Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is up-regulated during sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit ripening. In vitro analysis shows that NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) activity is inhibited by H2S and nitric oxide
Publication date: Available online 13 October 2018Source: Nitric OxideAuthor(s): María A. Muñoz-Vargas, Salvador González-Gordo, Amanda Cañas, Javier López-Jaramillo, José M. Palma, Francisco J. CorpasAbstractLike nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recognized as a new gasotransmitter which plays an important role as a signaling molecule in many physiological processes in higher plants. Although fruit ripening is a complex process associated with the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen oxygen species (RNS), little is known about the potential inv...
Source: Nitric Oxide - October 14, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: 1 November 2018Source: Nitric Oxide, Volume 80Author(s): (Source: Nitric Oxide)
Source: Nitric Oxide - October 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase enhancer AVE3085 reverses endothelial dysfunction induced by homocysteine in human internal mammary arteries
Publication date: Available online 6 October 2018Source: Nitric OxideAuthor(s): Hai-Tao Hou, Jun Wang, Xi Zhang, Zheng-Qing Wang, Tie-Nan Chen, Jian-Liang Zhang, Qin Yang, Guo-Wei HeAbstractHomocysteine (Hcy) is an independent risk factor for endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases. We hypothesized that the eNOS transcription enhancer AVE3085 may protect the endothelial function damaged by Hcy in the human internal mammary artery (IMA). Cumulative concentration-relaxation curves to acetylcholine (−10 to −4.5 log mol/L) or sodium nitroprusside were established in IMA from patients undergoing coronary ...
Source: Nitric Oxide - October 7, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Proteomics analysis reveals that nitric oxide regulates photosynthesis of maize seedlings under water deficiency
In this study, treatment with 0.1 mM NO donor (sodium nitroprusside, SNP) significantly alleviated the inhibited growth induced by 15% polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-stimulated water deficiency (WD) for 3 days in maize seedlings, manifested by less decreased plant total fresh weight and dry weight. Comprehensive proteome analysis was further used to measure the expression profiles of leaf proteins of SNP-pretreated maize seedlings under WD conditions to explore the molecular mechanisms of NO-induced WD tolerance. Using 2-DE method, 135 protein spots showed significantly enhanced or reduced abundance, of which 102 spots were...
Source: Nitric Oxide - October 6, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Neuronal nitric oxide synthase contributes to the normalization of blood pressure in medicated hypertensive patients
In conclusion, nNOS-derived H2O2 contributes to the endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in human resistance mesenteric arteries. The endothelial dysfunction observed in uncontrolled hypertensive patients involves decreased eNOS expression and NO production. The normalization of vascular relaxation and blood pressure in controlled hypertensive patients involves increased nNOS-derived H2O2 and NO production. (Source: Nitric Oxide)
Source: Nitric Oxide - October 5, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Sulfur dioxide attenuates sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction via inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in rats
ConclusionSO2 attenuated sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction likely in association with the inhibiting inflammation via TLR4/NLRP3 signaling pathway. (Source: Nitric Oxide)
Source: Nitric Oxide - October 5, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Abscisic acid and nitric oxide modulate cytoskeleton organization, root hair growth and ectopic hair formation in Arabidopsis
Publication date: Available online 17 September 2018Source: Nitric OxideAuthor(s): María Cristina Lombardo, Lorenzo LamattinaAbstractAbscisic acid (ABA) and nitric oxide (NO) are two plant growth regulators that participate in many signaling cascades in different organs all along the plant life. Here, we were interested in deciphering the effects of ABA and NO on the cytoskeleton organization in a model of polarized cell growth like root hairs. Arabidopsis roots were exposed to different concentrations of ABA, and the length of primary root, epidermal cells and root hairs were measured. The NO concentration was dete...
Source: Nitric Oxide - September 18, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Donor heart preservation with a novel long-term and slow-releasing hydrogen sulfide system
Publication date: Available online 11 September 2018Source: Nitric OxideAuthor(s): Xiaotian Sun, Wenshuo Wang, Jing Dai, Jiechun Huang, Meng Shi, Xianglin Chu, Fangrui Wang, Changfa Guo, Chunsheng Wang, Liewen Pang, Yiqing WangAbstractCardiac transplantation has been limited by the inability to long preserve donor hearts safely. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recognized as an important gasotransmitter exerting potent cardioprotection from ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). Herein we investigated the cardioprotective effects of a novel long-term and slow-releasing H2S system, namely DATS-MSN, in heart preservation solution...
Source: Nitric Oxide - September 12, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Nitrite mediated vasorelaxation in human chorionic plate vessels is enhanced by hypoxia and dependent on the NO-sGC-cGMP pathway
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: Nitric OxideAuthor(s): Teresa Tropea, Mark Wareing, Susan L. Greenwood, Martin Feelisch, Colin P. Sibley, Elizabeth C. CottrellAbstractAdequate perfusion of the placental vasculature is essential to meet the metabolic demands of fetal growth and development. Lacking neural control, local tissue metabolites, circulating and physical factors contribute significantly to blood flow regulation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a key regulator of fetoplacental vascular tone. Nitrite, previously considered an inert end-product of NO oxidation, has been shown to provide an important s...
Source: Nitric Oxide - September 2, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

A high-refined carbohydrate diet facilitates compulsive-like behavior in mice through the nitric oxide pathway
ConclusionAltogether, our results suggest that the chronic consumption of a HC diet induces compulsive-like behavior through a mechanism possibly associated with NO activation in the striatum. (Source: Nitric Oxide)
Source: Nitric Oxide - August 18, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Inorganic nitrate supplementation enhances functional capacity and lower-limb microvascular reactivity in patients with peripheral artery disease
Publication date: Available online 15 August 2018Source: Nitric OxideAuthor(s): Joshua M. Bock, David P. Treichler, Samuel L. Norton, Kenichi Ueda, William E. Hughes, Darren P. CaseyAbstractPeripheral artery disease (PAD) is characterized by functional and vascular impairments as well as elevated levels of inflammation which are associated with reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Inorganic nitrate supplementation boosts NO bioavailability potentially improving functional and vasodilatory capacities and may reduce inflammation. Twenty-one patients with PAD were randomly assigned to sodium nitrate (NaNO3) or placebo s...
Source: Nitric Oxide - August 15, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

The role of nitrite in muscle function, susceptibility to contraction injury, and fatigability in sickle cell mice
Publication date: Available online 14 August 2018Source: Nitric OxideAuthor(s): Li Wang, Luis E.F. Almeida, Sayuri Kamimura, Jack H. van der Meulen, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, Martha Quezado, Paul Wakim, Zenaide M.N. QuezadoAbstractSickle cell disease (SCD) patients can have limited exercise capacity and muscle dysfunction characterized by decreased force, atrophy, microvascular abnormalities, fiber distribution changes, and skeletal muscle energetics abnormalities. Growing evidence suggests that in SCD, there is alteration in nitric oxide (NO) availability/signaling and that nitrate/nitrite can serve as a NO reservoir and enha...
Source: Nitric Oxide - August 14, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Pharmacological preconditioning with inhaled nitric oxide (NO): Organ-specific differences in the lifetime of blood and tissue NO metabolites
ConclusionsMetabolites in blood do not reflect NO metabolite status of any organ. Although NO is rapidly inactivated by hemoglobin-mediated oxidation in the circulation, long-lived tissue metabolites may account for the myocardial preconditioning effects of inhaled NO. NO inhalation may afford similar protection in other organs. (Source: Nitric Oxide)
Source: Nitric Oxide - August 14, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: 1 September 2018Source: Nitric Oxide, Volume 79Author(s): (Source: Nitric Oxide)
Source: Nitric Oxide - August 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Effects of dietary nitrate supplementation, from beetroot juice, on blood pressure in hypertensive pregnant women: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled feasibility trial
Publication date: Available online 9 August 2018Source: Nitric OxideAuthor(s): Laura Ormesher, Jenny E. Myers, Catherine Chmiel, Mark Wareing, Susan L. Greenwood, Teresa Tropea, Jon O. Lundberg, Eddie Weitzberg, Carina Nihlen, Colin P. Sibley, Edward D. Johnstone, Elizabeth C. CottrellAbstractChronic hypertension in pregnancy is associated with significant adverse pregnancy outcomes, increasing the risk of pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction and preterm birth. Dietary nitrate, abundant in green leafy vegetables and beetroot, is reduced in vivo to nitrite and subsequently nitric oxide, and has been demonstrated to lower...
Source: Nitric Oxide - August 10, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Signaling interplay between primary cilia and nitric oxide: A mini review
Publication date: Available online 9 August 2018Source: Nitric OxideAuthor(s): Hannah C. Saternos, Wissam A. AbouAlaiwiAbstractNew discoveries into the functional role of primary cilia are on the rise. In little more than 20 years, research has shown the once vestigial organelle is a signaling powerhouse involved in a vast number of essential cellular processes. In the same decade that interest in primary cilia was burgeoning, nitric oxide won molecule of the year and a Nobel prize for its role as a near ubiquitous signaling molecule. Although primary cilia and nitric oxide are both involved in signaling, a direct relation...
Source: Nitric Oxide - August 10, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Association between genetic variability of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and sensorimotor gating in humans
Publication date: Available online 8 August 2018Source: Nitric OxideAuthor(s): Rastislav Rovný, Martin Marko, Stanislav Katina, Jana Murínová, Veronika Roháriková, Barbora Cimrová, Gabriela Repiská, Gabriel Minárik, Igor RiečanskýAbstractResearch increasingly suggests that nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. One important line of evidence comes from genetic studies, which have repeatedly detected an association between the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS or NOS1) and schizophrenia. However, the pathogenetic path...
Source: Nitric Oxide - August 8, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Nitric oxide as an active substance in the enteric neurons of the porcine digestive tract in physiological conditions and under intoxication with bisphenol A (BPA)
Publication date: Available online 4 August 2018Source: Nitric OxideAuthor(s): Kamila Szymanska, Jaroslaw Calka, Slawomir GonkowskiAbstractBisphenol A (BPA) is an organic substance, which is commonly used in the production of plastic. It is known that BPA has the negative impact on the living organism, affecting among others the reproductive organs, nervous, endocrine and immune systems. Nevertheless the knowledge about the influence of BPA on the enteric nervous system (ENS) is extremely scanty. On the other hand, nitric oxide is considered to be one of the most important neuronal factors in the ENS. The aim of the study ...
Source: Nitric Oxide - August 6, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

A novel role of sONE/NOS3/NO signaling cascade in mediating hydrogen sulphide bilateral effects on triple negative breast cancer progression
In conclusion, this study provides an insight about the role of exogenous H2S in TNBC cell lines highlighting a novel crosstalk between H2S and NO orchestrated by sONE/NOS3 axis. (Source: Nitric Oxide)
Source: Nitric Oxide - August 4, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Sodium bicarbonate regulates nitric oxide production in mouse macrophage cell lines stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and interferon γ
Publication date: Available online 29 July 2018Source: Nitric OxideAuthor(s): Tomoya Kawakami, Atsushi Koike, Fumio AmanoAbstractMacrophages are known to play pivotal roles in host-defense through inflammation via both innate and acquired immune systems, and so on. In an earlier paper, we showed the influence of the type of culture medium, Ham's F-12 or DMEM, on activated macrophage phenotypes induced by LPS and IFNγ. The production of nitric oxide (NO), pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL-1β, as well as the induction of superoxide-generating activity of J774.1/JA-4 cells was different dependi...
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 29, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Detection of dinitrosyl iron complexes by ozone-based chemiluminescence
Publication date: Available online 27 July 2018Source: Nitric OxideAuthor(s): George T. Mukosera, Taiming Liu, Abu Shufian Ishtiaq Ahmed, Qian Li, Matilda H.-C. Sheng, Trent E. Tipple, David J. Baylink, Gordon G. Power, Arlin B. BloodAbstractDinitrosyl iron complexes (DNICs) are important intermediates in the metabolism of nitric oxide (NO). They have been considered to be NO storage adducts able to release NO, scavengers of excess NO during inflammatory hypotensive shock, and mediators of apoptosis in cancer cells, among many other functions. Currently, all studies of DNICs in biological matrices use electron paramagnetic...
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 27, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade improves arginine transport and nitric oxide generation through modulation of cationic amino acid transporter-1 in endothelial cells
In conclusion spironolactone and eplerenone augment arginine transport and NO generation through modulation of CAT-1 in endothelial cells. Both MCR antagonists activate CAT-1 by inducing its glycosylation while only spironolactone inhibits PKCα. (Source: Nitric Oxide)
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 27, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Nitrite ion modifies tyrosine and lysine residues of extracellular matrix proteins
Publication date: Available online 25 July 2018Source: Nitric OxideAuthor(s): Mai T. Thao, Devi Kalyan Karumanchi, Sally M. Yacout, Elizabeth R. GaillardAbstractAge-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease characterized by degenerative changes in the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane. Inflammation is considered a major risk factor for the development and progression of AMD. Nitrite is a potent byproduct of inflammation and has been detected at elevated concentrations in AMD donor tissue. We hypothesize that nitrite chemically modifies the extracellular matrix (ECM) of Bruch's membrane as an initial ste...
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 25, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Nitro-fatty acid formation and metabolism
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2018Source: Nitric OxideAuthor(s): Gregory R. Buchan, Gustavo Bonacci, Marco Fazzari, Sonia Salvatore, Stacy Gelhaus WendellAbstractNitro-fatty acids (NO2-FA) are pleiotropic modulators of redox signaling pathways. Their effects on inflammatory signaling have been studied in great detail in cell, animal and clinical models primarily using exogenously administered nitro-oleic acid. While we know a great deal about their signaling, endogenous NO2-FA formation and metabolism is relatively unexplored. This review will cover what is currently known regarding proposed mechanisms of form...
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Targeting nitric oxide and NMDA receptor-associated pathways in treatment of high grade glial tumors. Hypotheses for nitro-memantine and nitrones
Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017Source: Nitric OxideAuthor(s): Meric A. Altinoz, İlhan ElmaciAbstractGlioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating brain cancer with no curative treatment. Targeting Nitric Oxide (NO) and glutamatergic pathways may help as adjunctive treatments in GBM. NO at low doses promotes tumorigenesis, while at higher levels (above 300 nM) triggers apoptosis. Gliomas actively secrete high amounts of glutamate which activates EGR signaling and mediates degradation of peritumoral tissues via excitotoxic injury. Memantine inhibits NMDA-subtype of glutamate receptors (NMDARs) and i...
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Subarachnoid hemorrhage induces neuronal nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation at Ser1412 in the dentate gyrus of the rat brain
ConclusionsAn immediate increase in intracranial pressure (ICP) might induce transient cerebral ischemia and promote the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of nNOS at Ser1412 in the dentate gyrus. This signal transduction pathway induces the excessive production of nitric oxide (NO) and might be involved in cognitive dysfunction after SAH. (Source: Nitric Oxide)
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

The mechanism of action and role of hydrogen sulfide in the control of vascular tone
Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017Source: Nitric OxideAuthor(s): Eleni Dongó, Gabriella Beliczai-Marosi, Ane Stensønes Dybvig, Levente KissAbstractOur knowledge about hydrogen sulfide (H2S) significantly changed over the last two decades. Today it is considered as not only a toxic gas but also as a gasotransmitter with diverse roles in different physiological and pathophysiological processes. H2S has pleiotropic effects and its possible mechanisms of action involve (1) a reversible protein sulfhydration which can alter the function of the modified proteins similar to nitrosylation or phosphory...
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Nitro-fatty acids: New drug candidates for chronic inflammatory and fibrotic diseases
Publication date: Available online 23 June 2018Source: Nitric OxideAuthor(s): Francisco J. Schopfer, Dario A. Vitturi, Diane K. Jorkasky, Bruce A. FreemanAbstractNitrated oleic acid (NO2-OA) was first identified in 2003, and after the characterization of its formation and thiol reactivity, it was used as a prototypical molecule to investigate the physiological actions of endogenous nitrated fatty acids (NO2-FA). Based on in vitro observations showing significant activation of cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory signaling responses by NO2-FA, experiments were designed to determine their pharmacological potential. Supported...
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: 1 August 2018Source: Nitric Oxide, Volume 78Author(s): (Source: Nitric Oxide)
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) as an important risk factor for the increased cardiovascular diseases and heart failure in chronic kidney disease
Publication date: 1 August 2018Source: Nitric Oxide, Volume 78Author(s): Xiaohong Liu, Xin Xu, Ruru Shang, Yingjie ChenAbstractPatients with chronic kidney disease have an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It has been recognized that the traditional cardiovascular risk factors could only partially explain the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and N-monomethy l-arginine (L-NMMA) are endogenous inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases that attenuate nitric oxide production and enhance reactive oxidative specie generation. I...
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Nitric oxide induces epidermal stem cell de-adhesion by targeting integrin β1 and Talin via the cGMP signalling pathway
ConclusionOur data indicate that the stimulatory effects of NO on ESC de-adhesion related to integrin β1 expression and Talin phosphorylation were mediated by the cGMP signalling pathway, which is likely involved in wound healing. (Source: Nitric Oxide)
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

MiR-125b-5p is involved in oxygen and glucose deprivation injury in PC-12 cells via CBS/H2S pathway
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of miR-125b-5p on protecting against oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) injury in PC-12 cells by regulating CBS and H2S generation.ResultsThe level of miR-125b-5p was increased in the rat MCAO model as well as OGD model in PC-12 cells. Meanwhile, CBS expression was remarkably downregulated. Overexpression of miR-125b-5p reduced CBS expression, decreased the H2S generation, and deteriorated OGD injury in PC-12 cells. On the contrary, silencing miR-125b-5p protected PC-12 cells from OGD injury by upregulated CBS and H2S levels. We found the protective effect...
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

N-acetylcysteine protects against diabetic nephropathy through control of oxidative and nitrosative stress by recovery of nitric oxide in rats
Publication date: 1 August 2018Source: Nitric Oxide, Volume 78Author(s): Guilherme B. Nogueira, Giovana R. Punaro, Clemerson S. Oliveira, Fabiane R. Maciel, Thamires O. Fernandes, Deyse Y. Lima, Adelson M. Rodrigues, Margaret G. Mouro, Sergio R.R. Araujo, Elisa M.S. HigaAbstractThe diabetes mellitus (DM) induces several changes, with substantial increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS cause damage to systemic and renal microvasculature, which could be one of the mechanisms involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The ROS modulate other substances like the nitric oxide (NO), a vasodilator with im...
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Cystine/glutamate transporter, system xc−, is involved in nitric oxide production in mouse peritoneal macrophages
Publication date: 1 August 2018Source: Nitric Oxide, Volume 78Author(s): Sho Kobayashi, Shinji Hamashima, Takujiro Homma, Mami Sato, Ryosuke Kusumi, Shiro Bannai, Junichi Fujii, Hideyo SatoAbstractThe amino acid transport system xc− is important for maintaining intracellular glutathione levels and extracellular redox balance. The main component of system xc−, xCT, is strongly induced by various stimuli, including oxidative stress and bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in macrophages. In the present study, we investigated the production of nitric oxide by LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages isolated fro...
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in slowly progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the Zitter rat
Publication date: 1 August 2018Source: Nitric Oxide, Volume 78Author(s): Ayuka Ehara, Kazuhiko Nakadate, Hiroyuki Sugimoto, Kanji Yoshimoto, Shuichi UedaAbstractNeuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is involved in nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) neurodegeneration. However, little is known about the distribution patterns and functions of nNOS in slowly progressive DA neurodegeneration. Here we describe the spatiotemporal change in nNOS expression over the course of neurodegeneration and the effect of short- or long-term treatment with the nNOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), in zitter (zi/zi) rats. In the substantia nigr...
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Permeability and diffusivity of nitric oxide in human plasma and red cells
Publication date: 1 August 2018Source: Nitric Oxide, Volume 78Author(s): Colin Borland, Geoff Moggridge, Ruhi Patel, Suhani Patel, Qingyu Zhu, Alain VuylstekeAbstractA simple diffusion cell was made to measure the permeability and diffusivity of Nitric Oxide in human plasma and red cells. Nitric oxide was passed through the cell containing plasma or nitrited red cells enclosed by silicone membranes. Steady state permeability (αNODNO ) was calculated from the cell dimensions and from the NO bulk flow entering and leaving the cell. The diffusion coefficient (DNO) was calculated in three ways: (i) by dividing the steady...
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

AMPK activation promotes gastroprotection through mutual interaction with the gaseous mediators H2S, NO, and CO
In conclusion, our findings indicate that AMPK activation exerts gastroprotection against ethanol-induced gastric damage and mutually interacts with H2S, NO, or CO to facilitate this process.Graphical abstract (Source: Nitric Oxide)
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Reduced blood pressure responsiveness to skeletal muscle metaboreflex activation in older adults following inorganic nitrate supplementation
Publication date: 1 August 2018Source: Nitric Oxide, Volume 78Author(s): Aaron C. Schneider, William E. Hughes, Kenichi Ueda, Joshua M. Bock, Darren P. CaseyAbstractThe vasoactive molecule nitric oxide (NO) contributes to regulation of blood pressure (BP) at rest and during exercise. Age-related exaggerated increased BP responses during exercise have been proposed to be due in part to a decreased NO bioavailability and possibly an enhanced skeletal muscle metaboreflex. In the present study we sought to determine if age-related differences in BP responses to skeletal muscle metaboreflex activation exist. Additionally, since...
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Increased phosphorylation of eNOS in nasal polyps of chronic rhinosinusitis patients can be diminished by 1,8-cineol
DiscussionOur study demonstrated for the first time that nasal polyps exhibit an increased phosphorylation of eNOS, which could be important for vascular permeability and the associated edema and elevated inflammation. Additionally, we detected that 1,8-cineol affects the eNOS phosphorylation significantly and thus its activation. This could be important to handle the elevated inflammation and edema formation by regulating the vascular permeability. (Source: Nitric Oxide)
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Inducible nitric oxide synthase-mediated injury in a mouse model of acute salivary gland dysfunction
ConclusioniNOS mediates disruption of exocrine calcium signalling causing secretory dysfunction following activation of innate immunity in a novel salivary gland injury model. (Source: Nitric Oxide)
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Post-translational modifications of eNOS augment nitric oxide availability and facilitates hypoxia adaptation in Ladakhi women
Publication date: 1 August 2018Source: Nitric Oxide, Volume 78Author(s): Pooja, Dishari Ghosh, Kalpana Bhargava, Niroj Kumar SethyAbstractThe lower inhaled oxygen per volume at high altitude poses an intimidating challenge for humans to survive and reproduce. Indigenous populations of the Himalayas reportedly exhibit higher microcirculatory blood flow accompanied by higher orders of magnitude of nitric oxide (NO) products in lung, plasma and red blood cells as a vascular adaptation strategy for hypobaric hypoxia. The precise mechanism of such observed higher NO metabolites for hypoxia adaptation remains elusive. Studying h...
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Discovery and development of next generation sGC stimulators with diverse multidimensional pharmacology and broad therapeutic potential
Publication date: 1 August 2018Source: Nitric Oxide, Volume 78Author(s): E.S. Buys, D.P. Zimmer, J. Chickering, R. Graul, Y.T. Chien, A. Profy, J.R. Hadcock, J.L. Masferrer, G.T. MilneAbstractNitric oxide (NO)-sensitive soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of guanosine-5′-triphosphate (GTP) to cyclic guanosine-3′,5′-monophophate (cGMP), transduces many of the physiological effects of the gasotransmitter NO. Upon binding of NO to the prosthetic heme group of sGC, a conformational change occurs, resulting in enzymatic activation and increased production of cGMP. cGMP modul...
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Methods to investigate structure and activation dynamics of GC-1/GC-2
Publication date: 1 August 2018Source: Nitric Oxide, Volume 78Author(s): Anne Sömmer, Sönke BehrendsAbstractSoluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a heterodimeric enzyme consisting of one α and one β subunit. The α1β1 (GC-1) and α2β1 (GC-2) heterodimers are important for NO signaling in humans and catalyse the conversion from GTP to cGMP. Each sGC subunit consists of four domains. Several crystal structures of the isolated domains are available. However, crystals of full-length sGC have failed to materialise. In consequence, the detailed three dimensional structure of sGC remains unkno...
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Nitrolipids in kidney physiology and disease
Publication date: 1 August 2018Source: Nitric Oxide, Volume 78Author(s): Soma Jobbagy, Roderick J. TanAbstractThe kidneys are vital organs responsible for maintaining body fluid homeostasis within proper physiologic ranges. Kidney disease is an epidemic clinical problem causing significant morbidity and mortality, and current treatments are limited to renin-angiotensin system blockade or renal replacement therapy for the majority of affected individuals. There is a critical, unmet need for novel pharmacological agents to improve the outcome of patients with kidney disease. Nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA) is an endogenously gener...
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Inflammatory signaling and metabolic regulation by nitro-fatty acids
Publication date: 1 August 2018Source: Nitric Oxide, Volume 78Author(s): Oren Rom, Nicholas K.H. Khoo, Y. Eugene Chen, Luis VillacortaAbstractThe addition of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to the double bond of unsaturated fatty acids yields an array of electrophilic nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FA) with unique biochemical and signaling properties. During the last decade, NO2-FA have been shown to exert a protective role in various inflammatory and metabolic disorders. NO2-FA exert their biological effects primarily by regulating two central physiological adaptive responses: the canonical inflammatory signaling and metabolic pathways. I...
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Nitrated fatty acids in cardiovascular diseases
Publication date: 1 August 2018Source: Nitric Oxide, Volume 78Author(s): Martin Mollenhauer, Dennis Mehrkens, Volker RudolphAbstractCardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and accounts for one third of disease-related mortality worldwide. Dysregulated redox mechanisms, in particular the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a pivotal pathogenetic role in CVD. Nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FAs) are electrophilic molecules which have a NO2-group bound to one of their olefinic carbons. They are endogenously formed by the reaction of reactive nitrogen species with unsaturated fatty acids. Basal levels of ...
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

The effect of the electrophilic fatty acid nitro-oleic acid on TRP channel function in sensory neurons
Publication date: 1 August 2018Source: Nitric Oxide, Volume 78Author(s): Jonathan M. Beckel, William C. de GroatAbstractNitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA) and related nitroalkenes are electrophilic fatty acid derivatives that are present in normal tissues at nanomolar concentrations and can increase significantly during inflammation. These substances can suppress multiple intracellular signaling pathways contributing to inflammation by reversible Michael addition reactions with nucleophilic residues such as cysteine and histidine leading to post-translational modification of proteins. NO2-OA also can influence inflammation and pain...
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

The chemical foundations of nitroalkene fatty acid signaling through addition reactions with thiols
Publication date: 1 August 2018Source: Nitric Oxide, Volume 78Author(s): Lucía Turell, Martina Steglich, Beatriz AlvarezAbstractNitroalkene fatty acids can be formed in vivo and administered exogenously. They exert pleiotropic signaling actions with cytoprotective and antiinflammatory effects. The presence of the potent electron withdrawing nitro group confers electrophilicity to the adjacent β-carbon. Thiols (precisely, thiolates) are strong nucleophiles and can react with nitroalkene fatty acids through reversible Michael addition reactions. In addition, nitroalkene fatty acids can undergo several other proce...
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Regulation of stress signaling pathways by nitro-fatty acids
Publication date: 1 August 2018Source: Nitric Oxide, Volume 78Author(s): Ashik Jawahar Deen, Virve Sihvola, Jouni Härkönen, Tommi Patinen, Simone Adinolfi, Anna-Liisa LevonenAbstractElectrophilic nitrated-fatty acids (NO2-FA, nitroalkenes) are formed during reactions of NO-derived oxidized species (•NO, •NO2) with either free or esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to their electrophilic character, they react with nucleophiles such as cysteine thiols in signaling proteins, thereby triggering downstream signaling cascades. Herein, we review two stress-signaling pathways activated by nitroalkenes, ...
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Biological properties of nitro-fatty acids in plants
Publication date: 1 August 2018Source: Nitric Oxide, Volume 78Author(s): Capilla Mata-Pérez, María N. Padilla, Beatriz Sánchez-Calvo, Juan C. Begara-Morales, Raquel Valderrama, Mounira Chaki, Juan B. BarrosoAbstractNitro-fatty acids (NO2-FAs) are formed from the reaction between nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Knowledge concerning NO2-FAs has significantly increased within a few years ago and the beneficial actions of these species uncovered in animal systems have led to consider them as molecules with therapeutic potential. Based on their nature and structure, NO2-FAs ...
Source: Nitric Oxide - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research