PlexinA3 interacts with CRMP2 to mediate Sema3A signalling during dendritic growth in cultured cerebellar granule neurons
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Tao Jiang, Guowei Zhang, Yaozhong Liang, Zhenbin Cai, Zhi liang, Hongsheng Lin, Minghui TanAbstractPlexin family proteins mediate semaphorin signalling during dendritic arbour development. However, the role of PlexinA3 in the growth of dendrites of cultured cerebellar granule neurons is not known. We found that PlexinA3 colocalizes with CRMP2 (collapsin response mediator protein 2) in dendritic shafts. Immunoprecipitation and glutathione transferase pulldown assays showed that the intracellular Ras-binding domain of PlexinA3 directly interact...
Source: Neuroscience - February 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Blockade of Nogo-A/NgR1 inhibits autophagic activation and prevents secondary neuronal damage in the thalamus after focal cerebral infarction in hypertensive rats
This study aimed to investigate the potential roles of Nogo-A/Nogo-66 receptor 1 (NgR1) in autophagic activation in the ipsilateral thalamus after cerebral infarction. Focal neocortical infarction was established using the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method. Secondary damage in the ipsilateral thalamus was assessed by Nissl staining and immunostaining. The expression of Nogo-A, NgR1, Rho-A and Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) as well as autophagic flux were evaluated by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. The roles of Nogo-A-NgR1 signaling in autophagic activation were determine...
Source: Neuroscience - February 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Diffusion kurtosis imaging of leptin intervention in early hypoxic–ischemic brain edema
In this study, a newborn piglet model was used to dynamically evaluate the leptin intervention in early hypoxic–ischemic brain edema via DKI. Thirty-two Yorkshire newborn piglets were divided into three groups: the hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) group, the leptin group, and the control group. DKI scanning was performed at time points of 3, 6, 9, 12, 16, and 24 h after hypoxic–ischemic exposure. After scanning, arterial blood was extracted from all piglets to measure NSE and S100β levels. Then, the brain was completely extracted for pathological examination. In the lesion areas, the MK, Ka, and...
Source: Neuroscience - February 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Spinal circuits mediate a stretch reflex between the upper limbs in humans
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Tetsuro Muraoka, Isaac KurtzerAbstractInter-limb reflexes play an important role in coordinating behaviors involving different limbs. Previous studies have demonstrated that human elbow muscles express an inter-limb stretch reflex at long-latency (50-100 ms), a timing consistent with a trans-cortical linkage. Here we probe for inter-limb stretch reflexes in the shoulder muscles of human participants. Unexpected torque pulses displaced one or both shoulders while participants adopted a steady posture against background torques. The results dem...
Source: Neuroscience - February 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The molecular mechanisms of excessive hippocampal endoplasmic reticulum stress depressing cognition-related proteins expression and the regulatory effects of Nrf2
This study investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms of this effect. In order to clarify the relationship among ER stress, Nrf2 signaling and cognition-related proteins expression in vitro, we respectively treated hippocampal cells with high glucose and palmitic acid (PA), ER stress inhibitor 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA), and Nrf2 activator Tert-Butylhydroquinone (TBHQ). Results showed that the expression levels of glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3), fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1), ER stress biomarkers (GRP78, p-PERK, p-IRE1α and p-eIF2α), ER stress-mediated apoptosis biomarkers (caspase-12, CHOP and Bax/...
Source: Neuroscience - February 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Seizures in Mouse Models of Rare Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Publication date: Available online 12 February 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Merrick S. Fallah, James H. EubanksAbstractGenetic neurodevelopmental disorders that often include epilepsy as part of their phenotype are a heterogeneous and clinically challenging spectrum of disorders in children. Although seizures often contribute significantly to morbidity in these affected populations, the mechanisms of epileptogenesis in these conditions remain poorly understood. Different model systems have been developed to aid unraveling these mechanisms, which include a number of specific mutant mouse lines which genocopy specific ...
Source: Neuroscience - February 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Frequency-Specific Changes of Resting Brain Activity in Parkinson’s Disease: A Machine Learning Approach
Publication date: Available online 12 February 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Zhi-yao Tian, Long Qian, Lei Fang, Xue-hua Peng, Xiao-hu Zhu, Min Wu, Wen-zhi Wang, Wen-han Zhang, Bai-qi Zhu, Miao Wan, Xin Hu, Jianbo ShaoAbstractThe application of Resting State functional MRI (RS-fMRI) in Parkinson’s disease was widely performed using standard statistical tests, however, the machine learning approach has not yet been investigated in PD using RS-fMRI. In current study, we utilized the mean regional amplitude values as the features in patients with PD (n = 72) and in healthy controls (HC, n = 89). The t-test and linea...
Source: Neuroscience - February 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Maturation of voltage-induced shifts in SLC26a5 (prestin) operating point during trafficking and membrane insertion
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Feng Zhai, Lei Song, Jun-Ping Bai, Chunfu Dai, Dhasakumar Navaratnam, Joseph Santos-SacchiAbstractPrestin (SLC26a5) is an integral membrane motor protein in outer hair cells (OHC) that underlies cochlear amplification. As a voltage-dependent protein, it relies on intrinsic sensor charge to respond to transmembrane voltage (receptor potentials), thereby effecting conformational changes. The protein’s electromechanical actively is experimentally monitored as a bell-shaped nonlinear capacitance (NLC), whose magnitude peaks at a characteris...
Source: Neuroscience - February 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Maintenance of amyloid-beta homeostasis by carbenoxolone post Aβ-42 oligomer injection in rat brain
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Sheetal Sharma, Rajpreet Saini, Pratibha Sharma, Avneet Saini, Bimla NehruAbstractThe equilibrium between cerebral production and clearance of Aβ is maintained either by the active removal through blood-brain barrier or by the uptake and degradation through ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy. The dysfunction of UPS and dysregulation of molecular chaperones such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) is well correlated with the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Therefore, the restoration of heat shock system and UPS appea...
Source: Neuroscience - February 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Somatosensorimotor and odor modification, along with serotonergic processes underlying the social deficits in BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J and BALB/cJ mouse models of autism
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Hiroyuki ArakawaAbstractAutism is a complex spectrum of disorders characterized by core behavioral deficits in social communicative behavior, which are also required for comprehensive analysis of preclinical mouse models. As animal models of the core behavioral deficits in autism, two inbred mouse strains, BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) and BALB/cJ (BALB), were compared with the standard social strain, C57BL/6J (B6), regarding a variety of behavioral factors underlying social communicative interactions, including olfactory and tactile sensory proce...
Source: Neuroscience - February 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Gender differences in the associations between gray matter volume and the centrality of visual product aesthetics
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Jianping Huang, Yang Sun, Xiaoang WanAbstractVisual aesthetics influence consumers’ perception, acquisition, and usage of products, but the level of significance that a commercial product’s visual aesthetics hold for each consumer varies from one person to another. Such individual difference is referred to as the centrality of visual product aesthetics (CVPA). Previous research has revealed that female adults scored higher than male adults in the self-reported CVPA scale. In order to identify the neuroanatomical correlates of this...
Source: Neuroscience - February 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The impact of physical enrichment in the structure of the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of the adult male rat brain
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): M.J. Castelhano-Carlos, S. Aslani, N. SousaAbstractRodents’ behavioural analysis can be influenced by several factors, including housing. The PhenoWorld (PhW) is an enriched housing and testing paradigm, which proved to be relevant for screening depressive-like behaviours in rats, being remarkably sensitive for hedonic behaviour. Herein, we assessed neuronal plasticity as a consequence of living in the PhW, by comparing the structure of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc), two brain areas involved in the ...
Source: Neuroscience - February 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Transport of glucose by the plasma membrane affects the removal and concentration of Ca2+ at rest in neurons – Implications of a condition prior to Alzheimer’s disease?
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Vitor S. Alves, Manoel Arcisio-Miranda, Daniel C. Carrettiero, Fernando A. OliveiraAbstractAlzheimer’s disease is classically characterized by two major markers: extracellular development of senile plaques and intracellular formation of neurofibrillary tangles. Nonetheless, neuronal glucose hypometabolism and Ca2+ deregulation have been separately implied in the genesis and progress of the neurodegenerative process. In this sense, the goal of this study was to investigate if modifications in the glucose transport would influence the cel...
Source: Neuroscience - February 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Novel behavioural characteristics of male human P301S mutant tau transgenic mice - a model for tauopathy
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Georgia Watt, Magdalena Przybyla, Valeria Zak, Janet van Eersel, Arne Ittner, Lars M Ittner, Tim KarlAbstractAlzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive cognitive decline and the accumulation of two hallmark proteins, amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tau. Traditionally, transgenic mouse models for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have generally focused on Aβ pathology, however, in recent years a number of tauopathy transgenic mouse models have been developed, including the TAU58/2 mouse model. These...
Source: Neuroscience - February 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Levetiracetam, an antiepileptic drug has neuroprotective effects on intracranial hemorrhage injury
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Takahiko Imai, Tomoki Sugiyama, Sena Iwata, Shinsuke Nakamura, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Hideaki HaraAbstractIntracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating disease that induces hematoma formation with poor neuronal outcome. Levetiracetam (LEV) has been approval for epilepsy seizures. In a previous study, LEV exerted protective effects on cerebral ischemia models; however, the detail effects and the influence of LEV on ICH are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether oral administration of LEV (50 or 150 mg/kg) has protective...
Source: Neuroscience - February 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tolerance Induced by (S)-3,5-Dihydroxyphenylglycine Postconditioning is Mediated by the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β Signalling Pathway in an In Vitro Model of Cerebral Ischemia
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Elisabetta Gerace, Tania Scartabelli, Domenico E. Pellegrini-Giampietro, Elisa LanducciAbstractIschemic postconditioning (PostC) is an endogenous neuroprotective strategy for cerebral ischemia induced by low activation of glutamate receptors. We have previously shown that the application of the mGluR1/5 agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) 5 min after 30 min of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) reduces CA1 damage in organotypic hippocampal slices by activating the PI3K–Akt signalling pathway. In order to extend these data...
Source: Neuroscience - February 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Elevated serum α-synuclein levels in huntington’s disease patients
We presently sought to investigate serum α-synuclein levels in 38 HD patients (34 symptomatic and 4 premanifest) and compare them to 36 controls. We found that α-synuclein was elevated in HD patients vs. controls (2.49 ± 1.47 vs. 1.40 ± 1.16, p=0.001). There was no difference in α-synuclein levels between symptomatic vs. premanifest HD, nor between HD patients receiving medication vs. treatment-naïve. Furthermore, α-synuclein levels showed no correlation with CAG2, Unified HD Rating Scale motor score, age, disease duration or disease burden score. Our results provide evidence for ...
Source: Neuroscience - February 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The role of glutamate neurotransmission in mismatch negativity (MMN), a measure of auditory synaptic plasticity and change-detection
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Lauren Harms, Gloria G. Parras, Patricia T. Michie, Manuel S. MalmiercaAbstractMismatch Negativity (MMN) is an electrophysiological signature that occurs in response to unexpected stimuli. It is often referred to as a measure of memory-based change detection, because the elicitation of a prediction error response relies on the formation of a prediction, which in turn, is dependent upon intact memory of previous auditory stimulation. As such, the MMN is altered in conditions in which memory is affected, such as Alzheimer’s disease, schizo...
Source: Neuroscience - February 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chronic infiltration of T lymphocytes into the brain in a non-human primate model of Parkinson’s disease
This study aimed to investigate changes in serum RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expression and secretion) and analyze the chronic infiltration of T lymphocytes into the brain and microglia activation in NHPs at 48 weeks post-MPTP administration. We found selective and local chronic infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, loss of dopaminergic neurons, dopamine transporter expression, chronic normalization of RANTES in the peripheral blood, and altered microglial morphology at 48 weeks after MPTP injection. This study confirms the involvement of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte infiltration in MPTP-induced NHP...
Source: Neuroscience - February 7, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurophysiological correlates of adaptation and interference during asymmetrical bimanual movements
In this study, we investigated brain dynamics during interference between hands during bimanual movements. Participants performed a bimanual center-out reaching task in which a visuomotor rotation was applied to the right hand while the left hand did not receive visual feedback of its movements. This manipulation resulted in interference from the adapting right hand to the kinesthetically guided left hand. Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings during the task showed that spectral power in the high and low beta frequency bands was elevated early in exposure, but decreased throughout learning. This may be representative of...
Source: Neuroscience - February 7, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

High motor cortex excitability in highly hypnotizable individuals: a favourable factor for neuroplasticity?
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Vincenzo Spina, Carmelo Chisari, Enrica L. SantarcangeloAbstractHypnotizability is a psychophysiological trait associated with morphofunctional brain peculiarities and with several cognitive, sensorimotor and cardiovascular correlates. Behavioral and EEG studies indicate stronger functional equivalence (FE) between motor imagery and action in the individuals with high hypnotizability scores (Highs). We hypothesized that stronger FE leading to greater proneness to ideomotor behavior could be due to greater cortical excitability of the motor cor...
Source: Neuroscience - February 7, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Nicotine-induced brain stimulation reward is modulated by melanocortin-4 receptors in ovariectomized rats
Publication date: Available online 5 February 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Manoj A. Upadhya, Harshita M. Upadhya, Chandrashekhar D. Borkar, Amit G. Choudhary, Uday Singh, Priyanka Chavan, Amul Sakharkar, Praful Singru, Nishikant K. Subhedar, Dadasaheb M. KokareAbstractApart from reproduction, estrogen influences a multitude of processes. Increase in estrogen levels in women is known to promote reward probably mediated via the melanocortin and dopamine systems. Reduced estrogen in post-menopausal women attenuates reward evoking the need for stimulation with greater rewarding salience. This is reflected in the well-rec...
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Peripheral Somatosensory Neuron Dysfunction: Emerging Roles in Autism Spectrum Disorders
Publication date: Available online 6 February 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Lauren L. OreficeAbstractAlterations in somatosensory (touch and pain) behaviors are highly prevalent among people with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, the neural mechanisms underlying abnormal touch and pain-related behaviors in ASDs and how altered somatosensory reactivity might contribute to ASD pathogenesis has not been well studied. Here, we provide a brief review of somatosensory alterations observed in people with ASDs and recent evidence from animal models that implicates peripheral neurons as a locus of dysfunction for soma...
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sustained Hypoxia Alters nTS Glutamatergic Signaling and Expression and Function of Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Michael P. Matott, Eileen M. Hasser, David D. KlineAbstractGlutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS) and mediates chemoreflex function during periods of low oxygen (i.e. hypoxia). We have previously shown that nTS excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs), specifically EAAT-2, located on glia modulate neuronal activity, cardiorespiratory and chemoreflex function under normal conditions via its tonic uptake of extracellular glutamate. Chronic sustained hypoxia (SH) elevated nTS synaptic transmiss...
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Functional Dissociations of the Left Anterior and Posterior Occipitotemporal Cortex for Semantic and Non-semantic Phonological Access
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Jie Dong, Chengrou Lu, Chuansheng Chen, Huiling Li, Xiaoyu Liu, Leilei MeiAbstractPrevious studies have identified the ventral and dorsal brain regions that respectively support semantic and non-semantic phonological access. Nevertheless, the specific role of the left occipitotemporal cortex (lOTC) in the two pathways of phonological access is ambiguous. To address that question, the present study compared word reading in Chinese (presumably relying on the semantic pathway) with that in English (presumably relying on the non-semantic pathway)....
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Meditation increases the entropy of brain oscillatory activity
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Rocío Martínez Vivot, Carla Pallavicini, Federico Zamberlan, Daniel Vigo, Enzo TagliazucchiAbstractWe address the hypothesis that the entropy of neural dynamics indexes the intensity and quality of conscious content. Previous work established that serotonergic psychedelics can have a dysregulating effect on brain activity, leading to subjective effects that present a considerable overlap with the phenomenology of certain meditative states. Here we propose that the prolonged practice of meditation results in endogenous increased e...
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Autophagy is Required for Remodeling in Postnatal Developing Ribbon Synapses of Cochlear Inner Hair Cells
In this study, significantly high levels of LC3B (a widespread marker of autophagy) were found in the cochlea from postnatal day 1 (P1) to P15, which then decreased at P28 to P30. Treatment of mice at P7 with rapamycin or 3-methyladenine (activator and inhibitor of autophagy, respectively) for 7 days led to the significant elevations of hearing threshold across frequencies from P15 to P30. Moreover, abnormal morphology of cochlear ribbon synapses and reduced IHC exocytosis function were detected from P15 to P30, which were likely associated to hearing impairment. Thus, our study demonstrated that autophagy was required f...
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Low Intensity Focused Ultrasound Modulation of Vincristine Induced Neuropathy
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Abigail Hellman, Teresa Maietta, Kanakaharini Byraju, Yunseo Linda Park, Miriam Shao, Andrea Liss, Paul Neubauer, Clif Burdette, Goutam Ghoshal, Jiang Qian, Julia Nalwalk, Julie G. PilitsisAbstractPreviously, we showed internal low intensity focused ultrasound (liFUS) improves nociceptive thresholds in rats with vincristine-induced neuropathy (VIN) for 48-h post-treatment. Here, we perform more rigorous behavioral testing with the internal device and introduce external liFUS treatment. Behavioral testing confirmed VIN induced neuropathy (Von F...
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Ghrelin induces place preference for social interaction in the larger peer of a male rat pair
Publication date: Available online 5 February 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Erik Schéle, Daniela M. Pfabigan, Joel Simrén, Uta Sailer, Suzanne L. DicksonAbstractSocial interaction is important for survival in most social species including humans. To ensure social activities, individuals experience reward from social interaction, generating a powerfully reinforcing process. Here we hypothesized that reward from social interaction in a juvenile male rat pair may be enhanced by ghrelin, a circulating hormone that has been shown to enhance reward from other natural (e.g. food, sex) as well as artificial rein...
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Maternal obesity as a risk factor for brain development and mental health in the offspring
Publication date: Available online 5 February 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Francesca Cirulli, Chiara Musillo, Alessandra BerryAbstractMaternal obesity plays a key role in the health trajectory of the offspring. Although research on this topic has largely focused on the potential of this condition to increase the risk for child obesity, it is becoming more and more evident that it can also significantly impact cognitive function and mental health. The mechanisms underlying these effects are starting to be elucidated and point to the placenta as a critical organ that may mediate changes in the response to stress, immun...
Source: Neuroscience - February 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Asymmetrical brain plasticity: physiology and pathology
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): M. Esteves, E. Ganz, N. Sousa, H. Leite-AlmeidaAbstractThe brain is inherently asymmetrical. How that attribute, manifest both structurally (volumetric, cytological, molecular) as well as functionally, relates to cognitive function, is not fully understood. Since the early descriptions of Paul Broca and Marc Dax it has been known that the processing of language in the brain is fundamentally asymmetrical. Contemporary imaging studies have corroborated early observations, and have also revealed significant functional links to multiple other syst...
Source: Neuroscience - February 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Modulations of inter-hemispherical phase coupling in human single leg stance
DiscussionAltogether, the present findings may indicate modulations of cortical contributions in single leg compared to bipedal stance. The present data suggest that decreased inter-hemispherical functional connectivity, in conjunction with a global increase in cortical excitability, may indicate enhanced alertness and task-specific selective inhibition of motor networks in favor of postural control. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - February 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Complexity, composition, and control of bipedal balancing movements as the postural control system adapts to instable support surfaces or altered feet positions
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Arunee Promsri, Thomas Haid, Peter FederolfAbstractThe current project investigated the dynamics of postural movements and muscle activity during balancing with feet-together and feet-apart positions on different support surfaces (firm surface, modified- and conventional balance boards). We hypothesized that movement complexity and muscle activation would increase with increased balance-task difficulty, and that differences in composition and control of postural movements between bipedal wide- and narrow-based balancing would be observed in al...
Source: Neuroscience - February 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Functional MRI and Structural Connectome Analysis of Language Networks in Japanese-English Bilinguals
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Takumi Mitsuhashi, Hidenori Sugano, Keiko Asano, Takayuki Nakajima, Madoka Nakajima, Hidehiro Okura, Yasushi Iimura, Hiroharu Suzuki, Yuichi Tange, Toshihisa Tanaka, Shigeki Aoki, Hajime AraiAbstractWe aimed to clarify the mechanisms of neural plasticity involved in language. We hypothesized that alterations which occur in bilinguals could reflect the mechanisms of acquisition of a second language and simulate neural plasticity related to language. We compared spatial characteristics of story listening-related hemodynamic modulations and subco...
Source: Neuroscience - February 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cognitive impairments in touchscreen-based visual discrimination and reversal learning in Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg
Publication date: Available online 1 February 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Andrew J. Roebuck, Lei An, Wendie N. Marks, Ninglei Sun, Terrance P. Snutch, John G. HowlandAbstractAbsence epilepsy (AE) is associated with recurrent losses of awareness and synchronous bilateral spike-wave discharges (SWDs). While seizures do not generally continue into adulthood, cognitive and behavioral comorbidities persist. One preclinical model used to investigate AE is the Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) which consistently have bilateral SWDs and similar behavioral profiles. In this experiment, we characterized di...
Source: Neuroscience - February 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucoside Restores BDNF-TrkB and FGF2-Akt Signaling Axis to Attenuate Stress-induced Depression
In this study, we examine the conditions of neurotrophins in CRS-induced depressive-like mice and whether THSG could be an antidepressant by ameliorating the neurotrophins and their associated signaling axis. CRS produced downregulation of antioxidants, the decline of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and associated signaling regulators in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, corresponding to the behavioral inability and anhedonia. Administration of THSG restored the expression of antioxidants and neurotrophins BDNF, FGF2. Besides, THSG recovered the Akt signaling pathway and ant...
Source: Neuroscience - February 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tolerance Induced by (S)-3,5-Dihydroxyphenylglycinedhpg Postconditioning is Mediated by the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β Signalling Pathway in an In Vitro Model of Cerebral Ischemia
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Elisabetta Gerace, Tania Scartabelli, Domenico E. Pellegrini-Giampietro, Elisa LanducciAbstractIschemic postconditioning (PostC) is an endogenous neuroprotective strategy for cerebral ischemia induced by low activation of glutamate receptors. We have previously shown that the application of the mGluR1/5 agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) 5 min after 30 min of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) reduces CA1 damage in organotypic hippocampal slices by activating the PI3K-–Akt signalling pathway. In order to extend these dat...
Source: Neuroscience - February 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tanshinone IIA Improves Depression-like Behavior in Mice by Activating the ERK-CREB-BDNF Signaling Pathway
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Jiaqi Lu, Hang Zhou, Danyang Meng, Junjun Zhang, Kailing Pan, Bo Wan, Zhigang MiaoAbstractDepression is a serious global affective disorder and one of the most common neurological diseases. Tanshinone IIA (TSA) is the mainly active constituent of Salvia miltiorrhiza and has diverse biological effects, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and significant neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia and Alzheimer's disease. However, whether TSA has an antidepressant effect remains unknown. The present study attempted to explo...
Source: Neuroscience - February 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

2,3,5,4′-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside Restores BDNF -TrkB and FGF2-Akt Signaling Axis to Attenuate Stress-induced Depression
In this study, we examine the conditions of neurotrophins in CRS-induced depressive-like mice and whether THSG could be an antidepressant by ameliorating the neurotrophins and their associated signaling axis. CRS produced downregulation of antioxidants, the decline of BDNF, FGF2 and associated signaling regulators in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, corresponding to the behavioral inability and anhedonia. Administration of THSG restored the expression of antioxidants and neurotrophins BDNF, FGF2. Besides, THSG recovered the Akt signaling pathway and antagonistically restored the expression of Bcl-2 and cleaved-caspas...
Source: Neuroscience - February 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mixed Effects of Low-dose Ethanol on Cortical and Hippocampal Theta Oscillations
Publication date: 1 March 2020Source: Neuroscience, Volume 429Author(s): Calvin K. Young, Neil McNaughtonAbstractEthanol is one of the most widely used drugs – with many psychoactive effects, including anxiolysis. The deleterious effects on brain function and general health of chronic and high-level ethanol use are well-studied. However, the neurophysiology of acute low dose ethanol has not been systematically investigated. Here, we examined the effects of low dose (0.25 and 0.5 g/kg) ethanol on midline (prefrontal, cingulate and retrosplenial) neocortical and hippocampal theta oscillations in freely moving rats. W...
Source: Neuroscience - February 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of external low intensity focused ultrasound on electrophysiological changes in vivo in a rodent model of common peroneal nerve injury
Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Abigail Hellman, Teresa Maietta, Kanakaharini Byraju, Yunseo Linda Park, Andrea Liss, Tarun Prabhala, Paul Neubauer, Emery Williams, Clif Burdette, Damian S. Shin, Goutam Ghoshal, Julia Nalwalk, Aira Agrawal, Jiang Qian, Julie PilitsisAbstractNon-invasive treatment methods for neuropathic pain are lacking. We assess how modulatory low intensity focused ultrasound (liFUS) at the L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) affects behavioral responses and sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) in a common peroneal nerve injury (CPNI) model. Rats were assesse...
Source: Neuroscience - January 29, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cellular Mechanisms Involved in Cerebellar Microzonation
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Constantino SoteloAbstractIn the last 50 years, our vision of the cerebellum has vastly evolved starting with Jan Voogd’s (1967) description of extracerebellar projections’ terminations and how the projection maps transformed the presumptive homogeneity of the cerebellar cortex into a more complex center subdivided into transverse and longitudinal distinct functional zones. The picture became still more complex with Richard Hawkes and colleagues’ (Gravel et al., 1987) discovery of the biochemical heterogeneity ...
Source: Neuroscience - January 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Exercise plus pharmacological neuromodulation of synaptic inhibition enhance motor function recovery after ischemic stroke
ConclusionsThis study indicated that exercise combined with low-level inhibition of GABAA receptors after stroke could facilitate the recovery of motor function accompanied by BDNF upregulation in the ipsilateral M1. Therefore, this study provides a novel insight of pharmacological neuromodulation into stroke rehabilitation. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - January 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Quercetin reduces ischemic brain injury by preventing ischemia-induced decreases in the neuronal calcium sensor protein hippocalcin
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Dong-Ju Park, Seong-Jun Jeon, Ju-Bin Kang, Phil-Ok KohAbstractCalcium acts as a second messenger that mediates physiologic functions, such as metabolism, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Hippocalcin is a neuronal calcium sensor protein that regulates intracellular calcium concentration. Moreover, it prevents neuronal cell death from oxidative stress. Quercetin has excellent antioxidant properties and preventative effects. We studied modulation of hippocalcin expression by quercetin treatment in cerebral ischemic injury and glutamate-induced ...
Source: Neuroscience - January 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Third ventricular injection of CCL2 in rat embryo stimulates CCL2/CCR2 neuroimmune system in neuroepithelial radial glia progenitor cells: Relation to sexually dimorphic, stimulatory effects on peptide neurons in lateral hypothalamus
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Guo-Qing Chang, Olga Karatayev, Devi Sai Sri Kavya Boorgu, Sarah F. LeibowitzAbstractClinical and animal studies show maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy causes in offspring persistent alterations in neuroimmune and neurochemical systems known to increase alcohol drinking and related behaviors. Studies in lateral hypothalamus (LH) demonstrate in adolescent offspring that maternal oral administration of ethanol stimulates the neuropeptide, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), together with the inflammatory chemokine C-C motif ligand 2...
Source: Neuroscience - January 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Processing of targets and non-targets in verbal working memory
In this study we used fMRI to examine whether defining a stimulus as a target affects brain activation associated with a verbal working memory task. Seventeen healthy right-handed volunteers performed a Sternberg task with 3 consonants as memory set. We performed a region of interest based fMRI analysis to examine differences in brain activity patterns between targets and non-targets. Non-target brain activity was subtracted from target activity and hemispheric and fronto-parietal differences were tested by conducting a MANOVA. Participants responded correctly to 97.5% of the stimuli. FMRI results showed a hemisphere by fr...
Source: Neuroscience - January 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sulforaphane attenuates Aβ oligomers mediated decrease in phagocytic activity of microglial cells
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Rajasekhar Reddy Chilakala, Aparna Lakshmi Manchikalapudi, Ashok Kumar, Aditya SunkariaAbstractMicroglia are the brain mononuclear phagocytes which plays a key role in neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer's. Till date, microglia have been explored mostly for their neuro-inflammatory functions. Recent studies have shifted their focus towards less explored functions which involve non-autonomous clearance of protein aggregates. However, these functions are significantly affected by aging and neurodegeneration. In Alzheimer’s disease (...
Source: Neuroscience - January 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Long non-coding RNA Gas5 potentiates the effects of downregulated microRNA-21 in response to ischaemic brain injury via the Pten-mediated PI3K/Akt axis
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Jie Li, Hui Lv, Yu-Qin CheAbstractBrain ischaemia, which can cause severe nerve injury, is a global health challenge. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) growth-arrest specific 5 (Gas5) has been documented to exert tumour suppressive effects in several cancers. However, its role in cerebrovascular disease still requires further investigation. Therefore, in this study, we focused on the role of lncRNA regulatory signalling related to lncRNA Gas5 in ischaemic brain injury. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was employed as a model of ischaemic bra...
Source: Neuroscience - January 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Automated quantification of immunohistochemical staining of large animal brain tissue using QuPath software
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Nicholas J. Morriss, Grace M. Conley, Sara M. Ospina, William P Meehan III, Jianhua Qiu, Rebekah MannixAbstractLarge scale unbiased quantification of immunohistochemistry is time consuming, expensive, and/or limited in scope. Heterogeneous tissue types such as brain tissue have presented a further challenge to the development of automated analysis, as differing cellular morphologies result in either limited applicability or require large amounts of training tissue for machine-learning methods. Here we present the use of QuPath, a free and open...
Source: Neuroscience - January 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Unisensory and Multisensory Responses in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD): Effects of Spatial Congruence
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Brian A. Coffman, Felicha T. Candelaria-Cook, Julia M. StephenAbstractWhile it is generally accepted that structural and functional brain deficits underlie the behavioral deficits associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), the degree to which these problems are expressed in sensory pathology is unknown. Electrophysiological measures indicate that neural processing is delayed in visual and auditory domains. Furthermore, multiple reports of white matter deficits due to prenatal alcohol exposure indicate altered cortical connectivit...
Source: Neuroscience - January 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research