Neural Correlates of Social Perception in Children with Autism: Local versus Global Preferences
Publication date: Available online 10 November 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Abbey J. Herringshaw, Sandhya L. Kumar, Kaitlyn Noel Rody, Rajesh K. KanaAbstractThe Weak Central Coherence account of autism spectrum disorders posits that individuals with ASD utilize a detail-oriented information processing bias. While this local bias is helpful in visual search tasks, ASD individuals falter in social cognition tasks where coherence is advantageous. The present study examined the neural correlates of Weak Central Coherence in ASD during visual and social processing. Fifteen ASD and sixteen typically developing children/ado...
Source: Neuroscience - November 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

c-Fos, ΔFosB, BDNF, trkB and Arc expression in the limbic system of male Roman High and Low Avoidance rats that show differences in sexual behaviour: effect of sexual activity
This study shows that these markers changed differentially in the VTA, Acb and mPFC of RHA and RLA rats, after sexual activity. In both rat lines, the changes were very evident in naïve rats, tended to disappear in experienced rats and were higher in RHA than RLA rats. These findings confirm that sexual activity induces neural activation in limbic brain areas involved in motivation and reward, leading to changes in synaptic plasticity with sexual experience acquisition, and show that these depend on the animals’ genotypic/phenotypic characteristics. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - November 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The impact of ghrelin on the survival and efficacy of dopaminergic foetal grafts in the 6-OHDA lesioned rat
Publication date: Available online 8 November 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): O.F. Elabi, K. Duskova, J.S. Davies, E.L. LaneAbstractGhrelin is a peptide produced in the gut with a wide range of physiological functions. Recent studies have suggested it may have potential as a neuroprotective agent in models of Parkinson’s disease, reducing the impact of toxic challenges on the survival of nigral dopaminergic neurons. The presence of the ghrelin receptor (GHSR1a) on the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra raises the possibility that a potential application for this property of ghrelin may be as an adjunctiv...
Source: Neuroscience - November 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of pragmatic language comprehension: in search of a universal neural substrate
In conclusion, pragmatic language comprehension involves classical language areas in bilateral perisylvian regions, along with the medial prefrontal cortex, an area involved in social cognition. Together, these areas could represent the “pragmatic language network”. Nonetheless, when proposing a universal neural substrate for all forms of pragmatic language, the diversity among studies in terms of pragmatic form, and configuration, must be taken into consideration. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - November 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Artemisinin B improves learning and memory impairment in AD dementia mice by suppressing neuroinflammation
This study also showed that artemisinin B improved spatial memory in dementia mice in the water maze and step-through tests, and altered the pathological features and the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus and the cortex. These results suggested that artemisinin B might inhibit neuroinflammation and exert neuroprotective effects on cognitive functions by modulating the TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB signaling pathway. This study provides direct evidence for the potential application of artemisinin B in the treatment of neuroinflammatory diseases.Graphical abstract (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - November 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tracking-assisted Detection of Dendritic Spines in Time-Lapse Microscopic Images
Publication date: Available online 19 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Lavdie Rada, Bike Kilic, Ertunc Erdil, Yazmín Ramiro-Cortés, Inbal Israely, Devrim Unay, Mujdat Cetin, Ali Özgür ArgunsahAbstractDetecting morphological changes of dendritic spines in time-lapse microscopy images and correlating them with functional properties such as memory and learning, are fundamental and challenging problems in neurobiology research. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for dendritic spine detection in time series. The proposed approach initially performs spine detection at each time point and imp...
Source: Neuroscience - November 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dorsal root ganglia coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 contributes to peripheral nerve injury-induced pain hypersensitivities
We report here that peripheral nerve injury induced the upregulation of the mRNA and protein expression of CARM1 in the injured DRG, and blocking its expression through small interfering RNA (siRNA) in the injured DRG attenuated the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of CARM1 mitigated peripheral nerve injury-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Given that CARM1 inhibition or knockdown attenuated the induction and maintenance of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury, our findings suggest that CARM1 may serve as a promising therapeutic target f...
Source: Neuroscience - November 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Electroencephalographic correlates of continuous postural tasks of increasing difficulty
Publication date: Available online 1 November 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Amy E Edwards, Onur Guven, Michael D Furman, Qadeer Arshad, Adolfo M BronsteinAbstractCortical involvement in postural control is well recognised, however the role of non-visual afferents remains unclear. Parietal cortical areas are strongly implicated in vestibulo-spatial functions, but topographical localisation during balance tasks remains limited. Here, we use electroencephalography (EEG) during continuous balance tasks of increasing difficulty at single electrode positions. Twenty-four healthy, right-handed individuals performed four bala...
Source: Neuroscience - November 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Maternal Preconception Stress Alters Prefrontal Cortex Development in Long–Evans Rat Pups without Changing Maternal Care
Publication date: Available online 24 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Serena Jenkins, Allonna Harker, Robbin GibbAbstractStress during development can shift the typical developmental trajectory. Maternal stress prior to conception has recently been shown to exert similar influences on the offspring. The present study questioned if a consistent maternal stressor prior to conception (elevated platform stress) would impact the pre-weaning development of offspring brain and behavior, and if maternal care was vulnerable to this experience. Adult female Long–Evans rats were subjected to elevated platform stress ...
Source: Neuroscience - October 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Downregulation of Dopamine D1-like Receptor Pathways of GABAergic Interneurons in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats
Publication date: Available online 28 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Hiromasa Satoh, Hidenori Suzuki, Fumihito SaitowAbstractDeficits in dopaminergic function are thought to underlie attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Dopaminergic neurons are the main source of dopamine (DA), a neurotransmitter that acts as a neuromodulator of cognitive function in the prefrontal cortex, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which receives dopaminergic inputs from the ventral tegmental area. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been widely studied as an animal model of ADHD. The aim of the current...
Source: Neuroscience - October 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

HIF-1α is critical for the activation of Notch signaling in neurogenesis during acute epilepsy
In conclusion, our results suggested that HIF-1α-Notch signaling enhanced neurogenesis in acute epilepsy and that neurogenesis during epileptogenesis was reduced once this pathway was blocked; thus, members of this pathway might be potential therapeutic targets for epilepsy. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - October 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Resting-state functional connectivity and deception: exploring individualized deceptive propensity with machine learning
Publication date: Available online 28 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Honghong Tang, Xiaping Lu, Zaixu Cui, Chunliang Feng, Qixiang Lin, Xuegang Cui, Song Su, Chao LiuAbstractIndividuals show a great heterogeneity in determining to be honest or deceptive in daily life. A large number of studies have investigated the neural substrates of deception; however, the brain networks contributed to the individual difference in deception still remain unclear. The current study tried to address this issue by employing a machine-learning approach to predict individuals’ deceptive propensity with topological properties...
Source: Neuroscience - October 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Learning deficits in adult Mitochondria Carrier Homolog 2 forebrain knockout mouse
Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Etay Aloni, Antonella Ruggiero, Atan Gross, Menahem SegalAbstractMitochondrial Carrier Homolog 2 (MTCH2) acts as a receptor for the BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (BID) in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Loss of MTCH2 affects mitochondria energy metabolism and function. MTCH2 forebrain conditional KO (MTCH2 BKO) display a deficit in hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions. Here we study age-related MTCH2 BKO behavioural and electrophysiological aspects of hippocampal functions. MTCH2 BKO exhibit impaired spatial but not motor learnin...
Source: Neuroscience - October 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Study on Urine Metabolic Profile of Aβ25–35-Induced Alzheimer's Disease Using UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS
Publication date: Available online 11 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Yuanyuan Liu, Mengying Wei, Kexin Yue, Mingxin Hu, Shizhe Li, Lihui Men, Zifeng Pi, Zhiqiang Liu, Zhongying LiuAbstractAlzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, with no effective method for its treatment so far. The pathogenesis of AD has been reported, but the endogenous metabolic profile and disease-related biomarkers are still not clear. To better understand AD, an AD model induced by injecting β-amyloid 25–35 (Aβ 25–35) solution into bilateral hippocampus was developed on Sprague&ndas...
Source: Neuroscience - October 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mu-opioid Receptor (MOR)-Biased Agonists Induce Biphasic Dose-dependent Hyperalgesia and Analgesia, and Hyperalgesic Priming in the Rat
Publication date: Available online 17 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Dionéia Araldi, Luiz F. Ferrari, Jon D. LevineAbstractStimulation of the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) on nociceptors with fentanyl can produce hyperalgesia (opioid-induced hyperalgesia, OIH) and hyperalgesic priming, a model of transition to chronic pain. We investigated if local and systemic administration of biased MOR agonists (PZM21 and TRV130), which preferentially activate G-protein over β-arrestin translocation, and have been reported to minimize some opioid side effects, also produces OIH and priming. Injected intradermally (10...
Source: Neuroscience - October 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Amyloid-peptide β 42 enhances the oligomerization and neurotoxicity of apoE4: the C-terminal residues Leu279, Lys282 and Gln284 modulate the structural and functional properties of apoE4
Publication date: Available online 24 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Ioannis Dafnis, Letta Argyri, Angeliki ChroniAbstractApolipoprotein E4 (apoE4), one of the three apoE isoforms, is the strongest factor for raising the risk for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and has been proposed to play major role in AD pathogenesis. Amyloid-peptide β 42 (Aβ42) has also been proposed to affect neuronal degeneration and AD pathogenesis, possibly by interacting with apoE. Previous studies have shown that the functions of apoE forms can be dictated by their structural and biophysical properties. Here w...
Source: Neuroscience - October 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chaotic and fast audiovisuals increase attentional scope but decrease conscious processing
Publication date: Available online 24 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Celia Andreu-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel Martín-Pascual, Agnès Gruart, José María Delgado-GarcíaAbstractAudiovisual cuts involve spatial, temporal, and action narrative leaps. They can even change the meaning of the narrative through film editing. Many cuts are not consciously perceived, others are, just as we perceive or not the changes in real events. In this paper, we analyze the effects of cuts and different editing styles on 36 subjects, using electroencephalographic (EEG) techniques and the proj...
Source: Neuroscience - October 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Distribution of the extracellular matrix in the pararubral area of the rat
Publication date: Available online 24 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Dóra Szarvas, Botond Gaál, Clara Matesz, Éva RáczAbstractPreviously we described similarities and differences in the organization and molecular composition of an aggrecan based extracellular matrix (ECM) in three precerebellar nuclei, the inferior olive, the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus and the red nucleus of the rat associated with their specific cytoarchitecture, connection and function in the vestibular system. The aim of present study is to map the ECM pattern in a mesencephalic precerebellar nucleus, the parar...
Source: Neuroscience - October 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Distribution of HAP1-immunoreactive cells in the retrosplenial–retrohippocampal area of adult rat brain and its application to a refined neuroanatomical understanding of the region
Publication date: Available online 24 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Greggory Wroblewski, Md. Nabiul Islam, Akie Yanai, Mir Rubayet Jahan, Koh-hei Masumoto, Koh ShinodaAbstractHuntingtin-associated protein 1 (HAP1) is a neural interactor of huntingtin in Huntington’s disease, and interacts with gene products in a number of other neurodegenerative diseases. In normal brains, HAP1 is expressed abundantly in the hypothalamus and limbic-associated regions. These areas tend to be spared from neurodegeneration while those with little HAP1 are frequently neurodegenerative targets, suggesting its role as a protec...
Source: Neuroscience - October 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Wnt7a in mouse insular cortex contributes to anxiety-like behavior during protracted abstinence from morphine
In this study, we found that: 1) anxiety-like behavior in morphine dependent mice became significant after 28 days of withdrawal, while their physical symptoms became undetectable; 2) Activated glutamatergic neurons in the medial IC, but not the anterior or posterior IC was significantly increased after 28 days of withdrawal. Bilateral lesion of the medial IC, but not the anterior or posterior IC with ibotenic acid (IBO) alleviated the anxiety-like behavior. 3) Expression of Wnt7a in the medial IC was significantly increased after 28 days of withdrawal, and specific down-regulation of Wnt7a with AAV-shWnt7a also alleviated...
Source: Neuroscience - October 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Inhibitor of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase, 8-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2,3,4,5-benzopentathiepin-6-amine hydrochloride (TC-2153), produces antidepressant-like effect and decreases functional activity and protein level of 5-HT2A receptor in the brain
Publication date: Available online 24 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): E.A. Kulikova, N.V. Khotskin, N.B. Illarionova, I.E. Sorokin, E.Y. Bazhenova, E.M. Kondaurova, K.P. Volcho, T.M. Khomenko, N.F. Salakhutdinov, E. Ponimaskin, V.S. Naumenko, A.V. KulikovAbstractThe serotoninergic 5-HT2A receptor is involved in the mechanism of depression and antidepressant drugs action. Earlier we showed that striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) inhibitor - 8-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2,3,4,5-benzopentathiepin-6-amine hydrochloride (TC-2153) affects both the brain serotoninergic system and the brain-derived neurotrop...
Source: Neuroscience - October 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Role of the CD200-CD200R axis during homeostasis and neuroinflammation
Publication date: Available online 24 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Gemma Manich, Mireia Recasens, Tony Valente, Beatriz Almolda, Berta González, Bernardo CastellanoAbstractMicroglia are considered to be the resident macrophages of the CNS and main effector of immune brain function. Due to their essential role in the regulation of neuroinflammatory response, microglia constitute an important target for neurological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease. The communication between neurons and microglia contributes to a proper maintenance of homeostasis in the...
Source: Neuroscience - October 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The contribution of TRPV4 channels to astrocyte volume regulation and brain edema formation
Publication date: Available online 24 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Helena Pivonkova, Zuzana Hermanova, Denisa Kirdajova, Thuraya Awadova, Jan Malinsky, Lukas Valihrach, Daniel Zucha, Mikael Kubista, Andrea Galisova, Daniel Jirak, Miroslava AnderovaAbstractTransient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) channels are involved in astrocyte volume regulation; however, only limited data exists about its mechanism in astrocytes in situ. We performed middle cerebral artery occlusion in adult mice, where we found twice larger edema 1 day after the insult in trpv4-/- mice compared to the controls, which was quan...
Source: Neuroscience - October 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Maternal preconception stress alters prefrontal cortex development in Long-Evans rat pups without changing maternal care
Publication date: Available online 24 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Serena Jenkins, Allonna Harker, Robbin GibbAbstractStress during development can shift the typical developmental trajectory. Maternal stress prior to conception has recently been shown to exert similar influences on the offspring. The present study questioned if a consistent maternal stressor prior to conception (elevated platform stress) would impact the pre-weaning development of offspring brain and behavior, and if maternal care was vulnerable to this experience. Adult female Long-Evans rats were subjected to elevated platform stress for 27...
Source: Neuroscience - October 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Impact of endoplasmic reticulum stress in development of pain hypersensitivity: A commentary on Yamaguchi et al
Publication date: Available online 24 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Nitin Agarwal (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - October 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Closer Look: Electron microscopic insights into aging glutamate synapses in the prefrontal association cortex
Publication date: Available online 24 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Amy F.T. Arnsten (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - October 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Structural Plasticity of the Primary and Secondary Olfactory cortices: Increased Gray Matter Volume Following Surgical Treatment for Chronic Rhinosinusitis
Publication date: Available online 13 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): K.L. Whitcroft, J. Fischer, P. Han, C. Raue, M. Bensafi, V. Gudziol, P. Andrews, T. HummelAbstractFunctional plasticity of the adult brain is well established. Recently, the structural counterpart to such plasticity has been suggested by neuroimaging studies showing experience-dependent differences in gray matter (GM) volumes. Within the primary and secondary olfactory cortices, reduced GM volumes have been demonstrated in patients with olfactory loss. However, these cross-sectional studies do not provide causal evidence for GM volume change, ...
Source: Neuroscience - October 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Medial Prefrontal Cortical Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors Mediate Morphine–Dextromethorphan Cross State-Dependent Memory: The Involvement of BDNF/cFOS Signaling Pathways
Publication date: Available online 14 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Zahra Ghasemzadeh, Ameneh RezayofAbstractThe present study set out to assess the possible role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) cannabinoid CB1 receptors and BDNF/cFOS signaling pathways in morphine–dextromethorphan (DXM) cross state-dependent memory (SDM) using male Wistar rats. Changes on the levels of BDNF and cFOS proteins in the PFC were examined by Western blot analysis. Present results revealed that levels of BDNF and cFOS proteins were significantly increased in the animals that were trained in the passive avoidance apparat...
Source: Neuroscience - October 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The role of attention and saccades on parietofrontal encoding of contextual and grasp-specific affordances of tools: an ERP study
Publication date: Available online 19 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Nikhilesh Natraj, Bennett Alterman, Sumia Basunia, Lewis A. WheatonAbstractThe ability to recognize a tool’s affordances (how a spoon should be appropriately grasped and used), is vital for daily life. Prior research has identified parietofrontal brain regions, including the mirror neuron system, to be critical in understanding affordances. However, parietofrontal action-encoding regions receive extensive visual input and are adjacent to parietofrontal networks underlying attentional-mechanisms. It is unclear how attention modulates pari...
Source: Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tracking-assisted Detection of Dendritic Spines in Time Lapse Microscopic Images
Publication date: Available online 19 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Lavdie Rada, Bike Kilic, Ertunc Erdil, Yazmín Ramiro-Cortés, Inbal Israely, Devrim Unay, Mujdat Cetin, Ali Özgür ArgunsahAbstractDetecting morphological changes of dendritic spines in time-lapse microscopy images and correlating them with functional properties such as memory and learning, is a fundamental and challenging problem in neurobiology research. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for dendritic spine detection in time series. The proposed approach initially performs spine detection at each time point and imp...
Source: Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Regulated Necrosis Orchestrates Microglial Cell Death in Manganese-Induced Toxicity
In this report we demonstrated, for the first time, that Mn2+ triggers regulated necrosis (RN) in BV-2 cells involving two central mechanisms: parthanatos and lysosomal disruption. The occurrence of parthanatos is supported by several cellular and molecular events: (i) DNA damage; (ii) AIF translocation from mitochondria to the nucleus; (iii) mitochondrial membrane permeabilization; and (iv) PARP1-dependent cell death. On the other hand, Mn2+ induces lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and cathepsin D (CatD) release into the cytosol supporting the lysosomal disruption. Pre-incubation with CatB and D inhibitors partia...
Source: Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sound coding in the auditory nerve: from single fiber activity to cochlear mass potentials in gerbils
We report that high-spontaneous rate (SR) fibers driven by low-frequency tones in noise are able to phase lock ∼30 dB below the level that evoked a significant elevation of the discharge rate, whereas medium- and low-SR fibers switch their preferential mode of coding from rate coding in quiet, to time coding in noise. For high-frequency tone, the low-threshold/high-SR fibers reach their maximum discharge rate in noise and do not respond to tones, whereas medium- and low-SR fibers are still able to respond to tones making them more resistant to background noise. Based on these findings, we first discuss the ecological f...
Source: Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mu-Opioid Receptor (MOR) Biased Agonists Induce Biphasic Dose-dependent Hyperalgesia and Analgesia, and Hyperalgesic Priming in the Rat
Publication date: Available online 17 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Dionéia Araldi, Luiz F. Ferrari, Jon D. LevineAbstractStimulation of the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) on nociceptors with fentanyl can produce hyperalgesia (opioid-induced hyperalgesia, OIH) and hyperalgesic priming, a model of transition to chronic pain. We investigated if local and systemic administration of biased MOR agonists (PZM21 and TRV130), which preferentially activate G-protein over β-arrestin translocation, and have been reported to minimize some opioid side effects, also produces OIH and priming. Injected intradermally (10...
Source: Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Afferent input induced by rhythmic limb movement modulates spinal neuronal circuits in an innovative robotic in vitro preparation
In conclusion, hindlimb rhythmic and alternated pedaling of different durations affects distinct dorsal and ventral spinal networks by modulating excitatory and inhibitory input to motoneurons. These results suggest defining new parameters for effective neurorehabilitation that better exploits spinal circuit activity. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Stimulation of the dorsal premotor cortex, but not of the supplementary motor area proper, impairs the stop function in a STOP signal task
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Sara Parmigiani, Luigi CattaneoAbstractBeing able to inhibit an impending movement in response to a contextual change is a distinctive feature of action control. Such inhibitory control relies on a complex cortical-subcortical network, including posterior prefrontal regions such as caudal inferior frontal gyrus and pre-supplementary motor area. According to hierarchical models of action control, both areas represent the intermediate level between prefronto-dependent and motor-related cortices. Going at a lower level, accumulating evidence spea...
Source: Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chronic Sound-induced Tinnitus and Auditory Attention in Animals
This study used an operant conditioning animal model to examine the interaction between tinnitus and auditory vigilant attention as well as auditory selective attention. Tinnitus was induced in 90-day-old rats by a unilateral exposure to band-limited noise (120 dB, SPL). Tinnitus testing began 90 days following exposure; afterward animals were divided into 3 groups: Unexposed controls without tinnitus, Exposed without tinnitus, and Exposed with tinnitus. Tinnitus was evident in the vicinity of 20 kHz. Vigilant attention was quantified by the behavioral (operant) response to unpredictable sound transitions signaling changes...
Source: Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Primary cultures from rat dorsal root ganglia: responses of neurons and glial cells to somatosensory or inflammatory stimulation
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Stephan Leisengang, Daniela Ott, Jolanta Murgott, Rüdiger Gerstberger, Christoph Rummel, Joachim RothAbstractPrimary cultures of rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) consist of neurons, satellite glial cells and a moderate number of macrophages. Measurements of increased intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i induced by stimuli, have revealed that about 70% of DRG neurons are capsaicin-responsive nociceptors, while 10% responded to cooling and or menthol (putative cold-sensors). Cultivation of DRG in the presence of a moderate dose of lipopolysaccharide ...
Source: Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Absence of neuronal response modulation with familiarity in perirhinal cortex
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Liad J. Baruchin, Adam Ranson, Mark Good, Vincenzo CrunelliAbstractThe perirhinal cortex (PRH) is considered a crucial cortical area for familiarity memory and electrophysiological studies have reported the presence of visual familiarity encoding neurons in PRH. However, recent evidence has questioned the existence of these neurons. Here, we used a visual task in which head-restrained mice were passively exposed to oriented gratings or natural images. Evoked potentials and single-unit recordings showed evoked responses to novelty in V1 under s...
Source: Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Stress c-Jun N-terminal Kinase Signaling Pathway Activation Correlates with Synaptic Pathology and Presents A Sex Bias in P301L Mouse Model of Tauopathy
We describe JNK activation in P301L-tg mice, characterizing by P-JNK and P-c-Jun, cleaved-Caspase-3, P-PSD95 and P-Tau (direct JNK-targets) increased levels in tg vs control mice. These data indicate that JNK stress pathway is involved in neuronal degenerative mechanisms of this mouse model. In addition, P-JNK level is higher in female compared to male tg mice, underlying a sexual dimorphism in the JNK pathway activation. The behavioral studies highlight that tg female present major cognitive and locomotor defects, strongly correlated with a more severe synaptic injury, in comparison to tg male. Notably, at the dendritic s...
Source: Neuroscience - October 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide and headache targets in the trigeminal ganglia of rats and humans
Publication date: Available online 15 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Simona Denise Frederiksen, Karin Warfvinge, Lena Ohlsson, Lars EdvinssonAbstractNeurotransmitter and headache target localization in the trigeminal ganglia (TG) might increase the understanding of sites of action, and mechanisms related to headache therapy. The overall aim of the study was to investigate the presence of migraine targets in the TG with particular emphasis on pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), known to be involved in cranial pain processing, and selected headache ta...
Source: Neuroscience - October 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Atypical Expression and Activation of GluN2A- and GluN2B-Containing NMDA Receptors at Ganglion Cells during Retinal Degeneration
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Christopher W. Yee, Elena Ivanova, Abduqodir H. Toychiev, Dianna E. Willis, Botir T. SagdullaevAbstractCellular communication through chemical synapses is determined by the nature of the neurotransmitter and the composition of postsynaptic receptors. In the excitatory synapse between bipolar and ganglion cells of the retina, postsynaptic AMPA receptors mediate resting activity. During evoked response, however, more abundant and sustained levels of glutamate also activate GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors (NMDARs). This phasic recruitment of dis...
Source: Neuroscience - October 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Structural plasticity of the primary and secondary olfactory cortices: increased grey matter volume following surgical treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis
Publication date: Available online 13 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): K.L. Whitcroft, J. Fischer, P. Han, C. Raue, M. Bensafi, V. Gudziol, P. Andrews, T. HummelAbstractFunctional plasticity of the adult brain is well established. Recently, the structural counterpart to such plasticity has been suggested by neuroimaging studies showing experience-dependent differences in grey matter (GM)-volumes. Within the primary and secondary olfactory cortices, reduced GM-volumes have been demonstrated in patients with olfactory loss. However, these cross-sectional studies do not provide causal evidence for GM-volume change, ...
Source: Neuroscience - October 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Medial prefrontal cortical cannabinoid CB1 receptors mediate morphine-dextromethorphan cross state-dependent memory: the involvement of BDNF/cFOS signaling pathways
Publication date: Available online 14 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Zahra Ghasemzadeh, Ameneh RezayofAbstractThe present study set out to assess the possible role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) cannabinoid CB1 receptors and BDNF/cFOS signaling pathways in morphine-dextromethorphan (DXM) cross-state dependent memory (SDM) using male Wistar rats. Changes on the levels of BDNF and cFOS proteins in the PFC were examined by Western blot analysis. Present results revealed that levels of BDNF and cFOS proteins were significantly increased in the animals that were trained in the passive avoidance apparatus. In...
Source: Neuroscience - October 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Triggering mechanisms for motor actions: The effects of expectation on reaction times to intense acoustic stimuli
We present experimental data showing that foreperiod predictability can induce differences in RT that would be of similar size to those attributed to the activation of different neurophysiological pathways to trigger prepared actions. We discuss plausible physiological mechanisms that would explain differences in premotor RTs between SCM+ and SCM- trials. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - October 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Whether Visual-Related Structural and Functional Changes Occur in Brain of Patients with Acute Incomplete Cervical Cord Injury: A Multimodal Based MRI Study
Publication date: Available online 14 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Qian Chen, Weimin Zheng, Xin Chen, Xuejing Li, Ling Wang, Wen Qin, Kuncheng Li, Nan ChenAbstractVisual-related cortex plays an important role in the process of movement. It is great of importance to clarify whether traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), which is a typical disease resulted in sensorimotor dysfunction, leads to the alteration of visual-related brain structure and function area. To address this issue, multimodality MRI was applied on eleven patients with acute incomplete cervical cord injury (ICCI) and eleven healthy controls (HCs) ...
Source: Neuroscience - October 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Effects of Waveform and Current Direction on the Efficacy and Test–Retest Reliability of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Publication date: Available online 6 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Paula Davila-Pérez, Ali Jannati, Peter J. Fried, Javier Cudeiro Mazaira, Alvaro Pascual-LeoneAbstractThe pulse waveform and current direction of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) influence its interactions with the neural substrate; however, their role in the efficacy and reliability of single- and paired-pulse TMS measures is not fully understood. We investigated how pulse waveform and current direction affect the efficacy and test–retest reliability of navigated, single- and paired-pulse TMS measures. 23 healthy adults (age...
Source: Neuroscience - October 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Anodal transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) selectively inhibits the synaptic efficacy of nociceptive transmission at spinal cord level
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Cédric Lenoir, Aleksandar Jankovski, André MourauxAbstractRecently studies have aimed at developing transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) as a non-invasive technique to modulate spinal function in humans. Independent studies evaluating its after-effects on nociceptive or non-nociceptive somatosensory responses have reported comparable effects suggesting that tsDCS impairs axonal conduction of both the spino-thalamic and the medial lemniscus tracts. The present study aimed to better understand how tsDCS affects,...
Source: Neuroscience - October 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Feeding time entrains the olfactory bulb circadian clock in anosmic PER2::LUC mice
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Ilya Pavlovski, Jennifer A. Evans, Ralph E. MistlbergerAbstractCircadian rhythms in many brain regions and peripheral organs can be entrained by daily feeding schedules. The set of feeding related signals that entrain peripheral clocks are tissue specific and include nutrients, metabolic hormones and temperature. Signals that entrain neural circadian clocks to mealtime have yet to be established for any brain region. The olfactory bulb (OB) contains a robust circadian clock that can cycle independently of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) mast...
Source: Neuroscience - October 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Regulated necrosis orchestrates microglial cell death in manganese- induced toxicity
In this report we demonstrated, for the first time, that Mn2+ triggers regulated necrosis (RN) in BV-2 cells involving two central mechanisms: parthanatos and lysosomal disruption. The occurrence of parthanatos is supported by several cellular and molecular events: i) DNA damage; ii) AIF translocation from mitochondria to the nucleus; iii) mitochondrial membrane permeabilization; and iv) PARP1- dependent cell death. On the other hand, Mn2+ induces lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and cathepsin D (CatD) release into the cytosol supporting the lysosomal disruption. Pre-incubation with CatB and D inhibitors partially...
Source: Neuroscience - October 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sex differences in the rat hippocampal opioid system after oxycodone conditioned place preference
Publication date: Available online 11 October 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): James D. Ryan, Yan Zhou, Natalina H. Contoreggi, Farah K. Bshesh, Jason D. Gray, Joshua F. Kogan, Konrad T. Ben, Bruce S. McEwen, Mary Jeanne Kreek, Teresa A. MilnerAbstractAlthough opioid addiction has risen dramatically, the role of gender in addiction has been difficult to elucidate. We previously found sex-dependent differences in the hippocampal opioid system of Sprague-Dawley rats that may promote associative learning relevant to drug abuse. The present studies show that although female and male rats acquired conditioned place preference...
Source: Neuroscience - October 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research