Betacaryophyllene – A Phytocannabinoid as Potential Therapeutic Modality for Human Sepsis?
Sepsis is a clinical condition resulting from a dysregulated immune response to an infection that leads to organ dysfunction. Despite numerous efforts to optimize treatment, sepsis remains to be the main cause of death in most intensive care units. The endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS) plays an important role in inflammation. Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) activation is immunosuppressive, which might be beneficial during the hyper-inflammatory phase of sepsis. Beta-caryophyllene (BCP) is a non-psychoactive natural cannabinoid (phytocannabinoid) found in Cannabis sativa and in essential oils of spices and food plants, that...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - November 4, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Angel Meza, Christian Lehmann Source Type: research

Title page/Editorial Board
(Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - November 1, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Eukaryotic (translation) initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) inhibition may be used to treat Huntington ’s disease by decreasing the expression of huntingtin
Eukaryotic (translation) initiation factor 4A is an RNA helicase that forms part of the translation initiation machinery. Its function is to process the secondary structure of messenger RNA (mRNA) to allow the ribosome to bind. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 31, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Thomas E. Webb Source Type: research

Blood flow restriction training as a prehabilitation concept in total knee arthroplasty: A narrative review about current preoperative interventions and the potential impact of BFR
Osteoarthritis of the knee is one of the most commonly diagnosed joint ailments and responsible for increased rates of total knee arthroplasty surgeries worldwide. Whereas the surgical approach is able to diminish the perceived knee pain of concerned patients ’, the postoperative recovery is often accompanied by persistent skeletal muscle dysfunctions and atrophy, which is responsible for functional deficits for up to several years. Recent findings indicate that surgery induced adverse effects on skeletal muscles are largely associated with the use of pneumatic tourniquets, wherefore several studies try to reduce tou...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 30, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Alexander Franz, Fina Pauline Queitsch, Michael Behringer, Constantin Mayer, R üdiger Krauspe, Christoph Zilkens Source Type: research

Blood Flow Restriction Training as a Prehabilitation Concept in Total Knee Arthroplasty, A narrative review about current preoperative interventions and the potential impact of BFR
Osteoarthritis of the knee is one of the most commonly diagnosed joint ailments and responsible for increased rates of total knee arthroplasty surgeries worldwide. Whereas the surgical approach is able to diminish the perceived knee pain of concerned patients ’, the postoperative recovery is often accompanied by persistent skeletal muscle dysfunctions and atrophy, which is responsible for functional deficits for up to several years. Recent findings indicate that surgery induced adverse effects on skeletal muscles are largely associated with the use of pneumatic tourniquets, wherefore several studies try to reduce tou...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 30, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Alexander Franz, Fina Pauline Queitsch, Michael Behringer, Constantin Mayer, R üdiger Krauspe, Christoph Zilkens Source Type: research

Nigral depigmentation reflects monoamine exhaustion as initial step to Parkinson ’s disease
This hypothesis discusses exposure and response to various stressors as cause for chronic neurodegeneration. Predisposing genetic and environmental factors in conjunction with exposure to exogenous and endogenous toxins cause stress, which consumes dopamine and related biogenic amines. To compensate monoamine exhaustion, conversion of endogenous levodopa to dopamine by tyrosine hydroxylase is up regulated. Concomitantly, tyrosine mediated levodopa degradation to dopaquinone is reduced. Dopaquinone is the essential precursor of neuromelanin. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 30, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Thomas M üller, Willi Kohlhepp Source Type: research

Nature Exposure Sufficiency and Insufficiency: The Benefits of Environmental Preservation
Increasing industrialization, urbanization, and a failure of many world leaders to appreciate the consequences of climate change are deleteriously impacting quality of life as well as diminishing the prospects for long term survival. Economic competitiveness and corporate profitability often pre-empt environmental concerns. The calving of an iceberg in Antarctica and the hurricane activity in the Caribbean during 2017 are unfortunate illustrations of the continuing escalation of environmental issues. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 27, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: John R. Reddon, Salvatore B. Durante Source Type: research

Trigeminal long-term potentiation as a cellular substrate for migraine
Most previous studies suggest that the subnucleus caudalis (Vc) of spinal trigeminal nucleus (Vsp) plays a key role in the generation and maintenance of migraine, a type of primary headache, by participating in the trigeminovascular system. Furthermore, the excitability of the Vc with the stimulation of the peripheral nociceptive fibers innervating the intracranial vessels or dura matter is regarded as a main cellular substrate for migraine. Here, a revised hypothesis is introduced, reinforcing the previous hypothesis and complementing it. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 26, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Dong-ho Youn Source Type: research

Comparison of Geographic Distributions of Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Fail to Support Common Evolutionary Roots
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) shares overlapping symptoms and some features of pathogenesis with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD: Crohn ’s Disease [CD], and Ulcerative Colitis [UC]). Geographic markers such as latitude/sunshine and more recently lactase population distributions are found to be correlated with IBD. As a result of clinical and pathogenic similarities between the 2 conditions, some authorities questioned whether a co nnection exists between them. We compare IBS directly with IBD, and indirectly with geographic markers associated with IBD, in order to evaluate possible evolutionary links between IBS an...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 25, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Andrew Szilagyi, Xiaoqing Xue Source Type: research

Etiological mechanism of Iridocorneal endothelial (ICE) syndrome may involve infection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and integration of viral genes into human genome
Iridocorneal (ICE) syndrome is a rare ocular disease characterized by abnormal proliferation of corneal endothelial cells, progressive obstruction of irido-corneal angle and atrophy of iris. ICE syndrome progressed slowly, but can cause serious complications such as secondary glaucoma in late stage. Because the etiology of ICE syndrome is not clear, there is still no effective treatment in clinical practice. Previous studies have detected herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA inside patient ’s aqueous humor. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 25, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Fei Li, Yaoming Liu, Yi Sun, Xiulan Zhang Source Type: research

Autoimmunity against a glycolytic enzyme as a possible cause for persistent symptoms in Lyme disease
We present the case of a patient with evidence of exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi sl and a long history of debilitating fatigue, cognitive abnormalities and autonomic nervous system issues. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 25, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Paolo Maccallini, Serena Bonin, Giusto Trevisan Source Type: research

The Protected Survivor Model: Using Resistant Successful Cognitive Aging to Identify Protection in the Very Old
For some cardiovascular risk factors, association with risk for cognitive impairment observed in early old age is reduced, or paradoxically even reversed, as age of outcome increases. Successful cognitive aging is intact cognition in the oldest-old; we define resistant successful cognitive aging as successful cognitive aging despite high risk. The protected survivor model posits that a minority of the general population has a protective factor that mitigates the negative effect of a risk factor on successful cognitive aging for the unprotected majority. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 25, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jeremy M. Silverman, James Schmeidler Source Type: research

Pathophysiological significance of protein hydrophobic interactions: an emerging hypothesis
Fibrinogen is a unique protein that is converted into an insoluble fibrin in a single enzymatic event, which is a characteristic feature of fibrinogen due to its susceptibility to fibrinolytic degradation and dissolution. Although thrombosis is a result of activated blood coagulation, no explanation is being offered for the persistent presence of fibrin deposits in the affected organs. A classic example is stroke, in which the thrombolytic therapy is effective only during the first 3 –4 hours after the onset of thrombosis. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 25, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Marek Kieliszek, Boguslaw Lipinski Source Type: research

An exploration of the hypothesis that testosterone is implicated in the psychological functioning of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
This study explores the hypothesis that testosterone impacts women with PCOS both directly and indirectly, via testosterone currently in the bloodstream and through prenatal exposure. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 23, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: J.A. Barry, F. Qu, P.J. Hardiman Source Type: research

Could the Screening for Correct Oral Health Reduce the Impact of Death Due to Bolus Asphyxia in Adult Patients? A Forensic Case Report.
“Bolus death” or “Café Coronary syndrome” refers to death due to asphyxia caused by an occlusion of the upper airways due to food. In this kind of asphyxia, the food bolus obstructs the larynx or the bronchial branches. This kind of event often affects subjects with acute intoxication due t o alcohol or drugs, or with edentulism and with neurological or psychiatric diseases. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 23, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Isabella Aquila, Santo Gratteri, Matteo A. Sacco, Emilio Nuzzolese, Vittorio Fineschi, Paola Frati, Pietrantonio Ricci Source Type: research

Service Animal as Adjuvant Treatment for Restless Leg Syndrome
Restless leg syndrome (RLS) [1] is a condition that affects up to 10% of the population with up to 2% being significantly affected. The cardinal symptoms are (1) an Urge to move the legs usually associated with an uncomfortable or unpleasant sensation in the legs; (2) Rest or inactivity worsen these symptoms; (3) Gets better with exercise and (4) Evening and night accentuation. RLS has an important genetic component to its etiology, however, environmental/acquired factors contribute and an important one seems to be reduced CNS iron availability. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 20, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Eric L Altschuler Source Type: research

Artesunate-Quercetin/Luteolin dual drug nanofacilitated synergistic treatment for malaria: A Plausible approach to overcome Artemisinin combination therapy resistance
Malaria is one of the major global health challenge with 300 million new cases annually. The best regimen for treating Plasmodium falciparum induced malaria is based on artemisinin and its derivatives which were prescribed as artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). These are highly effective drugs resulting in rapid clearance of parasites even in severe P. falciparum induced malaria patients. However, from the past few years parasites resistant to ACT ’s have begun to emerge in various parts of the world such as Cambodia and Greater Mekong Subregion. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 20, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Nethravathi Puttappa, Raman Suresh Kumar, Karthik Yamjala Source Type: research

A hypothetical role for Notch signaling pathway in immunopathogenesis of leprosy
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae mainly affecting skin and peripheral nerves. Leprosy has a broad range of clinical manifestations that range from mild (tuberculoid leprosy) to severe (lepromatous leprosy) forms, and are highly dependent on the host ’s immune response. Among the immune response elements involved in the pathogenesis of leprosy are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), vitamin D receptor (VDR), natural killer cells (NK), and T cells. These innate and adaptive immune response elements may be related to the Notch signaling pathway, whi ch is involved in immune cell growth,...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 19, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: H éctor Serrano-Coll, Liliana Acevedo-Saenz, Nora Cardona-Castro Source Type: research

Nk Cell Recruitment and Exercise: Potential Immunotherapeutic Role of Shear Stress and Endothelial Health
Positive cancer patient outcomes, including increased time to recurrent events, have been associated with increased counts and function of natural killer (NK) cells. NK cell counts and function are elevated following acute exercise, and the generally accepted mechanism of increased recruitment suggests that binding of epinephrine releases NK cells from endothelial tissue via decreases in adhesion molecules following. I propose that blood flow-induced shear stress may also play a role in NK cell recruitment from the endothelium. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 17, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: William Evans Source Type: research

Antonio Ligabue: “the Madman”
The medical history of some famous painters, such as Van Gogh, Goya, and Munch, is characterized by symptoms attributable to psychiatric diseases that seem to have contributed their artistic genius. This is evident in the life-history and the artistic work of the Italian painter Antonio Ligabue (1899-1965), also called “the Madman”. Considered one of the most important exponents of Naïve art in the 20th century, he was born on December 18, 1889 in Zurich, Switzerland, to Elisabetta Costa and an unknown native Italian father [1]. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 17, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: A. Perciaccante, A. Coralli, S. Deo, O. Appenzeller Source Type: research

Recurrent and disseminated pityriasis versicolor: a novel clinical form consequent to Malassezia-host interaction?
Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial fungal infection caused by Malassezia spp. The aim of this study is to propose the definition of a new clinical entity: the recurrent and disseminated pityriasis versicolor (RDPV). All patients with RDPV were enrolled over an eight-month period. Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained, Malassezia (M.) species were isolated in cultures and identified by phenotypic and molecular characterization, skin biopsies were taken from active lesions, serum levels of immunoglobulin E were obtained and therapeutic schemes were evaluated. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 16, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Karina Romero-Sandoval, Anderson Alves Costa, Maria Gl ória Teixeira Sousa, Celia Regina Furucho, Neusa Valente, Paulo R. Criado, Valeria Aoki, Gil Benard Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Potential of High-Dose Biotin
A recent controlled trial has established that high-dose biotin supplementation – 100 mg, three times daily – has a stabilizing effect on progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although this effect has been attributed to an optimization of biotin’s essential cofactor role in the brain, a case can be made that direct stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) by pharm acological concentrations of biotin plays a key role in this regard. The utility of high-dose biotin in MS might reflect an anti-inflammatory effect of cGMP on the cerebral microvasculature, as well on oligodendrocyte differentiation and...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 14, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mark F. McCarty, James J. DiNicolantonio Source Type: research

Transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation may be beneficial in the treatment of premature ejaculation
Approximately 20 –30% of sexually active men suffer from Premature Ejaculation (PE), but the pathophysiology still remains unclear and the current available treatments for PE are unsatisfying. Considering the role of rhythmic bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus Muscles contractions on the ejaculatory reflex, we h ypothesize that weakening this muscles via inhibiting it’s contractions by Application of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation prior to the planned sexual activity, may have a beneficial effect in the treatment of PE. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 13, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ilan Gruenwald, Ege Can Serefoglu, Tal Gollan, Shmuel Springer, Gideon Meiry, Boaz Appel, Arik Shechter Source Type: research

The ‘Displacing Foods of Modern Commerce’ Are the Primary and Proximate Cause of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Unifying Singular Hypothesis
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible vision loss and blindness in developed nations. AMD is anticipated to affect 196 million people worldwide, by 2020. However, the etiology of this disease remains unknown. Aging, genetic, and environmental influences have generally been implicated as major etiologic factors. We sought to examine the hypothesis that consumption of the ‘displacing foods of modern commerce,’ which equate to processed, nutrient-deficient and potentially toxic foods, may be the primary and proximate cause of AMD. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 13, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Chris A. Knobbe, Marija Stojanoska Source Type: research

Ketogenic Diet and Anorexia Nervosa
This hypothesis suggest that starvation-induced ketosis, which leads to a fundamental biochemical change in the metabolic fuel supply of the brain, is uniquely anxiolytic and rewarding to patients prone to AN. Ketosis can easily be replicated by a unique diet marked by high fat, moderate protein, and very low carbohydrate. This diet, known as a ketogenic diet (KGD) mimics starvation, thus allowing the patient to experience the anxiolytic state of ketosis, and yet avoid the morbidity of starvation. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 13, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Barbara Scolnick Source Type: research

Transcutaneous Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation may be Beneficial in he Treatment of Premature Ejaculation
Premature ejaculation (PE) is a very common and disturbing sexual dysfunction in men, associated with detrimental psychological, physical and social effects. Approximately 20-30% of sexually active men suffer from PE [1 –3]. Although this dysfunction has been widely investigated, its pathophysiology still remains unclear. Today, there is only one oral compound, which has been specifically developed for the pharmaceutical treatment of PE, Dapoxetine. Although it has been approved by the European Medical Agency (EM EA), Dapoxetine has not been approved by the U.S. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 13, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ilan Gruenwald, Ege Can Serefoglu, Tal Gollan, Shmuel Springer, Gideon Meiry, Appel Boaz, Shechter Arik Source Type: research

Xenohormesis in early life: new avenues of research to explore anti-aging strategies through the maternal diet.
Aging is a progressive internal physiological deterioration of the organism, leading to the occurrence of age-related lethal diseases. It has become a major societal challenge to understand the processes that drive aging and to develop rational pharmacological agents and dietary approaches to fight against age-related deterioration and diseases. Interestingly, several lines of evidence highlight an influence of the developmental period on the risk of age-related diseases later in life. This field is known as the developmental origins of health and disease. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 11, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Philippe de Medina Source Type: research

The VEGF paradox: Does diabetic retinopathy protect from age related macular degeneration?
Age-related macular disease (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) are prevalent diseases. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) related retinal neovascularization is a common feature in both. Consequently, both pathologies are treated with anti-VEGF therapy. We have previously reported a lower incidence of AMD in patients with DR compared to controls. The present study hypothesizes that DR in stages in which the concentration of intravitreal VEGF is increased, might have a protective role for both the onset and development of AMD. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 10, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mario Saravia, Luis Zeman, Mariana Ingolotti, Ariel Schlaen Source Type: research

The VEGF Paradox : Does diabetic retinopathy protect from age related macular degeneration?
Age-related macular disease (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) are prevalent diseases. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) related retinal neovascularization is a common feature in both. Consequently, both pathologies are treated with anti-VEGF therapy. We have previously reported a lower incidence of AMD in patients with DR compared to controls. The present study hypothesizes that DR in stages in which the concentration of intravitreal VEGF is increased, might have a protective role for both the onset and development of AMD. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 10, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mario Saravia, Luis Zeman, Mariana Ingolotti, Ariel Schlaen Source Type: research

M. biceps femoris – A wolf in sheep’s clothing: The downside of a lower limb injury prevention training
Both, hamstring and ACL injuries are among the most typical injuries, particularly in change of direction and high speed running sports. They're also difficult to treat. Therefore, in the past few years, sports medicine practitioners and exercise scientists have mainly been focusing on the development and implementation of preventive programs in order to reduce the number of lower limb injuries, mainly by improving knee alignment. A number of studies have been able to prove the success of these training interventions, which are mainly addressing sensorimotor abilities and plyometric activities. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 9, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Thomas Ertelt, Thomas Gronwald Source Type: research

M. biceps femoris - a wolf in sheep ’s clothing: The downside of a lower limb injury prevention training
Both, hamstring and ACL injuries are amongst the most typical injuries, particularly in change of direction and high speed running sports. They're also difficult to treat. Therefore, in the past few years, sports medicine practitioners and exercise scientists have mainly been focusing on the de velopment and implementation of preventive programs in order to reduce the number of lower limb injuries, mainly by improving knee alignment. A number of studies have been able to prove the success of these training interventions, which are mainly addressing sensorimotor abilities and plyometric activities. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 9, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Thomas Ertelt, Thomas Gronwald Source Type: research

Reactions between methylglyoxal and its scavengers in-vivo appear to be catalyzed enzymatically
Methylglyoxal (MGO) is an important contributor to the development of diabetic complications. In this paper I propose that MGO, not detoxified by the glyoxalase system, is removed from circulation by MGO-scavengers. Furthermore, since rates of reactions between MGO and its scavengers in-vitro are low, I propose that in-vivo these reactions are catalyzed enzymatically. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 9, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Benjamin Szwergold Source Type: research

A proposal for a noninvasive monitoring of sympathetic nerve activity in patients with takotsubo syndrome
The pathophysiology of takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is still elusive; many hypotheses of its cause have been proposed with a heightened activity of the peripheral autonomic sympathetic nervous system (PASNS) via local norepinephrine release, and direct cardiomyocyte toxicity mediated by blood-borne catecholamines, being among the most currently entertained. Monitoring of PASNS during hospitalization will provide a metric which could be of immense value in unraveling of the pathophysiology and aiding in the management of the patients with TTS by predicting in-hospital complications, long-term outcome, and its recurrence. (Sourc...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 7, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: John E. Madias Source Type: research

Can memory exist outside of brain and be transferred? Historical review, issues & ways forward
Learning and memory are among the executive functions attributed to intelligent forms of life. Unfortunately, there is a lack of clear understanding regarding the underlying mechanisms governing these functions. Most of the modern day scientists attribute these functions solely to brain. However, in the latter half of last century, a number of reports suggested existence of extra-cranial memory and potential of its transfer between animals. Some have linked this phenomenon to RNA while others believed that peptides were responsible. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 6, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ghulam Abbas, Wajahat Mahmood, Faisal Khan Source Type: research

Adipose-derived stem cell sheet encapsulated construct of micro-porous decellularized cartilage debris and hydrogel for cartilage defect repair.
Challenges of repairing injuries and damage to the cartilage still remain in orthopedics. The characteristics of cartilage structure, especially avascular, make it a limited capacity of self-renewal. Articular cartilage defect or damage result from various causes will lead to degenerative osteoarthritis (OA). Surgical treatment and non-surgical treatment can temporarily alleviate symptoms to some extent but can ’t fundamentally restore the normal structure and function of cartilage, and therefore give rise to progressive degeneration. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 6, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yuxiang Zhang, Zhong Lei, Yiying Qi, Tuoyu Di, Guoqi Li, Wenkai Zhang, Weiqi Yan Source Type: research

Calf hemodialysate hypothesis: nutritive value plus placebo effect
Highly purified calf hemodialysate (HPCH), known as Actovegin ® or Solcoseryl® [1], has been discussed as a medication for certain neurological and other diseases [2–8]. A hypothesis is proposed in this letter that reported effects may be caused by the nutritive value and placebo effect. HPCH is a mixture of normal serum components so that a specific actio n can hardly be expected. Apparently, bovine blood has been used not because of its special qualities but due to economical reasons and lack of disapproval associated in some cultures with porcine products. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 5, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sergei V. Jargin Source Type: research

Title page/Editorial Board
(Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - October 1, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Is subchondral bone cyst formation in non-load-bearing region of osteoarthritic knee a vascular problem?
Subchondral bone cyst is common in the progressive knee osteoarthritis yet its underlying mechanism remains unclear. In addition to the existing theories such as synovial fluid influx and mechanical contusion, we identified the potential link between vascular pathology and osteoarthritic bone pathologies including cystic lesion formation, particularly in the non-load-bearing region. This new hypothesis for SBC formation in non-load-bearing region for knee, which cannot be explained by the existing theories, will provide us a new angle to understand the pathomechanism and pathophysiology of subchondral bone disturbance in o...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - September 26, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Pok Man Boris Chan, Chunyi Wen, Wai Ching Yang, Chunhoi Yan, KwongYuen Chiu Source Type: research

Are the Estrogenic Hormonal Effects of Environmental Toxins affecting Small Intestinal Bacterial and Microfilaria Overgrowth?
The important role of microfilaria (worms) in human and animal disease remains an area of key disagreement between the naturopathic and allopathic physicians. While microfilaria infections are rampart in undeveloped countries, they rarely rise to identification as a cause of disease in Western countries. New research studies in the diagnosis and treatment of SIBO (Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth) and (IBD) Inflammatory Bowel Diseases of ulcerative colitis, Crohn ’s Disease and microcytic colitis may make both sides equally correct. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - September 26, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Edward Lichten Source Type: research

Spontaneous osteoclastogenesis: hypothesis for gender-unrelated osteoporosis screening and diagnosis
Women are at greater risk of developing osteoporosis (OP). However, in the past few years it has become more widely recognized that OP is a significant problem also in men although OP is frequently under-diagnosed and, consequently, under treated in men. Most guidelines, screening and fracture risk evaluation methods as well as pharmacologic agents have been developed for women and then adapted to men. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) measurement by Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) is reported as T score and the capability of DEXA to diagnose OP and predict fracture risk is still debated. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - September 26, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: F. Salamanna, R. Giardino, M. Fini Source Type: research

A new analytical model for the changes of vascular endothelial growth factor in ischemic diseases
Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs)play an important role in ischemic diseases. However, few studies focused on the generation and decay process of VEGF and no model yet can quantify different VEGF behavior caused in different area, like heart or brain. We compare the results across different groups and quantify the effectiveness of the selected training protocols. By applying the model to experimental data, the analytical model has been proposed to simulate the changes of vascular endothelial growth factor as a function of time and training protocols in ischemic diseases. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - September 26, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Feng Qiu, Hui Cao, Yue Wu Source Type: research

Permanent His Bundle Pacing to Replace Biventricular Pacing for Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) or biventricular pacing (BIVP) has become a common procedure for the treatment of ventricular dyssynchrony in patients with heart failure, particularly in those with bundle branch block patterns (QRS durations>150 ms) on the electrocardiogram (ECG). However, a large group of non-responders are made up of patients with dyssynchrony and QRS duration below 130 ms. Recent studies have introduced permanent His bundle pacing as another method for achieving normalization of the QRS duration even in a majority of patients with right or left bundle branch block pattern on the ECG. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - September 26, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Benjamin J. Scherlag, Alexa Papaila Source Type: research

Prolonged stretching of the ankle plantarflexors elicits muscle-tendon adaptations relevant to ankle gait kinetics in children with spastic cerebral palsy.
Tissue related ankle hyper-resistance has been reported to contribute to equinus gait in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Hence, ankle plantarflexor stretching programs have been developed in order to restore passive ankle dorsiflexion. Despite high quality evidence on the limited effects of stretching on passive joint mobility, further muscle-tendon adaptations have been reported which may impact gait performance. As such, children with spastic cerebral palsy subject to long-term manual static stretching achieved dorsiflexion gains through the reduction of muscle and fascicle strain whilst preserving tendon strain, a...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - September 26, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Teresa Mart ín Lorenzo, Eduardo Rocon, Ignacio Martínez Caballero, Ana Ramírez Barragán, Sergio Lerma Lara Source Type: research

Ruxolitinib-conjugated gold nanoparticles for topical administration: an alternative for treating alopecia?
Alopecia is a dermatological condition for which Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors have recently emerged as potential therapy options, but with limited practical use because of the systemic side effects. The topical use of Ruxolitinib in alopecia universalis has been demonstrated, but little is known about the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of this way of administration. Nanomedicine provides improved therapeutics. In the current paper we present preliminary data regarding the potential use of Ruxolitinib-conjugated gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in dermatological conditions, as GNPs have been proven to have a reduced absorp...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - September 25, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sanda Boca, Cristian Berce, Ancuta Jurj, Bobe Petrushev, Laura Pop, Grigore-Aristide Gafencu, Sonia Selicean, Vlad Moisoiu, Daiana Temian, Wilhelm-Thomas Micu, Simion Astilean, Cornelia Braicu, Ciprian Tomuleasa, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe Source Type: research

A Unique and Promising Combination of Medications for the Treatment of Alzheimer ’s Disease
At present there is no therapy for Alzheimer ’s Disease which completely stops the progressive dementia effecting late onset Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) patients. It is felt that the main reason for this failure is that AD appears to be a disease caused by four major pathological processes. To date, efforts to develop treatments have addresse d only one or another of these four etiologies. However, even a partially effective therapy against one cause allows the others, untreated, to continue their inexorable destruction of the neurons of the brain. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - September 24, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: James D. Weinstein Source Type: research

Oxytocin intranasal administration as a new hope for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism patients
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) is a form of hypogonadism which also known as secondary or central hypogonadism. Congenital HH can occur due to defect in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, upstream regulators of GnRH neurons or pituitary gonadotropic cells. Testosterone or gonadotropins therapy are widely used to treat HH patients, however both have undesirable effects and GnRH treatment for HH patients is time and cost consuming. Direct delivery of therapeutics to the brain via the nasal route is located in the center of attention during the last decade and trial application of intranasal oxytocin as a meth...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - September 23, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mohammad Saied Salehi, Sareh Pandamooz, Homayoun Khazali Source Type: research

Interleukin 35 and hepatocyte growth factor; as a Novel Combined Immune Gene Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis Disease
An autoimmune demyelination disease of the Central Nervous System, Multiple Sclerosis, is a chronic inflammation which mostly involves young adults. Suffering people face functional loss with a severe pain. Most current MS treatments are focused on the immune response suppression. Approved drugs suppress the inflammatory process, but factually, there is no definite cure for Multiple Sclerosis. Recently developed knowledge has demonstrated that gene and cell therapy as a hopeful approach in tissue regeneration. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Samira Moghadam, Maryam Erfanmanesh, Abdolreza Esmaeilzadeh Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: Hepatitis B vaccine non-response: A predictor of latent autoimmunity?
We read with a great interest the recent article by Mormile R, speculating that a blunted antibody response to HBV vaccine might be a potential predictor of autoimmunity during lifetime. Several studies described a reduced antibody protection provided by HBV vaccine in children affected with different autoimmune diseases, including type I diabetes mellitus, celiac disease and idiopathic juvenile arthritis.[1] However, the immune-pathological relationship is supposed to be quite complex and it is still impossible to distinguish between the cause and the effect. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: D Poddighe Source Type: research

Small groups, open doors: Fostering individual and group creativity within research communities
While abundant publications attempt to analyze and understand what makes humans creative, much less attention is being paid to institutional conditions which may enhance or impede creative work. On the basis of evidence from Cambridge and AT&T ’s Bell Laboratories, and as a condensation of the Janelia Experiment, an institutional focus on “small groups” and “open doors” may foster individual and group creativity. The evidence suggests that small organizational units of up to seven scientists and open door concepts could nurture interactions within and between groups and enhance the critica...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Thomas C. Erren, David M. Shaw, Philip Lewis Source Type: research

Premature Atherosclerosis in Premenopausal Women: Does Cytokine Balance Play a Role?
Contributory risk factors to premature coronary artery disease (CAD) in premenopausal women are poorly understood and data on this subset of women is lacking. There is growing evidence that the process of inflammation is a part of the atherosclerotic process. Mechanistic insights from animal work suggest that the profile of circulating cytokines reflects both endothelial integrity and the presence of immune and progenitor cells. Significant differences in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine concentrations between patients with and without CAD exist. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - September 21, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jo-Ann Eastwood, Doris A Taylor, B. Delia Johnson, Micheline Resende, Barry L.Sharaf, Bina Ahmed, Margo Minissian, Chrisandra Shufelt, Noel Bairey Merz Source Type: research