The ameliorative effects of myricetin on neurobehavioral activity, electrophysiology, and biochemical changes in an animal model of traumatic brain injury
Publication date: November 2019Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 68Author(s): Mohammad Ali Mirshekar, Mohammadreza Shahraki, Reza Najafi, Sahreh ShabaniAbstractTraumatic brain injury (TBI) can produce cognitive disabilities and death. The most frequent clinical symptoms of TBI are memory loss and unusual behavior or mental health disorders. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic oral administration of myricetin (MYR) on behavioral activities (spatial and passive avoidance memory, and motor coordination) and long-term potentiation (LTP) from cornu ammonis area as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) l...
Source: Learning and Motivation - November 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The effect of game-based learning on academic achievement motivation of elementary school students
Publication date: November 2019Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 68Author(s): Tahereh Partovi, Majid Reza RazaviAbstractGame-Based Learning is widespread among elementary school students. Consequences in academic achievement motivation have been studied frequently. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of the Game-Based Learnings on the academic achievement motivation of the elementary school students. We used from a field method to collect the required data and complete the standard questionnaire. The study is a semi-experimental design with pretest-posttest design with the control group. The statistic...
Source: Learning and Motivation - November 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Analysis of inequality aversion in mice using stress-induced hyperthermia
Publication date: November 2019Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 68Author(s): Shigeru WatanabeAbstractHumans have a sense of fairness and consequently have an aversion to inequality condition. Recently, animal researchers have suggested that some non-human animals also exhibit an aversion to inequality. This experiment used stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) to examine inequality aversion in mice. Aversion was analyzed using inequitable restraint stress in Experiment 1. The mice that were restrained, but had free cage mates (disadvantageous inequality) displayed SIH. In contrast, free mice that had restrained cage mat...
Source: Learning and Motivation - November 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Identifying the motivational and demotivational factors influencing students’ academic achievements in language education
This study aims first to design a motivational/ demotivational pattern scale (MDPAS) for English as a foreign language (EFL) students, and then proposes a model of motivation/ demotivation in EFL education. Entire population participated in the study comprised 800 students majoring in EFL. MDPAS was designed and validated by applying confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Further investigations revealed that three motivational constructs, including Demotivation/ Motivating Demotivation, Perfectionist/Non-perfectionist motivation, and Collective/Individual motivation could predict almost 56% of the variance in students’ ...
Source: Learning and Motivation - October 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Assessing motivation to speak (MTS) and willingness to communicate through metalinguistic corrective feedback
This study aimed to investigate the effect of oral metalinguistic corrective feedback on EFL learners’ motivation to speak (MTS) and willingness to communicate in an Iranian second language learning context. The participants of the study were assigned to two groups: one experimental and one control. The experimental group received twenty hours of instruction and metalinguistic corrective feedback, while the control group received twenty hours of instruction with only traditional way of correction. Afterwards, the questionnaires of motivation to speak and willingness to communicate, which were administered before the ...
Source: Learning and Motivation - October 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

My three heavyweight bouts with behaviorism
Publication date: November 2019Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 68Author(s): Martin SeligmanAbstractI describe three squabbles with behaviorism and the reaction: Cognitive Theory of Avoidance Learning, Preparedness and Learned Helplessness. (Source: Learning and Motivation)
Source: Learning and Motivation - October 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Free throw performance in non-expert basketball players: The effect of dynamic motor imagery combined with action observation
Publication date: November 2019Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 68Author(s): Nicolas Robin, Lucette Toussaint, Cédric Charles-Charlery, Guillaume R. CoudevylleAbstractWe investigated the effect of dynamic motor imagery (dMI) combined with physical practice on free throw performances of advanced basketball players in two conditions: With and without a video of a model. They performed a pre-test, participated in 5-weeks of intervention sessions, and performed a post-test. During pre-test and post-test, they performed 10-free throws followed by the “Evan Fournier test”: Maximum number of sequences of...
Source: Learning and Motivation - September 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Relations of patterns of perfectionism to BIS sensitivity, achievement goals and student engagement
Publication date: November 2019Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 68Author(s): Vanja Putarek, Daria Rovan, Nina Pavlin-BernardićAbstractIn the hierarchical model of achievement motivation, achievement goals represent mediators between reinforcement sensitivity (e.g., Behavioral Inhibition System [BIS]), as a self-based antecedent variable, and student engagement, as an outcome variable. However, the manifestations of these variables and the relationships between them may differ according to the type of perfectionism. The aim of this study was to explore the differences between adaptive, maladaptive, and non-perfectio...
Source: Learning and Motivation - September 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Renewal in a heterogeneous behavior chain: Extinction of the first response prevents renewal of a second response when it is separately extinguished and returned to the chain
Publication date: November 2019Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 68Author(s): Michael Steinfeld, José A. Alcalá, Eric A. Thrailkill, Mark E. BoutonAbstractTwo experiments with rat subjects examined the renewal of an extinguished instrumental response that occurs when it is returned to the context of a behavior chain in which it had been trained. In both experiments, rats first learned a discriminated heterogeneous chain in which a stimulus (S1) set the occasion for one response (R1), the emission of which turned off S1 and turned on a second stimulus (S2) that set the occasion for a second response (R2)...
Source: Learning and Motivation - September 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: August 2019Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 67Author(s): (Source: Learning and Motivation)
Source: Learning and Motivation - August 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The study of executive function domains in children with high-functioning autism
ConclusionImpairment in executive functions should be described as major signs of autism spectrum disorder and it is important to critically study them in early stages of autism diagnosis and assessment. (Source: Learning and Motivation)
Source: Learning and Motivation - August 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene polymorphisms and recognition memory for emotional and neutral faces: A pilot study
This study examined the effects of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) rs53576 and rs2254298 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on recognition memory for emotional (fearful, angry, sad, disgusted, surprised, happy) and neutral faces. Seventy-four Caucasian students (42 female), completed a novel experimental task of recognition memory for emotional and neutral faces. Photographs of emotional and neutral faces in color were taken from The Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces set. The results suggested a possible effect of rs2254298 on recognition memory for the emotion of surprise. Subjects with the GA genotype had a lower rec...
Source: Learning and Motivation - August 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

An extinction cue does not necessarily prevent response recovery after extinction
Publication date: August 2019Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 67Author(s): Javier Bustamante, Consuelo San Martín, Mario A. Laborda, Gonzalo MiguezAbstractAn extinction cue (EC) is a discrete stimulus that is presented during Pavlovian extinction, contingent and with close contiguity to the conditioned stimulus (CS) under extinction treatment. When this EC is presented during a recovery test (e.g., renewal, spontaneous recovery), it typically prevents response recovery. At least two associative mechanisms have been proposed to explain this effect: an EC might become a conditioned inhibitor, or it might become...
Source: Learning and Motivation - July 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: May 2019Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 66Author(s): (Source: Learning and Motivation)
Source: Learning and Motivation - May 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The effects of non-alcoholic beer on response inhibition: An open-label study
Publication date: May 2019Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 66Author(s): Mina FukudaAbstractThree experiments were conducted to test the following hypothesis: the taste, smell, and sight of non-alcoholic beer (alcohol cue) will induce a conditioned response even when participants know that the beer is non-alcoholic. In Experiments 1A and 1B, the participants who drank beer at least once a month were divided into a non-alcoholic beer group and a water group. After being told that their beverage was alcohol-free, participants in the experiment group drank non-alcoholic beer, while those in the control group drank water...
Source: Learning and Motivation - May 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Foraging behavior of pigeons (Columba livia) in situations of diminishing returns using a reinforcement schedule that controls the energy expenditure of responses
This study simulated the foraging situation assumed in Charnov’s (Theoretical Population Biology, 9, 129–136, 1976) marginal value theorem—namely, where food is located in patches separated by areas without food. To quantitatively analyze the behavior of homing pigeons (Columba livia) in terms of the marginal value theorem, we conducted a series of experiments using a reinforcement schedule that controls the energy of responses (Kono, Learning & Behavior, 41,425–432, 2013). Experiment 1 revealed that pigeons’ behavior was qualitatively consistent with the prediction of the marginal value t...
Source: Learning and Motivation - May 3, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Attention narrowing followed by broadening enhances threat reactivity and generalisation during extinction but reduces physiological arousal at retest: A preliminary examination
Publication date: May 2019Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 66Author(s): Ash-Lee J. Heather, Allison M. WatersAbstractAnxiety disorders are common and impairing, however, approximately 40% of affected individuals do not respond in the short or long term to gold-standard, exposure-based treatments. The current preliminary study examined whether goal-directed attention during extinction (the experimental analogue of exposure therapy) enhances extinction learning and retention. Thirty-six participants completed a differential Pavlovian conditioning and extinction task. Goal-directed attention (GDA) participants (N = 18)...
Source: Learning and Motivation - April 29, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effects of picture valence on serial pattern learning performance in humans
Publication date: May 2019Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 66Author(s): Shannon M.A. KundeyAbstractMuch comparative work has explored humans’ and nonhuman animals’ sensitivity to sequence structure, mainly under conditions attempting to maximize learning. Conditions in an organism’s everyday reality, though, may not match these ideal circumstances. Organisms must detect and learn about how events are sequenced even when extraneous stimuli are present and/or under threat. Irrelevant information can decrease sequence learning in both humans and rats (e.g., Hersh, 1974; Kundey & Fountain, 2011; Ku...
Source: Learning and Motivation - March 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: February 2019Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 65Author(s): (Source: Learning and Motivation)
Source: Learning and Motivation - March 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Learning and Motivation, Editorial
Publication date: February 2019Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 65Author(s): Phil Reed (Source: Learning and Motivation)
Source: Learning and Motivation - March 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

I didn’t feel like drinking, but I guess why: Evaluative conditioning changes on explicit attitudes toward alcohol and healthy foods depends on contingency awareness
ConclusionsWe conclude that EC alone may not be efficient in reducing addictive behaviors in populations with reduced capacity to process CS-US pairs and for which impulsive behaviors are strong predictors of consumption. (Source: Learning and Motivation)
Source: Learning and Motivation - February 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A hierarchical model of binary pattern learning
Publication date: February 2019Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 65Author(s): Paul C. VitzAbstractA model is presented of how humans learn repeating patterns made of only two qualitatively distinct elements, for example: aabbaabab. The model proposes hierarchical coding principles or axioms that code the pattern into larger groups of elements at higher levels until perfect prediction is possible. Prior to solution the learner uses the transition probabilities associated with the coded elements present at the lower levels to make predictions. A simple rationale for weighting the contribution of the lower levels allows...
Source: Learning and Motivation - February 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Concomitant abuse of methadone and methamphetamine could impair spatial learning and memory in male rats
Publication date: February 2019Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 65Author(s): Fatemeh Nouri, Mohammad Reza Afarinesh, Vahid Sheibani, Alireza Foroumadi, Saeed Esmaeili Mahani, Mostafa Mahmoudi, Ehsan RohaniAbstractMethadone maintenance therapy (MMT) has been considered as an effective medication for opioid dependence. However there are reports of methamphetamine abuse among MMT patients due to greater desired effects and fewer side effects than either substance alone. Little research has been done on the effects of methamphetamine abuse on cognitive behaviors during MMT. In the current study, we investigated spatial ...
Source: Learning and Motivation - January 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Investigating the effect of conditional vs hierarchical framing on motivation
This study highlights the potential differing effects that framing tasks conditionally, hierarchically or both hierarchically and conditionally can have on motivation and task performance. (Source: Learning and Motivation)
Source: Learning and Motivation - January 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Stimulus comparison: Effects of the pre-exposure schedule and instructions for perceptual learning and attention
This study aimed to test the effects of the preexposure schedule and certain kinds of verbal instructions for pre-exposure in perceptual learning and attention to the distinctive features of the stimuli. For this, in two experiments adult human participants received concurrent or blocked pre-exposure to two stimuli, and were then required to judge them as same or different in a target identification task. During pre-exposure, participants could receive unspecific instructions to look only at the stimuli (Experiments 1 and 2), asking for “same/different” judgments (Experiments 1 and 2), or only for “differ...
Source: Learning and Motivation - December 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The effect of visualization format and content complexity on acquisition of tactical actions in basketball
This study tried to identify how varied level of content complexity (low vs. medium vs. high) could affect learning outcomes, cognitive load investment, and attitudes when learning basketball tactical actions from different formats of visualization (dynamic vs. static) within physical education context. One hundred and fifty secondary school students (Mage = 15.31 years, SD = .64) took part in the experiment. They were quasi-randomly (i.e., matched for gender) assigned to the six experimental conditions and asked to rate their perceived cognitive load (i.e., mental effort invested and estimated ...
Source: Learning and Motivation - December 22, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: November 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 64Author(s): (Source: Learning and Motivation)
Source: Learning and Motivation - November 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The impact of socio-cultural differences on formation of intrinsic motivation: The case of local and foreign students
Publication date: February 2019Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 65Author(s): Julia Konstantinovna Kazakova, Elena Mikhailovna ShastinaAbstractCurrently, intrinsic motivation becomes a key focus in the classroom processes, including language learning. This paper examines the commonalities and differences in the formation of intrinsic motivation of local and foreign students based on their socio-cultural background. The sample consisted of 107 students of Foreign Languages Department in Kazan Federal University (56% Russians, 44% foreign). Thus, foreign students from Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan and Turkmenistan tend to e...
Source: Learning and Motivation - November 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A re-examination of responding on ratio and regulated-probability interval schedules
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2018Source: Learning and MotivationAuthor(s): Omar D. Pérez, Michael R.F. Aitken, Amy L. Milton, Anthony DickinsonAbstractThe higher response rates observed on ratio than on matched interval reward schedules has been attributed to the differential reinforcement of longer inter-response times (IRTs) on the interval contingency. Some data, however, seem to contradict this hypothesis, showing that the difference is still observed when the role of IRT reinforcement is neutralized by using a regulated-probability interval schedule (RPI). Given the mixed evidence for these p...
Source: Learning and Motivation - September 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Instrumental lever pressing for wheel running is a bitonic function of wheel revolutions per reinforcement: Effects of constraint and automatic reinforcement
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: Learning and MotivationAuthor(s): W. David Pierce, Terry W. Belke, Allison F. HarrisAbstractThe current study investigated the relationship between wheel-running reinforcement and operant lever pressing when an opportunity to run is defined by the number of wheel revolutions rather than duration of wheel access. Twelve female Long-Evans rats responded on response-initiated variable interval 15-s schedules for the opportunity to run for 1, 3, 5, 10, 20, 30, or 40 revolutions. Half the rats received an ascending order of revolutions/reinforcement; the other half, rec...
Source: Learning and Motivation - September 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: August 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 63Author(s): (Source: Learning and Motivation)
Source: Learning and Motivation - August 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effects of the number of acquisition sessions and scheduled reinforcers on ABA renewal
Publication date: August 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 63Author(s): Kenneth Madrigal, Cinthia Hernández, Carlos FloresAbstractRecent research has suggested that among different relapse procedures (i.e. resurgence and renewal), an increased number of acquisition sessions contributes on observing a greater relapse. Even when such results seem to be consistent across studies, these can also be explained by attending to the number of scheduled reinforcers, since using different number of acquisition sessions could also result on differences in the number of scheduled reinforcers between groups. ABA renewal...
Source: Learning and Motivation - July 31, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effect of the number of between-classes reject baseline relations on equivalence class formation
In this study, different training conditions involving six combinations of standard (STA) and altered (ALT) baseline trials were compared in regard to the probability of emergence of three 3-member stimulus classes. The STA and ALT baseline trials established the same within-class select relations, but the STA baseline trials established between-classes reject relations as well, while the ALT trials did not. The number of STA trials included in the baseline was related to higher likelihood of equivalence class formation; this relation, however, was not linear and simple, and rather it depended on the distribution of the ST...
Source: Learning and Motivation - July 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: May 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 62Author(s): (Source: Learning and Motivation)
Source: Learning and Motivation - July 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A comparison of consequences for correct responses during discrete-trial instruction
Publication date: Available online 24 January 2017Source: Learning and MotivationAuthor(s): Brad T. Joachim, Regina A. CarrollAbstractWe used an adapted-alternating treatments design to compare the effects of four types of consequences for correct responses on skill acquisition during discrete-trial instruction for four children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Contingent on correct responses, the therapist provided either praise, tangible items, tokens, or no differential consequence. Three of four participants acquired target skills in the fewest number of sessions when correct responses resulted in immediate acc...
Source: Learning and Motivation - July 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A clinical application of procedures to promote the emergence of untrained intraverbal relations with children with autism
Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017Source: Learning and MotivationAuthor(s): M. Alice Shillingsburg, Sarah E. Frampton, Stacy A. Cleveland, Tom CariveauAbstractStrategies to promote the emergence of untrained verbal relations are of critical importance for learners with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study examined the effects of systematically training new relations on the emergence of intraverbal relations within the same set and across untrained sets using a multiple probe across behaviors design. Three sets consisting of three classes of stimuli were developed for each of the six participan...
Source: Learning and Motivation - July 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Immediate and distal effects of supplemental food and fluid delivery on rumination
In this study, we compared the immediate and distal effects of fixed-time (FT) food and fluid delivery with baseline levels of rumination. We found no immediate or distal effects for FT 30-s fluid delivery. Food delivery on an FT 30-s schedule resulted in slightly lower levels of rumination during food delivery; however, rumination increased relative to baseline upon termination of food delivery. (Source: Learning and Motivation)
Source: Learning and Motivation - July 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Further evaluation of blocked trials to teach intraverbal responses under complex stimulus control: Effects of criterion-level probes
Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017Source: Learning and MotivationAuthor(s): Jennifer Haggar, Einar T. Ingvarsson, Emily C. BraunAbstractIndividuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have deficient intraverbal repertoires. Ingvarsson, Kramer, Carp, Petursdottir, and Macias (2016) evaluated the use of a blocked-trial procedure to establish complex stimulus control over the intraverbal behavior of children with ASD. In the current study, we replicated the procedures of Ingvarsson et al. (2016) and added criterion-level probes. Three children with ASD, ages 7–13, participated. We targeted discriminat...
Source: Learning and Motivation - July 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Validation of a skills assessment to match interventions to teach motor imitation to children with autism
Publication date: Available online 10 March 2017Source: Learning and MotivationAuthor(s): Amber L. Valentino, Linda A. LeBlanc, Kerry A. CondeAbstractMotor imitation skills are usually targeted early in intervention with children with autism. Some children readily acquire motor imitation targets that involve objects (e.g., pushing a toy car) but do not acquire targets without objects (e.g., clapping hands). The disparity in acquisition could occur for various reasons, including differences in attending when an object is present as opposed to when no object is present. It also is possible that the delay in imitation that is...
Source: Learning and Motivation - July 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Increasing sharing in children with autism spectrum disorder using automated discriminative stimuli
Publication date: Available online 11 March 2017Source: Learning and MotivationAuthor(s): Ami J. Kaminski, Wayne W. Fisher, Brian D. Greer, Jessica S. AkersAbstractAppropriate sharing of a high-preference item is a common problem among children with autism spectrum disorder (Baron-Cohen et al., 1985). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether a multiple schedule of reinforcement could be used to promote appropriate turn-taking behavior. Participants included one dyad of siblings and one dyad of non-related peers who were identified as having poorly developed sharing skills. The first dyad included a 6-year-o...
Source: Learning and Motivation - July 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Reliability and validity of indirect assessment outcomes: Experts versus caregivers
Publication date: Available online 20 March 2017Source: Learning and MotivationAuthor(s): Joseph D. Dracobly, Claudia L. Dozier, Adam M. Briggs, Jessica F. JuanicoAbstractClinicians often conduct indirect assessments (IAs; e.g., Durand & Crimmins, 1988; Iwata, DeLeon, & Roscoe, 2013; Matson & Vollmer, 1995) such as questionnaires and interviews with caregivers to gain information about the variables influencing problem behavior. However, researchers have found poor reliability and validity of IAs with respect to determining functional variables. There are numerous variables that might influence the efficacy of ...
Source: Learning and Motivation - July 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

An individualized method for establishing and thinning multiple schedules of reinforcement following functional communication training
Publication date: Available online 23 March 2017Source: Learning and MotivationAuthor(s): Nathan A. Call, Seth B. Clark, Joanna Lomas Mevers, Natalie A. Parks, Valerie M. Volkert, Mindy C. ScheithauerAbstractUsing multiple schedules of reinforcement following functional communication training (FCT) can produce discriminated mands while maintaining low rates of problem behavior (Fisher et al., 1998; Hanley et al., 2001). A review of this literature (Saini et al., 2016) noted the absence of a method for systematically determining the duration of reinforcement (SD) and extinction (SΔ) components in such multiple-schedul...
Source: Learning and Motivation - July 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A comparison of flipped-spoon presentation and redistribution to decrease packing in children with feeding disorders
Publication date: Available online 24 March 2017Source: Learning and MotivationAuthor(s): Kathryn H. Stubbs, Valerie M. Volkert, Emily Kate Rubio, Elissa OttingerAbstractFor children with feeding disorders, nonremoval procedures combined with reinforcement are often used by practitioners to treat initial food refusal (Volkert et al., 2016; Volkert & Piazza, 2012). However, this treatment may not always be sufficient to increase food consumption because problematic behaviors such as packing (holding food in the mouth) or expulsion emerge. Antecedent- and consequence-based interventions have both been effective to decrea...
Source: Learning and Motivation - July 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Introduction to the special issue on applied behavior analysis
Publication date: Available online 14 April 2017Source: Learning and MotivationAuthor(s): Brian D. Greer, Tiffany Kodak (Source: Learning and Motivation)
Source: Learning and Motivation - July 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Assessing preference for and reinforcing efficacy of components of social interaction in individuals with autism spectrum disorder
Publication date: Available online 15 April 2017Source: Learning and MotivationAuthor(s): Casey J. Clay, Andrew L. Samaha, Bistra K. BogoevAbstractWe evaluated the degree to which social interactions are reinforcing for two individuals with autism spectrum disorder by comparing individual components (i.e., edible, vocal, and physical interaction) alone and in combination. First, we conducted preference assessments to determine preference hierarchies within three stimulus classes: edible, vocal, and physical interaction. Second, we evaluated preference for individual stimuli across these classes. Third, we examined the rela...
Source: Learning and Motivation - July 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Comparing illusion of control and superstitious behavior: Rate of responding influences judgment of control in a free-operant procedure
The objective of this experiment was to study similarities between superstitious behavior and illusion of control. We used different motivational instructions to generate high and low rates of responding and exposed participants to noncontingent reinforcement in order to evaluate superstitious behavior and illusion of control. College students (n = 40) responded over three 10-min sessions in a computer-based free operant procedure that alternated signaled periods of noncontingent presentation of points (VT schedule) and periods in which the points were not presented (extinction, EXT). In one group of participants...
Source: Learning and Motivation - July 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Evaluating group activity schedules to promote social play in children with autism
Publication date: Available online 27 December 2017Source: Learning and MotivationAuthor(s): Dana M. Gadaire, Katrina Bartell, Jamie VillacortaAbstractWe evaluated the effects of group activity schedules on social engagement among children with autism spectrum disorders. Although activity schedules are often applied to dyads, we assigned children to small groups (e.g., 3–4 children) to increase the number of available play partners and potential social validity of the intervention. We also compared the effects of group activity schedules with a similar intervention consisting exclusively of therapist-delivered prompt...
Source: Learning and Motivation - July 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Defensive burying as an ethological approach to studying anxiety: Influence of juvenile methamphetamine on adult defensive burying behavior in rats
Publication date: February 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 61Author(s): E.M. Anderson, M.L. McWaters, L.M. McFadden, L. MatuszewichAbstractThe defensive burying test is an ethological approach that has both pharmacological and physiological validity in studying rodent anxiety-like behaviors. The defensive burying test measures the naturally occurring behavior of displacing bedding toward a noxious stimulus. Exposure to psychostimulants can alter anxiety behaviors in children and adults, however few studies have investigated the long-term effects of chronic juvenile stimulant exposure on anxiety behaviors in adu...
Source: Learning and Motivation - July 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: February 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 61Author(s): (Source: Learning and Motivation)
Source: Learning and Motivation - July 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Ethological approaches to studying psychological phenomena
Publication date: February 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 61Author(s): Douglas G. Wallace (Source: Learning and Motivation)
Source: Learning and Motivation - July 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research