A pilot and feasibility study of the plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of cefazolin in an immature porcine model of pediatric cardiac surgery
ConclusionsThe cefazolin dosing used in this study achieves plasma and tissue concentrations that should be effective against methicillin‐sensitive Staphylococcus aureus but may not be effective against some gram‐negative pathogens. The timing of the cefazolin administration prior to incision and a second dose given during cardiopulmonary bypass may be important factors for achieving goal tissue concentrations. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - September 15, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Todd J. Kilbaugh, Adam S. Himebauch, Theoklis Zaoutis, David Jobes, William J. Greeley, Susan C. Nicolson, Athena F. Zuppa Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Changes of epidural blood flow after epidural administration of epinephrine in young rats
ConclusionAdministration of epinephrine into the epidural space was safe in young rats. While reduction of epidural blood flow was observed, there was no spinal ischemia. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - September 8, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Yukako Abukawa, Manabu Kakibana, Koichi Hiroki, Kazuhiro Sugawara, Makoto Ozaki Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Autistic children and anesthesia: is their perioperative experience different?
Summary BackgroundChildren with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are an increasingly common patient population in the perioperative setting. Children with ASD present with abnormal development in social interaction, communication, and stereotyped patterns of behavior and may be more prone to elevated perioperative anxiety. The perioperative experience for these patients is complex and presents a unique challenge for clinicians. AimThe aim of the current study was to provide a further understanding of the premedication patterns and perioperative experiences of children with ASD in comparison to children without ASD. MethodsU...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - September 5, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Brook Arnold, Anila Elliott, Dean Laohamroonvorapongse, John Hanna, Daniel Norvell, Jeffrey Koh Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Corrigendum
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - September 3, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Reply to Bhalotra, regarding his comment on ‘Awake caudals and epidurals should be used more frequently in neonates and infants’
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - September 3, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Peter Marhofer, Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Reply to Bouvet et al. regarding their comment ‘How may a mathematical model using ultrasound measurement of antral area be predictive of the gastric volume?’
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - September 3, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Adam O. Spencer, David R. Lardner, Anahi Perlas Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Response to comments by Yibo et al. regarding our manuscript: prophylactic methylprednisolone to reduce inflammation and improve outcomes from one lung ventilation in children: a randomized clinical trial
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - September 3, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Mary C. Theroux, Alicia Olivant Fisher, Maria Rodriguez, Robert P. Brislin, Kirk W. Reichard, Suken A. Shah, Matt McCoy, Melinda Brown Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Demonstrating value in preoperative preparatory programs: a tough row to hoe
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - September 3, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: George D. Politis Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Orphan anesthesia: an initiative of the scientific working group of pediatric anesthesia of the German society of anesthesiology
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - September 3, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tino Münster Tags: News from the Pediatric Societies Source Type: research

In this issue October 2015
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - September 3, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Andrew Davidson Tags: In this issue Source Type: research

Methylene blue treatment for resistant shock following renal transplantation
We report a case of a 19‐year‐old female with a history of hyperoxaluria type 1 and renal failure. The patient presented for a second renal transplantation 17 years after her first combined liver and kidney transplantation. Postoperative shock was highly resistant to fluids and required massive pharmacologic hemodynamic support. Vasoplegic shock was the presumed diagnosis, and methylene blue was utilized as a rescue therapy, with a rapid hemodynamic response and no apparent side effects. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - August 27, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Eli Hershman, Amir Hadash, Ori Attias, Josef Ben‐Ari Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

A retrospective comparison of ropivacaine and 2‐chloroprocaine continuous thoracic epidural analgesia for management of postthoracotomy pain in infants
Summary IntroductionContinuous thoracic epidural analgesia is useful in the management of infants following thoracotomy. Concerns about drug accumulation and toxicity limit the amount of amide local anesthetics that can be delivered. Continuous epidural infusions of the ester local anesthetic chloroprocaine result in little drug accumulation allowing for higher infusion rates. We retrospectively compared patients managed with 1.5% 2‐ chloroprocaine or 0.1% ropivacaine epidural infusions to determine if the increased infusion rate resulted in similar or improved analgesia. MethodsThis retrospective cohort comparison consi...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - August 26, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Wallis T. Muhly, Harshad G. Gurnaney, Francis W. Kraemer, Arjunan Ganesh, Lynne G. Maxwell Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Paravertebral nerve block catheters using chloroprocaine in infants with prolonged mechanical ventilation for treatment of long‐gap esophageal atresia
Summary BackgroundInfants with long‐gap esophageal atresia (LGEA) undergo repeated thoracotomies for staged surgical repair known as the Foker process (FP). Associated prolonged mechanical ventilation results in exposure to high doses of opioids and benzodiazepines, and prolonged weaning times and ICU stays. AimThe aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of short‐term paravertebral nerve block (PVNB) catheters in reducing opioid/benzodiazepine exposure and effects on clinical variables. MethodsThe medical records of seventeen infants were retrospectively reviewed; 11 with PVNB and six without (CG). PVNB we...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - August 14, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Sigrid Bairdain, Brenda Dodson, David Zurakowski, David B. Waisel, Russell W. Jennings, Karen R. Boretsky Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Combination of warming blanket and prewarmed intravenous infusion is effective for rewarming in infants with postoperative hypothermia in China
Summary BackgroundPostoperative hypothermia in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) in neonates and infants is a well‐known serious complication as it can increase the risk of blood loss, wound infections, and cardiac arrhythmias. AimTo identify an effective rewarming method for neonates and infants in China with postoperative hypothermia, an open‐label, randomized, and controlled study was performed to compare the effects of three different rewarming methods. MethodsNeonates and infants (
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - August 12, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Jun Shen, Qin Wang, YuXia Zhang, Xuan Wang, Peng Shi Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Comparison of central venous catheterization techniques in pediatric patients: needle vs angiocath
ConclusionThe angiocath showed no superiority over the needle for ultrasound‐guided central venous catheterization in pediatric patients. Regardless of the needle or the angiocath, puncture of the vein was more difficult in newborns than in infants and children. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - August 6, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: In‐Kyung Song, Ji‐Hyun Lee, Joo‐Eun Kang, Hye‐Won Oh, Hee‐Soo Kim, Hee‐Pyoung Park, Jin‐Tae Kim Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A survey of practice patterns in the use of laryngeal mask by pediatric anesthesiologists
ConclusionPediatric anesthesiologists are using laryngeal masks in both routine and challenging/unconventional situations. Although many of the uses for laryngeal masks are not explicitly stated in the manufacturer guidelines, literature and current practice support the use of laryngeal masks in several of these scenarios. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - August 6, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Anuradha Patel, Scott R. Clark, Moshe Schiffmiller, Catherine Schoenberg, George Tewfik Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and its perioperative management
Summary Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is now diagnosed in more than 1 in 100 children, so it is not surprising that anesthetists are increasingly providing care for children with this diagnosis. The diagnostic classification for ASD has recently changed and our understanding of the causes and management of ASD are also changing rapidly. This review provides a timely update to increase understanding and awareness of the problems that children with ASD experience, and to minimize perioperative problems. Current literature on premedication and the increasing use of alpha‐2 agonists such as clonidine and dexmedetomidine as ...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - August 6, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Neda Taghizadeh, Andrew Davidson, Katrina Williams, David Story Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Pharmacodynamic interaction models in pediatric anesthesia
Summary Pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) models are important tools for summarizing drug dose, concentration, and effect relationships. Co‐administration of drugs may alter PK and PD relationships. Traditional methods of evaluating PD interactions include using isoboles, shifts in dose–response curves, or interaction indices based on parameters of potency derived from separate monotherapy and combination therapy analyses. These methods provide an estimation of the magnitude of effect for dose or concentration combinations, but they do not inform us on the time course of that effect, or its associated v...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - August 5, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Jacqueline A. Hannam, Brian J. Anderson Tags: Special Interest Article Source Type: research

Middle finger length‐based tracheal intubation depth improves the rate of appropriate tube placement in children
Summary BackgroundIt is challenging for anesthetists to determine the optimal tracheal intubation depth in children. We hypothesize that a measure three times the length of the middle finger can be used for predicting tracheal tube depth in children. MethodsEighty‐six children (4–14 years of age) were included in this study. After the children were anesthetized, a fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) was inserted into the trachea, the lengths from the upper incisor teeth to carina and vocal cords were measured, and a suitably sized cuffed tracheal tube was inserted into the trachea. Age‐based and middle finger leng...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - August 4, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Qing‐he Zhou, Wang‐pin Xiao, Hong‐mei Zhou Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Successful use of ultrasound‐guided caudal catheter in a child with a very low termination of dural sac and Opitz–GBBB syndrome: a case report
We report a 2‐year‐old patient with Opitz–GBBB syndrome scheduled for a posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP). The ultrasound scan revealed the inferior end of dural sac just below sacrococcygeal membrane, although the patient had previously two successful caudal epidural blocks. Consequently, the epidural catheter was inserted under a real‐time ultrasound guidance without dural puncture. Our patient had excellent pain relief without any side effects. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - August 4, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Branislav Mislovic Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Aspiration risk in pyloric stenosis
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 27, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Aarjan P. Snoek Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Correct use of the terms first‐ and second‐generation supraglottic airway devices
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 27, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tim Cook Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Use of the laryngeal mask airway for pediatric resuscitation
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 27, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: David Mason, Andrew Blevin, Jennie Rechner Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

How may a mathematical model using ultrasound measurement of antral area be predictive of the gastric volume?
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 27, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Lionel Bouvet, Mathilde De Queiroz Siqueira, Dominique Chassard Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Response to Dr. Phelps et al.: High‐dose dexmedetomidine for noninvasive pediatric procedural sedation and discharge readiness
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 27, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Keira P. Mason Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Whither dexmedetomidine?
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 27, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Joseph Cravero, Brian Anderson, Andrew Wolf Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

News from the pediatric anesthesia societies: Society for Pediatric Anesthesia (SPA)
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 27, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Shobha Malviya Tags: News from the Pediatric Societies Source Type: research

In this issue September 2015
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 27, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Andrew Davidson Tags: In this issue Source Type: research

A comparison of the postoperative pain experience in children with and without attention‐deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Summary BackgroundChildren with attention‐deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may experience pain differently compared to other children, yet the evidence is equivocal regarding whether pain is heightened or dampened. This prospective observational study, therefore, was designed to compare the postoperative pain experiences in children with and without ADHD. MethodsChildren aged 7–17 years with a diagnosis of ADHD (n = 119) who were scheduled for a surgical procedure requiring postoperative pain management and a matched cohort of children without ADHD were recruited (n = 122). Postoperati...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 23, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Sondra Rosander, Rebecca Nause‐Osthoff, Terri Voepel‐Lewis, Alan R. Tait Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Procedural sedation for MRI in children with ADHD
ConclusionsOur study illustrates that children with ADHD do not have higher sedative requirements to achieve a successful brain MRI. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 22, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Eimear Kitt, Jennifer Friderici, Reva Kleppel, Michael Canarie Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Urethrocutaneous fistula following hypospadias repair: regional anesthesia and other factors
ConclusionIn this series, we found no association between the use of caudal regional anesthesia and fistula formation. Location of the starting urethral meatus, prolonged surgical duration, and subcutaneous epinephrine use were associated with fistula formation. Our findings call into question the routine use of epinephrine in hypospadias repair. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 22, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Raza H. Zaidi, Nina F. Casanova, Bishr Haydar, Terri Voepel‐Lewis, Julian H. Wan Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD): focus on hypoxemia, secondary erythrocytosis, and coagulation alterations
Summary Children with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) have complex alterations in their whole blood composition and coagulation profile due to long‐standing hypoxemia. Secondary erythrocytosis is an associated physiological response intended to increase circulating red blood cells and oxygen carrying capacity. However, this response is frequently offset by an increase in whole blood viscosity that paradoxically reduces blood flow and tissue perfusion. In addition, the accompanying reduction in plasma volume leads to significant deficiencies in multiple coagulation proteins including platelets, fibrinogen and oth...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 18, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Luis M. Zabala, Nina A. Guzzetta Tags: Special Interest Article Source Type: research

Comparison of different anesthesia techniques during esophagogastroduedenoscopy in children: a randomized trial
Summary BackgroundEsophagogastroduedenoscopy (EGD) in children is usually performed under general anesthesia. Anesthetic goals include minimization of airway complications while maximizing operating room (OR) efficiency. Currently, there is no consensus on which anesthetic technique best meets these goals. We performed a prospective randomized study comparing three different anesthetic techniques. AimsTo evaluate the incidence of respiratory complications (primary aim) and institutional efficiency (secondary aim) among three different anesthetic techniques in children undergoing EGD. MethodsSubjects received a standardized...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 17, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Mario Patino, Susan Glynn, Mark Soberano, Philip Putnam, Md Monir Hossain, Clifford Hoffmann, Paul Samuels, Michael J. Kibelbek, Joel Gunter Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The nature and sources of variability in pediatric surgical case duration
ConclusionsPediatric case time variability, unlike adult cases, is poorly explained by surgeon effect or other characteristics that are commonly abstracted from electronic records. This largely relates to the ‘long‐tailed’ distribution of pediatric cases and unpredictably long cases. Surgeon‐specific scheduling is therefore unnecessary and similar cases may be pooled across surgeons. Future scheduling efforts in pediatrics should focus on prospective identification of patient and procedural specifics that are associated with and predictive of long cases. Until such predictors are identified, daily managemen...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 17, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Fernanda Bravo, Retsef Levi, Lynne R. Ferrari, Michael L. McManus Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Comparison of the gold standard of hemoglobin measurement with the clinical standard (BGA) and noninvasive hemoglobin measurement (SpHb) in small children: a prospective diagnostic observational study
ConclusionNoninvasive measurement of hemoglobin agrees more with the reference method than the measurement of hemoglobin using a blood gas analyzer. However, both methods can show clinically relevant differences from the reference method (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01693016). (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 15, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Eva Wittenmeier, Sophia Bellosevich, Susanne Mauff, Irene Schmidtmann, Michael Eli, Gunther Pestel, Ruediger R. Noppens Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Rectal puncture complicating caudal blockade in a child with severe rectal distension
We describe a case of unrecognized rectal puncture following unsuccessful caudal blockade in a patient later found to have marked rectal distension on MRI. This may have contributed to the rectal injury. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 7, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Vivian Sathianathan, Nadine Dobby Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Kikuchi‐Fujimoto disease and life‐threatening upper airway obstruction
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 7, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Emanuele Rossetti, Linda Appierto, Roberto Bianchi, Sergio Picardo Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Fiberoptic intubation with intraoral digital manipulation may be superior to C‐Mac videolaryngoscope in minimizing hypertensive response in cervical paraganlioma of the parapharyngeal area
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 7, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Arijit Sardar, Debesh Bhoi, Dalim Kumar Baidya, Chirom Amit Singh Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Let them drink!
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 7, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Philip Ragg Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

In this issue August 2015
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 7, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Andrew Davidson Tags: In this issue Source Type: research

Case report of transfusion‐related acute lung injury in a pediatric spine surgery patient transfused leukoreduced red blood cells
Summary Despite leukoreduced red blood cells (LR‐RBCs) reducing the risk of transfusion‐related acute lung injury (TRALI), we present a case of a 16‐year‐old female with kyphosis who received a transfusion of one unit of LR‐RBCs, which lead to life‐threatening, intraoperative TRALI. The clinical presentation included pulmonary edema, severe postoperative lactic acidosis, left ventricular dysfunction, increased creatine phosphokinase, fatty infiltration of the liver, and hemodynamic instability requiring inotropic support. This presentation is not the classic description of TRALI. Our patient improved with suppo...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 1, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Elizabeth M. Cudilo, Anna M. Varughese, Mohamed Mahmoud, Patricia M. Carey, Rajeev Subramanyam Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Ultrasound‐guided supraclavicular cannulation of the right brachiocephalic vein in small infants: a consecutive, prospective case series
Summary BackgroundThe supraclavicular ultrasound (US)‐guided cannulation of the brachiocephalic vein (BCV) is one option of central venous line placement in infants. AimThe aim of this prospective study was to evaluate whether there was an association between the optimum ultrasonographic view as obtained of the entire longitudinal extension of the right BCV and the ease of supraclavicular cannulation when using a strict in‐plane technique via a linear US probe in small infants. MethodsThe US probe was placed in the right supraclavicular region. If the optimum obtainable sonographic view presented the entire longitudina...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - June 18, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Christian Breschan, Gudrun Graf, Robert Jost, Haro Stettner, Georg Feigl, Alja Goessler, Stefan Neuwersch, Markus Koestenberger, Rudolf Likar Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Incidence of bradycardia at arrival to the operating room after oral or intravenous premedication with clonidine in children
Summary BackgroundClonidine has been advocated as a valid alternative for premedication in children but one of the few limitations is its association with reduced heart rate (HR), which thus raises the question of the safety of clonidine as premedication in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of bradycardia in children premedicated with oral or intravenous clonidine as compared to children not receiving pharmacologic premedication. MethodsAn open, nonrandomized, observational study design was used. During the preoperative assessment visit the children were prescribed no premedication, intraveno...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - June 17, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Peter G. Larsson, Staffan Eksborg, Per‐Arne Lönnqvist Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Fast‐track recovery after day case surgery
ConclusionOptimal pain management, better parental information about risks of postoperative behavior disturbances, and program integrating parent and child preparation should improve quality of care and global satisfaction in the fast‐track recovery process. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - June 13, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Ossam Rhondali, Edith Villeneuve, Géraldine Queyrel, Mijanou Delorme, Daniel Vischoff, Sophie Saindon, Marie‐Andrée Girard, Jean Charest, Sylvain Mathews Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Dexmedetomidine as adjunct to ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric nerve blocks for pediatric inguinal hernia repair: an exploratory randomized controlled trial
ConclusionsThe use of dexmedetomidine as an adjunct to an IINB resulted in reduced incidences of CHIPPS pain scores ≥4 and PAED scores of ≥11 during early recovery following pediatric inguinal hernia repair. In addition, the use of adjunct dexmedetomidine was associated with a prolongation of the period to first supplemental analgesia demand. The results of the present exploratory study must be viewed as preliminary and need further validation by future larger sized studies and/or meta‐analysis. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - June 12, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Märit Lundblad, Daniela Marhofer, Staffan Eksborg, Per‐Arne Lönnqvist Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Preoperative preparation workshop reduces postoperative maladaptive behavior in children
ConclusionThe workshop appears to result in reduced preoperative anxiety and POMBs. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - June 12, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Julie Hilly, Anne‐Laure Hörlin, Joelle Kinderf, Cecile Ghez, Sabrina Menrath, Honorine Delivet, Christopher Brasher, Yves Nivoche, Souhayl Dahmani Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The effect of infraorbital nerve block on emergence agitation in children undergoing cleft lip surgery under general anesthesia with sevoflurane
ConclusionIn children undergoing cleft lip repair surgery, infraorbital nerve block at the beginning of surgery significantly decreased the incidence of EA and the duration of EA, and provided satisfactory postoperative analgesia without delaying the time to extubation with sevoflurane anesthesia. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - June 12, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Hong Wang, Gang Liu, Wei Fu, Shi‐tong Li Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Sevoflurane exposure during the neonatal period induces long‐term memory impairment but not autism‐like behaviors
ConclusionsOur results confirm previous studies that neonatal sevoflurane exposure causes neurodegeneration and long‐term memory impairment in mice. However, sevoflurane did not induce autism‐like features. Our study suggests that mice are more vulnerable to long‐term memory deficits than autism‐like behaviors after exposure to sevoflurane. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - June 11, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Woosuk Chung, Saegeun Park, Jiso Hong, Sangil Park, Soomin Lee, Junyoung Heo, Daesoo Kim, Youngkwon Ko Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Inspired–expired oxygen gap: an alternative method for oxygen saturation monitoring in a patient with an undiagnosed hemoglobinopathy
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - June 6, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Renu Sinha, Ankur Sharma, Rahul Anand, Bikash R. Ray, Preet M. Singh Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Drowning eye sign—massive hydrocephalus
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - June 6, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Vanita Ahuja, Deepak Thapa, Satinder Gombar, Sunita Kazal, Harsimran Kaur, Arvind Malhotra Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research