Eye Drop Instillation of the Rac1 Modulator CNF1 Attenuates Retinal Gliosis and Ameliorates Visual Performance in a Rat Model of Hypertensive Retinopathy
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Andrea Matteucci, Laura Ricceri, Alessia Fabbri, Andrea Fortuna, Sara Travaglione, Marco Guidotti, Andrea Martinelli, Marika Villa, Flavia Pricci, Zaira Maroccia, Gabriele Campana, Fiorella Malchiodi-Albedi, Carla Fiorentini, Stefano LoizzoAbstractIn hypertensive retinopathy, the retinal damage due to high blood pressure is accompanied by increased expression of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), which indicates a role of neuroinflammatory processes in such a retinopathy. Proteins belonging to the Rho GTPase family, particularly Rac1, are inv...
Source: Neuroscience - May 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Immune Mediators of Pathology in Neurobrucellosis: From Blood to Central Nervous System
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Ana M. Rodríguez, M. Victoria Delpino, María Cruz Miraglia, Guillermo H. GiambartolomeiAbstractNeurobrucellosis, which is the most morbid form of brucellosis disease, presents with inflammatory signs and symptoms. Recent experimental evidence clearly indicates that deregulation of astrocytes and microglia caused by Brucella infection creates a microenvironment in the central nervous system (CNS) in which secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators lead to destabilization of the glial structure, the damage of the blood–brain barrier...
Source: Neuroscience - May 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Expression Analysis of Serotonin Receptors, Serotonin Transporter and l-Amino Acid Decarboxylase in the Mouse Sphenopalatine Ganglion by RT-PCR, Northern Blot Analysis and IN SITU Hybridization
In this study, we investigated the expression of genes involved in the serotonergic system in the mouse SPG. We examined the mRNA expression levels of 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT1F, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2C, 5-HT3A, 5-HT3B, 5-HT4, 5-HT5A, 5-HT5B, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors, as well as serotonin transporter, tryptophan hydroxylases 1 and 2, and L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) by RT-PCR. It revealed that the 5-HT3A and 5-HT3B ionotropic receptors and AADC were likely to be highly expressed in the SPG, as measured by RT-PCR. We next performed in situ hybridization on the SPG to examine the expression of these three genes at t...
Source: Neuroscience - May 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Hippocampal PKR/NLRP1 Inflammasome Pathway Is Required for the Depression-like Behaviors in Rats with Neuropathic Pain
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Qian Li, Shenbin Liu, Xiaocang Zhu, Wenli Mi, Qiliang Maoying, Jun Wang, Jin Yu, Yanqing WangAbstractThe chronic neuropathic pain-associated psychiatric disorders have seriously disturbed the quality of patients' life, such as depression and anxiety. Neuroinflammation in the hippocampus plays an important role in the neuropathic pain-associated depressive and anxiety disorders, but the underlying mechanism has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. The Nod-like receptor protein (NLRP)-1 inflammasome, which controls the production of pro-inflammat...
Source: Neuroscience - May 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Evaluation of Carnosine Intervention in the Thy1-aSyn Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Mei-Ling Bermúdez, Kim B. Seroogy, Mary Beth GenterAbstractParkinson disease (PD) is a leading neurodegenerative disease, with multifaceted interacting mechanisms. The Thy1-aSyn mouse model of PD exhibits many features of PD patients, including sensorimotor and olfactory dysfunction and protein aggregation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the dipeptide carnosine, which has anti-aggregating and metal-chelating properties, would provide beneficial effects on the motor and olfactory deficits observed in Thy1-aSyn mice. After 2 months of ...
Source: Neuroscience - May 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Interplay between Cholinergic and Adenosinergic Systems in Skeletal Muscle
Publication date: Available online 21 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Annalisa Bernareggi, Marina Sciancalepore, Paola LorenzonAbstractSince the pioneering works of Ricardo Miledi, the neuromuscular junction represents the best example of a synapse where ACh is the neurotransmitter acting on nicotinic ACh receptors. ATP, co-released with ACh, is promptly degraded to Ado, which acts as a modulator of the cholinergic synaptic activity. Consequently, both ACh and adenosine play a crucial role in controlling the nerve-muscle communication.Apart from their role in the context of synaptic transmission, ACh and adenosine a...
Source: Neuroscience - May 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Functional Connectivity of the Parasubiculum and its Role in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
Publication date: Available online 21 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Thomas Sullenberger, Hershel Don, Sanjay S. KumarAbstractTemporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the commonest of adult epilepsies, often refractory to antiepileptic medications, whose prevention and treatment rely on understanding basic pathophysiological mechanisms in interlinked structures of the temporal lobe. The medial entorhinal area (MEA) is affected in TLE but mechanisms underlying hyperexcitability of MEA neurons require further elucidation. Previous studies have examined the role of the presubiculum (PrS) in mediating MEA pathophysiology but no...
Source: Neuroscience - May 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Excitotoxicity Alters Endogenous Secretoneurin Plasma Levels, but Supplementation with Secretoneurin Does Not Protect against Excitotoxic Neonatal Brain Injury
Publication date: Available online 21 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Anna Posod, Karina Wechselberger, Anna Schmid, Eva Huber, Martina Urbanek, Ursula Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Elke GriesmaierAbstractExcitotoxicity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of developing brain injury. The neuropeptide secretoneurin (SN) has neuroprotective potential. The aim of this study was to investigate SN plasma concentrations following excitotoxicity and to evaluate the effect of SN as therapeutic strategy in excitotoxic newborn brain injury. Baseline SN plasma concentrations were established in healthy animals. To evaluate the e...
Source: Neuroscience - May 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Presynaptic Black Box Opened by Pioneers at Biophysics Department in University College London
Publication date: Available online 18 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Tomoyuki TakahashiAbstractThe mechanism of chemical synaptic transmission was elucidated at the frog neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and at the squid giant synapse by Katz, Miledi and other researchers. Later progress in molecular biology revealed numerous types of proteins in mammalian central synapses. To establish molecular-functional correlation in synaptic transmission, it now seems essential to re-address the fundamental mechanisms at mammalian central synapses. Using patch-clamp whole-cell recording at the calyx of Held in slices of rodent bra...
Source: Neuroscience - May 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dopamine Signaling Is Critical for Supporting Cue-Driven Behavioral Control
Publication date: Available online 17 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Mihaela D. IordanovaAbstractMesolimbic dopamine has been implicated in reward learning. Fischbach-Weiss and Janak (this issue) use optogenetics to attenuate dopamine signaling and study its role in cue-driven motivated behaviour. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - May 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Assessing the Role of the Left Dorsal Frontal Cortex in Working Memory Guidance: Attentional or Mnemonic? A Neurostimulation Study
Publication date: Available online 17 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): José Bourbon-Teles, David SotoAbstractPerceptual selection can be guided by the contents of working memory (WM). Neuroimaging and neuropsychological data points to a role of a fronto-parietal and fronto-thalamic networks in WM guidance. Here we assessed the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation of the left dorsal frontal cortex (lDFC) in a combined WM/attention paradigm. We asked the extent to which the lDFC is implicated in mnemonic and selective attention functions during WM guidance of behaviour. Observers were asked to keep ...
Source: Neuroscience - May 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cross-Language Pattern Similarity in the Bilateral Fusiform Cortex Is Associated with Reading Proficiency in Second Language
In this study, we quantified the neural pattern similarity between native (L1) and second languages (L2) by using representational similarity analysis (RSA), and examined the modulatory effects of L2 proficiency on cross-language neural pattern similarity (PS) in the bilateral fusiform cortex. Results showed that, for Chinese-English bilinguals, higher reading proficiency in L2 was associated with greater cross-language PS in the left fusiform gyrus, but with lower PS in the right fusiform gyrus. These results suggest that, as L2 proficiency increases, the assimilation process is enhanced in the region for word reading (le...
Source: Neuroscience - May 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pharmacological identification of cholinergic receptor subtypes: modulation of locomotion and neural circuit excitability in Drosophila larvae
Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Cole A. Malloy, Eashwar Somasundaram, Aya Omar, Umair Bhutto, Meagan Medley, Nicole Dzubuk, Robin L. CooperAbstractAcetylcholine (ACh) is an abundant neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in many species. In Drosophila melanogaster ACh is the neurotransmitter used in peripheral sensory neurons and is a primary excitatory neurotransmitter and neuromodulator within the central nervous system (CNS). The receptors that facilitate cholinergic transmission are divided into two broad subtypes: the ionotropic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and t...
Source: Neuroscience - May 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Inner Hair Cell and Neuron Degeneration Contribute to Hearing Loss in a DFNA2-like Mouse Model
Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Camila Carignano, Esteban Pablo Barila, Ezequiel Ignacio Rías, Leonardo Dionisio, Eugenio Aztiria, Guillermo SpitzmaulAbstractDFNA2 is a progressive deafness caused by mutations in the voltage-activated potassium channel KCNQ4. Hearing loss develops with age from a mild increase in the hearing threshold to profound deafness. Studies using transgenic mice for Kcnq4 expressed in a mixed background demonstrated the implication of outer hair cells at the initial phase. However, it could not explain the last phase mechanisms of the disease. Gene...
Source: Neuroscience - May 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Central nervous system-derived exosomal alpha-synuclein in serum may be a biomarker in Parkinson’s disease
In this study, we evaluated the level of central nervous system (CNS)-derived exosomal α-synuclein in serum, which may be regarded as a specific peripheral biomarker for PD. We recruited patients with PD in the early stage along with essential tremor (ET), and we recruited age- and gender-matched healthy subjects as healthy controls (HC). We divided patients with PD into the tremor-dominant (TD) group and the non-tremor-dominant (NTD) group. We evaluated the levels of α-synuclein in CNS-derived exosomes in serum samples. As a result, there was a significant difference between four groups (p 
Source: Neuroscience - May 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Voxel-Based Morphometry: Improving the Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease based on an Extreme Learning Machine method from the ADNI cohort
In this study, we developed an extreme learning machine (ELM) model to discriminate between patients with AD and normal controls (NCs) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) obtained from magnetic resonance imaging. Support vector machine (SVM), Gaussian process regression (GPR), and partial least squares (PLS) regression were compared with the ELM model. The calculated characteristics, i.e., texture features, VBM parameters, and clinical information, were adopted as the classification features. A ten-fold cross validation was used to evaluate the performance of ELM, SVM, GPR, and PLS models. We applied the proposed methods t...
Source: Neuroscience - May 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The impact of stimulus modality on the processing of conflicting sensory information during response inhibition
Publication date: Available online 15 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Julia Friedrich, Christian BesteAbstractResponse inhibition is a central aspect of cognitive control. Usually, response inhibition is examined using information from a single sensory modality. Yet, evidence suggests that conflicts between information from different modalities affect response inhibition. It is, however, crucial to consider that there are modality differences in the efficiency to trigger response inhibition that may also modulate the impact of conflicts between different sensory modalities. In the current study, we compared an audit...
Source: Neuroscience - May 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Molecular Alterations and Effects of Acute Dehydroepiandrosterone Treatment Following Brief Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion: Relevance to Transient Ischemic Attack
Publication date: Available online 13 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Marina Zaric, Dunja Drakulic, Milorad Dragic, Ivana Gusevac Stojanovic, Natasa Mitrovic, Ivana Grkovic, Jelena MartinovicAbstractTransient ischemic attack (TIA) represents brief neurological dysfunction of vascular origin without detectable infarction. Despite major clinical relevance characterization of post-TIA molecular changes using appropriate experimental model is lacking and no therapeutic agent has been established yet. Neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) arose as one of the candidates for cerebral ischemia treatment but its effects...
Source: Neuroscience - May 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Upper Limb Motor Training Based on Task-Oriented Exercises Induces Functional Brain Reorganization in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis
In conclusion, both active and passive interventions were effective in improving motor performance. However, only the treatment based on voluntary task-oriented movements could induce changes in brain activity that may have reflected skill acquisition by the right hand, reducing the activation of compensatory areas and decreasing brain resource demand. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - May 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sestrin2 Overexpression Attenuates Focal Cerebral Ischemic Injury in Rat by Increasing Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway-Mediated Angiogenesis
In this study the investigators examine the effects of Sesn2 on cerebral ischemia damage by increasing angiogenesis through the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. Healthy adult Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to photochemical cerebral ischemia while AAV injection was used to overexpress Sesn2. At five days after photochemical embolization, the investigators observed a reduction in neurological problems, decreased infarct volume, and diminished neuronal injury in the Sesn2 overexpression samples compared to the controls. To further explore these defensive mechanisms, the investigators also silenced Nrf2. While Sesn2, ...
Source: Neuroscience - May 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Hindbrain Estrogen Receptor Regulation of Ventromedial Hypothalamic Glycogen Metabolism and Glucoregulatory Transmitter Expression in the Hypoglycemic Female Rat
Publication date: Available online 12 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Prabhat R. Napit, Md. Haider Ali, Manita Shakya, Santosh K. Mandal, Khaggeswar Bheemanapally, A.S.M. Hasan Mahmood, Mostafa M.H. Ibrahim, K.P. BriskiAbstractNeural substrates for estrogen regulation of glucose homeostasis remain unclear. Female rat dorsal vagal complex (DVC) A2 noradrenergic neurons are estrogen- and metabolic-sensitive. The ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) is a key component of the brain network that governs counter-regulatory responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH). Here, the selective estrogen receptor-alpha (ER&...
Source: Neuroscience - May 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Adolescent Morphine Exposure in Male Rats Alters the Electrophysiological Properties of Locus Coeruleus Neurons of the Male Offspring
Publication date: Available online 12 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Narges Pachenari, Hossein Azizi, Saeed SemnaniannAbstractOpioid prescription and illegal use have been soaring, and it has become a global concern. Adolescence, as a critical developmental period, is radically influenced by drug exposure. In the recent decade, transgenerational effects of paternal environmental exposure have been given greater consideration. There is compelling evidence for the effect of paternal drug abuse such as alcohol, cocaine, and nicotine on the offspring; However, a limited number of studies have focused on the paternal ef...
Source: Neuroscience - May 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “aPKC-mediated persistent increase in AMPA/NMDA ratio in the VTA participates in the neuroadaptive signal necessary to induce NAc synaptic plasticity after cocaine administration” [Neuroscience 392 (2018) 129–140]
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Ana del C. Vaquer-Alicea, Rafael Vázquez-Torres, Marcos Devarie-Hornedo, Juan C. Vicenty-Padilla, Bermary Santos-Vera, Cristina María-Ríos, Maria E. Vélez-Hernández, Todd Sacktor, Carlos A. Jiménez-Rivera (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - May 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Actions of Neuropeptide Y on Synaptic Transmission in the Lateral Habenula
In this study, we examined the actions of NPY on synaptic transmission in the LHb using whole cell patch clamp recording. We observed that NPY inhibited excitatory neurotransmission in a subset of LHb neurons whereas potentiating in a small population of neurons. Inhibitory transmission remained unchanged by NPY application in a subset of neurons but was reduced in the majority of LHb neurons recorded. The overall outcome of NPY application was a decrease in the spontaneous firing rate of the LHb, leading to hypoactivation of the LHb. Our observations indicate that although NPY has divergent effects on excitatory and inhib...
Source: Neuroscience - May 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Auditory Verbal Hallucination and the Auditory Network: From Molecules to Connectivity
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Jiangjie Huang, Chuanjun Zhuo, Yong Xu, Xiaodong LinAbstractPurpose of review.Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) frequently occur across multiple psychiatric diseases especially in schizophrenia (SCZ) patients. Functional imaging studies have revealed the hyperactivity of the auditory cortex and disrupted auditory-verbal network activity underlying AVH etiology. This review will firstly summarize major findings from both human AVH patients and animal models, with focuses on the auditory cortex and associated cortical/sub-cortical areas. Besides ...
Source: Neuroscience - May 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Having your cake and eating it: faster responses with reduced muscular activation while learning a temporal interval
We examined how motor responses to a stimulus evolve as individuals learn to predict when a stimulus will appear, by comparing responses to a regular versus irregular stimulus train. The study was conducted with two groups of adults – one responded to the regular appearance of a visual stimulus every 3s (R group) and the second responded to the irregular presentation of the same stimulus (IR group) at intervals varying between 2 to 4s. Participants responded to the appearance of the stimulus by bending over to press a button that was slightly out of reach. This whole body reach requires muscular activation at the ank...
Source: Neuroscience - May 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Zinc Modulation of Olfactory Bulb AMPA Receptors
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Laura J. Blakemore, Paul Q. TrombleyAbstractThe alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors mediates most fast excitatory transmission. Glutamate binding to AMPA receptors (AMPARs) causes most AMPARs to rapidly and completely desensitize, and their desensitization kinetics influence synaptic timing. Thus, factors that alter AMPAR desensitization influence synaptic transmission. Synaptically released zinc is such a factor. Zinc is a neuromodulator with effects on amino acid receptors and...
Source: Neuroscience - May 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) of Neural Responses to Visual and Auditory Food Stimuli Pre and Post Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) and Sleeve Gastrectomy (SG)
Publication date: Available online 12 February 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Shaunte Baboumian, Spiro P. Pantazatos, Shiva Kothari, James McGinty, Jens Holst, Allan GeliebterAbstractOf current obesity treatments, bariatric surgery induces the most weight loss. Given the marked increase in the number of bariatric surgeries performed, elucidating the mechanisms of action is a key research goal. We compared whole brain activation in response to high-energy dense (HED) vs. low-energy dense (LED) visual and auditory food cues before and approximately 4 months after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) (n = 16) and Sleeve ...
Source: Neuroscience - May 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dopamine Burden Triggers Cholesterol Overload Following Disruption of Synaptogenesis in Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy
The objectives of this study were to investigate whether CHO was induced by DA overload and its involvement in DA-induced cognitive impairment in MHE. Our study showed that DA treatment triggered CHO biosynthesis via the activation of JNK3/SREBP2 signaling pathway in primary cultured astrocytes. Conditioned media from DA-treated astrocytes increased CHO uptake by primary cultured neurons and disrupted synaptic formations; at the same time, inhibition of CHO synthesis and transportation from astrocytes diminished the disruption of synaptogenesis, which indicates the involvement of CHO in the perturbation of neural synaptoge...
Source: Neuroscience - May 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Comparison of Actions between L-DOPA and Different Dopamine Agonists in Striatal DA-Depleted Microcircuits In Vitro: Pre-Clinical Insights
Publication date: Available online 9 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Esther Lara-González, Mariana Duhne, Fátima Ávila-Cascajares, Silvia Cruz, José BargasAbstractParkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative illness presenting motor and non-motor symptoms due to the loss of dopaminergic terminals in basal ganglia, most importantly, the striatum. L-DOPA relieves many motor signs. Unfortunately, in the long term, L-DOPA use causes motor disabilities by itself and does not act in comorbid conditions such as depression. These deficiencies have led to search for drugs such as dopamine (DA) ...
Source: Neuroscience - May 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Others' Pain Appraisals Modulate the Anticipation and Experience of Subsequent Pain
Publication date: Available online 9 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Weiwei Peng, Huini Peng, Juanzhi Lu, Bi Fan, Fang CuiAbstractThe present study investigated how pain appraisals from other individuals modulated self-pain anticipation and perception. Appraisals of pain intensity from 10 other individuals were presented before the participants received identical electrical pain stimulation themselves. In reality, the presented other's pain appraisals, with either low or high in mean and variance, were generated by the experimenter, and were randomly paired with the subsequent electrical stimulation at either low or...
Source: Neuroscience - May 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

γ-Synuclein Induces Human Cortical Astrocyte Proliferation and Subsequent BDNF Expression and Release
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Cynthia L. Winham, Timmy Le, Evan R. Jellison, Adam C. Silver, Aime A. Levesque, Andrew O. KoobAbstractγ-Synuclein (γ-syn) is expressed by astrocytes in the human nervous system, and increased extracellularly in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid of individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. Upregulation of γ-syn also coincides with proliferation of glioblastomas and other cancers. In order to better understand regulation and function of extracellular γ-syn, primary human cortical astrocytes were treated with γ-sy...
Source: Neuroscience - May 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Preconditioning with toll-like receptor agonists attenuates seizure activity and neuronal hyperexcitability in the pilocarpine rat model of epilepsy
In conclusion, early activation of TLR4 and TLR2, probably through preserving normal hippocampal cytokine profile and neuronal function attenuates seizure severity in the rat model of TLE. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - May 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Lasting spatial learning and memory deficits following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion are associated with hippocampal mitochondrial aging in rats
ConclusionsCCH induced long-term spatial learning and memory deficits. The related alterations of mitochondrial aging and alpha-synuclein in the hippocampus are crucial for VCI pathogenesis. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - May 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Effects of Biological Sex and Ovarian Hormones on Exercise-Induced Neuroplasticity
Publication date: Available online 8 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Jenin El-Sayes, Claudia V. Turco, Lauren E. Skelly, Chiara Nicolini, Margaret Fahnestock, Martin J. Gibala, Aimee J. NelsonAbstractAcute aerobic exercise induces short-term neuroplasticity, although it remains unknown whether biological sex and ovarian hormones influence this response. The present study investigated the effects of biological sex and ovarian hormones on short-term neuroplasticity induced by acute aerobic exercise. Young active adults (n = 17 males and n = 17 females; 21 ± 2 years) participated in two sessions in...
Source: Neuroscience - May 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Role of S100B in Aerobic Training Efficacy in Older Adults with Mild Vascular Cognitive Impairment: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial
Publication date: Available online 7 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): C.K. Barha, G.Y.R. Hsiung, T. Liu-AmbroseAbstractAerobic training improves cognitive and brain outcomes across different populations and neurocognitive disorders of aging, including mild subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (SIVCI). However, little is known of the underlying mechanisms through which aerobic training exerts its beneficial effects on the brain. Recently, S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) has been proposed a possible mediator of aerobic training. Thus we conducted a secondary analysis of data collected from the proo...
Source: Neuroscience - May 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Collateral Projections from the Medullary Dorsal Horn to the Ventral Posteromedial Thalamic Nucleus and the Parafascicular Thalamic Nucleus in the Rat
Publication date: Available online 7 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Jia-Ni Li, Yi Sun, Song-Ling Ji, Yan-Bing Chen, Jia-Hao Ren, Cheng-Bo He, Zhen-Yu Wu, Hui Li, Yu-Lin Dong, Yun-Qing LiAbstractMedullary dorsal horn (MDH), the homolog of spinal dorsal horn, plays essential roles in processing of nociceptive signals from orofacial region toward higher centers, such as the ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPM) and parafascicular thalamic nucleus (Pf), which belong to the sensory-discriminative and affective aspects of pain transmission systems at the thalamic level, respectively. In the present study, in order...
Source: Neuroscience - May 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Fast, synchronous neurotransmitter release: Past, present and future
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: SI: Miledi's contributions. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - May 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sex differences in neuroplasticity- and stress-related gene expression and protein levels in the rat hippocampus following oxycodone conditioned place preference
In this study, we examined the expression and protein densities of opioid, plasticity, stress and related kinase and signaling molecules in the hippocampus of female and male rats following oxycodone CPP. Oxycodone CPP females have: a) increases in ARC (activity regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein)-immunoreactivity (ir) in CA3 pyramidal cells; b) decreases in Npy (neuropeptide Y) gene expression in the medial hippocampus but higher numbers of NPY-containing hilar interneurons compared to males; c) increases in Crhr2 (corticotropin releasing factor receptor 2) expression in CA2/3; d) increases in Akt1 (AKT serine/thre...
Source: Neuroscience - May 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Water Diffusion of Brain Following Hypoglycemia in Rats – A Study with Diffusion Weighted Imaging and Neuropathologic Analysis
Publication date: Available online 26 April 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Fang Tong, Yijuan Zou, Yue Liang, Hao Lei, Tenzin Lopsong, Yuluo Liu, Jehane Michael Le Grange, Guanglong He, Yiwu ZhouAbstractWe established hypoglycemic rat models and divided them into three groups (the sham group, the acute hypoglycemia group and the recovery group). The brain water diffusion was examined using DWI. Thereafter, neuropathologic examinations were performed in order to evaluate the distribution of brain damage. The expression of AQP4 and Caspase3 was also examined using Western blot. We aimed to determine the specific brain reg...
Source: Neuroscience - May 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Laminin-Coated Electrodes Improve Cochlear Implant Function and Post-Insertion Neuronal Survival
ConclusionsThese data suggest that Schwann cells are attracted towards laminin-coated electrodes and promote neuritic outgrowth/ guidance and promote the survival of spiral ganglion neurons following electrode insertion trauma. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - May 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Antagonist of Neuronal Store-Operated Calcium Entry Exerts Beneficial Effects in Neurons Expressing PSEN1ΔE9 Mutant Linked to Familial Alzheimer Disease
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Daria Chernyuk, Nikita Zernov, Marina Kabirova, Ilya Bezprozvanny, Elena PopugaevaAbstractAlzheimer's disease (AD) is the neurodegenerative disorder with no cure. Recent studies suggest that dysregulated postsynaptic store-operated calcium entry (nSOCE) may underlie mushroom spine loss that is related to AD pathology. In the present study we observed that PSEN1ΔE9 familial AD (FAD) mutation causes mushroom spine loss in hippocampal neuronal cultures. We also demonstrated that amplitude of TRPC6-mediated nSOCE is increased in PSEN1ΔE9-ex...
Source: Neuroscience - May 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Sexually Dimorphic Distribution of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor 1 in the Paraventricular Hypothalamus
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Zachary J. Rosinger, Jason S. Jacobskind, Rose M. De Guzman, Nicholas J. Justice, Damian G. ZuloagaAbstractSex differences in neural structures are generally believed to underlie sex differences reported in anxiety, depression, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, although the specific circuitry involved is largely unclear. Using a corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRFR1) reporter line, we report a sexually dimorphic distribution of CRFR1 expressing cells within the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVN; males> females)....
Source: Neuroscience - May 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Lasting Spatial Learning and Memory Deficits Following Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion Is Associated with Hippocampal Mitochondrial Aging in Rats
ConclusionsCCH induced long-term spatial learning and memory deficits. The related alterations of mitochondrial aging and alpha-synuclein in the hippocampus are crucial for VCI pathogenesis. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - May 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Simvastatin Aggravates Impaired Autophagic Flux in NSC34-hSOD1G93A Cells through Inhibition of Geranylgeranyl Pyrophosphate Synthesis
Publication date: Available online 30 April 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Weijing Qi, Lina Yan, Yaling Liu, Xiaomeng Zhou, Rui Li, Yafei Wang, Lin Bai, Juan Chen, Xiangyu NieAbstractAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective loss of motor neurons. Statins are widely used as cholesterol-lowering drugs and significantly reduce the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Increasing evidence indicates the protective effects of statins against certain neurodegenerative diseases. However, in ALS, many studies have found that statins might accelerate disease pro...
Source: Neuroscience - May 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Role of Fatty Acid Binding Protein 7 in Spinal Cord Astrocytes in a Mouse Model of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
Publication date: Available online 30 April 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Kenyu Kamizato, Sho Sato, Subrata Kumar Shil, Banlanjo A. Umaru, Yoshiteru Kagawa, Yui Yamamoto, Masaki Ogata, Yuki Yasumoto, Yuko Okuyama, Naoto Ishii, Yuji Owada, Hirofumi MiyazakiAbstractFatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7) is expressed in astrocytes of the developing and mature central nervous system, and modulates astrocyte function by controlling intracellular fatty acid homeostasis. Astrocytes in the spinal cord have an important role in the process of myelin degeneration and regeneration. In the present study, the authors examined the ro...
Source: Neuroscience - May 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

How the brain transitions from conscious to subliminal perception
Publication date: Available online 1 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Francesca Arese Lucini, Gino Del Ferraro, Mariano Sigman, Hernán A. MakseAbstractWe study the transition in the functional networks that characterize the human brains’ conscious-state to an unconscious subliminal state of perception by using k-core percolation. We find that the most inner core (i.e., the most connected kernel) of the conscious-state functional network (the visual cortex and the left middle frontal gyrus) corresponds to the areas which remain functionally active when the brain transitions from the conscious-state to the...
Source: Neuroscience - May 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Allergen-Induced Histaminergic and Non-histaminergic Activation of Itch C-Fiber Nerve Terminals in Mouse Skin
Publication date: Available online 29 April 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Danica Jurcakova, Fei Ru, Bradley J. UndemAbstractAcute cutaneous exposure to allergen often leads to itch, but seldom pain. The effect of mast cell activation on cutaneous C-fibers was studied using innervated isolated mouse skin preparation that allows for intra-arterial delivery of chemicals to the nerve terminals in the skin. Allergen (ovalbumin) injection into the isolated skin of actively sensitized mice strongly stimulated chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive C-fibers (also referred to as “itch” nerves), on the other hand, CQ-insensitiv...
Source: Neuroscience - April 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

NEMO-Binding Domain Peptides Alleviate Perihematomal Inflammation Injury after Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage
This study demonstrated that NBD peptides exert a neuroprotective role after ICH and might be a potential candidate for a novel therapeutic strategy for ICH. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - April 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Fast, synchronous neurotransmitter release: past, present and future.
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: SI: Miledi's contributions. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - April 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research