TFEB-mediated enhancement of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway dually modulates the process of amyloid β-protein generation in neurons
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Fumiko Yamamoto, Kaori Taniguchi, Naomi Mamada, Akira Tamaoka, Fuyuki Kametani, Madepalli K. Lakshmana, Wataru ArakiAbstractAbnormalities of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway (ALP) have been implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Activation of TFEB (transcription factor EB), a master regulator of the ALP, leads to ALP facilitation. The present study sought to clarify whether TFEB-mediated ALP facilitation influences the process of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) generation in neurons. TFEB was overexpressed in mature rat...
Source: Neuroscience - January 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Physiological interactions between microglia and neural stem cells in the adult subependymal niche
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Mª Salomé Sirerol-Piquer, Germán Belenguer, José Manuel Morante-Redolat, Pere Duart-Abadia, Ana Perez-Villalba, Isabel FariñasAbstractMicroglia are the prototypical innate immune cells of the central nervous system. They constitute a unique type of tissue-resident mononuclear phagocytes which act as glial cells. Elegant experiments in the last few years have revealed the origin, extraordinary molecular diversity, and phenotypic plasticity of these cells and how their potential relates to both immune and non-imm...
Source: Neuroscience - January 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The T-type Ca2+ Channel Cav3.2 Regulates Differentiation of Neural Progenitor Cells During Cortical Development via Caspase-3
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Paola Rebellato, Dagmara Kaczynska, Shigeaki Kanatani, Ibrahim Al Rayyes, Songbai Zhang, Carlos Villaescusa, Anna Falk, Ernest Arenas, Ola Hermanson, Lauri Louhivuori, Per UhlénAbstractHere we report that the low voltage dependent T-type calcium (Ca2+) channel Cav3.2, encoded by the CACNA1H gene, regulates neuronal differentiation during early embryonic brain development through activating caspase-3. At the onset of neuronal differentiation, neural progenitor cells exhibited spontaneous Ca2+ activity. This activity strongly correlated w...
Source: Neuroscience - January 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Anandamide Reduces the Toxic Synergism Exerted by Quinolinic Acid and Glutaric Acid in Rat Brain Neuronal Cells
Publication date: Available online 19 January 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Ilan Kotlar, Edgar Rangel-López, Aline Colonnello, Gabriela Aguilera-Portillo, Iris N. Serratos, Sonia Galván-Arzate, José Pedraza-Chaverrí, Isaac Túnez, Moacir Wajner, Abel SantamaríaAbstractThe endocannabinoid system (ECS) regulates several physiological processes in the Central Nervous System, including the modulation of neuronal excitability via activation of cannabinoid receptors (CBr). Both glutaric acid (GA) and quinolinic acid (QUIN) are endogenous metabolites that, under pathological condition...
Source: Neuroscience - January 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Activity in functional cortical networks temporally associated with postural instability
Publication date: Available online 19 January 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Jessy Parokaran Varghese, William R. Staines, William E. McIlroyAbstractHuman bipedal balance control is proposed to be the integrated activity of distributed neural areas. There is growing understanding about the cortical involvement in this highly automated behavior. While evidence exists for cortical activity temporally linked to reactive balance control, little is known about the functional interaction of potential cortical regions. Here, we used functional connectivity and graph theoretical analysis to derive functional cortical networks ...
Source: Neuroscience - January 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chemogenetic Targeting of Dorsomedial Direct-Pathway Striatal Projection Neurons Selectively Elicits Rotational Behavior in Mice
Publication date: Available online 19 January 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Andreas Bay Kønig, Chiara Ciriachi, Ulrik Gether, Mattias RickhagAbstractThe striatum of the basal ganglia is pivotal for voluntary movements and is implicated in debilitating movement disorders such as Parkinsonism and dystonia. Striatum projects to downstream nuclei through direct (dSPN) and indirect (iSPN) pathway projection neurons thought to exert opposite effects on movement. In rodent models of striatal function, unilateral dopamine deprivation induces ipsiversive rotational behavior. The dSPNs of the dorsal striatum are believed...
Source: Neuroscience - January 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Exploring the concept of iso-perceptual manifold (ipm): a study of finger force matching tasks
Publication date: Available online 20 January 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Cristian Cuadra, Mark L. LatashAbstractWe used force-matching tasks between the two hands to test predictions of the recently introduced scheme of perception based on the concept of iso-perceptual manifold (IPM) in the combined afferent-efferent space of neural signals. The main hypothesis was that accuracy and variability of individual finger force matching would be worse in a four-finger task compared to one-finger tasks. The subjects produced accurate force levels under visual feedback by pressing with either all four fingers or by one of t...
Source: Neuroscience - January 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Contributions of VPS35 mutations to Parkinson’s Disease
Publication date: Available online 18 January 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Abir A. Rahman, Brad E. MorrisonAbstractParkinson’s Disease (PD) is a multi-system neurodegenerative disease where approximately 90% of cases are idiopathic. The remaining 10% of the cases can be traced to a genetic origin and research has largely focused on these associated genes to gain a better understanding of the molecular and cellular pathogenesis for PD. The gene encoding vacuolar protein sorting protein 35 (VPS35) has been definitively linked to late onset familial PD following the identification of a point mutation (D620N) as th...
Source: Neuroscience - January 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Intracortical inhibition increases during postural task execution in response to balance training
Publication date: Available online 18 January 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): A Mouthon, W TaubeAbstractIntracortical inhibitory modulation seems crucial for an intact motor control and motor learning. However, the influence of long(er)-term training on short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) is scarcely investigated. With respect to balance, it was previously shown that with increasing postural task difficulty, SICI decreased but the effect of balance training (BT) is unknown. The present study tested whether improvements in postural control due to BT are accompanied by changes in SICI. SICI was measured in the ...
Source: Neuroscience - January 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Acute Sleep Deprivation Reduces Oscillatory Network Inhibition In The Young Rat Basolateral Amygdala
We examined whether a sleep deprivation (SD) alters the properties of the network inhibition by whole-cell recordings from BL projection neurons and interneurons of the slice preparation of the juvenile rats. The level of the oscillatory network inhibition, measured as summed power of the spectral density between 0.1 and 3 Hz of the synaptic currents in the projection neurons, was significantly attenuated by acute (3 h) SD in older (P20–24) but not in younger (P15–19) animals. This reduction was mainly derived from the reduced peak amplitude of periodic IPSC bursts. In inhibitory interneurons in BL, spontaneous...
Source: Neuroscience - January 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Behavioral, neurochemical and brain oscillation abnormalities in an experimental model of acute liver failure
This study was divided into three cohorts: (1) rats clinically monitored after hepatectomy every 6 hours for 96 hours or until death; (2) rats tested in an open field task (OFT) before and after surgery and had blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain tissue collected after the last OFT; and (3) rats that had continuous EEGs recorded before and after surgery for 3 days. The hepatectomized rats presented significant motor behavioral changes accompanied by important abnormalities in classical blood laboratory parameters of ALF, and EEG features suggestive of HE and deep disturbances in the brain glutamatergic system. Using an a...
Source: Neuroscience - January 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Functional Connectivity between Hippocampus and Lateral Septum is Affected in Very Young Alzheimer’s Transgenic Mouse Model
Publication date: Available online 30 December 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Siddhartha Mondragón-Rodríguez, Ning Gu, Caroline Fasano, Fernando Peña-Ortega, Sylvain WilliamsAbstractAlzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-β and tau proteins, which are believed to lead to neural damage that translates into brain dysfunction and cognitive deficits. Brain dysfunction can be evaluated by measuring single-neuron activity (spikes), global neural activity (local field potentials, LFPs) and the interaction between them. Considering that the dynamic interactions b...
Source: Neuroscience - January 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Natural killer cells may exert antidepressant-like effects in mice by controlling the release of inflammatory factors
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Lirong Hu, Dongping Li, Chuang Ge, Hong Liao, Ying Wang, Hanmei XuAbstractDepression or stress reportedly is related to the overflow of inflammatory factors in the body and T cells were reported to play important roles in balancing the release of inflammatory factors through vagus nerve circuit. However, few works have been conducted on if natural killer (NK) cells can also exert the similar function in the reported vagus nerve circuit as T cells and if there were any relationship between depression and this function. In present study, the beh...
Source: Neuroscience - January 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The differentiation of spinal cord motor neurons is associated with changes of the mitochondrial phospholipid cardiolipin
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Gerburg Keilhoff, Ricardo Pirex Mbou, Benjamin Lucas, Lorenz SchildAbstractMotor neuron damage caused by diseases, traumatic insults or de-afferentation of the spinal cord is often incurable due to the poor intrinsic regenerative capacity. Moreover, regenerated peripheral nerves often do not reach normal functionality. Here, we investigated cardiolipin in the process of neuro-differentiation, since cardiolipin is closely linked to the mitochondrial energy supply in cells. The NSC-34 hybrid cell line, produced by fusing neuroblastoma cells with...
Source: Neuroscience - January 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuronal dynamics underlying communication signals in a weakly electric fish: implications for connectivity in a pacemaker network
In this study, we use an in vitro pacemaker preparation from Apteronotus leptorhynchus to characterize the neural responses elicited by the synaptic inputs underlying electrocommunication. These responses involve a variable increase in firing frequency and a prominent desynchronization of neurons that recovers within 5 oscillation cycles. Using a previously-developed computational model of the pacemaker network, we show that the frequency changes and rapid resynchronization observed experimentally are most easily explained when model neurons are interconnected more densely and with higher coupling strengths than suggested ...
Source: Neuroscience - January 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Region-Specific Differences in Morphometric Features and Synaptic Colocalization of Astrocytes During Development
Publication date: Available online 29 December 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Anze Testen, Maryam Ali, Hannah G. Sexton, Sierra Hodges, Kira Dubester, Kathryn J. Reissner, H. Scott Swartzwelder, Mary-Louise RisherAbstractIt is well established that astrocytes play pivotal roles in neuronal synapse formation and maturation as well as in the modulation of synaptic transmission. Despite their general importance for brain function, relatively little is known about the maturation of astrocytes during normal postnatal development, especially during adolescence, and how that maturation may influence astroglial–synaptic ...
Source: Neuroscience - January 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural correlates of enhanced audiovisual processing in the bilingual brain
Publication date: Available online 9 January 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Gavin M. Bidelman, Shelley T. HeathAbstractBilingualism is associated with enhancements in perceptual and cognitive processing necessary for juggling multiple languages. Recent psychophysical studies demonstrate bilinguals also show enhanced multisensory processing and more restricted temporal binding windows for integrating audiovisual information. Here, we probed the neural mechanisms of bilinguals’ audiovisual benefits. We recorded neuroelectric responses in mono- and bi-lingual listeners to the double-flash paradigm in which auditory ...
Source: Neuroscience - January 10, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Hippocampal dentate gyrus atrophy predicts pattern separation impairment in patients with LGI1 encephalitis
Publication date: Available online 6 January 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Annika Hanert, Julius Rave, Oliver Granert, Martin Ziegler, Anya Pedersen, Jan Born, Carsten. Finke, Thorsten BartschAbstractDay-to-day life involves the perception of events that resemble one another. For the sufficient encoding and correct retrieval of similar information, the hippocampus provides two essential cognitive processes. Pattern separation refers to the differentiation of similar input information, whereas pattern completion reactivates memory representations based on noisy or degraded stimuli. It has been shown that pattern separa...
Source: Neuroscience - January 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cell death mechanisms in a mouse model of retinal degeneration in Spinocerebellar ataxia 7
In this study, we show that in a retinal SCA7 mouse model, polyQ ataxin7 induces stress within the retina and activates Muller cells. Moreover, Unfolded Protein Response and autophagy are activated in SCA7 photoreceptors. We have also shown that the photoreceptor death does not involve a caspase-dependent apoptosis but instead involves apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) and Leukocyte Elastase Inhibitor (LEI/L-DNase II). When these two cell death effectors are downregulated by their siRNA, a significant reduction of photoreceptor death is observed. These results highlight the consequences of polyQ protein expression in the ret...
Source: Neuroscience - January 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pre-conditioning with remote photobiomodulation modulates the brain transcriptome and protects against MPTP insult in mice
Publication date: Available online 6 January 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Varshika Ganeshan, Nicholas V. Skladnev, Ji Yeon Kim, John Mitrofanis, Jonathan Stone, Daniel M. JohnstoneAbstractTranscranial photobiomodulation (PBM), which involves the application of low-intensity red to near-infrared light (600-1100nm) to the head, provides neuroprotection in animal models of various neurodegenerative diseases. However, the absorption of light energy by the human scalp and skull may limit the utility of transcranial PBM in clinical contexts. We have previously shown that targeting light at peripheral tissues (i.e. “r...
Source: Neuroscience - January 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Coding-in-noise deficits are not seen in responses to amplitude modulation in subjects with cochlear synaptopathy induced by a single noise exposure
Publication date: Available online 4 January 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Hengchao Chen, Yazhi Xing, Zhen Zhang, Shan Tao, Hui Wang, Steve Aiken, Shankai Yin, Dongzhen Yu, Jian WangAbstractSince the first report of noise-induced synaptic damage in animals without permanent threshold shifts (PTS), the concept of noise-induced hidden hearing loss (NIHHL) has been proposed to cover the functional deficits in hearing associated with noise-induced synaptopathy. Moreover, the potential functional deficit associated with the noise-induced synaptopathy has been largely attributed to the loss of auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) w...
Source: Neuroscience - January 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Thalamo-cortical white matter underlies motor memory consolidation via modulation of sleep spindles in young and older adults
Publication date: Available online 4 January 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Catherine Vien, Arnaud Boré, Arnaud Boutin, Basile Pinsard, Julie Carrier, Julien Doyon, Stuart FogelAbstractAmple evidence suggests that consolidation of the memory trace associated with a newly acquired motor sequence is supported by thalamo-cortical spindle activity during subsequent sleep, as well as functional changes in a distributed cortico-striatal network. To date, however, no studies have investigated whether the structural white matter connections between these regions affect motor sequence memory consolidation in relation wit...
Source: Neuroscience - January 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Changes in Functional Properties of Rat Hippocampal Neurons Following Pentylenetetrazole-induced Status Epilepticus
Publication date: Available online 26 December 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Tatyana Y. Postnikova, Dmitry V. Amakhin, Alina M. Trofimova, Ilya V. Smolensky, Aleksey V. ZaitsevAbstractPathophysiological remodeling processes following status epilepticus (SE) play a critical role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy but have not yet been not fully investigated. In the present study, we examined changes in intrinsic properties of pyramidal neurons, basal excitatory synaptic transmission, and short-term synaptic plasticity in hippocampal slices of rats after SE. Seizures were induced in 3-week-old rats by an intraperitoneal...
Source: Neuroscience - January 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Somatostatin Gene and Protein Expression in the Non-human Primate Central Extended Amygdala
Publication date: Available online 2 January 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Rothem Kovner, Andrew S. Fox, Delores A. French, Patrick H. Roseboom, Jonathan A. Oler, Julie L. Fudge, Ned H. KalinAbstractAlterations in central extended amygdala (EAc) function have been linked to anxiety, depression, and anxious temperament (AT), the early-life risk to develop these disorders. The EAc is composed of the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce), the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), and the sublenticular extended amygdala (SLEA). Using a non-human primate model of AT and multimodal neuroimaging, the Ce and the BST were ...
Source: Neuroscience - January 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The SNAP25 interactome in ventromedial caudate in schizophrenia includes the mitochondrial protein ARF1
Publication date: Available online 2 January 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Alfredo Ramos-Miguel, Vilte Barakauskas, Jehan Alamri, Masatoshi Miyauchi, Alasdair M. Barr, Clare L. Beasley, Gorazd Rosoklija, J. John Mann, Andrew J. Dwork, Annie Moradian, Gregg B. Morin, William G. HonerAbstractAbnormalities of SNAP25 (synaptosomal-associated protein 25) amount and protein-protein interactions occur in schizophrenia, and may contribute to abnormalities of neurotransmitter release in patients. However, presynaptic terminal function depends on multiple subcellular mechanisms, including energy provided by mitochondria. To exp...
Source: Neuroscience - January 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Glutamatergic signals in the dorsal raphe nucleus regulate maternal aggression and care in an opposing manner in mice
Publication date: Available online 31 December 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Yoshikage Muroi, Toshiaki IshiiAbstractLactating female mice nurture their pups and attack intruders in their territory. When an intruder invades a dam’s territory, she needs to switch her behavior from care to aggression to protect her pups and territory. Although the neuronal mechanisms underlying each distinct behavior have been studied, it is unclear how these behaviors are displayed alternatively. The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) regulates both nurturing and aggressive behaviors. In the present study, we examined whether the DRN is i...
Source: Neuroscience - December 31, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Identification of the genome-wide expression patterns of long non-coding RNAs and mRNAs in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathic pain
Publication date: Available online 29 December 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Huiying Du, Zihao Liu, Xinran Tan, Yinghong Ma, Qingjuan GongAbstractDiabetic neuropathic pain (DNP), an early symptom of diabetic neuropathy, involves complex mechanisms. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) dysregulation contributes to the pathogenesis of various human diseases. Here, we investigated the genome-wide expression patterns of lncRNAs and genes in the spinal dorsal horn of mice with streptozotocin-induced DNP. Microarray analysis identified 1,481 differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs and 1,096 DE mRNAs in DNP mice. Functional ...
Source: Neuroscience - December 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Enhanced central neural gain compensates acoustic trauma-induced cochlear impairment, but unlikely correlates with tinnitus and hyperacusis
Publication date: Available online 29 December 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Dorit Möhrle, Benedikt Hofmeier, Mario Amend, Stephan Wolpert, Kun Ni, Dan Bing, Uwe Klose, Bernd Pichler, Marlies Knipper, Lukas RüttigerAbstractFor successful future therapeutic strategies for tinnitus and hyperacusis, a subcategorization of both conditions on the basis of differentiated neural correlates would be of invaluable advantage. In the present study, we used our refined operant conditioning animal model to divide equally noise-exposed rats into groups with either tinnitus or hyperacusis, with neither condition, or with b...
Source: Neuroscience - December 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Region Specific Differences in Morphometric Features and Synaptic Colocalization of Astrocytes During Development
Publication date: Available online 29 December 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Anze Testen, Maryam Ali, Hannah G. Sexton, Sierra Hodges, Kira Dubester, Kathryn J. Reissner, H. Scott Swartzwelder, Mary-Louise RisherAbstractIt is well established that astrocytes play pivotal roles in neuronal synapse formation and maturation as well as in the modulation of synaptic transmission. Despite their general importance for brain function, relatively little is known about the maturation of astrocytes during normal postnatal development, especially during adolescence, and how that maturation may influence astroglial-synaptic contac...
Source: Neuroscience - December 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

High-fat diet and physical exercise differentially modulate adult neurogenesis in the mouse hypothalamus
Publication date: Available online 29 December 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): C. Klein, W. Jonas, P. Wiedmer, S. Schreyer, L. Akjüz, J. Spranger, R. Hellweg, B. SteinerAbstractThe hypothalamus has emerged as a novel neurogenic niche in the adult brain during the past decade. However, little is known about its regulation and the role hypothalamic neurogenesis might play in body weight and appetite control. High-fat diet (HFD) has been demonstrated to induce an inflammatory response and to alter neurogenesis in the hypothalamus and functional outcome measures, e.g. body weight. Such modulation poses similarities to ...
Source: Neuroscience - December 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference and changes in mGlu1/5 receptor expression and signaling in the rat medial prefrontal cortex
Publication date: Available online 29 December 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Li-Min Mao, John Q. WangAbstractThe medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is implicated in the rewarding effect of psychostimulants, although molecular mechanisms underlying the rewarding properties of stimulants in this region are poorly understood. Group I metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors (mGlu1/5 subtypes) are believed to be critical in this event. We thus in this study investigated changes in mGlu1/5 receptor expression and function in the rat mPFC in response to conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by amphetamine. Repeated ampheta...
Source: Neuroscience - December 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Vincristine impairs microtubules and causes neurotoxicity in cerebral organoids
Publication date: Available online 30 December 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Fangkun Liu, Jing Huang, Zhixiong LiuAbstractThe advance of nanotechnology in drug delivery systems has allowed central nervous system (CNS) accumulation of several anti-tumor agents with poor brain penetration but also lead to concerns about central neurotoxicity. Vincristine is commonly administered as an effective anti-brain tumor drug. It is known to act by interfering with microtubule dynamics, but models for detailed elucidation of its mechanism of neurotoxicity are limited. Here we generated cerebral organoids using human induced pluri...
Source: Neuroscience - December 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Intrauterine growth restriction modifies the accumbal dopaminergic response to palatable food intake
Publication date: Available online 30 December 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): D.P. Laureano, M.B. Alves, P.M. Miguel, T.D. Machado, A.R. Reis, A.B. Mucellini, Fdas Cunha, C. Lampert, Apa Salvador, R. Dalle Molle, P.R. Mosca, I. Pokhvisneva, M. DesaI, M.G. Ross, P.P. SilveiraAbstractIntrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) associates with increased preference for palatable foods and altered insulin sensitivity. Insulin modulates the central dopaminergic response and changes behavioral responses to reward. We measured the release of dopamine in the accumbens during palatable food intake in IUGR rats both at baseline and in...
Source: Neuroscience - December 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

dFunctional connectivity between Hippocampus and Lateral septum is affected in very young Alzheimer’s transgenic mouse model
Publication date: Available online 30 December 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Siddhartha Mondragón-Rodríguez, Ning Gu, Caroline Fasano, Fernando Peña-Ortega, Sylvain WilliamsAbstractAlzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-β and tau proteins, which are believed to lead to neural damage that translates into brain dysfunction and cognitive deficits. Brain dysfunction can be evaluated by measuring single neuron activity (spikes), global neural activity (local field potentials, LFPs) and the interaction between them. Considering that the dynamic interactions b...
Source: Neuroscience - December 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Stimulus dynamics-dependent information transfer of olfactory and vomeronasal sensory neurons in mice
Publication date: Available online 30 December 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Tomohiro Noguchi, Sadaharu Miyazono, Makoto KashiwayanagiAbstractThe parallel processing of chemical signals by the main olfactory system and the vomeronasal system has been known to control animal behavior. The physiological significance of peripheral parallel pathways consisting of olfactory sensory neurons and vomeronasal sensory neurons is not well understood. Here, we show complementary characteristics of the information transfer of the olfactory sensory neurons and vomeronasal sensory neurons. A difference in excitability between the se...
Source: Neuroscience - December 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Loss of Lgl1 Disrupts the Radial Glial Fiber-guided Cortical Neuronal Migration and Causes Subcortical Band Heterotopia in Mice
Publication date: Available online 28 December 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Tingting Zhang, Sen Zhang, Xinli Song, Xiaohan Zhao, Congzhe Hou, Zhenzu Li, Jiangang GaoAbstractRadial glial cells (RGCs) are neuronal progenitors and function as scaffolds for neuronal radial migration in the developing cerebral cortex. These functions depend on a polarized radial glial scaffold, which is of fundamental importance for brain development. Lethal giant larvae 1 (Lgl1), a key regulator for cell polarity from Drosophila to mammals, plays a key role in tumorigenesis and brain development. To overcome neonatal lethality in Lgl1-nu...
Source: Neuroscience - December 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

KY-226 Protects Blood–brain Barrier Function Through the Akt/FoxO1 Signaling Pathway in Brain Ischemia
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Meiling Sun, Yasuharu Shinoda, Kohji FukunagaAbstractKY-226 is a protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitor that protects neurons from cerebral ischemic injury. KY-226 restores Akt (protein kinase B) phosphorylation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) reduction in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) damage. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of KY-226 are unclear. To address this, the effects of KY-226 on blood–brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction were examined in tMCAO mice. KY-2...
Source: Neuroscience - December 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Monaural neonatal deafness induces inhibition among bilateral auditory networks under binaural activation
We report three major results: First, AS of the hearing ear of SSD rats resulted in bilateral activation of neurons in the cochlear nucleus (CN). Second, ES of the deaf ear did not activate contralateral CN. Third, AS+ES of SSD rats resulted in bilateral reduced Fos expression in the auditory brainstem compared to monaural stimulations. These findings indicate changes in inhibitory interactions among neuronal networks as a result of monaural deafness.Graphical abstract (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - December 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

LIMK2-1 is a hominidae-specific isoform of LIMK2 expressed in central nervous system and associated with intellectual disability
In this study, we focused our attention on a less studied human LIMK2 isoform, LIMK2-1.Compared to the other LIMK2 isoforms, LIMK2-1 contains a supplementary C-terminal phosphatase 1 inhibitory domain (PP1i). We found out that this isoform was hominidae -specific and showed that it was expressed in human fetal brain and faintly in adult brain. Its coding sequence was sequenced in 173 patients with sporadic non-syndromic intellectual disability (ID), and we observed an association of a rare missense variant in the PP1i domain (rs151191437, p.S668P) with ID. Our results also suggest an implication of LIMK2-1 in neurite outgr...
Source: Neuroscience - December 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Altered white matter connectivity associated with intergyral brain disorganization in hemiplegic cerebral palsy
In this study, we assess the relationship between the structural integrity of sensorimotor projection fibers and the integrity of intergyral association white matter connections in children with HCP. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed in 10 children with HCP and 16 typically developing children. We estimated the regional and global white-matter connectivity using a region-of-interest (ROI) based approach and a whole-brain gyral-based parcellation method. Using the ROI-based approach, we tracked the spinothalamic (STh), thalamocortical (ThC), corticospinal (CST), and sensorimotor U- (SMU) fibers. Using the whole-brain p...
Source: Neuroscience - December 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Action of hydrogen peroxide on synaptic transmission at the mouse neuromuscular junction
Publication date: Available online 26 December 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Arthur Giniatullin, Alexey Petrov, Rashid GiniatullinAbstractHydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is one of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), endogenously produced during metabolism, which acts as a second messenger. In skeletal muscles, hypoxia-or hyperthermia-induced increase in H2O2 might affect synaptic transmission by targeting the most redox-sensitive presynaptic compartment (Giniatullin et al., 2006). However, the effects of H2O2 as a signal molecule have not previously been studied in different patterns of the synaptic activity. Here, using opti...
Source: Neuroscience - December 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Synaptic reorganization response in the cochlear nucleus following intense noise exposure
Publication date: Available online 26 December 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): S. Manohar, P.V. Ramchander, R. Salvi, G.M. SeigelAbstractThe cochlear nucleus, located in the brainstem, receives its afferent auditory input exclusively from the auditory nerve fibers of the ipsilateral cochlea. Noise-induced neurodegenerative changes occurring in the auditory nerve stimulate a cascade of neuroplastic changes in the cochlear nucleus resulting in major changes in synaptic structure and function. To identify some of the key molecular mechanisms mediating this synaptic reorganization, we unilaterally exposed rats to a high int...
Source: Neuroscience - December 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

MiR-34c ameliorates neuropathic pain by targeting NLRP3 in a mouse model of chronic constriction injury
Publication date: Available online 26 December 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Lijuan Xu, Qixing Wang, Wei Jiang, Shunzhi Yu, Shouqin ZhangAbstractMicroRNAs have been reported to be an important pathophysiological factor in neuropathic pain. However, the potential mechanism through which miRNAs function in neuropathic pain remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential role of mir-34c in neuropathic pain in a mouse model of chronic sciatic nerve injury (CCI). We found that overexpression of miR-34c greatly alleviated CCI-induced neuropathic pain and spinal cord infarction, and reduced cell apopt...
Source: Neuroscience - December 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Changes in Functional Properties of Rat Hippocampal Neurons Following Pentilententrazole-Induced Status Epilepticus
Publication date: Available online 26 December 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Tatyana Y. Postnikova, Dmitry V. Amakhin, Alina M. Trofimova, Ilya V. Smolensky, Aleksey V. ZaitsevAbstractPathophysiological remodeling processes following status epilepticus (SE) play a critical role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy but have not yet been not fully investigated. In the present study, we examined changes in intrinsic properties of pyramidal neurons, basal excitatory synaptic transmission, and short-term synaptic plasticity in hippocampal slices of rats after SE. Seizures were induced in 3-week-old rats by an intraperitoneal...
Source: Neuroscience - December 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation primarily affects otolith-mediated motion perception
In conclusion, nGVS appears to primarily impact otolith-mediated perception whilst only mildly affecting the SCCs. Thus, this stimulation approach could be a complementary candidate to vestibular implants that are currently limited to SCC-mediated vestibular function. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - December 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

c-Jun/Bim Upregulation in Dopaminergic Neurons Promotes Neurodegeneration in the MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson’s disease
Publication date: Available online 25 December 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Kunhua Hu, Qiaoying Huang, Chong Liu, Yongyi Li, Yueyue Liu, Hao Wang, Mingtao Li, Shanshan MaAbstractParkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The proapoptotic BH3-only protein Bim has been reported to be involved in dopaminergic neurodegeneration of experimental PD. However, an in situ expression profile of Bim in PD has not been performed, and the cell types of which Bim accounts for PD pathogenesis...
Source: Neuroscience - December 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Microglia and the Purinergic Signaling System
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Stefano Calovi, Paula Mut-Arbona, Beáta SperlághAbstractMicroglia are the main resident immune-competent cell type of the central nervous system (CNS); these cells are highly sensitive to subtle changes in the chemical environment of the brain. Microglia are activated during diverse conditions, such as apoptosis, trauma, inflammation, and infection. The specific activities of microglia result from the confluence of environmental stimuli and the cellular state. It is likely that several signaling systems with different biological...
Source: Neuroscience - December 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Reduced SNAP25 protein fragmentation contributes to SNARE complex dysregulation in schizophrenia postmortem brain
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Alfredo Ramos-Miguel, Kristina Gicas, Jehan Alamri, Clare L. Beasley, Andrew J. Dwork, J. John Mann, Gorazd Rosoklija, Fang Cai, Weihong Song, Alasdair M. Barr, William G. HonerAbstractRecent studies associated schizophrenia with enhanced functionality of the presynaptic SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) complex. Altered degradation pathways of the three core SNARE proteins: synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25), syntaxin-1 and vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) could contribute to enh...
Source: Neuroscience - December 21, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Acoustic middle-ear-muscle-reflex thresholds in humans with normal audiograms: No relations to tinnitus, speech perception in noise, or noise exposure
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Hannah Guest, Kevin J. Munro, Christopher J. PlackAbstractThe acoustic middle-ear-muscle reflex (MEMR) has been suggested as a sensitive non-invasive measure of cochlear synaptopathy, the loss of synapses between inner hair cells and auditory nerve fibers. In the present study, clinical MEMR thresholds were measured for 1-, 2-, and 4-kHz tonal elicitors, using a procedure shown to produce thresholds with excellent reliability. MEMR thresholds of 19 participants with tinnitus and normal audiograms were compared to those of 19 age- and sex-matc...
Source: Neuroscience - December 21, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

PARP inhibitor affects long-term heat-stress response via changes in DNA methylation
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Tomer Cramer, Tali Rosenberg, Tatiana Kisliouk, Noam MeiriAbstractResilience to stress can be obtained by adjusting the stress-response set point during postnatal sensory development. Recent studies have implemented epigenetic mechanisms to play leading roles in improving resilience. We previously found that better resilience to heat stress in chicks can be achieved by conditioning them to moderate heat stress during their critical developmental period of thermal control establishment, 3 days posthatch. Furthermore, the expression level of co...
Source: Neuroscience - December 21, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research