aPKC-mediated persistent increase in AMPA/NMDA ratio in the VTA participates in the neuroadaptive signal necessary to induce NAc synaptic plasticity after cocaine administration
Publication date: Available online 21 September 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Ana del C. Vaquer-Alicea, Rafael Vázquez-Torres, Marcos Devarie-Hornedo, Juan C. Vicenty-Padilla, Bermary Santos-Vera, Cristina María-Ríos, Maria E. Vélez-Hernández, Todd Sacktor, Carlos A. Jiménez-RiveraAbstractChronic cocaine exposure produces enduring neuroadaptations in the brain’s reward system. Persistence of early cocaine evoked neuroadaptations in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are necessary for later synaptic alterations in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), suggesting ...
Source: Neuroscience - September 21, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Multisensory Integration in Short-term Memory: Musicians do Rock
Publication date: Available online 29 April 2017Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Avigael M. Aizenman, Jason M. Gold, Robert SekulerAbstractDemonstrated interactions between seeing and hearing led us to assess the link between music training and short-term memory for auditory, visual and audiovisual sequences of rapidly presented, quasi-random components. Visual sequences’ components varied in luminance; auditory sequences’ components varied in frequency. Concurrent components in audiovisual sequences were either congruent (the frequency of an auditory item increased monotonically with the luminance of the visual ...
Source: Neuroscience - September 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Normal Aging Slows Spontaneous Switching in Auditory and Visual Bistability
Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Hirohito M. Kondo, Takanori KochiyamaAbstractAge-related changes in auditory and visual perception have an impact on the quality of life. It has been debated how perceptual organization is influenced by advancing age. From the neurochemical perspective, we investigated age effects on auditory and visual bistability. In perceptual bistability, a sequence of sensory inputs induces spontaneous switching between different perceptual objects. We used different modality tasks of auditory streaming and visual plaids. Young and middle-aged participants (20...
Source: Neuroscience - September 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Myelin breakdown in human Huntington’s disease: Multi-modal evidence from diffusion MRI and quantitative magnetization transfer
This study investigated HD-related effects on a putative marker of myelin, the macromolecular proton fraction (MMPF) from quantitative magnetization transfer and on fractional anisotropy, axial and radial diffusivity from diffusion tensor MR-imaging. Microstructural differences were studied in WM pathways of the basal ganglia and motor systems known to be impaired in HD: the corpus callosum, the cortico-spinal tract, the anterior thalamic radiation, fibers between prefrontal cortex and caudate and between supplementary motor area and putamen. Principal component analysis was employed for dimensionality reduction. Patients ...
Source: Neuroscience - September 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

STDP Allows Close-to-Optimal Spatiotemporal Spike Pattern Detection by Single Coincidence Detector Neurons
Publication date: Available online 29 June 2017Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Timothée MasquelierAbstractRepeating spatiotemporal spike patterns exist and carry information. How this information is extracted by downstream neurons is unclear. Here we theoretically investigate to what extent a single cell could detect a given spike pattern and what the optimal parameters to do so are, in particular the membrane time constant τ. Using a leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) neuron with homogeneous Poisson input, we computed this optimum analytically. We found that a relatively small τ (at most a few tens of ms) is usu...
Source: Neuroscience - September 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Auditory and visual sequence learning in humans and monkeys using an artificial grammar learning paradigm
Publication date: Available online 5 July 2017Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Alice E. Milne, Christopher I. Petkov, Benjamin WilsonAbstractLanguage flexibly supports the human ability to communicate using different sensory modalities, such as writing and reading in the visual modality and speaking and listening in the auditory domain. Although it has been argued that nonhuman primate communication abilities are inherently multisensory, direct behavioural comparisons between human and nonhuman primates are scant. Artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks and statistical learning experiments can be used to emulate ordering rel...
Source: Neuroscience - September 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Electrophysiological correlates of speaker segregation and foreground-background selection in ambiguous listening situations
Publication date: Available online 20 July 2017Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Katharina Gandras, Sabine Grimm, Alexandra BendixenAbstractIn everyday listening environments, a main task for our auditory system is to follow one out of multiple speakers talking simultaneously. The present study was designed to find electrophysiological indicators of two central processes involved – segregating the speech mixture into distinct speech sequences corresponding to the two speakers, and then attending to one of the speech sequences. We generated multistable speech stimuli that were set up to create ambiguity as to whether onl...
Source: Neuroscience - September 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroimaging techniques to assess inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis
Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Silvia Tommasin, Costanza Giannì, Laura De Giglio, Patrizia PantanoAbstractMultiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease that represents a leading cause of disability in young adults and is characterized by inflammation and degeneration of both white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM). Defining the presence or absence of inflammation on individual basis is a key point in choosing the therapy and monitoring the treatment response.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents the most sensitive non-invasive tool to monitor inflammati...
Source: Neuroscience - September 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Great Expectations: Is there Evidence for Predictive Coding in Auditory Cortex?
Publication date: Available online 4 August 2017Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Micha Heilbron, Maria ChaitAbstractPredictive coding is possibly one of the most influential, comprehensive, and controversial theories of neural function. While proponents praise its explanatory potential, critics object that key tenets of the theory are untested or even untestable. The present article critically examines existing evidence for predictive coding in the auditory modality. Specifically, we identify five key assumptions of the theory and evaluate each in the light of animal, human and modeling studies of auditory pattern processing...
Source: Neuroscience - September 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Effect of Contact Force on the Responses of Tactile Nerve Fibers to Scanned Textures
Publication date: Available online 23 August 2017Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Hannes P. Saal, Aneesha K. Suresh, Lidia E. Solorzano, Alison I. Weber, Sliman J. BensmaiaAbstractThe perception of fine textures relies on highly precise and repeatable spiking patterns evoked in tactile afferents. These patterns have been shown to depend not only on the surface microstructure and material but also on the speed at which it moves across the skin. Interestingly, the perception of texture is independent of scanning speed, implying the existence of downstream neural mechanisms that correct for scanning speed in interpreting textur...
Source: Neuroscience - September 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Automatic Frequency-Shift Detection in the Auditory System: A Review of Psychophysical Findings
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Laurent Demany, Catherine SemalAbstractThe human brain has the task of binding successive sounds produced by the same acoustic source into a coherent perceptual stream, and binding must be selective when several sources are concurrently active. Binding appears to obey a principle of spectral proximity: pure tones close in frequency are more likely to be bound than pure tones with remote frequencies. It has been hypothesized that the binding process is realized by automatic “frequency-shift detectors” (FSDs), comparable to the dete...
Source: Neuroscience - September 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Glutamate-glutamine transfer and chronic stress-induced sex differences in cocaine responses
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Akiko Shimamoto, Virginie Rappeneau, Havisha Munjal, Tonie Farris, Christopher Davis, Alicia Wilson, Malcolm Edwards, Cindy Moore, Collin Reynolds, Charles K. MeshulAbstractSubstance use disorders (SUD) often co-occur with other mental disorders such as major depression (MD). Our previous findings revealed sex-dependent changes in extracellular levels of glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in Long-Evans rats that were exposed to 21 days of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), which models MD. The current study ...
Source: Neuroscience - September 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Modulation of motor learning capacity by transcranial alternating current stimulation
Publication date: Available online 20 September 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Hisato Sugata, Kazuhiro Yagi, Shogo Yazawa, Yasunori Nagase, Kazuhito Tsuruta, Takashi Ikeda, Kojiro Matsushita, Masayuki Hara, Kenji Kawakami, Keisuke KawakamiAbstractMotor function can be modulated by transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) in alpha, beta, and high-gamma frequencies. However, few studies have investigated tACS-induced behavioral changes in combination with endogenous oscillatory neural activity in detail. Herein, we investigated the effect of tACS on motor learning capacity and endogenous oscillatory neural act...
Source: Neuroscience - September 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Rationale and Efficacy of Sound Therapies for Tinnitus and Hyperacusis
Publication date: Available online 20 September 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Martin PienkowskiAbstractSound therapies are a common component of treatments for tinnitus and hyperacusis. The original idea was to partially or completely mask tinnitus with broadband noise delivered by sound generators or hearing aids, for a few hours each day. Over several months, many patients reported that their tinnitus became quieter or easier to bear, and that loud sounds became less aversive. However, it wasn’t always clear that these benefits could be attributed to sound therapy rather than to other aspects of treatment, suc...
Source: Neuroscience - September 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Glutamatergic Projections to the Cochlear Nucleus are Redistributed in Tinnitus
Publication date: Available online 18 September 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Amarins N. Heeringa, Calvin Wu, Christopher Chung, Michael West, David Martel, Leslie Liberman, M. Charles Liberman, Susan E. ShoreAbstractTinnitus alters auditory-somatosensory plasticity in the cochlear nucleus (CN). Correspondingly, bimodal auditory-somatosensory stimulation treatment attenuates tinnitus, both in animals and humans (Marks et al., 2018). Therefore, we hypothesized that tinnitus is associated with altered somatosensory innervation of the CN. Here, we studied the expression of vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 (VGLUT1...
Source: Neuroscience - September 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Src is Implicated in Hepatic Ischemia Reperfusion-Induced Hippocampus Injury and Long-Term Cognitive Impairment in Young Mice via NMDA Receptor Subunit 2A Activation
In this study, we found that serum biomarkers of brain injury (S100β and NSE) increased significantly and reached highest after reperfusion of 3 days which had the same trend with the levels of p-Src and p-NR2A. Interactions between Src and NR2A or PSD95 were increased after HIR. Hippocampal neuron apoptosis was increased, and long-term cognitive impairment was found after reperfusion of 1 month. Inhibition of Src and NR2A with PP2 and NVP-AAM077 respectively not only down-regulated the levels of p-Src and p-NR2A, but also ameliorated hippocampal neurons apoptosis and long-term cognitive impairment after HIR. Seru...
Source: Neuroscience - September 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The short-term effect of slope walking on soleus H-reflexes in people with Multiple Sclerosis
Publication date: Available online 15 September 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Maruf M. Hoque, Manning J. Sabatier, Michael Borich, Trisha Kesar, Deborah BackusAbstractDownslope walking (DSW) causes H-reflex depression in healthy adults, and thus may hold promise for inducing spinal reflex plasticity in people with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS). The study purpose was to test the hypothesis that DSW will cause acute depression of spinal excitability in PwMS. Soleus H-reflexes were measured in PwMS (n=18) before and after 20 minutes of treadmill walking during three visits. Participants walked on a different slope each visit...
Source: Neuroscience - September 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-d-pyranoside (a salidroside analog) confers neuroprotection with a wide therapeutic window by regulating local glucose metabolism in a rat model of cerebral ischemic injury
Publication date: Available online 15 September 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Shu Yu, Hui Xu, Xiaojing Chi, Li Wei, Qiong Cheng, Yumin Yang, Chun Zhou, Fei DingAbstract2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)ethyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-pyranoside (salidroside analog-4 g, SalA-4 g), has been shown neuroprotective prospects for the treatment of ischemic stroke. However, the dose-response and time window study for SalA-4 g, and the mechanism of SalA-4 g-mediated neuroprotection remain unclear. Here, we systematically investigated the therapeutic time window and dosage of SalA-4 g in permanent focal cerebral ischemia in rats. SalA-4 g ...
Source: Neuroscience - September 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Initial uncertainty impacts statistical learning in sound sequence processing
Publication date: Available online 19 May 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Juanita Todd, Alexander Provost, Lisa Whitson, Daniel MullensAbstractThis paper features two studies confirming a lasting impact of first learning on how subsequent experience is weighted in early relevance-filtering processes. In both studies participants were exposed to sequences of sound that contained a regular pattern on two different timescales. Regular patterning in sound is readily detected by the auditory system and used to form “prediction models” that define the most likely properties of sound to be encountered in a given co...
Source: Neuroscience - September 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Early Behavioural Facilitation by Temporal Expectations in Complex Visual-motor Sequences
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Simone G. Heideman, Freek van Ede, Anna C. NobreAbstractIn daily life, temporal expectations may derive from incidental learning of recurring patterns of intervals. We investigated the incidental acquisition and utilisation of combined temporal-ordinal (spatial/effector) structure in complex visual-motor sequences using a modified version of a serial reaction time (SRT) task. In this task, not only the series of targets/responses, but also the series of intervals between subsequent targets was repeated across multiple presentations of the same seq...
Source: Neuroscience - September 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dorsal cochlear nucleus fusiform-cell plasticity is altered in salicylate-induced tinnitus
Publication date: Available online 12 September 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): David T. Martel, Thibaut R. Pardo-Garcia, Susan E. ShoreAbstractFollowing noise overexposure and tinnitus-induction, fusiform cells of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) show increased spontaneous firing rates (SFR), increased spontaneous synchrony and altered stimulus-timing dependent plasticity (StDP), which correlate with behavioral measures of tinnitus. Sodium salicylate, the active ingredient in aspirin, which is commonly used to induce tinnitus, increases SFR and activates NMDA receptors in the ascending auditory pathway. NMDA receptor ...
Source: Neuroscience - September 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Kainate receptors play a role in modulating synaptic transmission in the olfactory bulb
Publication date: Available online 11 September 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Laura J. Blakemore, John T. Corthell, Paul Q. TrombleyAbstractGlutamate is the neurotransmitter used at most excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain, including those in the olfactory bulb (OB). There, ionotropic glutamate receptors including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) play a role in processes such as reciprocal inhibition and glomerular synchronization. Kainate receptors (KARs) represent another type of ionotropic glutamate receptor, which are c...
Source: Neuroscience - September 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural mechanisms of material perception: quest on Shitsukan
Publication date: Available online 11 September 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Hidehiko Komatsu, Naokazu GodaAbstractIn recent years, a growing body of research has addressed the nature and mechanism of material perception. Material perception entails perceiving and recognizing a material, surface quality or internal state of an object based on sensory stimuli such as visual, tactile, and/or auditory sensations. This process is ongoing in every aspect of daily life. We can, for example, easily distinguish whether an object is made of wood or metal, or whether a surface is rough or smooth. Judging whether the ground is ...
Source: Neuroscience - September 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Src is implicated in hepatic ischemia reperfusion induced hippocampus injury and long term cognitive impairment in young mice via NMDA receptor subunit 2A activation
In this study, we found that serum biomarkers of brain injury (S100β and NSE) increased significantly and reached highest after reperfusion of 3 days which had the same trend with the levels of p-Src and p-NR2A. Interactions between Src and NR2A or PSD95 were increased after HIR. Hippocampal neurons apoptosis was increased, and long term cognitive impairment was found after reperfusion of 1 month. Inhibition of Src and NR2A with PP2 and NVP-AAM077 respectively not only down-regulated the levels of p-Src and p-NR2A, but also ameliorated hippocampal neurons apoptosis and long term cognitive impairment after HIR. Serum a...
Source: Neuroscience - September 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dynamic top-down configuration by the core control system during working memory
Publication date: Available online 9 September 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Xiaotong Wen, Hailing Wang, Zhenghao Liu, Chenghua Liu, Kang Li, Mingzhou Ding, Xia WuAbstractThe central executive system (CES) may be the most fundamental yet least understood component of working memory. There is an ongoing debate about which brain regions underlie the top-down regulation of CES during working memory tasks. The neural substrates and regulatory mechanisms of CES remain controversial partly because few previous studies have been focused on comprehensive activation and deactivation joint analysis on all systems involved in al...
Source: Neuroscience - September 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Block of dendrodendritic inhibition unleashes widely spread lateral propagation of odor-evoked activity in the mouse olfactory bulb
Publication date: Available online 9 September 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Mengjuan Shang, Junling XingAbstractThe olfactory circuitry in mice involves a well-characterized, vertical receptor type-specific organization, but the localized inhibitory effect from granule cells on action potentials that propagate laterally in secondary dendrites remains open to debate. To understand the functional dynamics of the lateral (horizontal) circuits, we analyzed odor-induced signaling using transgenic mice expressing a genetically encoded Ca2+ indicator specifically in mitral/tufted and some juxtaglomerular cells. Optical imag...
Source: Neuroscience - September 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Hypoglossal Motor Neuron Death Via Intralingual CTB–saporin (CTB–SAP) Injections Mimic Aspects of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Related to Dysphagia
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Lori A. Lind, Erika R. Murphy, Teresa E. Lever, Nicole L. NicholsAbstractAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease leading to degeneration of motor neurons and skeletal muscles, including those required for swallowing. Tongue weakness is one of the earliest signs of bulbar dysfunction in ALS, which is attributed to degeneration of motor neurons in the hypoglossal nucleus in the brainstem, the axons of which directly innervate the tongue. Despite its fundamental importance, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) and strategies to...
Source: Neuroscience - September 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Distinct Roles of Dorsal and Ventral Visual Systems in Naming of Chinese Characters
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Wei Zhou, Zhichao Xia, George K. Georgiou, Hua ShuAbstractWe aimed to investigate the role of dorsal and ventral visual systems in rapid naming of simple Chinese characters. Twenty college students (10 female; Mage = 22.5 years) were required to covertly read a character- and a cross-matrix during an fMRI experiment. A basic prosaccade and a prosaccade-naming task was also performed to confirm the functional significance of the findings. The results of whole brain analysis showed that both dorsal and ventral visual systems were activate...
Source: Neuroscience - September 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Etidronate–zinc Complex Ameliorated Cognitive and Synaptic Plasticity Impairments in 2-Vessel Occlusion Model Rats by Reducing Neuroinflammation
In this study, the novel drug etidronate–zinc complex (Eti–Zn) was used to detect its role in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory functions in a rat model of 2-VO. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was induced by permanent occlusion of the common carotid artery bilaterally in adult Sprague–Dawley rats. Eti–Zn (20 mg/kg/day, tail vein injection) was administered for 7 days after a two-week operation. After treatment, a series of tests were carried out. Here, we found that Eti–Zn could reduce spatial learning and memory impairments in 2-VO model rats via the Morris water maze test. We a...
Source: Neuroscience - September 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate inhibits MPTP-induced neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity
Publication date: Available online 6 September 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Ying Zhou, Junchao Wu, Rui Sheng, Mei Li, Yan Wang, Rong Han, Feng Han, Zhong Chen, Zheng-Hong QinAbstractIt is generally believed that oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) has been demonstrated to have potent neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress. In the present research, we investigated if NADPH could offer neuroprotection by inhibiting glia-mediated neuroinflammation induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tet...
Source: Neuroscience - September 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Aldosterone mediated regulation of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) subunits in the rat hypothalamus
In this study, the effects of aldosterone and corticosterone on ENaC were examined in acute hypothalamic slices. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that aldosterone and corticosterone treatment resulted in a significant increase in the expression of γENaC, but not α- or βENaC, and that this expression was attenuated by MR and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonists. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that the aldosterone-MR complex directly interacts with the promoter region of the γENaC gene. However, the treatment with aldosterone did not cause subcellular translocati...
Source: Neuroscience - September 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Locomotor training promotes time-dependent functional recovery after experimental spinal cord contusion
ConclusionsLate onset of LT promoted an increment of the hindlimb function, while early onset of training worsened the functional recovery of the SCI animals. These results demonstrate a critical LT starting time after the injury, contributing to define the best therapeutic window for rehabilitation. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - September 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

SNHG12 promotes angiogenesis following ischemic stroke via regulating miR-150/VEGF pathway
In conclusion, SNHG12 promotes the angiogenesis following ischemic stroke via miR-150/VEGF pathway, which further clarified the mechanism of angiogenesis after ischemic stroke and provides a target for the treatment of this disease. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - September 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Variability in the vestibulo-ocular reflex and vestibular perception
Publication date: Available online 4 September 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Sirine Nouri, Faisal KarmaliAbstractThe vestibular system enables humans to estimate self-motion, stabilize gaze and maintain posture, but these behaviors are impacted by neural noise at all levels of processing (e.g., sensory, central, motor). Despite its essential importance, the behavioral impact of noise in human vestibular pathways is not completely understood. Here, we characterize the vestibular imprecision that results from neural noise by measuring trial-to-trial vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) variability and perceptual just-noticeabl...
Source: Neuroscience - September 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Brain Stem Neural Circuits of Horizontal and Vertical Saccade Systems and Their Frame of Reference
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Mayu Takahashi, Yoshikazu ShinodaAbstractSensory signals for eye movements (visual and vestibular) are initially coded in different frames of reference but finally translated into common coordinates, and share the same final common pathway, namely the same population of extraocular motoneurons. From clinical studies in humans and lesion studies in animals, it is generally accepted that voluntary saccadic eye movements are organized in horizontal and vertical Cartesian coordinates. However, this issue is not settled yet, because neural circuit...
Source: Neuroscience - September 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Hypoglossal motor neuron death via intralingual CTB-saporin (CTB-SAP) injections mimic aspects of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) related to dysphagia
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Lori A. Lind, Erika R. Murphy, Teresa E. Lever, Nicole L. NicholsAbstractAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease leading to degeneration of motor neurons and skeletal muscles, including those required for swallowing. Tongue weakness is one of the earliest signs of bulbar dysfunction in ALS, which is attributed to degeneration of motor neurons in the hypoglossal nucleus in the brainstem, the axons of which directly innervate the tongue. Despite its fundamental importance, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) and strategies to...
Source: Neuroscience - September 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Adolescent stress disrupts the maturation of anxiety-related behaviors and alters the developmental trajectory of the prefrontal cortex in a sex- and age-specific manner
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Chloe E. Page, Laurence CoutellierAbstractAdolescence is a window of vulnerability to environmental factors such as chronic stress that can disrupt brain development and cause long-lasting behavioral dysfunction, as seen in disorders like depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. There are also sex differences in the prevalence of these disorders across the lifespan. However, the mechanisms of how adolescent stress contributes to neuropsychiatric phenotypes are not well understood, nor are the mediating effects of sex. We hypothesize that adole...
Source: Neuroscience - September 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Stress adaptation upregulates oxytocin within hypothalamo-vagal neurocircuits
Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Yanyan Jiang, F. Holly Coleman, Kim Kopenhaver Doheny, R. Alberto TravagliAbstractStress plays a pivotal role in the development and/or exacerbation of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) contains neurons that are part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as well as preautonomic neurons innervating, among other areas, gastric-projecting preganglionic neurons of the dorsal vagal complex (DVC). The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that stress adaptation upregul...
Source: Neuroscience - September 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Etidronate-zinc complex ameliorated cognitive and synaptic plasticity impairments in 2-vessel occlusion model rats by reducing neuroinflammation
In this study, the novel drug etidronate-zinc complex (Eti-Zn) was used to detect its role in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory functions in a rat model of 2-VO. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was induced by permanent occlusion of the common carotid artery bilaterally in adult Sprague Dawley rats. Eti-Zn (20 mg/kg/day, tail vein injection) was administered for 7 days after a two-week operation. After treatment, a series of tests were carried out. Here, we found that Eti-Zn could reduce spatial learning and memory impairments in 2-VO model rats via the Morris water maze test. We also found that animals treated wit...
Source: Neuroscience - September 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

SThe distinct roles of dorsal and ventral visual systems in naming of Chinese characters
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Wei Zhou, Zhichao Xia, George K. Georgiou, Hua ShuAbstractWe aimed to investigate the role of dorsal and ventral visual systems in rapid naming of simple Chinese characters. Twenty college students (10 female; Mage = 22.5 years) were required to covertly read a character- and a cross-matrix during an fMRI experiment. A basic prosaccade and a prosaccade-naming task was also performed to confirm the functional significance of the findings. The results of whole brain analysis showed that both dorsal and ventral visual systems were activated in t...
Source: Neuroscience - September 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Synergistic transcriptional changes in AMPA and GABAA receptor genes support compensatory plasticity following unilateral hearing loss
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): P. Balaram, T.A. Hackett, D.B. PolleyAbstractDebilitating perceptual disorders including tinnitus, hyperacusis, phantom limb pain and visual release hallucinations may reflect aberrant patterns of neural activity in central sensory pathways following a loss of peripheral sensory input. Here, we explore short- and long-term changes in gene expression that may contribute to hyperexcitability following a sudden, profound loss of auditory input to one ear. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization to quantify mRNA levels for genes encoding AMPA ...
Source: Neuroscience - September 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Alterations In The Activity Of Spinal And Thalamic Opioid Systems In A Mice Neuropathic Pain Model
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Ewelina Rojewska, Agnieszka Wawrzczak-Bargiela, Edina Szucs, Sandor Benyhe, Joanna Starnowska, Joanna Mika, Ryszard Przewlocki, Barbara PrzewlockaAbstractClinical studies have reported lower effectivity of opioid drugs in therapy of neuropathic pain. Therefore, to determine the changes in endogenous opioid systems in this pain more precisely, we have studied the changes in the pain-related behaviour on days 1, 14, and 28 following a chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve in mice. In parallel, we have studied the changes of -(M...
Source: Neuroscience - September 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Differential effects of extended exercise and memantine treatment on adult neurogenesis in male and female rats
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Shaina P. Cahill, John Darby Cole, Ru Qi Yu, Jack Clemans-Gibbon, Jason S. SnyderAbstractAdult neurogenesis has potential to ameliorate a number of disorders that negatively impact the hippocampus, including age-related cognitive decline, depression, and schizophrenia. A number of treatments enhance adult neurogenesis including exercise, NMDA receptor antagonism, antidepressant drugs and environmental enrichment. Despite the chronic nature of many disorders, most animal studies have only examined the efficacy of neurogenic treatments over sho...
Source: Neuroscience - September 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 silencing on astroglial inflammasomes in an experimental model of ischemic stroke
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of ASK1 in controlling NLRP2 inflammasomes in astrocytes after cerebral ischemia. In a mouse model of ischemic stroke, the levels of NLRP2 inflammasome components, and interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, were quantified in different brain regions. In addition, an astrocyte cell line was subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R) injury, and the levels of NLRP2 inflammasome factors, IL-1β and IL-18 were evaluated. Ischemic brain injury activated astrocytes. The levels of NLRP2 inflammasome components, IL-1β and IL-18 productions, and ...
Source: Neuroscience - September 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Apelin-13 upregulates BDNF against chronic stress-induced depression-like phenotypes by ameliorating HPA axis and hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor dysfunctions
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Ting-Ting Dai, Bo Wang, Zhi-Yong Xiao, Yong You, Shao-Wen TianAbstractLocalization of apelin and its receptor APJ in limbic structures such as the hippocampus suggests potential involvement of apelin/APJ signalling in stress-related emotional responses. We have recently reported that apelin-13 exerts antidepressant-like actions in acute stressed rats, and that the hippocampus is a critical brain region mediating its actions. However, the neural mechanism underling antidepressant-like actions of apelin-13 is still largely unknown. The aim of the...
Source: Neuroscience - August 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The central amygdala corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons modulation of anxiety-like behavior and hippocampus-dependent memory in mice
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Tanvi Paretkar, Eugene DimitrovAbstractThe encoding, consolidation and retrieval of memories is a multifaceted process that depends strongly on the optimal level of arousal but high levels of arousal may trigger anxiety, which negatively impacts the memory processing by the brain. We investigated the role of CRH neurons in the central amygdala (CeA) for their capacity to modulate both, the anxiety-like behavior and hippocampus-dependent memory. First, we activated the CRH neurons in CeA using cre-dependent AAV-DREADD in CRH-cre mice. The activa...
Source: Neuroscience - August 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of Peripheral Immune Challenge on In Vivo Firing of Basolateral Amygdala Neurons in Adult Male Rats
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Soumyabrata Munshi, J. Amiel RosenkranzAbstractPeripheral inflammation often causes changes in mood and emergence of depressive behavior, and is characterized by a group of physical manifestations including lethargy, malaise, listlessness, decreased appetite, anhedonia, and fever. These behavioral changes are induced at the molecular level by pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a key brain region involved in mood and may mediate some of the behavioral effects of infla...
Source: Neuroscience - August 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Overexpression of the Thyroid Hormone-Responsive (THRSP) Gene in the Striatum Leads to the Development of Inattentive-like Phenotype in Mice
Publication date: Available online 21 August 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Raly James Perez Custodio, Chrislean Jun Botanas, June Bryan de la Pena, Irene Joy dela Pena, Mikyung Kim, Leandro Val Sayson, Arvie Abiero, Zae Young Ryoo, Bung-Nyun Kim, Hee Jin Kim, Jae Hoon CheongAbstractAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects 8–12% of children globally. Factor analyses have divided ADHD symptoms into two domains: inattention and a combination of hyperactivity and impulsivity. The identification of domain-specific genetic risk variants may help uncover potential ge...
Source: Neuroscience - August 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Nodes of Ranvier in glaucoma
Publication date: Available online 25 August 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): M.A. Smith, E.S. Plyler, C.M. Dengler-Crish, J. Meier, S.D. CrishAbstractRetinal ganglion cell axons of the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma, a model characterized by extensive neuroinflammation, preserve synaptic contacts with their subcortical targets for a time after onset of anterograde axonal transport deficits, axon terminal hypertrophy, and cytoskeletal alterations. Though retrograde axonal transport is still evident in these axons, it is unknown if they retain their ability to transmit visual information to the brain. Using a combination ...
Source: Neuroscience - August 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Glial-cytokine-neuronal Adaptations in the Ventral Hippocampus of Rats with Affective Behavioral Changes Following Peripheral Nerve Injury
In this study we evaluated whether radial maze behavioral disruptions and glia-cytokine-neuronal adaptations in the hippocampus occurred in individual rats after nerve injury. Exploration behavior and spatial memory were quantified using a radial maze task, while mechanical allodynia was assessed using von Frey testing. Sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) reduced withdrawal thresholds in all rats, while pellet-seeking behaviors were altered in some but not all rats. One group, termed ‘No effect’, had no behavioral changes compared to sham rats. Another group, termed ‘Acute effect’, had a...
Source: Neuroscience - August 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research