Student misbehavior and teacher well-being: Testing the mediating role of the teacher-student relationship
Publication date: December 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 58 Author(s): Karen Aldrup, Uta Klusmann, Oliver Lüdtke, Richard Göllner, Ulrich Trautwein Asked about major job stressors, teachers consistently name classroom disturbances or disciplinary problems. Furthermore, student misbehavior has been linked to reduced occupational well-being. However, there is a pressing need to uncover the psychological processes explaining this association. In their model of teacher well-being, Spilt, Koomen, and Thijs (2011) suggested the teacher-student relationship as a mediator. To test this assumption, the pre...
Source: Learning and Instruction - June 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Development of a short measure of writing apprehension: Validity evidence and association with writing frequency, process, and performance
This article reports two studies addressing writing apprehension in undergraduates. Study 1 tested the validity of a reduced version of the 26-item Writing Apprehension Scale (WAS; N = 194). Exploratory factor analyses revealed a 12-item scale (WAS-12) with two factors (affect and concern), cross-validated in an independent sample (N = 220). Further supporting WAS-12 validity and reliability, results revealed good reliability coefficients, along with correlations with external correlates and association with writing performance in the expected direction. Study 2 tested the association of the affect and concern WAS-...
Source: Learning and Instruction - June 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Wisdom can be taught: A proof-of-concept study for fostering wisdom in the classroom
Publication date: December 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 58 Author(s): Brian Bruya, Monika Ardelt We undertook a short-term longitudinal study to test whether a set of methods common to current theories of wisdom transmission can foster wisdom in students in a measurable way. The three-dimensional wisdom scale (3D-WS) was administered to 131 students in five wisdom-promoting introductory philosophy courses and 176 students in seven introductory philosophy and psychology control courses at the beginning and end of the semester. The experimental group was divided in two (“Wisdom 1” and “Wisd...
Source: Learning and Instruction - June 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Multiple symbolic representations: The combination of formula and text supports problem solving in the mathematical field of propositional logic
Publication date: December 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 58 Author(s): Natalie Ott, Roland Brünken, Markus Vogel, Sarah Malone As multiple representations are common in math education, we examined different combinations of representations (text, formula, graphic) in the field of propositional logic. In two experiments, we investigated whether participants benefit from multiple representations, and whether the kind of representational combination affects performance. For the first experiment, 146 university students were divided into six groups: two single-representation groups (text or formula), three ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - June 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The effect of class composition on cross-curricular competences – Students with special educational needs in regular classes in lower secondary education
This study investigates how the proportion of SEN students in regular classes is related to the student-level and class-level cross-curricular competences. The data (N = 5368) come from a large-scale, longitudinal assessment study conducted on students at the beginning and end of lower secondary education in a Finnish metropolitan area. The results of the multilevel regression models showed that students in regular classes with SEN students performed on average lower than students in classes without SEN students, and that the proportion of students with SEN in class weakly predicted negatively the ninth-grade test scor...
Source: Learning and Instruction - June 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effectiveness of an early reading intervention in a semi-transparent orthography: A group randomised controlled trial
This study reports on the effectiveness of an early reading intervention, based on current research on early reading acquisition, and aligned to Norwegian orthography. Thirteen schools were randomly assigned to one of two interventions or a control condition. First grade students (n = 744) were screened at school entry, and children at risk of reading difficulties (n = 140) were identified. At-risk students in schools allocated for intervention received comprehensive teacher-led instruction also containing an individually-delivered computer component. The only difference between the two interventions was whether th...
Source: Learning and Instruction - May 31, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Fostering teenagers' assessment of information reliability: Effects of a classroom intervention focused on critical source dimensions
Publication date: December 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 58 Author(s): Ana Pérez, Anna Potocki, Marc Stadtler, Mônica Macedo-Rouet, Johanna Paul, Ladislao Salmerón, Jean-François Rouet Increased amounts of information available from the Internet have triggered new demands for students to evaluate information quality. Our study presents an instructional intervention aimed at fostering ninth grade students' critical evaluation of source reliability. The intervention was grounded into theories of multiple text comprehension and used an analytic framework that defines the core source ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - May 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Is technology-enhanced feedback encouraging for all in Finnish basic education? A person-centered approach
In this study, we explored 211003 feedback actions given by 704 teachers to 7811 pupils and their parents using latent profile analysis. Information on individual support needs was used to evaluate whether all pupils are equally encouraged by technology-enhanced feedback. We identified six subgroups for girls and five for boys. Highly encouraging feedback was given mostly to pupils who were rarely absent and who more seldom had special education needs. Negative feedback about behaviour problems was given mostly to boys and the majority of pupils were encouraged only weakly. On average, pupils received feedback according to...
Source: Learning and Instruction - May 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effects of self-regulation prompts in hypermedia learning on learning performance and self-efficacy
Publication date: December 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 58 Author(s): Nadja M. Müller, Tina Seufert Learning with prompts activates self-regulation processes often resulting in increased learning performance. As experiences of self-regulation and learning success are sources of self-efficacy, the study investigated whether prompts affect learning performance over two learning sessions and examines whether prompts affect learners' self-efficacy perceptions within and across these sessions. N = 52 students learned twice for 30 min in a hypermedia either receiving prompts or learning without. In ea...
Source: Learning and Instruction - May 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Learning-related emotions in multimedia learning: An application of control-value theory
Publication date: December 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 58 Author(s): Lisa Stark, Elisa Malkmus, Robin Stark, Roland Brünken, Babette Park The present study investigated assumptions of Control-value Theory of Achievement Emotions in multimedia learning. By applying an experimental 2x2-factorial between-subject design, the factors learner control (high vs. low) and value induction (high vs. low) were systematically varied. Results showed that high learner control led to higher perceived control and higher learning outcomes. There were no main effects of value induction. Significant interaction effects ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - May 22, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Audio-guided mindfulness training in schools and its effect on academic attainment: Contributing to theory and practice
We report the results of a randomized trial (N = 337) examining the effectiveness of a daily audio-guided MBI in raising academic achievement in 16 volunteer classrooms across two socio-demographically diverse United States primary schools. The study's findings were that, over the intervention period, improvements in Math scores, Social Studies scores and Grade Point Averages (GPA) were generally higher for students in intervention classrooms. However, confidence intervals were wide and there was pre-existing variability between schools and grades, resulting in few significant differences as a result of the interventio...
Source: Learning and Instruction - May 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Using expectancy-value theory to understand academic self-control
Publication date: December 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 58 Author(s): Brian M. Galla, Jamie Amemiya, Ming-Te Wang We applied expectancy-value theory to understand academic self-control. In three studies of middle and high school students (N total = 2620), subjective values, but not expectancy beliefs, predicted motivation and behavior toward academic activities over alternative activities. Moreover, results showed that intrinsic value was a stronger incremental predictor of academic self-control compared to utility value. Study 1 used experience sampling and showed that momentary perceptions of intrins...
Source: Learning and Instruction - May 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Short- and long-term effects of assessment-based differentiated reading instruction in general education on reading fluency and reading comprehension
This study investigates short- and long-term effects of combining learning progress assessment (LPA) as a tool for teachers to constantly monitor their students' progress with differentiated reading instruction to address students' individual needs on reading fluency and reading comprehension. The study was conducted in German elementary school classrooms. Third grade classrooms (n = 28) were randomly assigned to either an LPA group with differentiated instruction or a control group (CG). Students in the treatment group showed higher growth in reading fluency than students in the CG (d = .30). The effect was stable...
Source: Learning and Instruction - May 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Topic specific epistemic beliefs: Extending the Theory of Integrated Domains in Personal Epistemology
Publication date: August 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 56 Author(s): Samuel Merk, Tom Rosman, Krista R. Muis, Augustin Kelava, Thorsten Bohl Two studies were conducted to extend the Theory of Integrated Domains in Epistemology framework (TIDE; Muis, Bendixen, & Haerle, 2006) with regard to the level of topic-specificity and to empirically test crucial aspects of this extension. In Study 1, 212 student teachers were surveyed on their general and topic-specific absolute beliefs regarding eleven topics. Topic familiarity and students’ teaching subjects were investigated as person-specific context...
Source: Learning and Instruction - May 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The effects of presentation format on multiple document notetaking
Publication date: Available online 1 May 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Peggy N. Van Meter, Chelsea Cameron (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - May 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Consistency, longitudinal stability, and predictions of elementary school students' task interest, success expectancy, and performance in mathematics
Publication date: August 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 56 Author(s): Katariina Nuutila, Heta Tuominen, Anna Tapola, Mari-Pauliina Vainikainen, Markku Niemivirta (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - May 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Profiling reading in print and digital mediums
Publication date: Available online 19 April 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Lauren M. Singer Trakhman, Patricia A. Alexander, Alexis B. Silverman Real-time processing behaviors and processing time for 57 undergraduates reading information texts in print and digitally were used to identify distinct performance profiles. Students underlined the printed text as they read and followed along with their cursor when reading digitally. Immediately after reading, students answered three comprehension questions for each text about the main idea, key points, and other information and judged their performance on the c...
Source: Learning and Instruction - April 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Postscript: In pursuit of integration
Publication date: Available online 22 April 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Alexandra List, Patricia A. Alexander In this conclusion to the Special Issue, features of multiple documents and multi-modal documents are systematized. Specifically, documents are defined according to their (a) intended message, (b) author and purpose for being created, (c) symbol system(s) used, and (d) related nature. Indeed, documents are conceptualized as presenting complementary content across symbol systems (i.e., multi-modal documents) or as presenting information on a common topic across multiple texts (i.e., multiple doc...
Source: Learning and Instruction - April 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Self-efficacy change associated with a cognitive load-based intervention in an undergraduate biology course
In this study, we examine changes in motivational beliefs as outcomes of learners' cognitive processes through a CLT lens as they engage with instruction. Using a double-blind quasi-experimental design, we manipulate the level of cognitive load imposed on participants through instruction and assess changes in self-efficacy from pre-to post-intervention. In an analysis of data from students enrolled in an undergraduate biology course (n = 2078), students in the treatment condition demonstrated significantly higher performance on end-of-semester lab reports and self-efficacy measures. However, post-instruction self-effic...
Source: Learning and Instruction - April 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Maternal homework assistance and children's task-persistent behavior in elementary school
Publication date: August 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 56 Author(s): Jaana Viljaranta, Gintautas Silinskas, Marja-Kristiina Lerkkanen, Riikka Hirvonen, Eija Pakarinen, Anna-Maija Poikkeus, Jari-Erik Nurmi The present study used a sample of 365 children to investigate the longitudinal associations between maternal homework assistance (i.e., help, monitoring, and autonomy granting) and children's task-persistent behavior in learning situations from grade 2 to grade 4 of elementary school. Also, the extent to which task-persistent behavior plays a role in the links between parental homework assistance and chil...
Source: Learning and Instruction - April 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Strategies for comprehending and integrating texts and videos
This study examines students’ strategic processing when participants were asked to comprehend and integrate information presented via two texts or two videos. Evidence was found for strategies being both consistent (e.g., connecting content with prior knowledge) and distinct (e.g., vocabulary) across modalities of information presentation. No differences in comprehension and integration performance were identified across conditions, a variety of strategies (e.g., directing attention, connecting with prior knowledge) were associated with measures of both comprehension and integration. As this is among the first studie...
Source: Learning and Instruction - April 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effects of three basic dimensions of instructional quality on students ’ situational interest in sixth-grade biology instruction
This study examined their effects on students' situational interest in videotaped biology instruction from German sixth-grade classes. Additionally, we evaluated the mediating effects of cognitive activation on classroom management and supportive climate using multilevel analyses. Each of the 28 biology classes in our sample had three lessons videotaped while the topic botany was being taught. The three basic dimensions of instructional quality were separately examined using respective rating manuals. Multilevel analyses showed positive total effects of all the three dimensions on students' situational interest. The result...
Source: Learning and Instruction - April 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Afflerbach Strategies for comprehending and integrating texts and videos
This study examines students’ strategic processing when participants were asked to comprehend and integrate information presented via two texts or two videos. Evidence was found for strategies being both consistent (e.g., connecting content with prior knowledge) and distinct (e.g., vocabulary) across modalities of information presentation. No differences in comprehension and integration performance were identified across conditions, a variety of strategies (e.g., directing attention, connecting with prior knowledge) were associated with measures of both comprehension and integration. As this is among the first studie...
Source: Learning and Instruction - April 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Overruled!: Implicit cues rather than an orthographic rule determine Dutch children's vowel spelling
This study addressed the question why vowel spelling acquisition is relatively difficult for young Dutch spellers. A spelling rule guides vowel spelling, but implicit cues could also play a role. We evaluated the role of phonology, morphology, and orthography. Grade 1 (N = 113) and 2 (N = 59) children were presented with dictations of real and pseudowords differing in the degree of consistency and familiarity. Correct scores of consistent vowel spelling in Grade 1 and 2 students were near ceiling, whereas those for inconsistent vowels were low, even in Grade 2 children, who have had explicit instruction of the spel...
Source: Learning and Instruction - March 31, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

More isn't always better: The curvilinear relationship between inquiry-based teaching and student achievement in science
Publication date: August 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 56 Author(s): Nani Teig, Ronny Scherer, Trude Nilsen (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - March 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Optimizing learning from animation: Examining the impact of biofeedback
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 55 Author(s): Lijia Lin, Ming Li The purpose of this study was to investigate whether EEG biofeedback would help engage learners in obtaining procedural knowledge from animated or static visualizations. Two specific forms of this feedback were investigated. The first was active feedback that required learners to interact with the feedback using hand gestures. The second was constructive feedback that instructed learners to verbally reflect on their learning processes by utilizing the feedback. A total of 116 college students were randomly assigned to one ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - March 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

When generating a prediction boosts learning: The element of surprise
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 55 Author(s): Garvin Brod, Marcus Hasselhorn, Silvia A. Bunge Using both behavioral and eye-tracking methodology, we tested whether and how asking students to generate predictions is an efficient technique to improve learning. In particular, we designed two tasks to test whether the surprise induced by outcomes that violate expectations enhances learning. Data from the first task revealed that asking participants to generate predictions, as compared to making post hoc evaluations, facilitated acquisition of geography knowledge. Pupillometry measurements r...
Source: Learning and Instruction - March 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

To the means and beyond: Understanding variation in students ’ perceptions of teacher emotional support
We examined (a) whether individual-level factors (achievement goals, perceptions of their previous classroom, and teacher ratings of ability) were associated with students' perceptions of teacher emotional support, and (b) whether classroom observations of teacher unfairness/unfriendliness predicted systematic within-classroom variation in students' reports of emotional support. Multilevel analysis of 1303 students in 80 7th grade mathematics classrooms indicated that students' perceptions of their 6th grade teacher, mastery orientation, and the teacher's perceptions of ability predicted end-of-the-year perceptions of emot...
Source: Learning and Instruction - March 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Teacher judgment accuracy regarding students' self-concepts: Affected by social and dimensional comparisons?
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 55 Author(s): Friederike Helm, Hanno Müller-Kalthoff, Rebecca Mukowski, Jens Möller Research on teacher judgment accuracy is connected with the Internal/External frame of reference model. Social and dimensional comparisons between achievements are central to the formation of students' mathematical and verbal self-concepts. Inferring self-concepts, teachers often ignore dimensional comparisons. Two studies tested whether information about students' achievements in two subjects can help teachers to comprehend students' social and dimensional compa...
Source: Learning and Instruction - March 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Primary knowledge enhances performance and motivation in reasoning
Publication date: August 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 56 Author(s): Florence Lespiau, André Tricot (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - March 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Dynamics of classroom motivation: Teacher enthusiasm and the development of math interest and teacher support
Publication date: Available online 16 March 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Rebecca Lazarides, Hanna Gaspard, Anna-Lena Dicke Interest is important for successful student learning, but little is known about the developmental dynamics between interest and social support in classrooms. Based on the stage-environment fit theory, this study investigated the interrelation of developmental changes in student class-level interest and perceived teacher support in mathematics classes over one school year after the students transitioned to secondary school. We also examined how teacher-reported enthusiasm was relate...
Source: Learning and Instruction - March 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Multiplicity in the digital era: Processing and learning from multiple sources and modalities of instructional presentations
Publication date: Available online 16 March 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Lucia Mason This commentary on the five articles in the Special Issue will first introduce research issues regarding the processing of multiple texts in order to outline the scenario in which the contributions are placed. Then, in the light of the need to move beyond multiple text processing in the digital era, the commentary will illustrate how the five articles contribute to finding answers to some important open questions, furthering our understanding of the processing of instructional materials which feature multiple sources, m...
Source: Learning and Instruction - March 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

How number and size of text boxes in argument diagrams affect opinions
Publication date: Available online 17 March 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Marije van Amelsvoort, Joost Schilperoord Argument diagrams are schematic representations of claim-reason complexes, displaying boxes with standpoints and arguments, and lines or arrows to relate these boxes. In four experiments, we investigate the metaphor framing effect by investigating how the perceptual cues size and number of arguments influence evaluations of arguments. In the first experiment, we looked at the effect of size and number of boxes independent of content, using an empty argument diagram. We asked participants to...
Source: Learning and Instruction - March 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Individual differences in the development of scientific thinking in kindergarten
Publication date: August 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 56 Author(s): Joep van der Graaf, Eliane Segers, Ludo Verhoeven The present study examined the development of and individual variation in scientific thinking in kindergarten. We measured experimentation, evidence evaluation, and domain knowledge at two times in kindergarten (T1 and T2) in a sample of 100 five to six-year-olds. To explain individual differences, executive functions and linguistic abilities (grammar and vocabulary) were assessed one year earlier (T0). Executive functions and grammatical abilities predicted scientific thinking and its deve...
Source: Learning and Instruction - March 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

An integrative study on learning and testing with multimedia: Effects on students ’ performance and metacognition
Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Marlit Annalena Lindner, Alexander Eitel, Julia Barenthien, Olaf Köller Previous research has found that adding pictures to either text-based learning- or testing-materials has beneficial effects (i.e., multimedia effects in learning and testing). However, a potential interaction of multimedia effects in learning and in testing has scarcely been the focus of research so far. Accordingly, in the present experiment, N = 129 university students received text-based material that was either complemented by pictures both in learn...
Source: Learning and Instruction - March 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Introduction to the special issue: Desiderata for a theory of multi-source multi-modal comprehension
Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Jennifer G. Cromley In this special issue, contributing authors consider work at the intersection of two relatively established lines of research: multi-source (e.g., multiple texts) comprehension and multi-modal (e.g., narrated video) comprehension. This is a challenging space in which to work, as there is great complexity in the theories and empirical base in each area. Commonalities and important differences across the two literature are highlighted, together with a set of criteria that any emerging theory of multi-source, multi-...
Source: Learning and Instruction - March 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Prompting and visualising monitoring outcomes: Guiding self-regulatory processes with confidence judgments” [Learning and Instruction 59 251–262]
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 54 Author(s): Lenka Schnaubert, Daniel Bodemer (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - February 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Two kinds of meaningful multimedia learning: Is cognitive activity alone as good as combined behavioral and cognitive activity?
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 54 Author(s): Irene T. Skuballa, Anke Dammert, Alexander Renkl Learners should become cognitively active to profit from multimedia representations. However, whether novices’ cognitive engagement should be augmented by behavioral engagement during multimedia learning is controversial. We find support for both stances in the literature: high cognitive engagement and high cognitive-plus-behavioral engagement. We investigated the effectiveness of two types of prompts corresponding to these stances. Study 1 (44 8th-graders) tested a group with think pro...
Source: Learning and Instruction - February 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Dynamic psychophysiological correlates of a learning from text episode in relation to reading goals
This study aimed to investigate undergraduates' cardiac activity during an episode of complex learning from text. Specifically, we examined (a) heart rate (HR) and (b) heart rate variability (HRV) as psychophysiological measures while students read a science text and were tested on it. Reading goals were also taken into account: Students were asked to read for themselves to know more on a topic, or to read to perform well to gain course credit. Undergraduates (N = 50) were randomly assigned to one of the two reading goal conditions. Their HR and HRV were registered at baseline, while reading the text, during the testin...
Source: Learning and Instruction - February 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Formative assessment in mathematics: Mediated by feedback's perceived usefulness and students' self-efficacy
In this study we developed and implemented a formative assessment intervention for mathematics instruction and investigated whether it had effects on students' interest and achievement directly and via students' perception of the usefulness of the feedback and their self-efficacy. We conducted a cluster randomized field trial with pretest and posttest. The 26 participating classes were randomly assigned to a control group or the intervention group. Results of path analyses indicate that feedback was perceived as more useful in the formative assessment condition, self-efficacy was greater, and interest tended to increase; l...
Source: Learning and Instruction - February 16, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Multi-modal, multi-source reading: A multi-representational reader's perspective
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Shaaron E. Ainsworth In this commentary, I review the five articles that comprise the Special Issue titled ‘Towards a model of multi-source, multi-modal processing”. The papers are discussed in terms of how they help us understand the “second generational” issues of reader characteristics, representational choices, task demands and assessment approaches. The commentary concludes by anticipating themes for future work that are common to all the papers’ concerns. (Source: Learning and Instruction)
Source: Learning and Instruction - February 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Students ’ effort allocation to their perceived strengths and weaknesses: The moderating effect of instructional strategy
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Djoerd Hiemstra, Nico W. Van Yperen, Marieke E. Timmerman To become competent professionals, students should work on both their strengths and weaknesses. Considering students' limited amount of time and energy to work on multiple subjects, it is important to know what determines their allocation of effort to their perceived relative strengths or weaknesses. In a series of five studies, we examined the moderating effect of instructional strategy (i.e., self-directed versus test-directed) on the within-person relation between perc...
Source: Learning and Instruction - February 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Differentiated instruction in primary mathematics: Effects of teacher professional development on student achievement
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 54 Author(s): Emilie J. Prast, Eva Van de Weijer-Bergsma, Evelyn H. Kroesbergen, Johannes E.H. Van Luit This large-scale study examined the effects of a teacher professional development (PD) programme about differentiated instruction on students’ mathematics achievement. Thirty primary schools (N = 5658 students of grade 1–6) divided over three cohorts participated: Cohort 1 received the PD programme in Year 1, Cohort 2 in Year 2, and Cohort 3 was control. During the PD, teachers learned how to adapt mathematics education to diverse educa...
Source: Learning and Instruction - February 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effects of teaching concept mapping using practice, feedback, and relational framing
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction, Volume 54 Author(s): Kevin M. Roessger, Barbara J. Daley, Duaa A. Hafez Although concept mapping remains widely used in education, there is little research showing how best to teach it. We investigated if practice, feedback, and knowledge of relational framing help improve students' concept mapping skills over time. Four online graduate courses at two universities were randomly assigned to one of two teaching conditions: a traditional concept map teaching strategy or traditional plus relational framing teaching strategy. Students in each course created three co...
Source: Learning and Instruction - February 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Why do learners who draw perform well? Investigating the role of visualization, generation and externalization in learner-generated drawing
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Steffen P. Schmidgall, Alexander Eitel, Katharina Scheiter In two experiments, we investigated which of the factors generation, visualization, and externalization mainly contribute to the benefits of learner-generated drawing. We also examined whether benefits of drawing were more pronounced in delayed rather than in immediate testing. To this end, Experiment 1 (N = 121) focused on the comparison of the factors visualization and generation, whereas Experiment 2 (N = 204) focused on the role of externalization in generativ...
Source: Learning and Instruction - February 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effects of study intention and generating multiple choice questions on expository text retention
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Vincent Hoogerheide, Justine Staal, Lydia Schaap, Tamara van Gog Teachers often recommend their students to generate test questions and answers as a means of preparing for an exam. There is a paucity of research on the effects of this instructional strategy. Two recent studies showed positive effects of generating test questions relative to restudy, but these studies did not control for time on task. Moreover, the scarce research available has been limited to the effects of generating open-ended questions. Therefore, the aim of t...
Source: Learning and Instruction - February 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Task-irrelevant data impair processing of graph reading tasks: An eye tracking study
In this study, we compared bar graphs showing task-irrelevant data points or task-irrelevant data series with a control condition using a within-subject design and eye tracking methodology. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. Results show that task-irrelevant data significantly elevated processing time, error rate and cognitive load. Even though perceptual grouping by color was expected to aid the process when a task-irrelevant data series was included in a graph, effects were strongest in this condition. Analyses of attention distribution using eye tracking measures revealed that task processing differed...
Source: Learning and Instruction - February 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Longitudinal predictors of reading comprehension in French at first grade: Unpacking the oral comprehension component of the simple view
Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Jessica Massonnié, Maryse Bianco, Laurent Lima, Pascal Bressoux According to the simple view of reading (SVR), reading comprehension relies on “decoding” (pseudoword, word reading) and “oral comprehension” skills. Testing 556 French pupils, we aimed at unpacking these two components and tracking their longitudinal development in first grade. We have found that: (1) lower level language skills (vocabulary, syntax) and discourse skills (oral text comprehension) emerged as two dimensions of “oral...
Source: Learning and Instruction - February 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

“Hands-on” plus “inquiry”? Effects of withholding answers coupled with physical manipulations on students' learning of energy-related science concepts
Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Lin Zhang A recent discussion on science teaching has been focusing on questions of whether it is necessary to withhold answers from learners until inquiry activities are completed and whether learners develop high-level science learning when they are physically involved in scientific investigations. To contribute to this topic, the present study examined the effects of withholding answers from learners coupled with involving them in physical manipulations on their learning of energy transfer in three domains, knowing, reasoning,...
Source: Learning and Instruction - January 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Investigating the testing effect: Retrieval as a characteristic of effective study strategies
Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source:Learning and Instruction Author(s): Christine L. Bae, David J. Therriault, Jenni L. Redifer Presently, the most common approach to examining the testing effect is using a free recall form of retrieval practice. In this experiment, we compared free recall to other retrieval-based study strategies including practice quizzing, test-generation, and keyword. We also examined the possible benefit of coupling these retrieval-based strategies with free recall. A total of 338 undergraduates were randomly assigned to one of the nine conditions: a repeated retrieval (study-tes...
Source: Learning and Instruction - January 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research