Activation of AMPK suppresses S1P-induced airway smooth muscle cells proliferation and its potential mechanisms
Publication date: December 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 128Author(s): Yilin Pan, Lu Liu, Qianqian Zhang, Wenhua Shi, Wei Feng, Jian Wang, Qingting Wang, Shaojun Li, Manxiang Li (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - October 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Comprehensive evaluation of differentially expressed non-coding RNAs identified during macrophage activation
Publication date: December 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 128Author(s): Young-Kook Kim, Yong Sook Kim, Sojeong Kim, Yoo Jin Kim, Youngkeun Ahn, Hyun Kook (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - October 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Sex differences in group 2 innate lymphoid cell-dominant allergic airway inflammation
Publication date: December 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 128Author(s): Cong Wang, Zhi-Bin Xu, Ya-Qi Peng, Hong-Yu Zhang, Qiu-Ning Yu, Yu-Biao Guo, Wei-Ping Tan, Yang-Li Liu, Xiang-Ci Meng, Shu-Bin Fang, Dong Chen, Qing-Ling Fu (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - October 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The pathogenic T387A missense mutation in the gene encoding signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 exhibits a differential gene expression profile
Publication date: December 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 128Author(s): Julia Staab, Till Schwämmle, Thomas Meyer (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - October 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

MiR-26a targets EphA2 to resist intracellular Listeria monocytogenes in macrophages
Publication date: December 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 128Author(s): Jiale Zhang, Jiangbei Yuan, Liting Wang, Zihan Zheng, Haiying Ran, Fang Liu, Fei Li, Xiangyu Tang, Junying Zhang, Qingshan Ni, Liyun Zou, Yi Huang, Shanshan Feng, Xuefeng Xia, Ying Wan (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - October 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Selection and characterization of specific nanobody against neuropilin-1 for inhibition of angiogenesis
Publication date: December 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 128Author(s): Shamsi Naderi, Reyhaneh Roshan, Hajarsadat Ghaderi, Mahdi Behdani, Sara Mahmoudi, Mahdi Habibi-Anbouhi, Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar, Fatemeh Kazemi-Lomedasht (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - October 17, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

High serum IL-6 values increase the risk of mortality and the severity of pneumonia in patients diagnosed with COVID-19
Publication date: Available online 14 October 2020Source: Molecular ImmunologyAuthor(s): Jose J. Guirao, Carmen M. Cabrera, Natalia. Jimenez, Laura. Rincón, José M. Urra (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - October 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Significance of TIM-3 expression by CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in tumor-draining lymph nodes from patients with breast cancer
Publication date: December 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 128Author(s): Sahar Shariati, Atri Ghods, Mahshid Zohouri, Reza Rasolmali, Abdol-Rasoul Talei, Fereshteh Mehdipour, Abbas Ghaderi (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - October 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Leishmania infantum pyridoxal kinase evaluated in a recombinant protein and DNA vaccine to protects against visceral leishmaniasis”. Molecular Immunology 124 (2020) 161–171
Publication date: December 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 128Author(s): João A. Oliveira-da-Silva, Daniela P. Lage, Fernanda F. Ramos, Amanda S. Machado, Grasiele S.V. Tavares, Débora V.C. Mendonça, Isabela A.G. Pereira, Vívian T. Martins, Lívia M. Carvalho, Fernanda Ludolf, Thaís T.O. Santos, Thiago A.R. Reis, Camila S. Freitas, Raquel S. Bandeira, Alessandra M. Silva, Lourena E. Costa, Jamil S. Oliveira, Mariana C. Duarte, Bruno M. Roatt, Antônio L. Teixeira (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - October 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

VEGF165b augments NK92 cytolytic activity against human K562 leukemia cells by upregulating the levels of perforin and granzyme B via the VEGR1-PLC pathway
Publication date: December 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 128Author(s): Xiaoyin Wang, Chen Liang, Wenjiao Xia, Changjiang Guo, Zhiyuan Niu, Wuling Zhu, Huiyong Zhang (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - October 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

BVDV-1 induces interferon-beta gene expression through a pathway involving IRF1, IRF7, and NF-κB activation
Publication date: December 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 128Author(s): Nicolas Maldonado, Fernanda Fredericksen, Constanza Espiñeira, Cristian Toledo, Jorge Oltra, Verónica de la Barra, Carolina Fernandez, Javier Salvador, Melina Villalba, Víctor H. Olavarría (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - October 12, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Novel murine mAbs define specific and cross-reactive epitopes on the latex profilin panallergen Hev b 8
Publication date: December 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 128Author(s): Israel Mares-Mejía, Benjamín García-Ramírez, Alfredo Torres-Larios, Annia Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana Isabel Osornio-Hernández, Gabriela Terán-Olvera, Enrique Ortega, Adela Rodríguez-Romero (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - October 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Helminth-derived peptide GK-1 induces Myd88-dependent pro-inflammatory signaling events in bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells
Publication date: December 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 128Author(s): Laura Montero, Jacquelynne Cervantes-Torres, Edda Sciutto, Gladis Fragoso (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - October 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Vitamin D – A host directed autophagy mediated therapy for tuberculosis
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Krisna Moorthi Periyasamy, Uma Devi Ranganathan, Srikanth Prasad Tripathy, Ramalingam Bethunaickan (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - October 9, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effects of biogenic amines on the immune response and immunoregulation mechanism in hemocytes of Litopenaeus vannamei in vitro
Publication date: December 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 128Author(s): Ruixue Tong, Shanshan Pan, Luqing Pan, Lan Zhang (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - October 7, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Comprehensive analysis of lncRNA-mRNA regulatory network in BmNPV infected cells treated with Hsp90 inhibitor
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Haotong Yin, Qi Shang, Shaolun Zhang, Manman Shen, Haoling Huang, Weiguo Zhao, Guo Xijie, Ping Wu (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - October 4, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Engineered T cells directed at tumors with defined allelic loss
Publication date: Available online 1 October 2020Source: Molecular ImmunologyAuthor(s): Agnes E. Hamburger, Breanna DiAndreth, Jiajia Cui, Mark E. Daris, Melanie L. Munguia, Kiran Deshmukh, Jee-Young Mock, Grace E. Asuelime, Emily D. Lim, Michelle R. Kreke, Talar Tokatlian, Alexander Kamb (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - October 2, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

LncRNA NEAT1 Sponges MiRNA-148a-3p to Suppress Choroidal Neovascularization and M2 macrophage polarization
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Pengfei Zhang, Bing Lu, Qi Zhang, Fengyuan Xu, Rongrong Zhang, Chen Wang, Yinping Liu, Chenghua Wei, Lixin Mei (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - October 2, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

TRAF6 promotes IL-4-induced M2 macrophage activation by stabilizing STAT6
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Chenchen Zhou, Cheng Lu, Huangsheng Pu, Dongyu Li, Luo Zhang (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - October 2, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Quantum biochemistry in cancer immunotherapy: New insights about CTLA-4/ipilimumab and design of ipilimumab-derived peptides with high potential in cancer treatment
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Jackson L. Amaral, Samuel J.M. Santos, Pedro F.N. Souza, Pablo A. de Morais, F.F. Maia, Hernandes F. Carvalho, Valder N. Freire (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - October 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inactivated tetanus as an immunological smokescreen: A major step towards harnessing tetanus-based therapeutics
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Thomas McLean, Luke Norbury, Russell Conduit, Natalie Shepherd, Peter Coloe, Anthony Sasse, Peter Smooker (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - September 29, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

IFRD1 regulates the asthmatic responses of airway via NF-κB pathway
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Ming Chang, Yali Zhang, Zhenggang Hui, Dan Wang, Huanli Guo (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - September 29, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Decrease of the pro-inflammatory M1-like response by inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidases 8/9 in THP-1 macrophages – quantitative proteomics of the proteome and secretome
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Maciej Suski, Anna Wiśniewska, Katarzyna Kuś, Anna Kiepura, Aneta Stachowicz, Kamila Stachyra, Klaudia Czepiel, Józef Madej, Rafał Olszanecki (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - September 29, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

N-acetylcysteine modulates non-esterified fatty acid-induced pyroptosis and inflammation in granulosa cells
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Yiru Wang, Chengmin Li, Ilyas Ali, Lian Li, Genlin Wang (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - September 27, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Characteristics of the tree shrew humoral immune system
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Jingjing Zhang, Hongjian Xiao, Yanwei Bi, Qiong Long, Yue Gong, Jiejie Dai, Ming Sun, Wei Cun (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - September 27, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Double hit viral parasitism, polymicrobial CNS residency and perturbed proteostasis in Alzheimer’s disease: A data driven, in silico analysis of gene expression data
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): George D. Vavougios, Christiane Nday, Sygliti-Henrietta Pelidou, Sotirios G. Zarogiannis, Konstantinos I. Gourgoulianis, George Stamoulis, Triantafyllos Doskas (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - September 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The interaction between C/EBPβ and TFAM promotes acute kidney injury via regulating NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Xin-Gui Dai, Qiong Li, Tao Li, Wei-Bo Huang, Zhen-Hua Zeng, Yang Yang, Ze-Peng Duan, Yu-Jing Wang, Yu-Hang Ai (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - September 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Large yellow croaker peroxiredoxin IV protect cells against oxidative damage and apoptosis
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Xianhui Wang, Qiuhua Li, Pengfei Mu, Yanyu Guan, Xinhua Chen, Jingqun Ao (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - September 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “LncRNA 1700020I14Rik/miR-297a/CGRP axis suppresses myocardial cell apoptosis in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury” [Mol. Immunol. 122 (2020) 54–61]
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Fudong Hu, Jinhua Yang, Xi Chen, Yangyang Shen, Kui Chen, Xin Fu, Shengcun Guo, Zhengming Jiang (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - September 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Human thymic T cell repertoire is imprinted with strong convergence to shared sequences
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Nelli Heikkilä, Reetta Vanhanen, Dawit A. Yohannes, Iivari Kleino, Ilkka P. Mattila, Jari Saramäki, T. Petteri Arstila (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - September 20, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Blockade of Th17 response by IL-38 in primary Sjögren’s syndrome
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Dongyuan Luo, Yu Chen, Niangou Zhou, Ting Li, Hongtao Wang (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - September 18, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Leishmania infantum transfected with toxic plasmid induces protection in mice infected with wild type L. infantum or L. amazonensis
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Nahiara Esteves Zorgi, Leonardo V. Arruda, Izadora Paladine, Guilherme A.S. Roque, Thalita F. Araújo, Marcelo Brocchi, Manoel Barral, África Sanchiz, José María Requena, Daniel R. Abánades, Selma Giorgio (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - September 17, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Signaling from membrane semaphorin 4D in T lymphocytes
Publication date: Available online 15 September 2020Source: Molecular ImmunologyAuthor(s): Elena Kuklina, Irina Nekrasova, Natalia Glebezdina (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - September 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Cross-reactivity of mouse IgG subclasses to human Fc gamma receptors: Antibody deglycosylation only eliminates IgG2b binding
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): A. Robin Temming, Arthur E.H. Bentlage, Steven W. de Taeye, Gerlof P. Bosman, Suzanne N. Lissenberg-Thunnissen, Ninotska I.L. Derksen, Giso Brasser, Juk Yee Mok, Wim J.E. van Esch, Heather L. Howie, James C. Zimring, Gestur Vidarsson (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - September 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Prolactin peptide (pPRL) induces anti-prolactin antibodies, ROS and cortisol but suppresses specific immune responses in rainbow trout
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Melina Villalba, Gabriel Gómez, Lidia Torres, Nicolas Maldonado, Constanza Espiñeira, Gardenia Payne, Luis Vargas-Chacoff, Jaime Figueroa, Alejandro Yáñez, Víctor H. Olavarría (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - September 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “S100A9 maintains myeloid-derived suppressor cells in chronic sepsis by inducing miR-21 and miR-181b” [Mol. Immunol. 112 (August) (2019) 72–81]
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Tuqa Alkhateeb, Ajinkya Kumbhare, Isatou Bah, Dima Youssef, Zhi Q. Yao, Charles E. McCall, Mohamed El Gazzar (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - September 13, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: October 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 126Author(s): (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - September 12, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Preserved antibacterial activity of ribosomal protein S15 during evolution
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Baozhen Qu, Zengyu Ma, Lan Yao, Zhan Gao, Shicui Zhang (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - September 12, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A tandem-repeat galectin-4 from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is involved in immune response to bacterial infection via mediating pathogen recognition and opsonization
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Jinzhong Niu, Xinchao Liu, Zhiqiang Zhang, Yu Huang, Jufen Tang, Bei Wang, Yishan Lu, Jia Cai, Jichang Jian (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - September 12, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Analyses of RAG1 and RAG2 genes suggest different evolutionary rates in the Cetacea lineage” [Mol. Immunol. 117 (2020) 131–138]
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Bruna C. Dias, Mariana F. Nery (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - September 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv1096, facilitates mycobacterial survival by modulating the NF-κB/MAPK pathway as peptidoglycan N-deacetylase
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Qian Lu, Wei Zhang, Jun Fang, Jianjian Zheng, Chunsheng Dong, Sidong Xiong (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - September 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to: “HuR promotes miRNA-mediated upregulation of NFI-A protein expression in MDSCs during murine sepsis” (Mol Immunol., 2019, July, 123, 97–105)
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Isatou Bah, Tuqa Alkhateeb, Ajinkya Kumbhare, Dima Youssef, Zhi Q. Yao, Gregory A. Hawkin, Charles E. McCall, Mohamed El Gazzar (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - September 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor is required for impairing toll-like receptor 7 signaling on macrophage efferocytosis in lupus
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Jingman Li, Yuchen Pan, Dan Li, Xiaoyu Xia, Qi Jiang, Huan Dou, Yayi Hou (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - September 8, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Molecular mechanisms of FasL-mediated ‘reverse-signaling’
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Subramaniam Malarkannan (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - September 8, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

17β-estradiol protects sheep oviduct epithelial cells against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Wenbo Ge, Hongwei Duan, Longfei Xiao, Jianshu Lv, Yuting Jiang, Ziqiang Ding, Junjie Hu, Yong Zhang, Xingxu Zhao (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - September 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inhibition of ssc-microRNA-140-5p ameliorates the Clostridium perfringens beta2 toxin-induced inflammatory response in IPEC-J2 cells via the ERK1/2 and JNK pathways by targeting VEGFA
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Ruirui Luo, Zunqiang Yan, Qiaoli Yang, Xiaoyu Huang, Xiaoli Gao, Pengfei Wang, Wei Wang, Kaihui Xie, Shuangbao Gun (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - September 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Decipher manifestations and Treg /Th17 imbalance in multi-staging rheumatoid arthritis and correlation with TSDR/RORC methylation
Publication date: November 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 127Author(s): Yao Huang, Hui Wang, Xin Ba, Zhe Chen, Yu Wang, Kai Qin, Ying Huang, Pan Shen, Shenghao Tu (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - August 29, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Identification of candidate microRNAs from Ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OsHV-1) and their potential role in the infection of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas)
Publication date: October 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 126Author(s): Andrei Félix Mendes, Priscila Goncalves, Victor Serrano-Solis, Patricia Mirella da Silva (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - August 26, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Insight into the expression of RIG-I-like receptors in human third trimester placentas following ex vivo cytomegalovirus or vesicular stomatitis virus infection
Publication date: October 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 126Author(s): Agnieszka Jabłońska, Anna S. Świerzko, Mirosława Studzińska, Patrycja Suski, Jarosław Kalinka, Zbigniew J. Leśnikowski, Maciej Cedzyński, Edyta Paradowska (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - August 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

TET2 promotes IL-1β expression in J774.1 cell through TLR4/MAPK signaling pathway with demethylation of TAB2 promoter
Publication date: October 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 126Author(s): Yu Liang, Jingyuan Zeng, Bo Luo, Wei Li, Yancheng He, Wenjing Zhao, Nan Hu, Nan Jiang, Yujiao Luo, Yujun Xian, Jiajia Liu, Xiaoli Zheng (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - August 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research