Effectiveness of private tutoring during secondary schooling in Germany: Do the duration of private tutoring and tutor qualification affect school achievement?
In this study, we conducted secondary analyses using data of two longitudinal studies (approx. 8000 secondary school students) and investigated the effects of private tutoring duration and different levels of tutors' formal qualifications on subject-specific grades and test scores in 4 school subjects. OLS-regression analyses showed neither a systematic positive effect of a longer duration of tutoring nor of higher qualified tutors when prior knowledge, motivational and sociodemographic variables were controlled for. However, we found significant positive interaction effects between tutors' qualifications and students&rsqu...
Source: Learning and Instruction - February 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effect of on-screen text on multimedia learning with native and foreign-accented narration
This study examined the impact of redundant on-screen text on learning from an animated PowerPoint presentation, narrated either by a native or a foreign-accented narrator, with no text, summary text, or full text. Participants completed retention and transfer tests and rated the cognitive load induced by the narration and the PowerPoint materials. With a native narrator, participants performed better on transfer with no text than summary text (redundancy effect). The foreign-accented narration was perceived to be more difficult to understand. Transfer performance was worse for accented than native narration with no text, ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - February 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Obtaining secondary students’ perceptions of instructional quality: Two-level structure and measurement invariance
Publication date: April 2020Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 66Author(s): Benedikt Wisniewski, Klaus Zierer, Markus Dresel, Martin DaumillerAbstractStudents' perceptions of instructional quality have become an important information source for teachers' professional development. This requires knowledge of the structure of these perceptions, their validity, and generalizability. To this end, we conducted a study with 15,005 German 512 grade students from 690 classrooms in three different school types and three different grade levels. Assuming three basic dimensions of instructional quality with 7 facets, we investiga...
Source: Learning and Instruction - February 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Syllable-based reading improvement: Effects on word reading and reading comprehension in Grade 2
This study examined the effects of a syllable-based reading intervention for German second graders who demonstrated difficulties in the recognition of written words. The intervention focused on fostering word reading via syllable segmentation. The materials consisted of the 500 most frequent syllables typically read by 6- to 8-year-old children. The aims were to practice phonological recoding, consolidate orthographic representations of syllables, and routinize the access to these representations. Compared to children randomly assigned to a wait-list group, poor readers in the treatment condition showed significant improve...
Source: Learning and Instruction - January 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

People who cheat on tests accurately predict their performance on future tests
Publication date: April 2020Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 66Author(s): Monika Undorf, Eric Y. Mah, Dawn-Leah L. McDonald, Zachariah I. Hamzagic, Ryan Burnell, Maryanne Garry, Daniel M. BernsteinAbstractStudies suggest that people who cheat on a test overestimate their performance on future tests. Given that erroneous monitoring of one's own cognitive processes impairs learning and memory, this study investigated whether cheating on a test would harm monitoring accuracy on future tests. Participants had the incentive and opportunity to cheat on one (Experiments 1, 2, and 3, with N = 90, 88, and 102, res...
Source: Learning and Instruction - January 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Self-fulfilling prophecies in the classroom: Teacher expectations, teacher feedback and student achievement
This study investigated the link between teacher expectations and student learning, relying on longitudinal data from 64 classrooms and 1026 first-grade students in Germany. Further, based on a subsample of 19 classrooms with 354 students, we explored the mediating role of three characteristics of teacher feedback rated in video-recorded school lessons. The results showed that teacher expectations were inaccurate to some extent; that is, they did not entirely agree with students' current achievement, general cognitive abilities and motivations. In addition, this inaccuracy in teacher expectations significantly predicted st...
Source: Learning and Instruction - January 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

High school students’ feelings: Discoveries from a large national survey and an experience sampling study
Publication date: April 2020Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 66Author(s): Julia Moeller, Marc A. Brackett, Zorana Ivcevic, Arielle E. WhiteAbstractWe investigated students' feelings at high school in a nation-wide survey of 21,678 US students (study 1), and in a four-week study using experience sampling methodology (ESM) with 472 students across 5 high schools (study 2). Both studies combined mixed methods, including open-ended questions and rating scales (e.g., PANAS). In study 1, seventy-five percent of the feelings students reported in their responses to open-ended questions were negative. The three most frequen...
Source: Learning and Instruction - January 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Teacher self-efficacy, instructional quality, and student motivational beliefs: An analysis using multilevel structural equation modeling
Publication date: April 2020Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 66Author(s): Irena Burić, Lisa E. KimAbstractTeacher self-efficacy (TSE) is one of the most salient motivational characteristics that is assumed to affect teachers’ instructional quality and student motivational beliefs. However, discussions of these associations have primarily been often primarily conceptual and/or based on empirical research that has suffered from methodological shortcomings. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationships between TSE, instructional quality (i.e., classroom management, cognitive activation, and ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - January 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Professional knowledge or motivation? Investigating the role of teachers’ expertise on the quality of technology-enhanced lesson plans
Publication date: April 2020Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 66Author(s): Iris Backfisch, Andreas Lachner, Christoff Hische, Frank Loose, Katharina ScheiterAbstractIn an expertise study with 94 mathematics teachers varying in their relative teacher expertise (i.e., student teachers, trainee teachers, in-service teachers), we examined effects of teachers' professional knowledge and motivational beliefs on their ability to integrate technology within a lesson plan scenario. Therefore, we assessed teachers' professional knowledge (i.e., content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, technological knowledge), and th...
Source: Learning and Instruction - December 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Researching and writing based on multiple texts
We report on insights gained by coordinating and juxtaposing these various sources of data on students' writing. Results showed that while students accessed and took notes on the majority of the texts provided, information from texts was rarely connected, neither in students' notes nor in the written responses composed. Moreover, students' effortful engagement in multiple text use, captured via log data, was associated with task performance. Finally, a number of variables, corresponding to students’ strategy reports during processing, were found to be significant predictors of writing performance. (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - December 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Gendered pathways from academic performance, motivational beliefs, and school burnout to adolescents’ educational and occupational aspirations
This study examined Finnish 9th-graders’ (N = 966) pathways to educational and occupational aspirations considering two academic domains: mathematics and reading. Multi-group structural equation models were conducted to investigate how domain-specific performance and motivational beliefs (self-concept and interest), and more general school burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, and inadequacy) relate to boys' and girls' aspirations. Performance in both domains was related to girls' educational aspirations, but only mathematics was linked to boys' aspirations. Positive within-domain relations from girls' motivationa...
Source: Learning and Instruction - December 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Integrating mindfulness and connection practices into preservice teacher education improves classroom practices
Publication date: April 2020Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 66Author(s): Matthew J. Hirshberg, Lisa Flook, Robert D. Enright, Richard J. DavidsonAbstractTeachers vary in their ability to enact effective teaching practices. We randomly assigned 88 early education preservice teachers to standard teacher education or teacher education plus a 9-week mindfulness-based intervention. Using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) as our primary outcome, we assessed effective teaching practices at baseline and at a 6-month follow-up that occurred during full-time student teaching. Mindfulness, negative affect, and ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - December 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Commentary and future directions: What can multi-modal data reveal about temporal and adaptive processes in self-regulated learning?
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: Learning and InstructionAuthor(s): Allyson F. Hadwin (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - December 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Students’ emotions of enjoyment and boredom and their use of cognitive learning strategies – How do they affect one another?
Publication date: April 2020Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 66Author(s): Stefanie Obergriesser, Heidrun StoegerAbstractTo better understand the relationship between enjoyment and boredom and students' use of cognitive learning strategies, we analyzed both directions of effects between these constructs as described in the control-value theory of achievement emotions (Pekrun, 2006; 2018). Our study used a sequential design in which students' (N = 338 4th grade students) effective use of cognitive learning strategies was measured in real learning situations, allowing insights into the temporal order of effe...
Source: Learning and Instruction - December 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Is academic tracking related to gains in learning competence? Using propensity score matching and differential item change functioning analysis for better understanding of tracking implications
This study analyzes gains in cognitive components of learning competence with respect to cohorts based on ability tracking in a Czech longitudinal study. Propensity score matching is used to form parallelized samples of academic and non-academic track students and to eliminate the effect of selective school intake. We applied regression models on the total scores to test for the overall track effect. Furthermore, we analyze scores and gains on the subscores and check for differential item functioning in Grade 6 and in change to Grade 9. While after 3 years, no significant difference between the two tracks was apparent in t...
Source: Learning and Instruction - December 3, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Editorial board/Publication information
Publication date: February 2020Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 65Author(s): (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - November 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

EARLI title page
Publication date: February 2020Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 65Author(s): (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - November 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

EARLI Association News
Publication date: February 2020Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 65Author(s): (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - November 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Self-derivation through memory integration: A model for accumulation of semantic knowledge
Publication date: April 2020Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 66Author(s): Patricia J. Bauer, Alena G. Esposito, James J. DalyAbstractSemantic knowledge accumulates through explicit means and productive processes (e.g., analogy). These means work in concert when information explicitly acquired in separate episodes is integrated, and the integrated representation is used to self-derive new knowledge. We tested whether (a) self-derivation through memory integration extends beyond general information to science content, (b) self-derived information is retained, and (c) details of explicit learning episodes are retained...
Source: Learning and Instruction - November 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Understanding and measuring emotions in technology-rich learning environments
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: Learning and InstructionAuthor(s): Susanne P. Lajoie, Reinhard Pekrun, Roger Azevedo, Jacqueline P. LeightonAbstractTechnology-rich learning environments (TREs) play an increasingly important role for 21st century education, and the emotions learners experience in these environments are pivotal for their cognitive and affective learning gains. The contributors to this special issue address the importance of understanding and measuring emotions in TREs as a mechanism for fostering learning. In particular, the special issue situates this research with a systemic revi...
Source: Learning and Instruction - November 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Methodological progress in the study of self-regulated learning enables theory advancement
Publication date: Available online 1 November 2019Source: Learning and InstructionAuthor(s): Peter ReimannAbstractThe collection of papers in this special issue demonstrates the level of methodological sophistication that has become characteristic of contemporary research on self-regulated learning. In this commentary I develop the argument that these methods can lead us not only to improved theoretical models but also to a new type of theory for SRL. In particular, multimodal and temporal methods provide us with an extended epistemic space for SRL research, a move from theories we could describe as ‘event-oriented&r...
Source: Learning and Instruction - November 2, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Improving sleep, cognitive functioning and academic performance with sleep education at school in children
Publication date: February 2020Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 65Author(s): Amandine E. Rey, Anne Guignard-Perret, Françoise Imler-Weber, Luis Garcia-Larrea, Stéphanie MazzaAbstractWe aimed at measuring the impact of a school-based sleep education program (ENSOM: ‘EN’ for ‘ENfant’ and SOM for ‘SOMmeil’ in French) on sleep, cognitive functioning and academic performance in children. In contrast with existing sleep education programs, ENSOM was designed by sleep experts with the intent of being autonomously achieved by teachers. One-hundred and thirty children aged 8...
Source: Learning and Instruction - November 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Epistemic beliefs about the value of integrating information across multiple documents in history
Publication date: February 2020Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 65Author(s): Jennifer Wiley, Thomas D. Griffin, Brent Steffens, M. Anne BrittAbstractIndividual differences in epistemic dispositions may affect learning from multiple-document inquiry tasks by prompting different students to have different task and activity models. Students with epistemic beliefs that are more appropriate for the required activities may view a multiple-document inquiry task as an exercise in corroboration, seeking coherence, and looking for evidence to support claims, whereas students with less-appropriate epistemic beliefs may see th...
Source: Learning and Instruction - October 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Temporal and adaptive processes of regulated learning - What can multimodal data tell?
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2019Source: Learning and InstructionAuthor(s): Sanna Järvelä, Maria Bannert (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - October 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Learning fractions with and without educational technology: What matters for high-achieving and low-achieving students?
Publication date: February 2020Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 65Author(s): Frank Reinhold, Stefan Hoch, Bernhard Werner, Jürgen Richter-Gebert, Kristina ReissAbstractInstructional design research promotes interactive and adaptive scaffolds as features of educational technology. Mathematics education research can guide elaborated fractions curricula to develop basic fraction concepts while challenging the natural number bias. Thus, we developed theory-grounded interactive material for learning fractions providing scaffolds in an eBook. Evaluating both, curriculum and scaffolds, we split 745 high-achieving and...
Source: Learning and Instruction - October 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Refutation texts and argumentation for conceptual change: A winning or a redundant combination?
Publication date: February 2020Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 65Author(s): Christa S.C. Asterhan, Maya S. ResnickAbstractEffective instruction for conceptual change should aim to reduce the interference of irrelevant knowledge structures, as well as to improve sense-making of counterintuitive scientific notions. Refutation texts are designed to support such processes, yet evidence for its effect on individual conceptual change of robust, complex misconceptions has not been equivocal. In the present work, we examine whether effects of refutation text reading on conceptual change in biological evolution can be augm...
Source: Learning and Instruction - October 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Antecedents and consequences of organized extracurricular activities among Chinese preschoolers in Hong Kong
This study utilized a longitudinal design and examined the antecedents and consequences of extracurricular participation in a sample of 194 Hong Kong Chinese preschoolers. The results showed that higher family socioeconomic status (SES) predicted higher levels of participation in EAs (e.g., attendance intensity and the breadth of participation). Children from higher-SES families were more likely to involve in non-academic-oriented EAs. Participation in EAs was generally associated with the growth trajectories of reading and math skills in children from less advantaged SES backgrounds, but not higher-SES children. In contra...
Source: Learning and Instruction - October 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Executive function facilitates learning from math instruction in kindergarten: Evidence from the ECLS-K
Publication date: February 2020Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 65Author(s): Andrew D. RibnerAbstractExtensive evidence has suggested mathematical skill in early childhood is a robust predictor of children's later academic skills and eventual labor market outcomes; however, there is substantial heterogeneity in the degree to which different students learn from the same instructional contexts. Using data from N = 12,082 children enrolled in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort, this paper employs a latent piecewise growth curve modeling approach to investigate the role of classroom math ins...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 27, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Editorial board/Publication information
Publication date: December 2019Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 64Author(s): (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

EARLI title page
Publication date: December 2019Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 64Author(s): (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

EARLI Association News
Publication date: December 2019Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 64Author(s): (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Using a picture-embedded method to support acquisition of sight words
This study investigated whether an intervention using words embedded with pictures can be more effective in sight word instruction than one using words alone. Participants included sixty-nine children in junior kindergarten (ages 4–5) enrolled in school in Ontario, Canada. Children were split randomly into treatment and control groups; the treatment group was taught four words using picture-embedded words, and the control group was taught using text alone. Both groups also received phonics instruction to support sight word acquisition. Children in the picture-embedded word condition performed significantly higher tha...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Elementary school children's conceptions of teaching and learning to write as intentional activities
Publication date: February 2020Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 65Author(s): Ana Clara Ventura, Nora Scheuer, Juan Ignacio PozoAbstractWe study children's conceptions of teaching and learning to write as intentional activities. Sixty elementary school children in First, Fourth and Seventh Grade were interviewed individually following a structured script of open questions. Based on the Grounded Theory, a system of analysis composed of first- and second-order intentional actions for teacher and learner was developed and applied to children's full responses. Descriptive and multivariate statistical analyses were condu...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Exploring student hand-raising across two school subjects using mixed methods: An investigation of an everyday classroom behavior from a motivational perspective
Publication date: February 2020Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 65Author(s): Ricardo Böheim, Maximilian Knogler, Christian Kosel, Tina SeidelAbstractStudent hand-raising is an everyday behavior in classroom interactions with teachers. This research presents two studies that examine the variance in hand-raising and its relation to student motivation in two school subjects, Mathematics and Language Arts. Student hand-raising is introduced as an indicator of behavioral engagement. Study 1 investigated N = 397 high school students in 20 classrooms during a videotaped lesson in each subject. Multilevel regressi...
Source: Learning and Instruction - September 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Ready to read in two languages? Testing the native language hypothesis and the majority language hypothesis in two-way immersion students
In this study of all fourth-grade two-way immersion classes in Berlin (N = 939 students), reading tests from a large-scale international student achievement study were administered in German and nine partner languages. The results of multivariate regression analyses supported the native language hypothesis, with L1 speakers outperforming L2 speakers on the interindividual level for both languages. The data also confirmed the majority language hypothesis: two-way immersion students, irrespective of their L1, scored significantly higher in German than in the partner language on the intraindividual level. (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - August 29, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Teachers’ belief that math requires innate ability predicts lower intrinsic motivation among low-achieving students
Publication date: February 2020Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 65Author(s): Anke Heyder, Anne F. Weidinger, Andrei Cimpian, Ricarda SteinmayrAbstractMany students find math difficult, but those who are intrinsically motivated learn and do well even when they face obstacles. Here, we examine an environmental factor that might affect students' intrinsic motivation in math: namely, teachers' beliefs about success in math. Do teachers perceive elementary school math as a domain that requires an innate ability, and does this belief relate to students' intrinsic motivation in math? Our study explored these questions in ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - August 29, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effects of task instructions and topic signaling on text processing among adult readers with different reading styles: An eye-tracking study
Publication date: December 2019Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 64Author(s): Dexiang Zhang, Jukka Hyönä, Lei Cui, Zhaoxia Zhu, Shouxin LiAbstractEffects of task instructions and topic signaling on text processing among adult readers with different reading styles were studied by eye-tracking. In Experiment 1, readers read two multiple-topic expository texts guided either by a summary or a verification task. In Experiment 2, readers read a text with or without the topic sentences underlined. Four types of readers emerged: topic structure processors (TSPs), fast linear readers (FLRs), slow linear readers (SL...
Source: Learning and Instruction - August 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Enhanced monitoring accuracy and test performance: Incremental effects of judgment training over and above repeated testing
Publication date: February 2020Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 65Author(s): Marion Händel, Bettina Harder, Markus DreselAbstractFrom a self-regulated learning perspective, adequate monitoring of own learning processes and outcomes is crucial to regulate one's own learning effectively. Research on metacognitive judgments, however, clearly indicates that students frequently overestimate their actual performance. Therefore, the present study with N = 209 undergraduate students aimed to support students in developing accurate judgments in order to improve learning processes and, eventually, performance. A qua...
Source: Learning and Instruction - August 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The role of rational number density knowledge in mathematical development
Publication date: February 2020Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 65Author(s): Jake McMullen, Jo Van HoofAbstractMany students still have not developed a robust understanding of rational number concepts at the end of primary school, despite several years of instruction on the topic. The present study aims to examine the patterns, predictors, and outcomes of the development of rational number knowledge in lower secondary school. Latent transition analysis revealed that rational number development from primary to lower secondary school (N = 362) appears to follow similar patterns as in younger students. In particul...
Source: Learning and Instruction - August 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Teachers’ viewpoints about an educational reform concerning multilingualism in German-speaking Switzerland
In conclusion, the current study shows the need for a continuation of professional development and establishment of supportive school conditions for the implementation of this large-scale innovation endeavour in the context under scrutiny. (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - August 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Schema abstraction with productive failure and analogical comparison: Learning designs for far across domain transfer
This article reports on classroom-based research in which students learned about complex systems and climate change with agent-based computer models using two different instructional approaches based on productive failure (PF). In both PF approaches, students initially explored a problem space on their own and then received teacher-led instruction. One treatment group used climate computer models whereas the other group engaged in analogical comparisons between the same climate computer models and complexity computer models in different domains. The study found both groups demonstrated significant learning gains by posttes...
Source: Learning and Instruction - August 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Emotions are the experiential glue of learning environments in the 21st century
This article comments on the five papers published in this special issue on understanding and measuring emotions in technology-rich learning environments. The articles identify a number of emotions that frequently occur in digital learning environments across different tasks, goals, populations, and subject matters. The Control Value Theory of achievement emotions unifies the research reported in the articles, whereas social emotions surface in contexts where there are significant social interactions, such as group learning or the training of medical students. The emotions that were detected and tracked in the reported stu...
Source: Learning and Instruction - July 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Generating an instructional video as homework activity is both effective and enjoyable
Publication date: December 2019Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 64Author(s): Vincent Hoogerheide, Joran Visee, Andreas Lachner, Tamara van GogAbstractResearch with adolescent and university students has shown that after studying a text, teaching its content to a fictitious peer on camera fosters learning compared to restudying. We investigated the effects of generating a teaching video during homework in a sample of primary school students (N = 131) in comparison to restudying and summarizing. Students were provided with a text and a homework assignment over the weekend. The Restudy Condition was instructed to ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - July 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

An intervention to help teachers establish a prosocial peer climate in physical education
Publication date: December 2019Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 64Author(s): Sung Hyeon Cheon, Johnmarshall Reeve, Nikos NtoumanisAbstractWhen teachers participate in an autonomy-supportive intervention program (ASIP), they learn how to adopt a motivating style toward students that is capable of increasing need satisfaction and decreasing need frustration. Given this, we tested whether an ASIP experience might additionally help teachers establish a peer-to-peer classroom climate that is capable of increasing prosocial behavior and decreasing antisocial behavior. Forty-two secondary grade-level physical education te...
Source: Learning and Instruction - July 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Does restricting hand gestures impair mathematical reasoning?
Publication date: December 2019Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 64Author(s): Candace Walkington, Dawn Woods, Mitchell J. Nathan, Geoffrey Chelule, Min WangAbstractGestures are associated with powerful forms of understanding; however, their causative role in mathematics reasoning is less clear. We inhibit college students' gestures by restraining their hands, and examine the impact on language, recall, intuition, and mathematical justifications of geometric conjectures. We test four mutually exclusive hypotheses: (1) gestures are facilitative, through cognitive off-loading, verbal support, or transduction, (2) gestu...
Source: Learning and Instruction - July 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Understanding the progress in mathematics of Chinese adolescents: Significant impacts from the socioeconomic status and the academic expectations of primary caregivers
This study aimed to provide new empirical evidence on both issues by examining the maths attainment of a cohort of Chinese adolescents (n = 1407) over a 5-year period (2010–2014) and how maths attainment was related to SES and PCG academic expectations. Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both SES and PCG academic expectations exerted positive effects on maths progress. Over time, the effect of SES became increasingly internalized within past maths attainment. Further, higher academic expectations from PCGs lessened the difference in maths attainment between students from lower and higher SES fa...
Source: Learning and Instruction - July 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Examining the interplay of affect and self regulation in the context of clinical reasoning
Publication date: Available online 28 June 2019Source: Learning and InstructionAuthor(s): Susanne P. Lajoie, Juan Zheng, Shan Li, Amanda Jarrell, Maren GubeAbstractThere is an active strand of research on how affect and self-regulatory activities influence performance and learning outcomes, but the mechanisms through which they interact during learning remain poorly understood. Additionally, these constructs have been under-researched in medical education. Using multimodal data in the context of a clinical reasoning task for medical students learning case diagnosis, we explored the temporal nature of cognition, affect, mot...
Source: Learning and Instruction - June 29, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Transformative Dialogic Literature Teaching fosters adolescents’ insight into human nature and motivation
Publication date: October 2019Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 63Author(s): Marloes Schrijvers, Tanja Janssen, Olivia Fialho, Sven de Maeyer, Gert RijlaarsdamAbstractThis quasi-experimental study assessed the effects of the newly developed Transformative Dialogic Literature Teaching (TDLT) intervention on 15-year-old students' insight into human nature, eudaimonic reasons for reading, use of reading strategies, and motivation for literature education. Six TDLT units centered around short stories about “justice and injustice”. Students were stimulated to engage in internal dialogues with stories and in e...
Source: Learning and Instruction - June 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

What can moment-by-moment learning curves tell about students’ self-regulated learning?
Publication date: Available online 21 June 2019Source: Learning and InstructionAuthor(s): Inge Molenaar, Anne Horvers, Ryan S. BakerAbstractMany students in primary education learn arithmetic using adaptive learning technologies (ALTs) on tablets every day. Driven by developments in the emerging field of learning analytics, these technologies adjust problems based on learners' performance. Yet, until now it is largely unclear how students regulate their learning with ALTs. Hence, we explored how learners regulate their effort, accuracy and learning with an ALT using moment-by-moment learning curves. The results indicated t...
Source: Learning and Instruction - June 22, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Searching for the role of emotions in e-learning
Publication date: Available online 21 June 2019Source: Learning and InstructionAuthor(s): Richard E. MayerAbstractThis special issue of Learning and Instruction examines the role of emotions in academic learning, with a special focus on emotions in computer-supported academic learning (or e-learning). Three central research challenges concerning emotion in e-learning are: identification (e.g., what are the key emotions in e-learning?), measurement (e.g., how can we tell how strongly a learner is experiencing each key emotion during e-learning?), and explanation (e.g., what are the causes and consequences of the learner's e...
Source: Learning and Instruction - June 22, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research