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Different therapeutic options in patients with Cushing's syndrome due to bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia.
Authors: Albiger NM, Regazzo D, Iacobone M, Scaroni C Abstract Bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH) is a relatively rare cause of Cushing's syndrome (CS). In recent years, growing evidence has shown that steroidogenesis is regulated by aberrant G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) expression and their ligands, in a significant proportion of patients with BMAH. The screening of patients with overt or subclinical CS demonstrate the frequent expression of several GPCR that opened the option to potential therapeutic applications. Thus, several studies have demonstrated that targeting the involved receptor wi...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - November 8, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Clinical endocrinology and hormones quantitation: the increasing role of mass spectrometry.
Authors: D'Aurizio F, Cantù M Abstract Clinical endocrinology has always had a close relationship with laboratory medicine. In fact, the quantification of hormones is of great importance for diagnosis, treatment, recurrence and patient's prognosis of endocrine disorders. This review dealt with the role of the laboratory in diagnosing endocrine pathologies related to adrenal gland, pituitary, gonads and thyroid. The measurements of the main hormones (17- hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, testosterone, estradiol, cortisol, aldosterone, metanephrines, thyroglobulin and insul...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - November 1, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Post-transplant diabetes: diagnosis and management.
Authors: Boerner BP, Shivaswamy V, Wolatz E, Larsen J Abstract Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is common after most types of solid organ transplantation, though the actual incidence is as yet unknown because of the use of different diagnostic criteria. PTDM is the result of individual risk factors as well as risk factors associated with the transplant itself, particularly immunosuppressants. Previously called New Onset Diabetes, in many cases inadequate screening for diabetes before transplant cannot assure that the diabetes is new after transplant. The most recent international consensus guidelines sugges...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - October 12, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Autoimmune endocrine diseases.
Authors: Ruggeri RM, Giuffrida G, Campennì A Abstract The endocrine system is interested by several autoimmune diseases, characterized by different impact and severity, according to the organs involved. Autoimmune thyroid disorders (i.e. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease) and type 1 diabetes mellitus are the most common autoimmune endocrine disorders, while hypophysitis, adrenalitis (90% of cases of primary hypocortisolism or Addison's disease), premature ovarian failure and hypoparathyroidism represent quite rare conditions. Autoimmune endocrine diseases can also coexist in the same individuals an...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - October 12, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Parathyroid carcinoma: a clinical and genetic perspective.
Authors: Cetani F, Pardi E, Marcocci C Abstract Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare neoplasia difficult to diagnose preoperatively. It mainly occurs as a sporadic disease but also as part of familial PHPT. At variance with patients with the benign counterpart, the phenotype of these patients is characterized by a severe primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). The clinical features are mostly due to the effects of the excessive secretion of PTH by the functioning tumor and hypercalcemia rather than to the tumor burden. The prognosis is poor and unmanageable hypercalcemia accounts for death in the majority of cases. The...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - September 28, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Role of positron emission tomography in thyroid and neuroendocrine tumours.
CONCLUSIONS: PET imaging with different radiotracers is a useful functional imaging technique in the work-up of several endocrine tumours. PMID: 28949122 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Minerva Endocrinologica)
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - September 28, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Endocrine and neuroendocrine cytopathology.
Authors: Bongiovanni M, LA Rosa S, Sykiotis GP Abstract Cytology is an easily accessible, cost-effective and safe procedure for the initial evaluation of most endocrine/neuroendocrine lesions. Both fine-needle aspiration cytology and exfoliative cytology have shown good sensitivity and specificity in detecting endocrine/neuroendocrine benign proliferations and malignancies. Thanks to its utility for early diagnosis, cytology has contributed to the decline in mortality of endocrine/neuroendocrine neoplasms. The endocrine system comprises different endocrine organs, such as the thyroid, adrenal glands, paraganglia, p...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - September 28, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Diagnosis and management of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome in 2017.
Authors: DE Angelis C, Cortegoso Valdivia P, Venezia L, Bruno M, Pellicano R Abstract Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES) is a clinical syndrome characterized by gastric acid hypersecretion due to the ectopic secretion of gastrin by a gastrinoma, a neuroendocrine tumor (NET) which mostly develops in the duodenum and in the pancreas. This syndrome was first described by Zollinger and Ellison in 1964; if left untreated, ZES can lead to multiple complications mainly due to gastric hypersecretion and some patients can suffer from the complications of an advanced metastatic disease. Although its clinical features are consi...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - September 28, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Decrease in size and activity of parathyroid adenoma after ultrasound guided biopsy.
Authors: Ogrin C PMID: 28914043 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Minerva Endocrinologica)
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - September 17, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

How many patients with TIR3 FNA really have a thyroid neoplasm?
Authors: Pezzolla A, Lattarulo S, Madaro A, Docimo G, Lacalendola E, Prete F, Marzaioli R PMID: 28914044 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Minerva Endocrinologica)
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - September 17, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

How to complete gastroduodenal protection in patients with bleeding risk?
Authors: Durazzo M, Fagoonee S PMID: 28895681 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Minerva Endocrinologica)
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - September 14, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Ultrasound and ultrasound-related techniques in endocrine diseases.
Authors: Trimboli P, Dietrich CF, David E, Mastroeni G, Ventura Spagnolo O, Sidhu PS, Letizia C, Messineo D, D'Ambrosio F, Radzina M, Cantisani V Abstract Ultrasound examination has become essential to evaluate morphology and size of several endocrine glands and detect the presence of lesions within these organs. Nevertheless, with the recent advances of ultrasound technology, we have opportunity to correlate the echostructure of thyroid, ovary, testis, parathyroids, etc. to their function. Thus, the ultrasound systems are in-office essential instruments for many clinical specialists. Herein we presented the most u...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - September 8, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

A comparative study of the levels of thyroid hormones and antithyroid antibodies in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and pregnant patients with diabetes.
Authors: Xu C, Zhang Z Abstract BACKGROUND: To investigate the levels of thyroid hormone and antithyroid antibodies and their relationship with pregnancy outcome in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and diabetic patients. METHODS: Fifty patients with GDM and 50 pregnant patients with diabetes were selected. Their levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin, FT3, FT4, TGab, TSH, TPOab were measured until parturition. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in the age, gestational age, weight, FBG and glycosylated hemoglobin between the two groups (P>...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - September 8, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Acromegaly and bone.
CONCLUSIONS: In this article, we summarize the pathophysiology, clinical aspects and the new diagnostic tools to better understand bone impairment in acromegaly. PMID: 28880058 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Minerva Endocrinologica)
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - September 8, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Evaluation of somatic genomic imbalances in thyroid carcinomas of follicular origin by CGH-based approaches.
CONCLUSIONS: Though a quite heterogeneous picture arises from results so far available, CGH array, combined with other methodologies as well as an accurate clinical management, may offer novel opportunities for a better stratification of thyroid cancer patients. PMID: 28880059 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Minerva Endocrinologica)
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - September 8, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Secondary adrenal insufficiency: from the physiopathology to the possible role of modified-release hydrocortisone treatment.
Authors: Paragliola RM, Corsello SM Abstract Central adrenal insufficiency represents a life-threatening disorder that results from a reduced cortisol production due to an impairment production of adrenocorticotropic hormone. In particular, secondary AI results from pituitary disease that impedes the release of ACTH, while tertiary adrenal insufficiency is caused from an impaired synthesis of corticotropin-releasing hormone. Central adrenal insufficiency has an estimated prevalence of 150-280 per million, resulting more common than primary AI. Prompt diagnosis and management of this condition is crucial, but the di...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - July 30, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Imaging in primary hyperparathyroidism: focus on the evidence-based diagnostic performance of different methods.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PHPT who are candidates for parathyroidectomy should be referred to an expert clinician to decide which imaging studies to perform based on regional imaging capabilities. The imaging techniques with higher diagnostic performance in detecting and localizing HP seems to be 99mTc-MIBI SPECT/CT and 4D-CT. Taking into account several data beyond the diagnostic performance, the combination of cervical US performed by an experienced parathyroid sonographer and 99mTc-MIBI SPECT or SPECT//CT seems to be an optimal first-line strategy in the preoperative planning of patients with PHPT. PMID: 28650133 [...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - June 27, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

The value of color Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of lower extremity vascular disease in type 2 diabetes and an analysis of related factors.
Authors: Jiang L, Zhao Y Abstract BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper is to explore the application and clinical significance of color Doppler ultrasound (CDU) in diagnosing lower extremity vascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. METHODS: The lower extremity arteries of 81 patients with T2DM and 50 control patients were examined by CDU for blood vessel diameter, intima-media thickness, plaque on the vessel wall, lumen stenosis and filling defect in blood flow. The occurrence of diabetes mellitus was investigated in additional T2DM patients of various ages. RESULTS: Left popliteal artery,...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - June 20, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Cardiovascular disease in PCOS is related to severe insulin resistance, not mild.
Authors: Dahan MH, Abbasi F, Reaven GM PMID: 28627866 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Minerva Endocrinologica)
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - June 20, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Role of adipokines and inflammatory markers in postmenopausal hypertension.
Authors: July M, Faiz S, Yaqub A, Santhanam P, Douglas J, Stanek R, Gress T, Olajide O, Driscoll H, Santanam N Abstract BACKGROUND: The role of inflammatory markers and adipokines contributing to the development of postmenopausal hypertension, has not been established. The aim of our study was to assess the complex association between blood pressure, obesity, menopausal status, adipokines and inflammatory mediators in postmenopausal women. METHODS: We recruited 38 women seen at our Endocrinology Clinic and collected anthropometric measures and blood pressure and obtained serum samples for inflammatory markers a...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - June 3, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Renal function markers and metformin eligibility.
CONCLUSIONS: Metformin is the first line pharmacological agent in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients, being associated with significant HbA1c reductions and improvements in both micro and macrovascular outcomes. Avoiding its use due to imprecise renal function markers would potentially render the patient deprived of optimal pharmacological therapy for T2D. Creatinine contraindication criteria alone are associated with unnecessary underprescription of metformin. PMID: 28565889 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Minerva Endocrinologica)
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - June 3, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

The 100 most-cited articles focused on thyroid research: a bibliometric analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study presents a detailed list and analysis of the 100 most-cited thyroid research articles, which provides a unique insight into the historical development in this field. PMID: 28548477 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Minerva Endocrinologica)
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - May 28, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Influencing of antioxidants' gene variants on risk of diabetes mellitus and its complications: a systematic review.
CONCLUSIONS: Finding gene polymorphisms involved in diabetes and its complications might be helpful in discovering new therapeutic approaches, as well as prevention which is currently as a main focus in personalized medicine. PMID: 28548478 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Minerva Endocrinologica)
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - May 28, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Ethical considerations in the field of assisted reproductive technology.
Authors: Cobb LN, Ke RW Abstract Human reproduction has always generated more than its share of emotion that exceeds the life and death issues of medicine. For patients that are unable to conceive naturally, medical advances have greatly expanded treatment options. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is a highly evolving, complex, and controversial field of medicine in which ethical principles play a large role in decision-making. The following highlights ethical considerations regarding ART, specifically in vitro fertilization (IVF), that practicing obstetricians and indeed all physicians may encounter. The aim...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - May 12, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Fertility preservation for social and oncofertility indications.
This articles attempts to summarize the current state of the art technologies regarding fertility preservation for both social and oncofertility indications. PMID: 28490170 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Minerva Endocrinologica)
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - May 12, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Ameliorating dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetic patients by femoropopliteal artery plaque resection under acute inflammation response.
Authors: Guo J, Cai Z, Zhang S, Liu Y, Gu Y PMID: 28462578 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Minerva Endocrinologica)
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - May 5, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Pharmacological management of obesity.
Authors: Velazquez A, Apovian CM Abstract Current management of obesity includes three main arms: behavioral modification, pharmacologic therapy, and bariatric surgery. Decades prior, the only pharmacological agents available to treat obesity were approved only for short-term use (≤ 12 weeks) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, in the last several years, the FDA has approved several medications for longer term treatment of obesity. This highlights the important progression that we, as a society, better appreciate now the chronicity and complexity of obesity as a disease. Also, availability of mor...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - May 5, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Embryo transfer: a review of timing and techniques.
Authors: Bortoletto P, Bakkensen J, Anchan RM Abstract Since the first successful human in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancy nearly 40 years ago, remarkable progress has been made in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Improvements in oocyte retrieval, embryo culture, genetic screening, and embryo selection have contributed to dramatic improvements in IVF outcomes. A more robust understanding of embryologic development has driven innovation in not only the timing of embryo transfer but also the number of embryos to transfer. Additionally, overcoming the technical hurdle of embryo vitrification has given both ...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - April 8, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

What is new in 2017? Update on fertility preservation in cancer patients.
Authors: Winkler-Crepaz K, Böttcher B, Toth B, Wildt L, Hofer-Tollinger S Abstract Prevention of fertility loss due to cancer treatment as well as non-malignant causes has gained importance during the last decades. Clinically applied modalities for fertility preservation in cancer patients include cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos, the application of GnRH agonists, ovarian tissue banking, and cryopreservation of ejaculated or surgically extracted sperm. In addition, several new possibilities to restore fertility are currently being investigated, such as the establishment of in vitro culture systems for g...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - March 23, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Controlled ovarian stimulation and triggers in in vitro fertilization: protocol personalization key to optimize outcomes.
Authors: Maher JY, Christianson MS Abstract The past four decades have delivered many advancements to improve in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. These include a delicate balance of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) without causing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), a safe oocyte retrieval, fertilization and embryo culture, endometrial growth and receptivity to promote implantation, and luteal support to maintain the pregnancy. Contemporary IVF practice includes both the classic COH protocols as well as protocols for poor responders and those for specific patient populations. An assortment of agen...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - March 23, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

A review on ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) management strategies.
Authors: Eskew AM, Omurtag KR Abstract Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is one of the most frequent, serious and potentially lethal iatrogenic complications of controlled ovarian stimulation. Despite extensive research, the exact pathogenesis of this syndrome remains less clear, but there appears to be a relationship of increased vascular permeability mediated by HCG and other downstream mediators. Adequate experience with ovulation induction therapy and identifying patients with known risk factors are essential in preventing OHSS. As this is a completely iatrogenic disease numerous strategies have been inv...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - March 23, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Effect of Vitamin D replacement in Primary Hyperparathyroidism with concurrent Vitamin D deficiency: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Authors: Loh HH, Lim LL, Yee A, Loh HS, Vethakkan SR Abstract INTRODUCTION: We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the effects of vitamin D replacement on biochemical and skeletal parameters in subjects with mild primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and coexistent vitamin D deficiency. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic search of all English-language medical literature published from 1980 till May 2016 using Pubmed, Embase and Ovid was performed. Nine observational studies were evaluated after fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: A total of 547 patients were examined. All studi...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - March 18, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

The anti-inflammatory protein kallistatin is associated with carotid intima media thickness in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Authors: Calan M, Guler A, Unal Kocabas G, Alarslan P, Bicer M, Imamoglu C, Yuksel A, Bozkaya G, Bilgir O Abstract BACKGROUND: Kallistatin is a secreted protein that acts as a tissue kallikrein inhibitor. It has antiinflammatory, antioxidant and vasoprotective properties. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a reproductive and metabolic disease associated with low-grade chronic inflammation and multiple risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The aims of this study were to ascertain whether circulating kallistatin levels are altered in women with PCOS, and whether there is an association between kallistatin and ca...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - March 18, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Pancreatic beta cell function is preserved in the short term in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing non-urgent surgery.
CONCLUSIONS: The pancreatic beta reserve of patients with T2DM was not affected a month after the non-urgent surgery. The direct measurement of pancreatic function by dynamic assessment with glucagon did not change, nor did we find alterations in the indirect calculation of insulin secretion using the HOMA-B. None of these parameters reached statistical significance. Non-urgent surgical procedures included in our study are safe for patients with short lasting, properly controlled T2DM, from the point of view of glucose metabolism assessed by pancreatic insulin secretion. We can consider non-urgent surgical procedures safe ...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - March 8, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Comparison of curative effect of 131I and antithyroid drugs in Graves' disease: a meta analysis.
Authors: Yuan J, Lu X, Yue Y Abstract BACKGROUND: Radioactive 131I is currently reported to be a potential effective intervention for Graves' Disease treatment in China. Whether 131I treatment was associated with effective outcome or reduced risk of side effects, reccurence rate remained unknown. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Eligible studies were selected from Chinese VIP, Wangfang, CNKI databases using the keywords "Iodine" and "Graves Disease". Finally, 13 clinical trials met the inclusion criterion and were included this meta-analysis. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Our meta-analysis included 1355 pati...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - March 4, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Laparoscopic roux-en-y gastric bypass vs. laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of lipid effects at one year post-surgery.
Conclusions cannot be drawn from hypertriglyceridaemia and low HDL remission rates based on this meta-analysis. PMID: 28206728 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Minerva Endocrinologica)
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - February 18, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Diagnosis, treatment, clinical course, and prognosis of childhood-onset craniopharyngioma patients.
CONCLUSIONS: As expertise has been shown to have impact on post-treatment morbidity, medical societies should establish criteria of adequate professional expertise for the treatment of craniopharyngioma. PMID: 28181780 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Minerva Endocrinologica)
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - February 10, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Thyroid dysfunction and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Authors: Efstathiadou ZA, Kita MD, Polyzos SA Abstract Thyroid hormones are crucial for hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a very common and potentially serious disease of modern society, shares common clinical features with hypothyroidism, such as obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, in certain studies, increased prevalence of hypothyroidism was observed in patients with NAFLD. However, whether there is a linear relationship between thyroid hormone levels and NAFLD incidence and severity, including values within or in proximity to the reference ran...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - February 10, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Comparison the relationship between the levels of insulin resistance, hs-CRP, percentage of body fat and serum osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand in prediabetic patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Increased sRANKL and OPG levels were associated with prediabetic subjects. sRANKL and OPG may play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes as well as metabolic disturbance. PMID: 28146138 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Minerva Endocrinologica)
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - February 3, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Is cardiovascular risk in women with PCOS a real risk? Current insights.
Authors: Papadakis G, Kandaraki E, Papalou O, Vryonidou A, Diamanti-Kandarakis E Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive aged women. PCOS incorporates not only symptoms related to the reproductive system but also a clustering of systemic metabolic abnormalities that are linked with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). More specifically, metabolic aberrations such as impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, accompanied by increased low-grade inflammation as well as elevated coagulation factors appear to contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk....
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - February 3, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Tumor and normal thyroid spheroids: from tissues to zebrafish.
CONCLUSIONS: We report the characterization of multicellular spheroids obtained from PTCs and normal thyroid tissues, showing that they are enriched in stem-like cells. Moreover, we established xenografts of spheroids in zebrafish, demonstrating that they stimulate neoangiogenesis. This in vivo model could be considered as a valuable platform to test the effects of anticancer drugs. PMID: 28146140 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Minerva Endocrinologica)
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - February 3, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Type 1 diabetes from adolescence to adulthood: is there a permanent need for nutrition education and reeducation?
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that questions regarding carbohydrate counting may predict glycaemic control. Patients diagnosed in childhood may be more knowledable in diabetes management, but their practical skill in matching insulin dose and carbohydrate content is poor. Both groups improved their knowledge in similar proportion with same educational programme. PMID: 28146141 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Minerva Endocrinologica)
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - February 3, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Should serum calcitonin be routinely measured in patients presenting with thyroid nodule?
CONCLUSION: Because patients with a nodule are subjected to ultrasound scanning and biopsy when the nodule size is greater than 5 cm or when there is a modifying ultrasound or clinical characteristic, the consensus at the multidisciplinary conference on thyroids rather than universal calcitonin screening of all nodules is the better option in our judgement. PMID: 28092147 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Minerva Endocrinologica)
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - January 17, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Effect of dapagliflozin administration on metabolic syndrome, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion.
Authors: González-Ortiz M, Méndez-Del Villar M, Martínez-Abundis E, Ramírez-Rodríguez AM Abstract AIM: To evaluate the effect of dapagliflozin on metabolic syndrome (MetS), insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. METHODS: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out in 24 patients with MetS. Glucose and insulin levels were measured every 30 min for 2-h after a 75-g dextrose load. Metabolic profile was also evaluated before and after the pharmacological intervention. Twelve patients received dapagliflozin (10 mg) before breakfast for 90 days....
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - December 23, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Improvement of Bone Turnover Markers and Bone Mineral Density following treatment of Primary Aldosteronism.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support that bone loss and potential fracture risk among PA patients are likely a result of aldosterone-mediated secondary hyperparathyroidism. Patients with early PA may already exhibit increased bone turnover despite no significant changes in BMD. PMID: 28001017 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Minerva Endocrinologica)
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - December 23, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: the thread of Ariadne.
Authors: Kosmidou M, Milionis H Abstract Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, the hepatic fat accumulation) and non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, the aggressive form of liver steatosis plus inflammation and hepatocyte necrosis) are reaching epidemic dimensions in subjects with diabetes mellitus (DM). Taking into account that the incidence of DM increases worldwide, these entities rerpresent major health problems. There is accumulating evidence that diabetic subjects with NASH are at increased risk not only for cardiovascular disease compications but also for cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer. On the other...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - December 20, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Adrenal disorders and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Authors: Papanastasiou L, Fountoulakis S, Vatalas IA Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the developed world and its pathogenesis is complex and multifactorial. It is considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and is the leading cause of hepatic cirrhosis. This review aims to present current knowledge on the involvement of the adrenal glands in the development of NAFLD. Clinical and animal studies have shown that excess glucocorticoids (GC) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Patients with NAFLD seem to have a subtle chronic activ...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - December 17, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Bone metabolism in non alcoholic fatty liver disease: vitamin D status and bone mineral density.
This study aimed to review current evidences supporting the association between bone metabolism including low BMD and serum vitamin D level in patients with NAFLD. Epidemiolocal studies indicating lower BMD and vitamin D in patients with NAFLD have been reviewed. The main pathophysiological mechanisms including association of insulin resistance, serum adiponectin, ghrelin, osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, and osteocalcin with NAFLD and low BMD have been briefly reviewed and summarized. Results of current clinical trials investigating the role of vitamin D supplementation for treatment of hepatic steatosis and non alcoholic st...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - December 17, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Differential efficacy of methylcobalamin and alpha-lipoic acid treatment on negative and positive symptoms of (type 2) diabetic peripheral neuropathy.
Authors: Han Y, Wang M, Shen J, Zhang Z, Zhao M, Huang J, Chen Y, Chen Z, Hu Y, Wang Y Abstract BACKGROUND: Diabetic hyperglycemia damages peripheral nerves by triggering ischemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and methylcobalamin (MC) are known to improve signs of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), possibly by enhancing neural and vascular endothelial cell metabolism and antioxidant capacity. We evaluated differences in efficacy following short-term MC or ALA treatment on DPN symptoms to guide clinical drug selection. METHODS: Forty DPN patients were randomly divided into MC an...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - December 3, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

Intestinal hormones, gut microbiota and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
Authors: Koukias N, Buzzetti E, Tsochatzis EA Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and has a complex pathophysiology with multiple pathways of development and progression implicated. Intestinal hormones regulate multiple biological functions and may play a role in the pathogenesis of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by affecting food intake, body weight and insulin resistance. Bacterial products can affect the secretion of these hormones and thus have an effect on metabolism. Gut microbiota are normally involved in the intestinal energy h...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - November 24, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research