A comparison of the Truview PCD and the GlideScope Cobalt AVL video‐laryngoscopes to the Miller blade for successfully intubating manikins simulating normal and difficult pediatric airways
ConclusionHigher success rates and shorter intubation times with the Miller blade compared to either video‐laryngoscope may reflect greater experience with direct laryngoscopy, need for more video‐laryngoscopy training, or result from the manikin design. Individual practitioners may differ in their preference of device for intubating a child with anticipated difficult airway based on their previous experiences, self‐assessment of their skills, and evaluation of the child's airway anatomy. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - April 15, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Helena K. Hippard, Govindan Kalyani, Olutoyin A. Olutoye, David G. Mann, Mehernoor F. Watcha Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Cricoid and left bronchial diameter in the pediatric population
ConclusionThe cricoid to LMSB ratio (relationship) remains constant with respect to age, height, and weight. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - April 9, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tariq M. Wani, Mahmood Rafiq, Rayan Terkawi, Melissa Moore‐Clingenpeel, Mazen AlSohaibani, Joseph D. Tobias Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Continuous chest wall ropivacaine infusion for analgesia in children undergoing Nuss procedure: a comparison with thoracic epidural
ConclusionTEC provided better analgesia following the Nuss procedure only on the day of surgery. On the subsequent days until discharge, pain scores were comparable. However, CWC offered other advantages: it was less labor intensive and had fewer side effects, shorter OR time, and shorter hospital stay. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - April 7, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Dinesh K. Choudhry, B. Randall Brenn, Karen Sacks, Kirk Reichard Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

A pilot study of dexmedetomidine sedation and caudal anesthesia for inguinal hernia repair in infants
ConclusionsDexmedetomidine sedation with caudal anesthesia is a feasible alternative to spinal or general anesthesia in selected infants undergoing uncomplicated hernia surgery. It avoids the need for endotracheal intubation and may be potentially beneficial in avoiding the unknown effects of general anesthesia on neurodevelopment. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - April 6, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Choon L. Bong, Angela S. H. Yeo, Teddy Fabila, Josephine S. K. Tan Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Outcomes following implementation of a pediatric procedural sedation guide for referral to general anesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging studies
Summary Background/AimsGuidelines for referral of children to general anesthesia (GA) to complete MRI studies are lacking. We devised a pediatric procedural sedation guide to determine whether a pediatric procedural sedation guide would decrease serious adverse events and decrease failed sedations requiring rescheduling with GA. MethodsWe constructed a consensus‐based sedation guide by combining a retrospective review of reasons for referral of children to GA (n = 221) with published risk factors associated with the inability to complete the MRI study with sedation. An interrupted time series analysis of 11 530 local sed...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - April 6, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Jocelyn R. Grunwell, Neelima K. Marupudi, Rohan V. Gupta, Curtis D. Travers, Courtney E. McCracken, Julie L. Williamson, Jana A. Stockwell, James D. Fortenberry, Kevin Couloures, Joseph Cravero, Pradip P. Kamat Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics of levobupivacaine following infant spinal anesthesia
Summary BackgroundInfant spinal anesthesia with levobupivacaine has been promoted as a technique to reduce both the risk of postoperative apnea and exposure to volatile anesthesia. There is, however, no pharmacokinetic data to support the currently recommended doses. AimsOur aim was to determine whether infant levobupivacaine spinal anesthesia is associated with plasma concentrations consistent with a low risk of local anesthetic systemic toxicity. MethodsThis was an open‐label pharmacokinetic safety and tolerability study of levobupivacaine spinal anesthesia in infants
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - April 6, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Geoff Frawley, Ben Hallett, Tony Velkov, Andrew Bjorksten Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Epidural insertion height for ureteric reimplant surgery; does location matter?
ConclusionsDespite some limitations in data collection and study design, the caudal catheter technique was superior at reducing pain interventions, particularly bladder spasm interventions. Overall epidural analgesia was not superior to a single‐shot caudal followed by opioid infusion. The issue of bladder spasm may be similar to the phenomenon of sacral sparing in obstetric epidural anesthesia. Thus, regional techniques, such as caudal epidural, targeting a better balance between sacral and lumber nerves are required. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - April 6, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: David Sommerfield, Anoop Ramgolam, Andrew Barker, Ric Bergesio, Britta S Ungern‐Sternberg Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Percutaneous dilation tracheostomy by Melker cricothyrotomy set in PICU: retrospective evaluation of a new combined approach
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - April 4, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Emanuele Rossetti, Roberto Bianchi, Alessandro Germani, Fabrizio Chiusolo, Linda Appierto, Sergio Picardo Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Failed caudal block in a child with pelvic neuroblastoma
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - April 4, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Neisevilie Nisa, Gnanasagar Sunkesula, King Jee Dhar Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Risk of difficult intubation may increase with age in pediatric patients with pycnodysostosis
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - April 4, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Masahiro Kazawa, Arisa Fukagawa, Hiroyuki Ito, Satoshi Toyama, Koshi Makita Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Comment on ‘Ultrasound assessment of gastric volume in the fasted pediatric patient undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: development of a predictive model using endoscopically suctioned volumes’
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - April 4, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Achim Schmitz, Alexander R. Schmidt, Markus Weiss, Christian J. Kellenberger Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Use of a 90‐degree anticlockwise tube rotation to facilitate nasotracheal tube passage over the fiberscope into the trachea in pediatric patients
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - April 4, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Fu S. Xue, Gao P. Liu, Chao Sun Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Usefulness of evaluation with a forced oscillation technique during the perioperative period
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - April 4, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Junko Nakahira, Yosuke Kuzukawa, Shoko Nakano, Junichi Ishio, Toshiaki Minami Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Accidental awareness during anesthesia in children
Summary This educational review explores the current understanding of accidental awareness during general anesthesia (AAGA) in children. Estimates of incidence in children vary between 1 in 135 (determined by direct questioning) and 1 in 51 500 (determined from spontaneous reporting). The lessons from the 5th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland show that the characteristics of spontaneous reports of AAGA are extremely variable and relate to the type of procedure and anesthetic technique rather than age group: approximately 50% o...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - April 4, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Michael R. J. Sury Tags: Educational Review Source Type: research

Summer camp, boot camp, and the formation of a new fellow
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - April 4, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: James J. Fehr, Calvin Kuan Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

In this issue May 2016
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - April 4, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Andrew Davidson Tags: In this issue Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - April 4, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Compatibility of common drugs with acetate‐containing balanced electrolyte solutions in pediatric anesthesia
ConclusionsMost of the tested drugs did not show any signs or evidence of incompatibility reactions. However, phenytoin and diazepam should not be in contact with the three tested solutions, including NS. Thiopental should be used with caution because it can precipitate in solutions with a low pH (e.g., BS). (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 25, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Sebastian Heiderich, Jonas Jürgens, Daniel Rudolf, Nils Dennhardt, Frank Echtermeyer, Andreas Leffler, Robert Sümpelmann, Ralf Lichtinghagen, Lars Witt Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

A randomized comparison of pediatric‐sized Streamlined Liner of Pharyngeal Airway™ and Laryngeal Mask Airway‐Unique™ in paralyzed children
ConclusionsIn conclusion, both the SLIPA and the Laryngeal Mask Airway‐Unique can be used effectively without severe complications in paralyzed children. Additionally, the SLIPA provides a better airway seal and better intraoperative position stability than the Laryngeal Mask Airway‐Unique. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 23, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Wenxiu Zhu, Xinchuan Wei Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

A case series of peripheral nerve blocks in pediatrics and young adults with skeletal dysplasia
ConclusionsPatients with skeletal dysplasia receiving lower extremity nerve blocks consume minimal opioid and report no major complications. Anesthesiologists should consider this mode of anesthesia in these patients. While no nerve injuries were discovered, further study is necessary to determine whether rates of nerve injury are comparable to that in the general pediatric population. Given the size of the skeletal dysplasia population, this type of study would require close to a decade of metadata from numerous institutions. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 22, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: James R. Eiszner, Alfred Atanda, Ashwin Rangavajjula, Mary Theroux Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Audit of anesthetic trainees’ ‘hands‐on’ operating room experience in an Australian tertiary children's hospital
ConclusionsExperience gained at our hospital easily meets the new College requirements. Experience of fiber‐optic intubation and regional blocks would appear insufficient to develop sufficient skills or confidence. The study provides other institutions with information to benchmark against their own trainee experience. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 21, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Bridget Hogan, Matthew Keating, Neil A. Chambers, Britta Ungern‐Sternberg Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Sustainability of protocolized handover of pediatric cardiac surgery patients to the intensive care unit
ConclusionsWe demonstrate sustainability of an improved handover process using a checklist in children being transferred to the intensive care unit after cardiac surgery. Standardized handover processes can be a sustainable strategy to improve patient safety after pediatric cardiac surgery. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 21, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Kristin Chenault, Michael‐Alice Moga, Minah Shin, Emily Petersen, Carl Backer, Gildasio S. De Oliveira, Santhanam Suresh Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Pediatric transport medicine and the dawn of the pediatric anesthesiology and critical care medicine subspecialty: an interview with pioneer Dr. Alvin Hackel
Summary Dr. Alvin ‘Al’ Hackel (1932‐) Professor Emeritus of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, and Pediatrics at the Stanford University School of Medicine, has been an influential pioneer in shaping the scope and practice of pediatric anesthesia. His leadership helped to formally define the subspecialty of pediatric anesthesiology (‘who is a pediatric anesthesiologist?’) and the importance of specialization and regionalization of expertise in both patient transport and perioperative care. His enduring impact on pediatric anesthesia and critical care practice was recognized in 2006 b...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 20, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Christine L. Mai, Zulfiqar Ahmed, Aubrey Maze, Fatima Noorulla, Myron Yaster Tags: Special Interest Article Source Type: research

Patient monitoring with Google Glass: a pilot study of a novel monitoring technology
ConclusionGiven the pilot nature of this study, we consider these results highly favorable. Anesthetists readily accepted Google Glass in the anesthetic environment, with further enhancements to device software, rather than hardware, now being the barrier to adoption. There are a number of applications for HMDs in pediatric anesthesia. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 19, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Thomas F. E. Drake‐Brockman, Amitava Datta, Britta S. Ungern‐Sternberg Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Pulmonary aspiration under GA: a 13‐year audit in a tertiary pediatric unit
ConclusionThe incidence of aspiration under general anesthesia in our hospital is comparable to published reports. Our audit highlights the fact that pulmonary aspiration although rare mostly occur in healthy ASA 1 and 2 children with no prior history. Emergency surgeries put the patient at a higher risk of aspiration. They occurred usually during induction, a process which tends to be variable (in technique and duration) for pediatric patients. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 18, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Zihui Tan, Shu Ying Lee Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Etiology of postanesthetic and postsedation events on the inpatient ward: data from a rapid response team at a tertiary care children's hospital
ConclusionRRT calls were most common for respiratory concerns. High ASA status, general anesthesia administration, and the presence of acute or chronic conditions prior to anesthetic administration predispose a patient to perioperative complications resulting in the need for an RRT call. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 12, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: N'Diris Barry, Karen M. Miller, Gregory Ryshen, Joshua Uffman, Thomas A. Taghon, Joseph D. Tobias Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Auditory functional magnetic resonance in awake (nonsedated) and propofol‐sedated children
ConclusionsAfter auditory stimuli, propofol‐sedated 5‐ to 8‐year‐old children exhibit an fMRI cortical activation pattern which is different from that in similarly aged nonsedated children. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 9, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Marco Gemma, Elisa Scola, Cristina Baldoli, Marta Mucchetti, Silvia Pontesilli, Assunta De Vitis, Andrea Falini, Luigi Beretta Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Assessment of hemodynamics with esophageal Doppler in a 3‐year‐old child undergoing major craniofacial surgery
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 9, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Oliver Hunsicker, Evjenia Toubekis, Nicolai Adolphs, Matthias Schulz, Aarne Feldheiser, Claudia Spies Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Dynamic needle tip positioning‐para vessel approach
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 9, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Erik Sloth, Nigopan Gopalasingam, Damir S. Obad, Bo S. Kristensen, Peter Juhl‐Olsen Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Successful arterial cannulation in neonates: the ‘hanging drop’ technique
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 9, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Riddhi Kundu, Ganga Prasad Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Continuous ventilation during flexible fiberscopic‐assisted intubation via supraglottic airways
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 9, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Pete G. Kovatsis Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Creation of an integrated outcome database for pediatric anesthesia
In this study, we describe a method to integrate these datasets into a single web‐based relational database that provides researchers and clinicians with regular anesthesia outcome data that can be reviewed on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis. Because of its complexity, the project also entailed the creation of a ‘dashboard,’ allowing tracking of data trends and rapid feedback of measured metrics to promote and sustain improvements. We present the first use of such a database and dashboard for pediatric anesthesia professionals as well as successfully demonstrating its capabilities to perform as described ab...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 9, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Joseph P. Cravero, Patcharee Sriswasdi, Rebecca Lekowski, Elizabeth Carpino, Richard Blum, Nissa Askins, David Zurakowski, Sean Sinnott Tags: Special interest article (review) Source Type: research

Airway device research in pediatric anesthesia: More than just Device A vs Device B?
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 9, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Narasimhan Jagannathan, Britta S. Ungern‐Sternberg Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

‘Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it’
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 9, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Pete G. Kovatsis, John E. Fiadjoe Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

In this issue April 2016
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 9, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Andrew Davidson Tags: In this issue Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 9, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Changes in intracuff pressure of cuffed endotracheal tubes while positioning for adenotonsillectomy in children
ConclusionBoth increases and decreases in the intracuff pressure may occur following positioning of the pediatric patient for adenotonsillectomy. An increase in intracuff pressure may result in a higher risk of damage to the tracheal mucosa. A decrease in the intracuff pressure can result in an air leak resulting in inadequate ventilation, increased risk of aspiration, and even predispose to airway fire if oxygen‐enriched gases are used. Continuous intracuff pressure monitoring or rechecking the intracuff pressure after positioning for adenotonsillectomy may be indicated. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 9, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Griffin H. Olsen, Senthil G. Krishna, Kris R. Jatana, Charles A. Elmaraghy, James M. Ruda, Joseph D. Tobias Tags: Reasearch Report Source Type: research

Anesthetic care and perioperative complications in children with Sanfilipo Syndrome Type A
ConclusionWe found no change in the modified Cormack–Lehane intubation grades in 25 Sanfilippo syndrome type A children over the 2‐year study period. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 9, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Elif C. Cingi, David S. Beebe, Chester B. Whitley, Kumar G. Belani Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Bending the rules: a novel approach to placement and retrospective experience with the 5 French Arndt endobronchial blocker in children
Summary BackgroundOne‐lung ventilation (OLV) is frequently employed to improve surgical exposure during video‐assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and thoracotomy in adults and children. Because of their small size, children under the age of 2 years are not candidates for some of the methods typically used for OLV in adults and older children, such as a double‐lumen endotracheal (DLT) tube or intraluminal use of a bronchial blocker. Due to this, the clinician is left with few options. One of the most robust approaches to OLV in infants and small children has been the extraluminal placement of a 5 French (5F) Arndt e...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 9, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: T. Wesley Templeton, Martina G. Downard, Christopher R. Simpson, Kristen A. Zeller, Leah B. Templeton, Yvon F. Bryan Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Pediatric anesthesiology fellow education: is a simulation‐based boot camp feasible and valuable?
ConclusionA simulation‐based BC for pediatric anesthesiology fellows was feasible, perceived to improve confidence, knowledge, technical skills, and clinical performance, and was not too basic. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 1, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Aditee P. Ambardekar, Devika Singh, Justin L. Lockman, David L. Rodgers, Roberta L. Hales, Harshad G. Gurnaney, Aruna Nathan, Ellen S. Deutsch Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Erythropoietin diminishes isoflurane‐induced apoptosis in rat frontal cortex
ConclusionsA total of 1000 IU·kg−1 IP erythropoietin diminished isoflurane‐induced neuroapoptosis. Further experimental studies have to be planned to reveal the optimal dose and timing of erythropoietin before adaptation to clinical practice. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 29, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Elvan Ocmen, Abdurrahim Derbent, Serap C. Micilli, Ulker Cankurt, Ilkay Aksu, Ayfer Dayi, Osman Yilmaz, Necati Gokmen Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Lignocaine topicalization of the pediatric airway
Summary The application of topical laryngeal lignocaine is a technique used frequently in pediatric anesthesia. It is often used to facilitate open airway procedures, tracheal intubation, or to reduce the incidence of perioperative adverse respiratory events such as coughing and laryngospasm. A number of studies have shown that applying topical lignocaine to the larynx reduces perioperative respiratory adverse events, while others have shown an increased incidence of respiratory complications with lignocaine administration. There is a lack of evidence on the effect of topical lignocaine on the sensitivity of upper airway r...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 26, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Mari H. Roberts, Christopher D. Gildersleve Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Improvement in the airway after mandibular distraction osteogenesis surgery in children with temporomandibular joint ankylosis and mandibular hypoplasia
ConclusionMandibular distraction osteogenesis improved laryngeal view. Distraction osteogenesis can be successfully used for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in mandibular hypoplasia patients. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 23, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Ola Zanaty, Shahira El Metainy, Doaa Abo Alia, Ahmed Medra Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Critical incidents, including cardiac arrest, associated with pediatric anesthesia at a tertiary teaching children's hospital
ConclusionDespite recent improvements in safety of pediatric anesthesia, many preventable factors still remain that can lead to critical incidents. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 20, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Ji‐Hyun Lee, Eun‐Kyung Kim, In‐Kyung Song, Eun‐Hee Kim, Hee‐Soo Kim, Chong‐Sung Kim, Jin‐Tae Kim Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Randomized controlled trial on preemptive analgesia for acute postoperative pain management in children
ConclusionPreemptive analgesia using IV‐PCA with fentanyl showed no significant advantages for postoperative analgesia after corrective osteotomy in pediatric patients. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 19, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: In‐Kyung Song, Yong‐Hee Park, Ji‐Hyun Lee, Jin‐Tae Kim, In Ho Choi, Hee‐Soo Kim Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Transpulmonary thermodilution (PiCCO) measurements in children without cardiopulmonary dysfunction: large interindividual variation and conflicting reference values
ConclusionsValues obtained by the PiCCO system in children have a wide range, and should therefore be interpreted with caution. Current reference values published for GEDVI and EVLWI are not applicable in children; the former is too high and the latter too low, and should not guide clinical practice. Indexing by other physiological indices may reduce this problem. Using current variables, we find GEDVI 280–590 ml·m−2 and ELWI 7–27 ml·kg−1 to be typical ranges for children. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 9, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Guro Grindheim, Jo Eidet, Gunnar Bentsen Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Feasibility, efficacy, and safety of ultrasound‐guided axillary plexus blockade in pediatric patients with epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica
ConclusionUltrasound‐guided plexus axillaris block in DEB patients undergoing hand surgery in our institution has been feasible, effective, and safe. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 9, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Ingeborg Heuvel, Antje Gottschalk, Martin Langer, Klaus Hahnenkamp, Björn Ellger Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Failed fiberoptic intubation in a child with epidermolysis bullosa, rescued with combined use of the Glidescope®
We present the case of a 13‐year‐old male with epidermolysis bullosa having an elective syndactyly release. These patients present significant challenges to the anaesthetist; extreme care in patient handling is required. Recurrent and pronounced scarring of intra‐oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal tissues is a feature, resulting in a difficult airway. Following a failed intubation using a fibreoptic bronchoscope, we describe a combined technique by adding in the Glidescope®. This proved immediately successful. Its utilisation has been reported in adults. We wish to present our experience in the paediatric population,...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 5, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Bethany C. Fitzmaurice, Barry G. Lambert Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Rectus sheath and transversus abdominis plane blocks in children: a systematic review and meta‐analysis of randomized trials
ConclusionAbdominal wall blocks reduce pain and opiate use in children. We advise cautious interpretation of the results given the heterogeneity of studies. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 4, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: James K. Hamill, Jamie‐Lee Rahiri, Andrew Liley, Andrew G. Hill Tags: Systematic Review Source Type: research

A retrospective evaluation of fistula formation in children undergoing hypospadias repair and caudal anesthesia
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - January 27, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Leonie Kreysing, Claudia Höhne Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research