Amos, S. Stark We investigated whether cognitive load results in changes to nonverbal behavior in the context of interrogation, and whether psychopathic traits affected this relationship. Cognitive load was implemented by using the cognitive interview for suspects (CIS). Onehundred- and-fifty undergraduate students were assigned to one of two conditions: 1) a true event, where they played a game with a confederate, and money went missing from a wallet in the room, or 2) a fals...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The influence of mate value on women's desire for long and short-term mates: Implicit responses
This study examined the effects of mate-value on women's implicit desire for long and short-term mates. It was hypothesized that when social desirability effects were minimized that low mate-value women would have more positive associations with men available for short-term relationships compared to high mate-value women. To test this hypothesis, 144 women were presented with men available for either a long or a short-term relationship. The participants were asked to state their explicit response to the men, complete a procedure designed to measure their implicit responses to the men, and a measure of mate-value. As expect...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Working memory and the Big Five
Publication date: 1 August 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 130 Author(s): Otto Waris, Anna Soveri, Karolina M. Lukasik, Minna Lehtonen, Matti Laine Previous studies that have investigated associations between working memory (WM) and the Big Five personality traits have yielded mixed results, with some finding statistically significant associations while others have not. The aim of the current study was twofold. First, we systematically reviewed previous studies on WM-Big Five associations. Second, we investigated associations between three WM composites (numerical-verbal WM, visuospatial WM, n-b...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Entity and incremental theory of personality: Revisiting the validity of indicators
This article tests the validity of indicators of entitavist and incremental lay theories about the malleability of personality (Dweck, Hong, & Chiu, 1993; Levy, Stroessner, & Dweck, 1998) in a two-wave panel survey over a 12-month period. After controlling for systematic measurement error stemming from different directions of item wording, the indicators form a single dimension. Moreover, hypotheses concerning (non-)correlations with socio-demographic characteristics and psychological dispositions largely receive support from the evidence. Further, beliefs about the malleability of personality exhibit highe...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Did charisma “Trump” narcissism in 2016? Leader narcissism, attributed charisma, value congruence and voter choice
We examined perceived leader narcissism, attributed charisma, and voter choice in the context of the 2016 U.S. presidential election. Narcissism was found to be negatively related to attributions of charisma and voter choice, and had an indirect effect on voter choice through attributed charisma. Value congruence moderated the relationship between attributed charisma and voter choice. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the mixed results in earlier research regarding the relationship between perceived leader narcissism and attributed charisma, and highlights attributed charisma as an intervening factor in ...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Re-examining the Parkinsonian Personality hypothesis: A systematic review
Publication date: 1 August 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 130 Author(s): Antonio Cerasa The main objective of neurological examination for Parkinson's disease (PD) is to discover premorbid signs of the neurodegenerative disease. This is based on the definition of subclinical motor and non-motor symptoms, while psychological features are frequently neglected. However, the idea of premorbid “parkinsonian” personality (PP) has been discussed for over a century in clinical writings. Here, thirty-one articles have been included in this qualitative synthesis of literature aimed at re-exam...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - April 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Distal and proximal predictors of food personality: An exploratory study on food neophilia
Publication date: 15 July 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 129 Author(s): Aybars Tuncdogan, Aybeniz Akdeniz Ar ‘Food-related personality traits’, or simply ‘food personality’, is emerging as a new stream of research that investigates individual differences in terms of food preferences. There have already been some attempts within the literature to conceptualize the multidimensional construct of food personality, and some outcomes of food personality have also been studied. However, we have limited knowledge of the psychological antecedents of food personality. In this shor...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - March 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Alexithymic traits, independent of depression and anxiety, are associated with reduced sleep quality
Publication date: 15 July 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 129 Author(s): Jennifer Murphy, Katharina Wulff, Caroline Catmur, Geoffrey Bird Disrupted sleep is a transdiagnostic factor characterising a multitude of psychiatric conditions. Although this is well-recognised, the cause of poor sleep across conditions is unclear. One possibility is that poor sleep is driven by traits which also co-occur with multiple conditions. Previous research suggests that alexithymia (an inability to identify and describe one's emotions) is a candidate trait, as it is linked to poor sleep quality and elevated level...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - March 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Personality and crime: Mediating the agreeableness –offending and conscientiousness–offending relationships with proactive and reactive criminal thinking
Publication date: 15 July 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 129 Author(s): Glenn D. Walters The purpose of this study was to determine whether the personality dimensions of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness are linked to future offending by way of criminal thinking. Participants were 1294 (1115 boys, 179 girls) adjudicated delinquents from the Pathways to Desistance study. The Agreeableness and Conscientiousness scales of the NEO-PI-SF served as the independent variables in this study, proactive (moral disengagement) and reactive (cognitive impulsivity) criminal thinking served as mediator varia...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - March 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Susceptibility to the gambling near-win effect in optimists versus pessimists: An event-related potential study
Publication date: 15 July 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 129 Author(s): Jie Xia, Daxing Wu, Xin Xu Near-win outcomes have a motivational effect on gambling behavior and are associated with gambling addiction. Information about the personality traits that determine susceptibility to the near-win effect is scare. Here, we assessed the event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral responses of 27 optimists and 25 pessimists following gambling outcomes in a modified slot-machine gambling task to examine whether optimists are more susceptible than pessimists to the near-win effect. The result showe...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - March 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Experiential permeability: Associations with schizotypy and related symptoms
Publication date: 15 July 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 129 Author(s): Christie S. Tan, Beatrice H.H. Ng, Sarah S.R. Chin, Clara Chua, Ryan Y. Hong This paper examined the relations between experiential permeability (the maladaptive aspects of openness to experience) and the constructs of schizotypy, psychoticism, dissociation, and sleep disturbances. Using a cross-sectional design with self- and informant ratings, Study 1 (N = 241) found moderate to strong associations between high experiential permeability facets (i.e., odd and eccentric, unrestricted self) and these external correlates....
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - March 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Connecting attachment style to resilience: Contributions of self-care and self-efficacy
Publication date: 1 August 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 130 Author(s): Ansley Bender, Rick Ingram Research suggests attachment style may contribute to individual differences in resilience, but little is known about the mechanisms of this relationship. Self-care and self-efficacy may be promising pathways by which attachment influences resilience. The current study evaluated the contributions of attachment security, self-efficacy, and self-care to resilience among a sample of undergraduate students. We hypothesized that individuals with a more secure attachment style would experience greater r...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - March 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Why do people disparage May –December romances? Condemnation of age-discrepant romantic relationships as strategic moralization
Publication date: 1 August 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 130 Author(s): Yael Sela, Michael N. Pham, Justin K. Mogilski, Guilherme S. Lopes, Todd K. Shackelford, Virgil Zeigler-Hill Romantic relationships with a large age difference between partners are judged to be less acceptable, more disgusting, and less likely to succeed than age-similar relationships. We investigated the role of strategic moralization in condemnation of man-older age-discrepant relationships. We hypothesized that (1) this condemnation promotes self-serving interests of those who stand to lose from violation of age-based a...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - March 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Is general intelligence responsible for differences in individual reliability in personality measures?
Publication date: 1 August 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 130 Author(s): David Navarro-González, Pere Joan Ferrando, Andreu Vigil-Colet One possible hypothesis for personality differentiation is the higher reliability of high-ability individuals in typical response measures. This differential reliability has been explained as resulting from different verbal abilities as a consequence of the difficulties that low-ability individuals have in understanding items, or as the effect of response bias, or due to higher precision in the answers of high-ability individuals. The lack of an estimati...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - March 22, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Investigating the relationship between optimism and stress responses: A biopsychosocial perspective
Publication date: 15 July 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 129 Author(s): Jennifer N. Baumgartner, Tamera R. Schneider, August Capiola We investigated the relationship between optimism and psychological, behavioral, and psychophysiological stress responses. We expected that optimism would relate to challenge appraisals, more positive and less negative affect, better performance, and challenge physiological patterns. 153 participants reported their stressor appraisals and state affect regarding an impending stressor. Performance and cardiovascular reactivity were measured during the stressor. We r...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - March 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Are survivalists malevolent?
Publication date: 15 July 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 129 Author(s): Chris J. Jackson Survivalist plan and prepare for a major disaster. This research describes construction of the 8-item Survivalist Behavior Questionnaire (SBQ) and its nomological network which highlights that survivalists are disagreeable, low in rationality, and high in psychopathy, Machiavellianism and narcissism. This suggests relatively high malevolence as well as high capacity for self-preservation. They are also fantasizers of sensation seeking, deep learners, and high in entrepreneurial intent which suggests ingenui...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - March 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Income satisfaction is less predictive of life satisfaction in individuals who believe their lives have meaning or purpose: A 94-nation study
Publication date: 15 July 2018 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 129 Author(s): Mohsen Joshanloo Using a sample of 97,739 individuals across 94 countries, this study sought to examine whether religiosity and purpose in life moderate the relationship between income satisfaction and life satisfaction. The results of multilevel modeling showed that whereas religiosity was not a significant moderator of this relationship, purpose significantly moderated the relationship between income satisfaction and life satisfaction. The positive relationship between the two variables was weaker among people with a purp...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - March 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research