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Different Neural Processing of Umami and Salty Taste Determined by Umami Identification Ability Independent of Repeated Umami Exposure
This study investigated brain responses to umami and salty taste among individuals with different umami identification abilities and the effect of repeated oral umami exposure on umami identification and neural processing of taste perceptions. Fifteen participants with high umami identification ability (“High Tasters, HT) and fifteen with low umami identification ability (“Low Tasters”, LT) underwent three weeks of controlled exposure to umami taste (umami training). Prior to and after the training, participants underwent fMRI scans during which the umami taste solution and a control taste (salty) solutio...
Source: Neuroscience - May 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Long-term Reductions in the Population of GABAergic Interneurons in the Mouse Hippocampus following Developmental Ethanol Exposure
Publication date: 15 July 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 383 Author(s): Clark W. Bird, Devin H. Taylor, Natalie J. Pinkowski, G. Jill Chavez, C. Fernando Valenzuela Developmental exposure to ethanol leads to a constellation of cognitive and behavioral abnormalities known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). Many cell types throughout the central nervous system are negatively impacted by gestational alcohol exposure, including inhibitory, GABAergic interneurons. Little evidence exists, however, describing the long-term impact of fetal alcohol exposure on survival of interneurons within the hippocampal formation, ...
Source: Neuroscience - May 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Corrigendum to ‘Morphological Changes in Different Populations of Bladder Afferent Neurons Detected by Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Vectors with Cell-type-specific Promoters in Mice with Spinal Cord Injury’ [Neuroscience 364 (2017) 190–201]
Publication date: 15 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 381 Author(s): Nobutaka Shimizu, Mark F. Doyal, William F. Goins, Katsumi Kadekawa, Naoki Wada, Anthony J. Kanai, William C. de Groat, Akihide Hirayama, Hirotsugu Uemura, Joseph C. Glorioso, Naoki Yoshimura (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - May 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A New Micro-holder Device for Local Drug Delivery during In Vivo Whole-cell Recordings
Publication date: 15 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 381 Author(s): María Sáez, Maya Ketzef, Javier Alegre-Cortés, Ramón Reig, Gilad Silberberg Focal administration of pharmacological agents during in vivo recordings is a useful technique to study the functional properties of neural microcircuits. However, the lack of visual control makes this task difficult and inaccurate, especially when targeting small and deep regions where spillover to neighboring regions is likely to occur. An additional problem with recording stability arises when combining focal drug administration with in vivo in...
Source: Neuroscience - May 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Corticotropin-Releasing Factor in the Brain and Blocking Spinal Descending Signals Induce Hyperalgesia in the Latent Sensitization Model of Chronic Pain
Publication date: 15 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 381 Author(s): Wenling Chen, Yvette Taché, Juan Carlos Marvizón Latent sensitization is a model of chronic pain in which an injury triggers a period of hyperalgesia followed by an apparent recovery, but in which pain sensitization persists but is suppressed by opioid and adrenergic receptors. One important characteristic of latent sensitization is that hyperalgesia can be triggered by acute stress. To determine whether the effect of stress is mimicked by the activation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling in the brain, rats with latent s...
Source: Neuroscience - May 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

TGF- β Signaling Regulates Development of Midbrain Dopaminergic and Hindbrain Serotonergic Neuron Subgroups
Publication date: 15 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 381 Author(s): Enaam Chleilat, Lena Skatulla, Belal Rahhal, Manal T Hussein, Melanie Feuerstein, Kerstin Krieglstein, Eleni Roussa Molecular and functional diversity within midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) and hindbrain serotonergic (5-HT) neurons has emerged as a relevant feature that could underlie selective vulnerability of neurons in clinical disorders. We have investigated the role of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) during development of mDA and 5-HT subgroups. We have generated TβRIIflox/flox::En1cre/+ mice where type II TGF-β receptor is c...
Source: Neuroscience - May 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Complex-learning Induced Modifications in Synaptic Inhibition: Mechanisms and Functional Significance
Publication date: 15 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 381 Author(s): Iris Reuveni, Longnian Lin, Edi Barkai Following training in a difficult olfactory-discrimination (OD) task rats acquire the capability to perform the task easily, with little effort. This new acquired skill, of ‘learning how to learn’ is termed ‘rule learning’. At the single-cell level, rule learning is manifested in long-term enhancement of intrinsic neuronal excitability of piriform cortex (PC) pyramidal neurons, and in excitatory synaptic connections between these neurons to maintain cortical stability, such long-lasting ...
Source: Neuroscience - May 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

H3K9 Acetylation of Tph2 Involved in Depression-like Behavior in Male, but not Female, Juvenile Offspring Rat Induced by Prenatal Stress
In conclusion, our results showed that the Tph2 H3K9ac modification is only involved in PS-induced depression-like behavior in MJOR, in a sex-specific manner. These findings might contribute to the understanding of the disease pathogenesis and clinical treatment in future. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - May 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Unmasking the Pain in Latent Sensitization
Publication date: 15 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 381 Author(s): QiLiang Chen, Mary M. Heinricher (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - May 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Influences of Hunger, Satiety and Oral Glucose on Functional Brain Connectivity: A Multimethod Resting-State fMRI Study
Publication date: 1 July 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 382 Author(s): Arkan Al-Zubaidi, Marcus Heldmann, Alfred Mertins, Kamila Jauch-Chara, Thomas F. Münte A major regulatory task of the organism is to keep brain functions relatively constant in spite of metabolic changes (e.g., hunger vs. satiety) or availability of energy (e.g., glucose administration). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) can reveal resulting changes in brain function but previous studies have focused mostly on the hypothalamus. Therefore, we took a whole-brain approach and examined 24 healthy normal-weight men once af...
Source: Neuroscience - May 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Electrical Synapses are Involved in Orofacial Neuropathic Pain
Publication date: 1 July 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 382 Author(s): Omar Ouachikh, Aziz Hafidi, Yves Boucher, Wisam Dieb Accumulated evidences suggest important roles of glial GAP-junctions in pain. However, only a few studies have explored the role of neuronal GAP-junctions or electrical synapses in neuropathic pain (NP). Therefore, the present study explores the role of connexin 36 (Cx36) in NP using the chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve (CCI-IoN) model in rat. A significant increase in Cx36 labeling was observed in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) of CCI-IoN-lesioned compared to sham rats. The e...
Source: Neuroscience - May 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Increased Expression of Transcription Factor SRY-box-Containing Gene 11 (Sox11) Enhances Neurite Growth by Regulating Neurotrophic Factor Responsiveness
Publication date: 1 July 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 382 Author(s): Michael P. Jankowski, Lauren Miller, H. Richard Koerber The peripherally projecting axons of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons readily regenerate after damage while their centrally projecting branches do not regenerate to the same degree after injury. One important reason for this inconsistency is the lack of pro-regeneration gene expression that occurs in DRG neurons after central injury relative to peripheral damage. The transcription factor SRY-box-containing gene 11 (Sox11) may be a crucial player in the regenerative capacity of axons as previou...
Source: Neuroscience - May 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Adenosine Promotes Endplate nAChR Channel Activity in Adult Mouse Skeletal Muscle Fibers via Low Affinity P1 Receptors
In this study, using two-microelectrode voltage-clamp and single-channel patch-clamp recording techniques, we have explored potential postsynaptic targets of adenosine and their modulatory effect on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated synaptic responses in adult mouse skeletal muscle fibers in vitro. In the whole-mount neuromuscular junction (NMJ) preparation, adenosine (100 μM) significantly reduced the frequency of the miniature endplate currents (MEPCs) and slowed their rising and decay time. Consistent with a postsynaptic site of action, adenosine and the potent P1 receptor agonist NECA significantly...
Source: Neuroscience - May 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

β-Elemene Enhances GAP-43 Expression and Neurite Outgrowth by Inhibiting RhoA Kinase Activation in Rats with Spinal Cord Injury
Publication date: 15 July 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 383 Author(s): Jingyu Wang, Heyangzi Li, Ying Yao, Yucheng Ren, Jiangtao Lin, Jue Hu, Mingzhi Zheng, Xinghui Song, Tengfei Zhao, Ying-Ying Chen, Yueliang Shen, Yong-Jian Zhu, Lin-Lin Wang RhoA signaling pathway inhibitors such as Y27632 (a ROCK inhibitor) have recently been applied as treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI) because they promote neurite outgrowth and axonal regeneration in neurons. β-Elemene, a compound that is extracted from a natural plant (Curcuma zedoary), influences the expression level of RhoA protein. Whether it can promote neurite outg...
Source: Neuroscience - May 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

AMPA Receptor-Dependent Glutamatergic Signaling is Present in the Carotid Chemoreceptor
Publication date: 1 July 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 382 Author(s): Yuzhen Liu, Chaohong Li, Xianglei Jia, Lu Huang, J. Woodrow Weiss Exposure to both sustained and intermittent hypoxia for as little as a day produces sustained augmentation of carotid chemoreceptor sensitivity; however, the molecular basis for this chemoreflex plasticity remains uncertain. We previously reported that NMDA receptor-dependent glutamatergic signaling in rat carotid body played a role in altered hypoxic sensitivity after exposure to cyclic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). Here we found that mRNAs of multiple AMPA and Kainate glutamate recepto...
Source: Neuroscience - May 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Psychosocial Stress Delays Recovery of Postoperative Pain Following Incisional Surgery in the Rat
In conclusion, we found that chronic social stress alters the neurobiological response to surgical injury, resulting in slowed recovery. This model maybe useful for future interventional studies examining the mechanistic interactions between depression and risk of CPSP. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - May 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Retrieval of Inhibitory Avoidance Memory Induces Differential Transcription of arc in Striatum, Hippocampus, and Amygdala
Publication date: 1 July 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 382 Author(s): Sofía González-Salinas, Andrea C. Medina, Eduardo Alvarado-Ortiz, Anaid Antaramian, Gina L. Quirarte, Roberto A. Prado-Alcalá Similar to the hippocampus and amygdala, the dorsal striatum is involved in memory retrieval of inhibitory avoidance, a task commonly used to study memory processes. It has been reported that memory retrieval of fear conditioning regulates gene expression of arc and zif268 in the amygdala and the hippocampus, and it is surprising that only limited effort has been made to study the molecular events caused b...
Source: Neuroscience - May 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin Type 1 Plays a Critical Role in Cortical Spreading Depression
Publication date: 1 July 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 382 Author(s): Liwen Jiang, Yan Wang, Yuewei Xu, Dongqing Ma, Minyan Wang The transient receptor potential ankyrin type-1 (TRPA1) channels have been proposed as a potential target for migraine therapy. Yet the role of cortical TRPA1 channels in migraine mechanism has not been fully understood. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is known as an underlying cause of migraine aura. The aim of this study is to investigate if cortical TRPA1 activity is required for CSD genesis and propagation. A mouse brain slice CSD model with intrinsic optical imaging was applied for T...
Source: Neuroscience - May 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Increased Neuroligin 2 Levels in the Postsynaptic Membrane in Spinal Dorsal Horn may Contribute to Postoperative Pain
Publication date: 1 July 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 382 Author(s): Ruijuan Guo, Huili Li, Xueyang Li, Yuqing Sun, Huihui Miao, Danxu Ma, Fangxiao Hong, Ye Zhang, Yun Guan, Junfa Li, Ming Tian, Yun Wang Neuroligin 2 is a synaptic cell adhesion molecule that is mainly located in inhibitory synapses and is crucial in the regulation of synapse function through protein–protein interactions. However, researchers have not clearly determined whether neuroligin 2 is involved in the development of postoperative pain. In the current study, Western blot, immunofluorescence staining and co-immunoprecipitation were used to ...
Source: Neuroscience - May 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Reply to Comment on “Role of Choroid Plexus in Cerebrospinal Fluid Hydrodynamics”
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 380 Author(s): Darko Orešković, Milan Radoš, Marijan Klarica (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - May 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Comment on “Role of Choroid Plexus in Cerebrospinal Fluid Hydrodynamics”
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 380 Author(s): Richard F. Keep, Margery A. Barrand, Stephen B. Hladky (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - May 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

TLQP Peptides in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Possible Blood Biomarkers with a Neuroprotective Role
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 380 Author(s): Carla Brancia, Barbara Noli, Marina Boido, Roberta Pilleri, Andrea Boi, Roberta Puddu, Francesco Marrosu, Alessandro Vercelli, Paolo Bongioanni, Gian-Luca Ferri, Cristina Cocco While the VGF-derived TLQP peptides have been shown to prevent neuronal apoptosis, and to act on synaptic strengthening, their involvement in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) remains unclarified. We studied human ALS patients’ plasma (taken at early to late disease stages) and primary fibroblast cultures (patients vs controls), in parallel with SOD1-G93A transgenic mi...
Source: Neuroscience - May 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) is Expressed Predominantly in Medium Spiny Neurons of tgHD Rat Striatum
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 380 Author(s): Dian Shi, Joshua W. Chang, Jaimin Choi, Bronwen Connor, Simon J. O'Carroll, Louise F.B. Nicholson, Joo Hyun Kim Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multi-ligand receptor involved in the pathology of several progressive neurodegenerative disorders including Huntington’s disease (HD). We previously showed that the expression of RAGE and its colocalization with ligands were increased in the striatum of HD patients, increasing with grade severity, and that the pattern of RAGE expression coincided with the medio-lateral pattern ...
Source: Neuroscience - May 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurofeedback Control of the Human GABAergic System Using Non-invasive Brain Stimulation
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 380 Author(s): Satoko Koganemaru, Yusuke Mikami, Hitoshi Maezawa, Satoshi Ikeda, Katsunori Ikoma, Tatsuya Mima Neurofeedback has been a powerful method for self-regulating brain activities to elicit potential ability of human mind. GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a tool that can evaluate the GABAergic system within the primary motor cortex (M1) using paired-pulse stimuli, short intracortical inhibition (SICI). Herein we investigated whether neurofeedback learning using SICI enable...
Source: Neuroscience - May 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Schwann Cell Plasticity is Regulated by a Weakened Intrinsic Antioxidant Defense System in Acute Peripheral Nerve Injury
In conclusion, the Nrf2-antioxidant system was temporarily inactivated in injured nerves, promoting Schwann cell reprogramming and proliferation, and its functional recovery was essential for Schwann cell redifferentiation and myelination. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - May 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

CRMP2 –Neurofibromin Interface Drives NF1-related Pain
Publication date: 15 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 381 Author(s): Aubin Moutal, Li Sun, Xiaofang Yang, Wennan Li, Song Cai, Shizhen Luo, Rajesh Khanna An understudied symptom of the genetic disorder Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is chronic idiopathic pain. We used targeted editing of Nf1 in rats to provide direct evidence of a causal relationship between neurofibromin, the protein product of the Nf1 gene, and pain responses. Our study data identified a protein-interaction network with collapsin response meditator protein 2 (CRMP2) as a node and neurofibromin, syntaxin 1A, and the N-type voltage-gated calcium (CaV...
Source: Neuroscience - May 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Age-Related Impairment of Hand Movement Perception Based on Muscle Proprioception and Touch
Publication date: 15 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 381 Author(s): C. Landelle, A. El Ahmadi, A. Kavounoudias Impairment in fine hand motor dexterity is well established in older people, yet little is known, about the impaired perception of hand movement in the elderly. Only an age-related increase in movement detection threshold has been reported. Perception of hand movements relies on multiple sensory information, including touch and muscle proprioception. The present study aims to investigate to what extent aging impacts the ability to perceive hand movements accurately and whether this impairment is from a musc...
Source: Neuroscience - May 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Role of Ca2+ and BK Channels of Locus Coeruleus (LC) Neurons as a Brake to the CO2 Chemosensitivity Response of Rats
Publication date: 15 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 381 Author(s): Ann N. Imber, Luis G.A. Patrone, Ke-Yong Li, Luciane H. Gargaglioni, Robert W. Putnam The cellular mechanisms by which LC neurons respond to hypercapnia are usually attributed to an “accelerator” whereby hypercapnic acidosis causes an inhibition of K+ channels or activation of Na+ and Ca+2 channels to depolarize CO2-sensitive neurons. Nevertheless, it is still unknown if this “accelerator” mechanism could be controlled by a brake phenomenon. Whole-cell patch clamping, fluorescence imaging microscopy and plethysmography were u...
Source: Neuroscience - May 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Angiotensin II Type 1a Receptors in the Subfornical Organ Modulate Neuroinflammation in the Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus in Heart Failure Rats
Publication date: 15 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 381 Author(s): Yang Yu, Shun-Guang Wei, Robert M. Weiss, Robert B. Felder Inflammation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) contributes to neurohumoral excitation and its adverse consequences in systolic heart failure (HF). The stimuli that trigger inflammation in the PVN in HF are not well understood. Angiotensin II (AngII) has pro-inflammatory effects, and circulating levels of AngII increase in HF. The subfornical organ (SFO), a circumventricular structure that lacks an effective blood–brain barrier and senses circulating AngII, contains PVN-...
Source: Neuroscience - May 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Sulforaphane on Cognitive Impairments and AD-like Lesions in Diabetic Mice are Associated with the Upregulation of Nrf2 Transcription Activity
This study investigated the effects of SFN on DM-related cognitive decline and its potential mechanisms. Morris water maze (MWM) tests showed that SFN (1 mg/kg i.p. for 28 days) mitigated the cognitive decline of db/db mice, a transgenic mouse model of T2DM. Accordingly, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry analyses showed that SFN decreased the levels of amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers and Aβ 1–42 plaques as well as phospho-tau at Ser396 and Thr231 in the DM mouse hippocampus. This protective effect of SFN might be due to the activation of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant defense deficiencies in the DM mice...
Source: Neuroscience - May 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chronic Methamphetamine Exposure Attenuates Neural Activation in Hypothalamic –Pituitary–Adrenal Axis-Associated Brain Regions in a Sex-specific Manner
In this study, mice were administered MA (5 mg/kg) or saline for 10 consecutive days. During early withdrawal, anxiety-like behaviors were assessed in the open field, light/dark box, and elevated plus maze. At ten days of withdrawal, mice were injected with a final dose of MA (5 mg/kg) or saline. Chronic MA did not alter anxiety-like behaviors or corticosterone responses to a final dose of MA, although females showed elevated corticosterone responses compared to males. Chronic MA attenuated final MA-induced c-Fos in both sexes in the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), cingul...
Source: Neuroscience - April 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

SIRT1 Mediates Apelin-13 in Ameliorating Chronic Normobaric Hypoxia-induced Anxiety-like Behavior by Suppressing NF- κB Pathway in Mice Hippocampus
In conclusion, this study provides the first evidence that SIRT1 mediates the anxiolytic effect of apelin-13 in CNH-treated mice through the inhibition of NF-κB pathway. These results imply that dysfunction of the apelin-SIRT1-NF-κB axis in hippocampus represents a potential mechanism that results in the induction of neuroinflammation and reduction in neuroprotection, thus induces anxiety-like behavior in CNH-treated mice. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - April 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sex- and Age-dependent Effects of Orexin 1 Receptor Blockade on Open-Field Behavior and Neuronal Activity
Publication date: 15 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 381 Author(s): Shannon R. Blume, Hannah Nam, Sandra Luz, Debra A. Bangasser, Seema Bhatnagar Adolescence is a sensitive and critical period in brain development where psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder are more likely to emerge following a stressful life event. Females are two times more likely to suffer from psychiatric disorders than males. Patients with these disorders show alterations in orexins (also called hypocretins), important neuropeptides that regulate arousal, wakefulness and the hypothalamic–pitu...
Source: Neuroscience - April 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Structural Differences in Hippocampal and Entorhinal Gray Matter Volume Support Individual Differences in First Person Navigational Ability
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 380 Author(s): Katherine R. Sherrill, Elizabeth R. Chrastil, Irem Aselcioglu, Michael E. Hasselmo, Chantal E. Stern The ability to update position and orientation to reach a goal is crucial to spatial navigation and individuals vary considerably in this ability. The current structural MRI study used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis to relate individual differences in human brain morphology to performance in an active navigation task that relied on updating position and orientation in a landmark-free environment. Goal-directed navigation took place from either...
Source: Neuroscience - April 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Methylene Blue Ameliorates Olfactory Dysfunction and Motor Deficits in a Chronic MPTP/Probenecid Mouse Model of Parkinson ’s Disease
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 380 Author(s): K.C. Biju, Robert C. Evans, Kripa Shrestha, Daniel C.B. Carlisle, Jonathan Gelfond, Robert A. Clark Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are very prominent and early features in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and in animal models of PD. Thus, antioxidant therapy for PD has been proposed, but in clinical trials such strategies have met with very limited success. Methylene blue (MB), a small-molecule synthetic heterocyclic organic compound that acts as a renewable electron cycler in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, manifesting robu...
Source: Neuroscience - April 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Human Apolipoprotein E Genotype Differentially Affects Olfactory Behavior and Sensory Physiology in Mice
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 380 Author(s): Brett S. East, Gloria Fleming, Kathy Peng, Jonas K. Olofsson, Efrat Levy, Paul M. Mathews, Donald A. Wilson Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is an important lipid carrier in both the periphery and the brain. The ApoE ε4 allele (ApoE4) is the single most important genetic risk-factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) while the ε2 allele (ApoE2) is associated with a lower risk of AD-related neurodegeneration compared to the most common variant, ε3 (ApoE3). ApoE genotype affects a variety of neural circuits; however, the olfactory system...
Source: Neuroscience - April 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Ca2+-Binding Protein 1 Regulates Hippocampal-dependent Memory and Synaptic Plasticity
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 380 Author(s): Tian Yang, Jeremiah K. Britt, Coral J. Cintrón-Pérez, Edwin Vázquez-Rosa, Kevin V. Tobin, Grant Stalker, Jason Hardie, Rebecca J. Taugher, John Wemmie, Andrew A. Pieper, Amy Lee Ca2+-binding protein 1 (CaBP1) is a Ca2+-sensing protein similar to calmodulin that potently regulates voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Unlike calmodulin, however, CaBP1 is mainly expressed in neuronal cell-types and enriched in the hippocampus, where its function is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of CaBP1 in hippocampal-dependent behaviors using mic...
Source: Neuroscience - April 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Expertise-Level-Dependent Functionally Plastic Changes During Motor Imagery in Basketball Players
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 380 Author(s): Lan-Lan Zhang, Yan-Ling Pi, Cheng Shen, Hua Zhu, Xue-Pei Li, Zhen Ni, Jian Zhang, Yin Wu Motor imagery is the mental process of rehearsing or simulating a given action without overt movements. The aim of the present study is to examine plastic changes in relevant brain areas during motor imagery with increasing expertise level. Subjects (novices, intermediate and elite players) performed motor imagery of basketball throws under two experimental conditions (with-ball and without-ball). We found that all basketball players exhibited better temporal con...
Source: Neuroscience - April 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Transcription Factors in Regulatory and Protein Subnetworks during Generation of Neural Stem Cells and Neurons from Direct Reprogramming of Non-fibroblastic Cell Sources
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 380 Author(s): Mohammad Reza Omrani, Moein Yaqubi, Abdulshakour Mohammadnia Direct reprogramming of non-fibroblastic cells to the neuronal cell types including induced neurons (iNs) and induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) has provided an alternative approach for the direct reprogramming of fibroblasts to those cells. However, to increase the efficiency of the reprogramming process the underlying mechanisms should be clarified. In the current study, we analyzed the gene expression profiles of five different cellular conversions to understand the most significant molec...
Source: Neuroscience - April 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Genome-wide Integration Study of Circulating miRNAs and Peripheral Whole-Blood mRNAs of Male Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients
This study provides an integrated view of interactions among circulating miRNAs and peripheral whole-blood mRNAs involved in the pathophysiological processes of male AIS. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - April 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Brain Structural Networks in Mouse Exposed to Chronic Maternal Undernutrition
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 380 Author(s): Jimena Barbeito-Andrés, Pablo M. Gleiser, Valeria Bernal, Benedikt Hallgrímsson, Paula N. Gonzalez Brain structural connectivity is known to be altered in cases of intrauterine growth restriction and premature birth, although the specific effect of maternal nutritional restriction, a common burden in human populations, has not been assessed yet. Here we analyze the effects of maternal undernutrition during pregnancy and lactation by establishing three experimental groups of female mice divided according to their diet: control (Co), mode...
Source: Neuroscience - April 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Blast Exposure Disrupts the Tonotopic Frequency Map in the Primary Auditory Cortex
Publication date: 21 May 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 379 Author(s): Samer Masri, Li S. Zhang, Hao Luo, Edward Pace, Jinsheng Zhang, Shaowen Bao Blast exposure can cause various auditory disorders including tinnitus, hyperacusis, and other central auditory processing disorders. While this is suggestive of pathologies in the central auditory system, the impact of blast exposure on central auditory processing remains poorly understood. Here we examined the effects of blast shockwaves on acoustic response properties and the tonotopic frequency map in the auditory cortex. We found that multiunits recorded from the auditor...
Source: Neuroscience - April 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Oxytocin Inhibits Corticosterone-induced Apoptosis in Primary Hippocampal Neurons
In this study, we showed that OT protects primary mouse hippocampal neurons from CORT-induced apoptosis. OT receptors (OTR) were expressed in primary mouse hippocampal neurons and glial cells. CORT induced apoptosis in hippocampal neurons, but had no effect on apoptosis in glial cells. OT inhibited CORT-induced apoptosis in primary hippocampal neurons. OT was unable to protect primary hippocampal neurons prepared from OTR KO mice from CORT-induced apoptosis. These results indicate that OT has inhibitory effects on CORT-induced neuronal death in primary hippocampal neurons via acting on OTR. The findings suggest a therapeut...
Source: Neuroscience - April 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sex Differences and Estrous Cycle Changes in Synaptic Plasticity-related microRNA in the Rat Medial Amygdala
Publication date: 21 May 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 379 Author(s): Mauro Mozael Hirsch, Janaína Brusco, Tamara Vaccaro, Rogerio Margis, Jorge E. Moreira, Carmem Gottfried, Alberto A. Rasia-Filho The posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) is a sex steroid-sensitive and sexually dimorphic subcortical area that dynamically modulates social behaviors in rats. As different microRNA (miRNA) can act as post-transcriptional regulators of synaptic processing, we addressed changes that occur in miRNA expression in the MePD of males and females along the estrous cycle. The expression of miR25-3p, miR132-3p, miR138-5p, miR...
Source: Neuroscience - April 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

EGR-1 Expression in Catecholamine-synthesizing Neurons Reflects Auditory Learning and Correlates with Responses in Auditory Processing Areas
Publication date: 21 May 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 379 Author(s): Jennifer B. Dai, Yining Chen, Jon T. Sakata Distinguishing between familiar and unfamiliar individuals is an important task that shapes the expression of social behavior. As such, identifying the neural populations involved in processing and learning the sensory attributes of individuals is important for understanding mechanisms of behavior. Catecholamine-synthesizing neurons have been implicated in sensory processing, but relatively little is known about their contribution to auditory learning and processing across various vertebrate taxa. Here we i...
Source: Neuroscience - April 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Inhibitive Effect of Resveratrol on the Inflammation in Cultured Astrocytes and Microglia Induced by A β1–42
In this study, inflammation was mimicked by Aβ1–42 treatment of rat astrocytes (RA) and N9 microglia cell lines. Inflammation induced by Aβ1–42 can be inhibited by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamic acid (PDTC), indicating that the NF-κB signal pathway is involved in inflammation. Then, the inhibitive effects of resveratrol (Res) on the inflammation in RA and N9 cells were assessed by observing the changes in inflammatory factors, chemokines, cell cycle and adhesion molecules on the cell surface. 17β-Estradiol was used as an estrogen-positive control because Res is one of the selective estrogen rec...
Source: Neuroscience - April 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Endogenous Neuronal Replacement in the Juvenile Brain Following Cerebral Ischemia
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 380 Author(s): Krista M. Rodgers, Jared T. Ahrendsen, Olivia P. Patsos, Frank A. Strnad, Joan C. Yonchek, Richard J. Traystman, Wendy B. Macklin, Paco S. Herson Replacement of dead neurons following ischemia, either via enhanced endogenous neurogenesis or stem cell therapy, has long been sought. Unfortunately, while various therapies that enhance neurogenesis or stem cell therapies have proven beneficial in animal models, they have all uniformly failed to truly replace dead neurons in the ischemic core to facilitate long-term recovery. Remarkably, we observe robust...
Source: Neuroscience - April 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Phase-specific Surround suppression in Mouse Primary Visual Cortex Correlates with Figure Detection Behavior Based on Phase Discontinuity
In this study, we examined the relationship between feature-specific surround suppression of V1 neurons and figure detection behavior based on figure-ground feature difference. We trained freely moving mice to perform a figure detection task using figure and ground gratings that differed in spatial phase. The performance of figure detection increased with the figure-ground phase difference, and was modulated by stimulus contrast. Electrophysiological recordings from V1 in head-fixed mice showed that the increase in phase difference between stimuli within and surround the RF caused a reduction in surround suppression, which...
Source: Neuroscience - April 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dual-task Interference Disrupts Parkinson ’s Gait Across Multiple Cognitive Domains
Publication date: 21 May 2018 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 379 Author(s): Amanda L. Penko, Matthew C. Streicher, Mandy Miller Koop, Tanujit Dey, Anson B. Rosenfeldt, Andrew S. Bazyk, Jay L. Alberts Gait dysfunction, a hallmark of Parkinson’s disease, contributes to a relatively high incidence of falling. Gait function is further diminished during the performance of a motor-cognitive task (i.e., dual-task). It is unclear if Parkinson’s disease-related dual-task deficits are related to a specific area of cognitive function or are the result of a more global decline in executive function. The aim of this project w...
Source: Neuroscience - April 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Novel Role for Lymphotactin (XCL1) Signaling in the Nervous System: XCL1 Acts via its Receptor XCR1 to Increase Trigeminal Neuronal Excitability
This study has identified for the first time a role for XCL1-XCR1 in nociceptive processing, demonstrating upregulation of XCR1 at nerve injury sites and identifying XCL1 as a modulator of central excitability and signaling via XCR1 in Vc, a key area for modulation of orofacial pain, thus indicating XCR1 as a potential target for novel analgesics. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - April 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research