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Sleep behavior and EEG oscillations in aged Dp(16)1Yey/+mice: a Down syndrome model.
In this study, sleep and electroencephalography (EEG) oscillations were recorded from aged (12-14 mos.) Dp(16)1Yey/+ mice (Dp16), a mouse model of DS. We observed disrupted sleep demonstrated by increased activity during the dark phase and increased time awake at the expense of NREM sleep compared to wild-type mice. In addition, we found that Dp16 mice display significant differences in relative EEG power distribution among oscillation frequencies in both sleep and awake states. These results in Dp16 mice are consistent with sleep disturbances found in individuals with DS, and the abnormal EEG oscillations in aged Dp16 mic...
Source: Neuroscience - February 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Brain Mechanisms Underlying Reading the Mind from Eyes, Voice, and Actions
Publication date: 15 March 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 374 Author(s): Melissa D. Thye, Donna L. Murdaugh, Rajesh K. Kana Evidence from cognitive and social neuroscience research suggests that Theory of Mind (ToM), the ability to attribute mental states to others, is mediated by a group of brain regions collectively known as the ToM network. Nevertheless, there is significant variability in the functional activation of regions within this network across tasks. The goal of the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to examine the common and differential neural mechanisms of two aspects of ToM pr...
Source: Neuroscience - February 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Inflammation as a possible link between dyslipidemia and Alzheimer ’s disease
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018 Source:Neuroscience Author(s): Bruno Cabral de Lima Oliveira, Paula Maria Quaglio Bellozi, Helton José Reis, Antônio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia worldwide. This pathological condition is characterized not only by Aβ and tau accumulation in the central nervous system (CNS), but also by inflammation, processes that can lead to neurodegeneration. Besides that, other factors may contribute to the development of AD, such as dyslipidemias. Changes in lipid levels can either influence the activity of en...
Source: Neuroscience - February 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Speech Disfluency-dependent Amygdala Activity in Adults Who Stutter: Neuroimaging of Interpersonal Communication in MRI Scanner Environment
Publication date: 15 March 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 374 Author(s): Akira Toyomura, Tetsunoshin Fujii, Koichi Yokosawa, Shinya Kuriki Affective states, such as anticipatory anxiety, critically influence speech communication behavior in adults who stutter. However, there is currently little evidence regarding the involvement of the limbic system in speech disfluency during interpersonal communication. We designed this neuroimaging study and experimental procedure to sample neural activity during interpersonal communication between human participants, and to investigate the relationship between the amygdala activity ...
Source: Neuroscience - February 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Reveals Synaptic Dysfunction in the Amygdala of Rats Susceptible to Chronic Mild Stress
In this study, we used a chronic mild stress (CMS) protocol to separate susceptible and insusceptible rat subgroups. Proteomes in the amygdalae were analyzed differentially across subgroups based on labeling with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) combined with mass spectrometry. Of 2,562 quantified proteins, 102 were differentially expressed. Several proteins that might be associated with the stress insusceptibility/susceptibility difference, including synapse-related proteins, were identified in the amygdala. Immunoblot analysis identified changes in VGluT1, NMDA GluN2A and GluN2B and AMPA GluA1...
Source: Neuroscience - February 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Intrathecal injection of scAAV9-hIGF1 prolongs the survival of ALS model mice by inhibiting the NF-kB pathway
Publication date: Available online 12 February 2018 Source:Neuroscience Author(s): HaoJie Hu, HuiQian Lin, WeiSong Duan, Can Cui, ZhongYao Li, YaKun Liu, Wan Wang, Di Wen, Ying Wang, ChunYan Li Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a chronic, fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Currently, there is no effective drug for ALS. Recent studies in ALS model mice have shown that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) may be a promising therapeutic drug. We demonstrate that self-complementary adeno-associated virus serum type 9 encoding the human IGF1 (scAAV9-hIGF...
Source: Neuroscience - February 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dysfunctional Limbic Circuitry Underlying Freezing of Gait in Parkinson ’s Disease
This study provides the first evidence that dysfunctional fronto-striato-limbic processes may underpin the link between anxiety and FOG in PD. It is proposed that freezers have heightened striato-limbic load and reduced top-down attentional control at rest, which when further challenged by the parallel processing demands of walking may precipitate FOG. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - February 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Hippocampus and Hypothalamus RNA-sequencing of WFS1-deficient Mice
In conclusion, the transcriptomic profiles of WFS1-deficient hypothalamus and hippocampus do indicate the activation of degenerative molecular pathways causing the clinical occurrences typical to Wolfram syndrome. Graphical abstract (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - February 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cognitive Flexibility Deficits Following 6-OHDA Lesions of the Rat Dorsomedial Striatum
Publication date: 15 March 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 374 Author(s): Gena M. Grospe, Phillip M. Baker, Michael E. Ragozzino Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder marked by severe motor deficits and reduced striatal dopamine levels. PD patients also commonly exhibit cognitive flexibility impairments, e.g., probabilistic reversal learning deficits that limit daily living. However, less is known about how decreased striatal dopamine signaling affects cognitive flexibility. Past studies indicate that the rat dorsomedial striatum is a striatal subregion that supports cognitive flexibility. Becaus...
Source: Neuroscience - February 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Protective Effects of IGF-I against β-Amyloid-related Downregulation of Hippocampal Somatostatinergic System Involve Activation of Akt and Protein Kinase A
Publication date: 15 March 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 374 Author(s): David Aguado-Llera, Sandra Canelles, Laura M. Frago, Julie A. Chowen, Jesús Argente, Eduardo Arilla, Vicente Barrios Somatostatin (SRIF), a neuropeptide highly distributed in the hippocampus and involved in learning and memory, is markedly reduced in the brain of Alzheimer’s disease patients. The effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) against β amyloid (Aβ)-induced neuronal death and associated cognitive disorders have been extensively reported in experimental models of this disease. Here, we examined the effect of I...
Source: Neuroscience - February 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Blockade of Interleukin-7 Receptor Shapes Macrophage Alternative Activation and Promotes Functional Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury
Publication date: 10 February 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 371 Author(s): Changshun Bao, Bin Wang, Fubing Yang, Ligang Chen Macrophages are implicated in the pathological processes and functional recovery of spinal cord injury (SCI). Macrophage activation following inflammation depends on networks of interferons and cytokines. Recent evidence indicate that IL-7 signaling can influence the release of proinflammatory factors, however, its roles in modulating macrophage phenotype and function and whether it could affect the functional recovery of SCI are poorly understood. Here, we show that, in a murine SCI model, IL-7 ...
Source: Neuroscience - February 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Down-regulation of Inwardly Rectifying K+ Currents in Astrocytes Derived from Patients with Monge ’s Disease
In this study, we further characterize the electrophysiological properties of iPSC-derived astrocytes from CMS patients. We found that the current densities of the inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels in CMS astrocytes (−5.7 ± 2.2 pA/pF at −140 mV) were significantly decreased as compared to non-CMS (−28.4 ± 3.4 pA/pF at −140 mV) and sea level subjects (−28.3 ± 5.3 pA/pF at −140 mV). We further demonstrated that the reduced Kir current densities in CMS astrocytes were caused by their decreased protein expression of Kir4.1 and Kir2.3 ch...
Source: Neuroscience - February 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effect of Sirt2-specific Inhibitor AK-7 Against Acute Cerebral Ischemia is P38 Activation-dependent in Mice
In this study, we found that P38 was specifically activated after focal cerebral ischemic injury, and it was also significantly activated after AK-7 administration in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo. AK-7 decreased the infarction volume remarkably and promoted the recovery of neurological function efficiently in the mice evaluated by behavior tests. In contrast, pP38 inhibition increased the infarct volume and exacerbated the symptoms of paralysis. Herein, we suggest AK-7 improves the outcome of brain ischemia in dependence on the P38 activation in mice, which may serve as a strategy for the treatment...
Source: Neuroscience - February 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Volumetric Associations Between Amygdala, Nucleus Accumbens, and Socially Anxious Tendencies in Healthy Women
Publication date: 15 March 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 374 Author(s): Vivien Günther, Klas Ihme, Anette Kersting, Karl-Titus Hoffmann, Donald Lobsien, Thomas Suslow Socially anxious individuals report higher social fears and feelings of distress in interpersonal interactions. Structural neuroimaging studies indicate brain morphological abnormalities in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD), but findings are heterogeneous and partially discrepant. Studies on structural correlates of socially anxious tendencies in participants without clinical diagnoses are scarce. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging...
Source: Neuroscience - February 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

High-intensity Aerobic Exercise Blocks the Facilitation of iTBS-induced Plasticity in the Human Motor Cortex
Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 373 Author(s): Ashleigh E. Smith, Mitchell R. Goldsworthy, Fiona M. Wood, Timothy S. Olds, Tessa Garside, Michael C. Ridding Acute exercise studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can provide important insights into the mechanisms underpinning the positive relationship between regular engagement in physical activity and cortical neuroplasticity. Emerging evidence indicates that a single session of aerobic exercise can promote the response to an experimentally induced suppressive neuroplasticity paradigm; however, little is known about the neuroplasti...
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Induction of Anti-agrin Antibodies Causes Myasthenia Gravis in Mice
Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 373 Author(s): Min Yan, Ziyang Liu, Erkang Fei, Wenbing Chen, Xinsheng Lai, Bin Luo, Peng Chen, Hongyang Jing, Jin-xiu Pan, Michael H. Rivner, Wen-Cheng Xiong, Lin Mei Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Most cases of MG are caused by autoantibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4). Recent studies have identified anti-agrin antibodies in MG patients lacking these three antibodies (i.e., triple negative MG). Agrin i...
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tau Deficiency Down-Regulated Transcription Factor Orthodenticle Homeobox 2 Expression in the Dopaminergic Neurons in Ventral Tegmental Area and Caused No Obvious Motor Deficits in Mice
In this study, we examined motor functions and analyzed several proteins implicated in the maintenance of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons (mDANs) function of adult and aged tau+/+ , tau+/− , tau−/− mice. We found tau deficiency could not induce significant motor disorders. However, we discovered lower expression levels of transcription factors Orthodenticle homeobox 2 (OTX2) of mDANs in older aged mice. Compared with age-matched tau+/+ mice, there were 54.1% lower (p = 0.0192) OTX2 protein (OTX2-fluorescence intensity) in VTA DA neurons of tau+/− mice and 43.6% lower (p = 0.0249) OTX2 pro...
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Maintenance of the Innate Seizure Threshold by Cyclooxygenase-2 is Not Influenced by the Translational Silencer, T-cell Intracellular Antigen-1
Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 373 Author(s): Yifan Gong, James A. Hewett Activity of neuronal cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a primary source of PG synthesis in the normal brain, is enhanced by excitatory neurotransmission and this is thought to be involved in seizure suppression. Results herein showing that the incidence of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions is suppressed in transgenic mice overexpressing COX-2 in neurons support this notion. T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) is an mRNA binding protein that is known to bind to COX-2 mRNA and repress its translation in non-neuronal c...
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Profiles of β-Amyloid Peptides and Key Secretases in Brain Autopsy Samples Differ with Sex and APOE ε4 Status: Impact for Risk and Progression of Alzheimer Disease
Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 373 Author(s): Jennifer N.K. Nyarko, Maa O. Quartey, Paul R. Pennington, Ryan M. Heistad, Doris Dea, Judes Poirier, Glen B. Baker, Darrell D. Mousseau The APOE ε4 allele was originally reported to contribute to risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in women, yet male and female AD patient-derived data are routinely pooled. Histopathological hallmarks of AD include neurofibrillary tangles centered on hyperphosphorylated Tau and plaques composed of the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide that is derived by sequential secretase-mediated cleavage of the Amyloid ...
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Systemic or Forebrain Neuron-Specific Deficiency of Geranylgeranyltransferase-1 Impairs Synaptic Plasticity and Reduces Dendritic Spine Density
Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 373 Author(s): David Hottman, Shaowu Cheng, Andrea Gram, Kyle LeBlanc, Li-Lian Yuan, Ling Li Isoprenoids and prenylated proteins regulate a variety of cellular functions, including neurite growth and synaptic plasticity. Importantly, they are implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recently, we have shown that two protein prenyltransferases, farnesyltransferase (FT) and geranylgeranyltransferase-1 (GGT), have differential effects in a mouse model of AD. Haplodeficiency of either FT or GGT attenuates amyloid-&be...
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Oscillatory Synchronous Inhibition in the Basolateral Amygdala and its Primary Dependence on NR2A-containing NMDA Receptors
Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 373 Author(s): Vassiliki Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Volodymyr I. Pidoplichko, Taiza H. Figueiredo, Maria F.M. Braga Synchronous, rhythmic firing of GABAergic interneurons is a fundamental mechanism underlying the generation of brain oscillations, and evidence suggests that NMDA receptors (NMDARs) play a key role in oscillatory activity by regulating the activity of interneurons. Consistent with this, derangement of brain rhythms in certain neuropsychiatric disorders, notably schizophrenia and autism, is associated with NMDAR hypofunction and loss of inhibitory interneu...
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prevention of the Severity of Post-ischemic Inflammation and Brain Damage by Simultaneous Knockdown of Toll-like Receptors 2 and 4
This study thus shows that attenuation of the severity of TLR2- and TLR4-mediated post-stroke inflammation ameliorates ischemic brain damage. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Electro-olfactogram Responses Before and After Aversive Olfactory Conditioning in Humans
Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 373 Author(s): Annachiara Cavazzana, Sophia C. Poletti, Cagdas Guducu, Maria Larsson, Thomas Hummel The aim of the present study was to investigate whether repetitive aversive odor conditioning induced changes at the level of the peripheral olfactory system in humans. A total of 51 volunteers participated. A pair of indistinguishable odor enantiomers [(+)-rose oxide and (−)-rose oxide] were used as stimuli. During the pre-conditioning, participants’ ability to discriminate between the two odors was assessed using a three-alternative, forced-choice disc...
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Adolescent Social Stress Increases Anxiety-like Behavior and Alters Synaptic Transmission, Without Influencing Nicotine Responses, in a Sex-Dependent Manner
Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 373 Author(s): Michael J. Caruso, Nicole A. Crowley, Dana E. Reiss, Jasmine I. Caulfield, Bernhard Luscher, Sonia A. Cavigelli, Helen M. Kamens Early-life stress is a risk factor for comorbid anxiety and nicotine use. Because little is known about the factors underlying this comorbidity, we investigated the effects of adolescent stress on anxiety-like behavior and nicotine responses within individual animals. Adolescent male and female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to chronic variable social stress (CVSS; repeated cycles of social isolation + social reorganizatio...
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Two Weeks of Variable Stress Increases Gamma-H2AX Levels in the Mouse Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis
Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 373 Author(s): Brendan D. Hare, Tina M. Thornton, Mercedes Rincon, Borivoj Golijanin, S. Bradley King, Diane M. Jaworski, William A. Falls Recent reports demonstrate that DNA damage is induced, and rapidly repaired, in circuits activated by experience. Moreover, stress hormones are known to slow DNA repair, suggesting that prolonged stress may result in persistent DNA damage. Prolonged stress is known to negatively impact physical and mental health; however, DNA damage as a factor in stress pathology has only begun to be explored. Histone H2A-X phosphorylated at s...
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Brain-region-specific Molecular Responses to Maternal Separation and Social Defeat Stress in Mice
Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 373 Author(s): Benjamin D. Sachs, Ha L. Tran, Emily Folse, Marc G. Caron The association between stress and mental illness has been well documented, but the molecular consequences of repeated exposure to stress have not been completely identified. The present study sought to elucidate the combinatorial effects of early-life maternal separation stress and adult social defeat stress on alterations in signal transduction and gene expression that have been previously implicated in susceptibility to psychosocial stress. Molecular analyses were performed in the prelimbi...
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Surround Inhibition in the Primary Motor Cortex is Task-specifically Modulated in Non-professional Musicians but not in Healthy Controls During Real Piano Playing
Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 373 Author(s): Gonzalo Márquez, Martin Keller, Jesper Lundbye-Jensen, Wolfgang Taube Research has indicated that at the onset of a finger movement, unwanted contractions of adjacent muscles are prevented by inhibiting the cortical areas representing these muscles. This so-called surround inhibition (SI) seems relevant for the performance of selective finger movements but may not be necessary for tasks involving functional coupling between different finger muscles. Therefore, the present study compared SI between isolated finger movement and complex selectiv...
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

EEG Dynamics and Neural Generators in Implicit Navigational Image Processing in Adults with ADHD
Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 373 Author(s): A. Leroy, G. Petit, D. Zarka, A.M. Cebolla, E. Palmero-Soler, J. Strul, B. Dan, P. Verbanck, G. Cheron In contrast to childhood ADHD that is characterized by inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, most adults with ADHD predominantly exhibit inattention. We used a new oddball paradigm using implicit navigational images and analyzed EEG dynamics with swLORETA inverse modeling of the evoked potential generators to study cortical processing in adults with ADHD and age-matched controls. In passive observation, we demonstrated that P350 amplitude, al...
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Advantages of the Alpha-lipoic Acid Association with Chlorpromazine in a Model of Schizophrenia Induced by Ketamine in Rats: Behavioral and Oxidative Stress evidences
In conclusion, the treatment with KET in rats induced behavioral impairments accompanied by hippocampal oxidative alterations, possibly related to NMDA receptors hypofunction. Besides that, CP alone or combined with ALA prevented these effects, showing a beneficial activity as antipsychotic agents. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Background Suppression and its Relation to Foreground Processing of Speech Versus Non-speech Streams
This study aimed to fill in this gap. We adopted an oddball paradigm where speech (vowels) or non-speech stimuli (complex tones) were presented with or without a background of amplitude-modulated noise and analyzed cortical responses related to foreground stimulus processing, including mismatch negativity (MMN), N2b, and P300, as well as neural representations of the background noise, that is, auditory steady-state response (ASSR). We found that speech deviants elicited later and weaker MMN, later N2b, and later P300 than non-speech ones, but N2b and P300 had similar strength, suggesting more complex processing of certain ...
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Acute Stress Persistently Alters Locus Coeruleus Function and Anxiety-like Behavior in Adolescent Rats
Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 373 Author(s): Olga Borodovitsyna, Matthew D. Flamini, Daniel J. Chandler Stress is a physiological state characterized by altered neuroendocrine signaling, behavioral arousal, and anxiety. Chronic or traumatic stress may predispose individuals for multiple somatic and psychiatric illnesses. The locus coeruleus (LC) is a major node in the stress response that integrates input from multiple stress responsive neural circuits and releases norepinephrine (NE) throughout the central nervous system (CNS) to promote vigilance and anxiety. Many mood disorders associated w...
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neonatal Ethanol and Choline Treatments Alter the Morphology of Developing Rat Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons in Opposite Directions
In conclusion, EtOH increases while Chol decreases dendritic length and arborization of hippocampal CA1 neurons in PD9 rats. We hypothesize that developmental EtOH exposure induces a premature maturation of neurons, leading to early restriction of neuronal plasticity while Chol treatments delay the normal program of neuronal maturation and therefore prolong the window of maximal plasticity. Chol does not prevent the effects of developmental alcohol exposure on hippocampal pyramidal neurons’ morphology characterized in the present study, although whether prolonged Chol administration after developmental EtOH exposure ...
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Automatic Conflict Monitoring by Event-Related Potentials Could be used to Estimate Visual Acuity Levels
Publication date: 15 March 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 374 Author(s): Wenwen Huang, Sinan Liu, Bin Luo, Huanhuan Meng, Mengmeng Ji, Maojuan Li, Xiping Chen, Luyang Tao Numerous studies have explored the physical attribute features or face perceptions in conflict processing, while complicate gradient conflicts were rarely discussed. The aim of the study was to discuss the relationship between the event-related potential (ERP) component features and different visual acuity levels by using the modified S1–S2 task under non-attention status. Three visual acuity levels were applied, each with four orientations of &l...
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

CD38 is Required for Dendritic Organization in Visual Cortex and Hippocampus
Publication date: 21 February 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 372 Author(s): Thom P. Nelissen, Rosemary A. Bamford, Shiro Tochitani, Kamuran Akkus, Aurimas Kudzinskas, Kenichiro Yokoi, Hiroshi Okamoto, Yasuhiko Yamamoto, J. Peter H. Burbach, Hideo Matsuzaki, Asami Oguro-Ando Morphological screening of mouse brains with known behavioral deficits can give great insight into the relationship between brain regions and their behavior. Oxytocin- and CD38-deficient mice have previously been shown to have behavioral phenotypes, such as restrictions in social memory, social interactions, and maternal behavior. CD38 is reported as...
Source: Neuroscience - February 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Altered Brain Cholesterol/Isoprenoid Metabolism in a Rat Model of Autism Spectrum Disorders
Publication date: 21 February 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 372 Author(s): Veronica Cartocci, Martina Catallo, Massimo Tempestilli, Marco Segatto, Frank W. Pfrieger, Maria Rosanna Bronzuoli, Caterina Scuderi, Michela Servadio, Viviana Trezza, Valentina Pallottini Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) present a wide range of symptoms characterized by altered sociability, compromised communication and stereotypic/repetitive behaviors. These symptoms are caused by developmental changes, but the mechanisms remain largely unknown. Some lines of evidence suggest an impairment of the cholesterol/isoprenoid metabolism in the brain ...
Source: Neuroscience - February 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Celecoxib Prevents Cognitive Impairment and Neuroinflammation in Soluble Amyloid β-treated Rats
In conclusion, our results suggest that sAβ neurotoxicity might be associated to COX-2-mediated inflammatory pathways and that early treatment with selective COX-2 inhibitor might provide potential remedies to counterbalance the sAβ-induced effects. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - February 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Robust Subthreshold Cross-modal Modulation of Auditory Response by Cutaneous Electrical Stimulation in First- and Higher-order Auditory Thalamic Nuclei
Publication date: 21 February 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 372 Author(s): Akihisa Kimura, Hiroki Imbe Conventional extracellular recording has revealed cross-modal alterations of auditory cell activities by cutaneous electrical stimulation of the hindpaw in first- and higher-order auditory thalamic nuclei (Donishi et al., 2011). Juxta-cellular recording and labeling techniques were used in the present study to examine the cross-modal alterations in detail, focusing on possible nucleus and/or cell type-related distinctions in modulation. Recordings were obtained from 80 cells of anesthetized rats. Cutaneous electrical ...
Source: Neuroscience - February 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Anti-nociceptive Role of CXCL1 in a Murine Model of Peripheral Nerve Injury-induced Neuropathic Pain
Publication date: 21 February 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 372 Author(s): Ling Cao, Jennifer T. Malon Both spinal cord infiltrating CD4+ T lymphocytes and microglial CD40 contribute to the maintenance of neuropathic pain-like behaviors induced by spinal nerve L5 transection (L5Tx), a murine model of neuropathic pain. Here, we sought to investigate the involvement of multiple chemokines in microglial CD40-mediated and CD4+ T lymphocytes-mediated L5Tx-induced sensory hypersensitivity. Spinal cord chemokine expression in CD4 knockout (KO), CD40 KO, and wild type (WT) BALB/c mice was determined at the protein level via mu...
Source: Neuroscience - February 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sensitivity to Strain and Shear Stress of Isolated Mechanosensitive Enteric Neurons
Publication date: 21 February 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 372 Author(s): Eva Maria Kugler, Klaus Michel, David Kirchenbüchler, Georg Dreissen, Agnes Csiszár, Rudolf Merkel, Michael Schemann, Gemma Mazzuoli-Weber Within the enteric nervous system, the neurons in charge to control motility of the gastrointestinal tract reside in a particular location nestled between two perpendicular muscle layers which contract and relax. We used primary cultured myenteric neurons of male guinea pigs to study mechanosensitivity of enteric neurons in isolation. Ultrafast Neuroimaging with a voltage-sensitive dye technique w...
Source: Neuroscience - February 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Spinal Sigma-1 Receptor-mediated Dephosphorylation of Astrocytic Aromatase Plays a Key Role in Formalin-induced Inflammatory Nociception
Publication date: 21 February 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 372 Author(s): Hoon-Seong Choi, Mi-Ji Lee, Sheu-Ran Choi, Branden A. Smeester, Alvin J. Beitz, Jang-Hern Lee Aromatase is a key enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of estrogen from testosterone. Although recent evidence indicates that spinal cord aromatase participates in nociceptive processing, the mechanisms underlying its regulation and its involvement in nociception remain unclear. The present study focuses on the potential role of astrocyte aromatase in formalin-induced acute pain and begins to uncover one mechanism by which spinal aromatase activatio...
Source: Neuroscience - February 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Characterization of Superficial Dorsal Horn Neurons from “Tamamaki” Mice and Stability of their GAD67-EGFP Phenotype in Defined-Medium Organotypic Culture
Publication date: 21 February 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 372 Author(s): Paul A. Boakye, Emma K.A. Schmidt, Vladimir Rancic, Bradley Kerr, Klaus Ballanyi, Peter A. Smith Defined medium organotypic cultures (DMOTC) containing spinal dorsal horn neurons are especially useful in studying the etiology and pharmacology of chronic pain. We made whole-cell recordings from neurons in acutely isolated mouse spinal cord slices or from those maintained in DMOTC for up to 6 weeks. In acute slices, neurons in the substantia gelatinosa exhibited 7 different firing patterns in response to 800-ms depolarizing current commands; del...
Source: Neuroscience - February 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tyrosine Phosphorylation Determines Afterdischarge Initiation by Regulating an Ionotropic Cholinergic Receptor
Publication date: 21 February 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 372 Author(s): Sean H. White, Raymond M. Sturgeon, Yueling Gu, Alysha Nensi, Neil S. Magoski Changes to neuronal activity often involve a rapid and precise transition from low to high excitability. In the marine snail, Aplysia, the bag cell neurons control reproduction by undergoing an afterdischarge, which begins with synaptic input releasing acetylcholine to open an ionotropic cholinergic receptor. Gating of this receptor causes depolarization and a shift from silence to continuous action potential firing, leading to the neuroendocrine secretion of egg-layin...
Source: Neuroscience - February 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Uridine-5 ′-Triphosphate Partially Blocks Differentiation Signals and Favors a more Repair State in Cultured rat Schwann Cells
Publication date: 21 February 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 372 Author(s): Marta Palomo-Guerrero, Jose Miguel Cosgaya, Alejandro Gella, Núria Casals, Carmen Grijota-Martinez Schwann cells (SCs) play a key role in peripheral nerve regeneration. After damage, they respond acquiring a repair phenotype that allows them to proliferate, migrate and redirect axonal growth. Previous studies have shown that Uridine-5′-Triphosphate (UTP) and its purinergic receptors participate in several pathophysiological responses in the nervous system. Our group has previously described how UTP induces the migration of a Schwann...
Source: Neuroscience - February 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The GABAA α5-selective Modulator, RO4938581, Rescues Protein Anomalies in the Ts65Dn Mouse Model of Down Syndrome
Publication date: 21 February 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 372 Author(s): A. Block, Md.M. Ahmed, N. Rueda, M.-C. Hernandez, C. Martinez-Cué, K.J. Gardiner Down syndrome (DS), trisomy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21), is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID). There are no treatments for the cognitive deficits. The Ts65Dn is a partial trisomy mouse model of DS that shows learning and memory (LM) impairments and other abnormalities relevant to those seen in DS. Many drugs and small molecules have been shown to rescue the LM deficits, but little is known about the associated molecular response...
Source: Neuroscience - February 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Electrophysiological Activity Prior to Self-initiated Movements is Related to Impulsive Personality Traits
Publication date: 21 February 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 372 Author(s): A. Rossi, F. Giovannelli, G. Gavazzi, S. Righi, M. Cincotta, M.P. Viggiano Electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies suggest that our actions are initiated by unconscious mental processes long before awareness of intention to act. The time window between the awareness of the intention to move and the movement onset, which normally permits to exert a conscious “veto” on the impending action, is modulated by individual differences in trait impulsivity. In particular, trait impulsive people show a delayed awareness of the intention ...
Source: Neuroscience - February 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sensory Intelligence for Extraction of an Abstract Auditory Rule: A Cross-Linguistic Study
Publication date: 21 February 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 372 Author(s): Xiao-Tao Guo, Xiao-Dong Wang, Xiu-Yuan Liang, Ming Wang, Lin Chen In a complex linguistic environment, while speech sounds can greatly vary, some shared features are often invariant. These invariant features constitute so-called abstract auditory rules. Our previous study has shown that with auditory sensory intelligence, the human brain can automatically extract the abstract auditory rules in the speech sound stream, presumably serving as the neural basis for speech comprehension. However, whether the sensory intelligence for extraction of abst...
Source: Neuroscience - February 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

High-fat Diet Mediates Anxiolytic-like Behaviors in a Time-dependent Manner Through the Regulation of SIRT1 in the Brain
In this study, we evaluated the effects of both short- and long-term intake of an HFD on anxiety-like behaviors. To explore the impact of time on the association between an HFD and anxiety, mice were fed with an HFD for 4 weeks or 12 weeks. Compared with control-diet mice, mice given an HFD for 4 weeks displayed anxiolytic-like behaviors. At the same time, we observed decreased SIRT1 expression in the mPFC and the amygdala of HFD-fed mice. Moreover, resveratrol, an activator of SIRT1, reversed the anxiolytic-like behaviors in HFD-fed mice. However, after 12 weeks of consuming a high-fat diet, mice did not exhibit a...
Source: Neuroscience - February 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Frequency-specific Effective Connectivity in Subjects with Cerebral Infarction as Revealed by NIRS Method
Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 373 Author(s): Qianying Liu, Bitian Wang, Ying Liu, Zeping Lv, Wenhao Li, Zengyong Li, Yubo Fan A connectivity-based approach can highlight the network reorganization in the chronic phases after stroke and contributes to the development of therapeutic interventions. Using dynamic Bayesian inference, this study aimed to assess the effective connectivity (EC) in various frequency bands through the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method in subjects with cerebral infarction (CI). A phase-coupling model was established based on phase information extracted using the w...
Source: Neuroscience - February 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Differential Effects of Alzheimer ’s Disease Aβ40 and 42 on Endocytosis and Intraneuronal Trafficking
In conclusion, elevated brain Aβ levels and Aβ42:40 ratio apparent in the early stages of AD could perturb intraneuronal trafficking, augment the anomalous accumulation of amyloid peptides in AD brain, and drive AD pathogenesis. Graphical abstract (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - February 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Relationship between Hippocampal Subfields and Category Cued Recall in AD and PDD: A Multimodal MRI Study
Publication date: 10 February 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 371 Author(s): Fabiana Novellino, Roberta Vasta, Alessia Sarica, Carmelina Chiriaco, Maria Salsone, Maurizio Morelli, Gennarina Arabia, Valeria Saccà, Giuseppe Nicoletti, Aldo Quattrone Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease with dementia (PDD) are characterized by a different mnesic failure, particularly in memory cued recall. Although hippocampal involvement has been shown in both these diseases, it remains unknown whether a selective damage of specific subfields within the hippocampus may be responsible for the peculiar mnesic p...
Source: Neuroscience - January 31, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research