Lessons from the accident with 137cesium in goiania, brazil: contributions to biological dosimetry in case of human exposure to ionizing radiation
In this report, the purpose was to review and summarize the main results of cytogenetic studies carried out with victims of 137Cesium, for blood collection performed shortly after the accident, and following several years post-exposure. The importance of dose estimates by biological dosimetry is highlighted, and also several lessons that were learned from the initial to follow-up (7-10 years after the accident) studies, mainly by applying the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method. A relevant aspect discussed on the basis of the results obtained in those studies refers to the incidence of chromosomal translocatio...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 28, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Multi-laboratory evaluation of 1,3-propane sultone, N-propyl-N-nitrosourea, and mitomycin C in the Pig-a mutation assay in vivo
Publication date: Available online 26 May 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Young-Shin Chung, Bumsoo Pak, Sehee Han, Jiyeon Lee, Jiyoung Kim, Seng-Min Back, Cho-Rong Park, Su-Hwan Kim, Jong-Kwon Lee The mutagenic potencies of 1,3-propane sultone (PS), N-propyl-N-nitrosourea (PNU), and mitomycin C (MMC) were investigated in three independent laboratories in Korea using the Pig-a assay in vivo. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with vehicle or test substance on three consecutive days. Blood samples were collected for measuring Pig-a mutant phenotypes (CD59-deficient ery...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 26, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

The role of p38 MAPK pathway in p53 compromised state and telomere mediated DNA damage response
Publication date: Available online 26 May 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Shomereeta Roy, Souvick Roy, Aarti Rana, Yusuf Akhter, Manoor Prakash Hande, Birendranath Banerjee There is an intricate balance of DNA damage response and repair which determines the homeostasis of human genome function. p53 protein is widely known for its role in cell cycle regulation and tumor suppressor activity. In case of several cancers where function of p53 gene gets compromised either by mutation or partial inactivation, the role of p53 in response to DNA damage needs to be supplemen...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 26, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Monomethylarsonous acid: induction of DNA damage and oxidative stress in mouse natural killer cells at environmentally-relevant concentrations
Publication date: Available online 26 May 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Huan Xu, Xiaolei Wang, Wei Wang The carcinogenicity of arsenic has been confirmed in many studies, but its mechanism of action is still unclear. A lymphocyte component of the innate immune system, natural killer (NK) cells are responsible for killing cancer cells. Although inorganic arsenical species are the prevalent forms of arsenic in the environment, monomethylarsonous acid (MMA+3) is the major arsenical species found in immune-system cells, in this 30 d drinking-water-exposure study in m...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 26, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Polymorphisms of genes related to metabolism of lead (Pb) are associated with the metal body burden and with biomarkers of oxidative stress
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Willian Robert Gomes, Paula Pícoli Devóz, Bruno Limonti Cano Luiz, Denise Grotto, Bruno Lemos Batista, Fernando Barbosa, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron Barcelos Individual susceptibility to the toxic effects induced by exposure to lead (Pb) may be affected by several variables, such as environmental factors, as well as intrinsic variations among the individuals, which are hypothetically associated to genetic differences in enzymes metabolizing the metal. Aim of the present study was to...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 25, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Genetic variation of acquired structural chromosomal aberrations
Publication date: Available online 19 May 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Pavel Vodicka, Ludovit Musak, Ludmila Vodickova, Sona Vodenkova, Calogerina Catalano, Michal Kroupa, Alessio Naccarati, Zdena Polivkova, Veronika Vymetalkova, Asta Försti, Kari Hemminki Human malignancies are often hallmarked with genomic instability, which itself is also considered a causative event in malignant transformation. Genomic instability may manifest itself as genetic changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA, or as structural or numerical changes of chromosomes. Unrepaired or...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 19, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Discovering human germ cell mutagens with whole genome sequencing: insights from power calculations reveal the importance of controlling for between family variability
Publication date: Available online 20 April 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): R.J. Webster, A. Williams, F. Marchetti, C.L. Yauk Mutations in germ cells pose potential genetic risks to offspring. However, de novo mutations are rare events that are spread across the genome and are difficult to detect. Thus, studies in this area have generally been under-powered, and no human germ cell mutagen has been identified. Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) of human pedigrees has been proposed as an approach to overcome these technical and statistical challenges. WGS enables analysi...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 15, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

GSTP1 c.341C & gt;T Gene Polymorphism increases the risk of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Deepa Rajesh, Sharath Balakrishna, S.M. Azeem Mohiyuddin, T.N. Suresh, A.V. Moideen Kutty Glutathione S Transferases (GST) are anti-oxidant enzymes involved in detoxification of cellular and exogenous carcinogens and oxidative products of reactive oxygen species. Genetic polymorphisms can attenuate the detoxification capacity of GST and consequently increase the susceptibility to carcinogenesis. There are eight classes of GST enzymes of which pi subtype is the predominant form expressed in ...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 15, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Early antioxidant responses through concerted activation of NF- κB and Nrf2 characterize gamma radiation induced-adaptive response in quiescent human peripheral blood mononuclear cells
In this study, RI-AR has been studied using quiescent human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as the model system. G0 PBMCs were ‘primed’ with a low dose of 100 mGy gamma radiation and ‘challenged’ with a high dose gamma radiation of 2 Gy after an ‘adaptive window’ of 4 h. A relatively modest 5.7% increase in viability along with attenuated DNA strand breaks was seen in the primed cells as compared to the unprimed cells. This was consistent with lower levels of reactive oxygen species, higher mitochondrial membrane potential and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes li...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 15, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

A Statistical Approach for Analyzing Data from the in vivo Pig-a gene Mutation Assay
Publication date: Available online 5 May 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Bernd-Wolfgang Igl, Stephen D. Dertinger, Vasily N. Dobrovolsky, Marian Raschke, Andreas Sutter, Richardus Vonk The in vivo Pig-a gene mutation assay serves to evaluate the genotoxic potential of chemicals. In the rat blood-based assay, the lack of CD59 on the surface of erythrocytes is quantified via fluorophore-labeled antibodies in conjunction with flow cytometric analysis to determine the frequency of Pig-a mutant phenotype cells. The assay has achieved regulatory relevance as it is sugges...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 15, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Impact of extended working periods on genomic and telomeric DNA and on inflammatory markers: results of an intervention study with office workers and carpenters
Publication date: Available online 5 May 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Georg Wultsch, Tahereh Setayesh, Michael Kundi, Halh Al-Serori, Theresa Kreilmeier-Berger, Nathalie Ropek, Klaus Holzmann, Armen Nersesyan, Siegfried Knasmüller Aim of this study was to clarify if extension of the work phase has an impact on DNA- stability, telomere lengths and inflammatory markers. We conducted an intervention trial with office workers (n = 24) and carpenters (n = 10), who changed their working schedule from 8 to 12 hours per day over a period of 3 months. The ...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 15, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Genome dynamics over evolutionary time: “C-value enigma” in light of chromosome structure
Publication date: Available online 5 May 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Predrag Slijepcevic Eukaryotic genome evolution integrates processes behind (i) chromosome plasticity (change in chromosome structure and number), (ii) genome stability maintenance (perfect stability would prevent adaptive processes) and (iii) genome size. Relationships between these variables remain enigmatic, hence the term “C-value enigma”. This term reflects an apparent lack of correlation between genome size and perceived organismal complexity, replacing an older term “C...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 15, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Radiation quality and intra-chromosomal aberrations: Size matters
Publication date: Available online 5 May 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Michael N. Cornforth, Marco Durante The shift from plant to mammalian cell models in radiation cytogenetics hastened the development of methods suitable for the analysis of chromosome-type aberrations. These included methods to detect interchanges that take place between different chromosomes (dicentrics and translocations), and intrachanges occurring within a given chromosome (rings, interstitial deletions and inversions). In this review we consider the relationship between chromosome-type in...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 15, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

The potential for complete automated scoring of the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assay using imaging flow cytometry
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Matthew A. Rodrigues, Lindsay A. Beaton-Green, Ruth C. Wilkins, Michael F. Fenech The lymphocyte Cytokinesis-Block Micronucleus (CBMN) assay was originally developed for the measurement of micronuclei (MN) exclusively in binucleated (BN) cells which represent the population of cells that can express MN because they completed nuclear division. Recently the assay has evolved into a comprehensive cytome method to include biomarkers that measure chromosomal instability and cytotoxicity by quantifi...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 15, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Development of an automatable micro-PCC biodosimetry assay for rapid individualized risk assessment in large-scale radiological emergencies
Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Antonio Pantelias, Georgia I. Terzoudi In radiation accidents and large-scale radiological emergencies, a fast and reliable triage of individuals according to their degree of exposure is important for accident management and identification of those who need medical assistance. In this work, the applicability of cell-fusion-mediated premature chromosome condensation (PCC) in G0-lymphocytes is examined for the development of a rapid, minimally invasive and automatable micro-PCC assay, which requ...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 15, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Validity of the Lymphocyte Cytokinesis-Block Micronucleus Assay (L-CBMN) as biomarker for human exposure to chemicals with different modes of action: A synthesis of systematic reviews
Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Micheline Kirsch-Volders, Michael Fenech, Claudia Bolognesi Recently fourteen systematic reviews applying the same selection and evaluation criteria analyzed the induction of micronuclei in lymphocytes as biomarker for DNA damage induced by human exposure to a given chemical or chemical mixture. The results obtained in the individual reviews were summarized to evaluate the validity of the Cytokinesis-Block-Micronucleus assay in lymphocytes (L-CBMN) and propose recommendations for its use in oc...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 15, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Molecular cytogenetics of the micronucleus: Still surprising
Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Antonella Russo, Francesca Degrassi The purpose of this review is to provide an historical overview of the molecular cytogenetic approaches that have been pursed to identify the mechanism of origin of micronuclei as well as highlight the significance of the findings obtained for the understanding of the molecular action of harmful agents in the micronucleus assay. Then, we summarize recent exciting findings that have been obtained by applying molecular approaches to analyze the biology of micr...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 15, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Therapeutic research in the crystal chromosome disease Fanconi anemia
Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Jordi Minguillón, Jordi Surrallés In the last decades there has been a great progress in understanding the pathological and genetic mechanisms involved in Fanconi anemia (FA), a rare disease characterized by chromosome fragility, congenital malformations, bone marrow failure (BMF) and high cancer predisposition. However, these advances have not gone in parallel with the development of medical treatments, with the exception of improved protocols of hematopoietic stem cell transpla...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 15, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Modulation of hypersensitivity to oxidative DNA damage in ATM defective cells induced by potassium bromate by inhibition of the Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)
Publication date: Available online 8 May 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): P. Mosesso, M. Piane, G. Pepe, S. Cinelli, L. Chessa The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein is a pivotal multifunctional protein kinase predominantly involved in DNA damage response, as well as in maintaining overall functional integrity of the cells. Apart from playing its major role in regulating the cellular response to DNA damage, ATM, when mutated, can additionally determine oxidative stress, metabolic syndrome, mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration. In the present pape...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 15, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Levels of DNA damage (Micronuclei) in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease. Role of GST polymorphisms
In conclusion, we have demonstrate that the selected GST polymorphism play a role in the incidence of CKD, and affects the levels of MN. Interestingly, the modulating effects observed on both, the basal and induced levels of DNA damage, are characteristic of the overall population, not only of the CKD patients. (Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis)
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 15, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Toxicity and genotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster (SMART eye-spot test and comet assay in neuroblasts)
Publication date: July 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 831 Author(s): Sara Sario, Amélia M. Silva, Isabel Gaivão Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NP) are used in the food, drug, and cosmetics industries and evaluation of their human and environmental toxicity is required. We have tested the toxicity of TiO2NP (anatase) with respect to developmental effects and DNA damage in Drosophila melanogaster strain Ok, using the eye-spot Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) and the comet assay (neuroblasts). For the survival assay, TiO2NP were supplie...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 15, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Metformin prolongs survival rate in mice and causes increased excretion of cell-free DNA in the urine of X-irradiated rats
Publication date: July 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 831 Author(s): Serazhutdin Abdullaev, Gulchachak Minkabirova, Ekaterina Karmanova, Vadim Bruskov, Azhub Gaziev An antidiabetic drug metformin has anticarcinogenic and geroprotective effects and has been used in combination with radiation cancer therapy. The present work is devoted to the study of the effect of metformin on survival in mice, the frequency of micronuclei in mouse bone marrow cells and excretion of cell-free nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in the urine of X-ray-exposed rats. The survival rate and the f...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 15, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Genotoxicity of disinfection byproducts and disinfected waters: A review of recent literature
Publication date: July 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 831 Author(s): Constanza Cortés, Ricard Marcos The presence of water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in tap water, resulting from disinfection processes involving chlorination or chloramination, increases the mutagenicity of the water and may pose adverse health effects. The topic was reviewed by DeMarini and coworkers in 2007. Here, we review research on the genotoxicity of DBPs published since that time. Studies, primarily using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, have continued to show that chlorination or...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 15, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and smoking are determinants of LINE-1 and AhRR promoter methylation in coke oven workers
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 826 Author(s): Jin Yang, Yanli Liu, Huitao Zhang, Hongjie Zhang, Wubin Wang, Yanfeng Fan Coke oven emissions (COE) containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are predominant toxic constituents of particulate air pollution that have been linked to increased risk of lung cancer. Aberrant DNA methylation is one of the best known epigenetic changes in human cancers and healthy subjects exposed to carcinogens. The purpose of this study is to explore the factors influencing the methylation of long interspers...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Filling gaps in translesion DNA synthesis in human cells
Publication date: Available online 23 February 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Annabel Quinet, Leticia K. Lerner, Davi J. Martins, Carlos F.M. Menck During DNA replication, forks may encounter unrepaired lesions that hamper DNA synthesis. Cells have universal strategies to promote damage bypass allowing cells to survive. DNA damage tolerance can be performed upon template switch or by specialized DNA polymerases, known as translesion (TLS) polymerases. Human cells count on more than eleven TLS polymerases and this work reviews the functions of some of these enzymes...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Assessment of the predictive capacity of the optimized in vitro comet assay using HepG2 cells
This study suggests that HepG2 is an optimal cell line for the in vitro comet assay to assess DNA damage. (Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis)
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Kinetics of ROS generation induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organic extracts from ambient air particulate matter in model human lung cell lines
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 827 Author(s): Helena Libalova, Alena Milcova, Tereza Cervena, Kristyna Vrbova, Andrea Rossnerova, Zuzana Novakova, Jan Topinka, Pavel Rossner Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with particulate matter (PM) may induce oxidative damage via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. However, the kinetics of ROS production and the link with antioxidant response induction has not been well studied. To elucidate the differences in oxidative potential of individual PAH compounds and extractable organic m...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Mechanism of oxidative DNA damage induced by metabolites of carcinogenic naphthalene
In conclusion, the redox cycle of 1,2-NQ/1,2-NQH2 may play a more important role in the carcinogenicity of naphthalene than that of 1,4-NQ/1,4-NQH2. (Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis)
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Validation of the 3D Skin Comet assay using full thickness skin models: Transferability and reproducibility
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 827 Author(s): Kerstin Reisinger, Veronika Blatz, Joep Brinkmann, Thomas R. Downs, Anja Fischer, Frank Henkler, Sebastian Hoffmann, Cyrille Krul, Manfred Liebsch, Andreas Luch, Ralph Pirow, Astrid A. Reus, Markus Schulz, Stefan Pfuhler Recently revised OECD Testing Guidelines highlight the importance of considering the first site-of-contact when investigating the genotoxic hazard. Thus far, only in vivo approaches are available to address the dermal route of exposure. The 3D Skin Comet and Reconstructed Skin Micr...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Corrosion potential in artificial saliva and possible genotoxic and cytotoxic damage in buccal epithelial cells of patients who underwent Ni-Cr based porcelain-fused-to-metal fixed dental prostheses
This study has evaluated whether the Ni-Cr based alloys corroded in artificial saliva by analyzing alloy decomposition at different pH levels and immersion durations(7, 14, 21, and 28 days) using inductively coupled plasma-optic emission spectrophotometry(ICP-OES). The principal aim of the study was to determine the possible genotoxicity and cytotoxicity using micronucleus(MN) and other nuclear anomaly frequencies [nuclear bud(NBUD), binucleated(BNC), condensed chromatin(CC), karyorrhectic(KhC), pyknotic(PC) and karyolytic(KC) cells] and various cytome parameters [basal cells(BC), differentiated cells(DF)] with the bucca...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Metformin: Prevention of genomic instability and cancer: A review
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 827 Author(s): Masoud Najafi, Mohsen Cheki, Saeed Rezapoor, Ghazale Geraily, Elahe Motevaseli, Carla Carnovale, Emilio Clementi, Alireza Shirazi The diabetes drug metformin can mitigate the genotoxic effects of cytotoxic agents and has been proposed to prevent or even cure certain cancers. Metformin reduces DNA damage by mechanisms that are only incompletely understood. Metformin scavenges free radicals, including reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, which are produced by genotoxicants such as ionizing or no...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Successful proof of concept of a micronucleus genotoxicity assay on reconstructed epidermis exhibiting intrinsic metabolic activity
Publication date: Available online 10 March 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Rola Barcham, Nicolas Orsini, Eric Andres, Alexander Hundt, Anne-Pascale Luzy We investigated the commercially available Episkin LM™ reconstructed epidermis test system as a potential 3D model for human genotoxicity assessment by cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay to mitigate limitations of the currently accepted micronucleus test. We established appropriate culture conditions for cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in maximizing the frequency of binucleated cells by choice of cult...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

A history of the development of the Latin American mutagenesis society: ALAMCTA
Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Catarina S. Takahashi The Asociación Latinoamericana de Mutagénesis, Carcinogénesis y Teratogénesis Ambiental (ALAMCTA) is the organizational structure encompassing the five national environmental mutagenesis societies of Latin America. It was founded in 1980 and has held 10 congresses and had 10 presidents, representing members from throughout Latin America. This brief review describes the founding of ALAMCTA and the key events associated with it, including the ...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Effects of rapamycin on the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and telomerase in breast cancer cells
Publication date: Available online 28 March 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Kalpana Gopalakrishnan, Shriram Venkatesan, Esther Su Hui Low, M. Prakash Hande The mTOR pathway and the enzyme telomerase are two key players commonly upregulated in cancers. They render survival and proliferative advantage to cancer cells, and are regarded as attractive anticancer targets. Rapamycin, a macrolide antibiotic and mTOR inhibitor, has recently also been implicated in telomerase inhibition and telomere attrition, although the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using breast ca...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Shorter telomere length and DNA hypermethylation in peripheral blood cells of coal workers
This study showed that occupational exposure to coal and products of combustion is positively associated with TL and DNA methylation. Previously, we have evaluated the same individuals using comet assay, micronucleus (MN) test, oxidative stress and inorganic elements. No correlations were observed between TL and methylation with previous data in the exposed group. Further studies are needed to determine whether these alterations are associated with induced disease outcomes and if these events could be determinants to identify cancer risk. (Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis)
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

p53 and K-ras mutations in lung tissues and sputum samples of individuals exposed to smoky coal emissions in Xuan Wei County, China
Publication date: Available online 30 March 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Phouthone Keohavong, Qing Lan, Weimin Gao Lung cancer mortality in Xuan Wei County (XWC) is among the highest in China. Lung cancer in XWC is associated with exposure, in poorly vented homes, to coal smoke containing high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We have previously investigated mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene and the K-ras oncogene in lung carcinomas and in sputum samples from individuals exposed to smoky coal emissions in XWC. This paper summarizes the ...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Frequency of chromosome aberrations among adult male individuals from high and normal level natural radiation areas of Kerala in the southwest coast of India
In conclusion, chronic low dose radiation prevailing in Kerala coast did not show any significant effect on the basal frequency of chromosome aberrations among the adult population. (Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis)
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Extreme testing of undiluted e-cigarette aerosol in vitro using an Ames air-agar-interface technique
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 828 Author(s): D. Thorne, M. Hollings, A. Seymour, J. Adamson, A. Dalrymple, M. Ballantyne, M. Gaca There is a growing consensus that e-cigarettes hold the potential for reducing the harm associated with cigarette smoking. Recently published studies have reported in vitro testing of e-cigarettes, demonstrating reduced toxicological and biological effects. Few studies however have reported the use of e-cigarettes under extreme testing conditions. To assess the full mutagenic potential of a commercially available e...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Integration of liver and blood micronucleus and Pig-a gene mutation endpoints into rat 28-day repeat-treatment studies: Proof-of-principle with diethylnitrosamine
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 828 Author(s): Sumee Khanal, Priyanka Singh, Svetlana L. Avlasevich, Dorothea K. Torous, Jeffrey C. Bemis, Stephen D. Dertinger Regulatory guidance documents stress the value of assessing multiple tissues and the most appropriate endpoints when evaluating chemicals for in vivo genotoxic potential. However, conducting several independent studies to consider multiple endpoints and/or tissue compartments is resource intensive. Furthermore, conventional approaches for scoring genotoxicity endpoints are slow, tedious,...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Melanin nanoparticles: Antioxidant activities and effects on γ-ray-induced DNA damage in the mouse
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 828 Author(s): Monira M. Rageh, Reem H. El-Gebaly The radioprotective and antioxidant activities of melanin nanoparticles (MNP) were investigated in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in vitro and BALB/C mice in vivo. The endpoints measured were cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, DNA damage (comet assay), and histopathological examination of tissues. Irradiated groups showed decreased SOD activity and increased MDA levels. Irradiation caused a 3–10-fold ...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Impact of DNA polymerase ζ mutations on genotoxic thresholds of oxidative mutagens
In this study, we compared the sensitivity of three types of human cells: D2781N, L2618M, and their wild-type (WT) cells, to the low dose effects of genotoxicity of the oxidizing agents, potassium bromate (KBrO3) and sodium dichromate (Na2Cr2O7). D2781N cells express a variant form of Pol ζ, whose activity is weaker than that of the WT enzyme. L2618M cells express another variant form of Pol ζ, whose fidelity of DNA replication is lower than that of the WT enzyme. D2781N exhibited the highest sensitivity for TK gene mutation and micronucleus (MN) formation and displayed the lowest practical threshold for MN induc...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Betulinic acid induces DNA damage and apoptosis in SiHa cells
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 828 Author(s): Priya Goswami, Subhabrata Paul, Ritesh Banerjee, Rita Kundu, Anita Mukherjee Betulinic acid (BA) is a naturally occurring terpenoid found principally in the bark of birch trees as well as in numerous other plants. BA is reported to inhibit cancer progression and induce apoptosis in multiple tumor types. In the present study we have investigated the cytotoxicity and potential genotoxicity of BA in SiHa cells. The cell viability was measured by using MTT assay and the morphological changes, DNA damag...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

A review of the genotoxicity of trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA)
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 828 Author(s): David Kirkland, Paul Fowler Trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) is a trifunctional acrylate monomer which polymerizes rapidly when exposed to sources of free radicals. It is widely used as a reactive diluent and polymer building block in the formulation of overprint varnishes, inks and a variety of wood, plastic and metal coatings. TMPTA has been tested in a range of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity tests. There is no clear evidence of induction of gene mutations by TMPTA in bacteria or mammali...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Base excision repair (OGG1 and XRCC1) and metabolism (PON1) gene polymorphisms act on modulation of DNA damage and immune parameters in tobacco farmers
This study evaluates lymphocytes CBMN (cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay), inflammatory markers, inorganic elements in blood samples, and the relationship of these parameters with XRCC1Arg194Trp, OGG1Ser326Cys and PON1Gln192Arg polymorphisms in a population of tobacco farmers. The study population comprised 129 agricultural workers exposed to pesticides and 91 nonexposed. Farmers had significantly increased NPB (nuclear plasmatic bridge), MN (micronucleus) and NBUD (nuclear bud) frequencies, as well as IL-6 (interleukin 6) and TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor alpha) serum levels, and decreased cytokines CD4+/CD...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Genome-wide mutation detection by interclonal genetic variation
Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Javier R. Revollo, Azra Dad, Lea P. McDaniel, Mason G. Pearce, Vasily N. Dobrovolsky Genetic toxicology assays estimate mutation frequencies by phenotypically screening for the activation or inactivation of endogenous or exogenous reporter genes. These reporters can only detect mutations in narrow areas of the genome and their use is often restricted to certain in vitro and in vivo models. Here, we show that Interclonal Genetic Variation (ICGV) can directly identify mutations genome-wide by ...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Dose-dependent proliferative and cytotoxic effects of melatonin on human epidermoid carcinoma and normal skin fibroblast cells
In conclusion, at low doses, melatonin has proliferative effects on both cancer and normal cells, whereas high concentrations have cytotoxic effects. Cytotoxic, genotoxic and apoptotic effects at higher doses of melatonin may be due to its ROS production capacity. (Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis)
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Opposing roles of Y-family DNA polymerases in lipid peroxide mutagenesis at the hisG46 target in the Ames test
Publication date: May–June 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volumes 829–830 Author(s): Petr Grúz, Masatomi Shimizu, Masami Yamada, Kei-ichi Sugiyama, Masamitsu Honma DNA polymerases play a key role in mutagenesis by performing translesion DNA synthesis (TLS). The Y-family of DNA polymerases comprises several evolutionarily conserved families, specializing in TLS of different DNA adducts. Exocyclic etheno and propano DNA adducts are among the most common endogenous DNA lesions induced by lipid peroxidation reactions triggered by oxidative stress. We have inv...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Roasting has a distinct effect on the antimutagenic activity of coffee varieties
Publication date: May–June 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volumes 829–830 Author(s): Alexandros Priftis, Dimitra Mitsiou, Maria Halabalaki, Georgia Ntasi, Dimitrios Stagos, Leandros A. Skaltsounis, Demetrios Kouretas Coffee is a highly consumed beverage throughout the world. Its popularity derives from its organoleptic properties that are a result of the roasting process. Roasting greatly alters a coffee bean’s composition and possibly its bioactivity. In the current study, green as well as roasted extracts from both Coffea arabica (Brazil and Decaf) and C...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

The metabolism of imidacloprid by aldehyde oxidase contributes to its clastogenic effect in New Zealand rabbits
Publication date: May–June 2018 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volumes 829–830 Author(s): Alexander I. Vardavas, Eren Ozcagli, Persefoni Fragkiadaki, Polychronis D. Stivaktakis, Manolis N. Tzatzarakis, Athanasios K. Alegakis, Fotini Vasilaki, Kostas Kaloudis, John Tsiaoussis, Dimitrios Kouretas, Christina Tsitsimpikou, Félix Carvalho, Aristidis M. Tsatsakis Imidacloprid (IMI) is a systemic, chloro-nicotinyl insecticide classified in Regulation N° 1272/2008 of the European Commision as “harmful if swallowed and very toxic to aquatic life, with long-la...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Genotoxicity assessment of the novel antitussive agent Benzonatate and its major metabolite
In conclusion, Benzonatate and its major metabolite BBA were not mutagenic and did not cause numerical or structural chromosome alterations. While the MPG metabolite was not tested, studies on structural analogues indicated it was also unlikely to be genotoxic. This was supported by oral rodent carcinogenicity assays showing no increase in malignancies. (Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis)
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research