Developmental biology and etiology of axial skeleton: Lessons from a mouse model of spondylocostal dysostosis and spondylothoracic dysostosis
Publication date: November 2013 Source:Journal of Oral Biosciences, Volume 55, Issue 4 Author(s): Yuji Makino , Kazuo Kaneko , Akira Yamaguchi , Tadahiro Iimura Skeletal patterning is tightly linked to embryonic morphogenesis. Accumulated evidence on genotype–phenotype analyses in model animals and human has uncovered molecular signals that participate in skeletal size, shape, and spatial organization. Embryonic morphogenesis endows morphological information to groups of skeletal precursors. Accordingly, some of the congenital skeletal disorders are manifested as defects in embryogenesis prior to skeletal tissue di...
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Implications of salivary protein binding to commensal and pathogenic bacteria
Publication date: November 2013 Source:Journal of Oral Biosciences, Volume 55, Issue 4 Author(s): Seok-Mo Heo , Stefan Ruhl , Frank A. Scannapieco An important function of salivary proteins is to interact with microorganisms that enter the oral cavity. For some microbes, these interactions promote microbial colonization. For others, these interactions are deleterious and result in the elimination of the microbe from the mouth, This paper reviews recent studies of the interaction of salivary proteins with two model bacteria; the commensal species Streptococcus gordonii, and the facultative pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. ...
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Neural communication in the trigeminal ganglion contributes to ectopic orofacial pain
Publication date: November 2013 Source:Journal of Oral Biosciences, Volume 55, Issue 4 Author(s): Masamichi Shinoda , Koichi Iwata Ectopic orofacial pain develops with local inflammation in remote orofacial structures. However, the mechanism underlying the spreading of pain to remote orofacial areas after local inflammation is still unknown. We investigated the functional significance of neural communication within the trigeminal ganglion (TG) via nerve growth factor (NGF) or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in relation to whisker pad skin hyperalgesia following complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection into the l...
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The role of Rho-kinases in ameloblast differentiation
Publication date: November 2013 Source:Journal of Oral Biosciences, Volume 55, Issue 4 Author(s): Keishi Otsu , Mika Sakano , Tomoyuki Masuda , Naoki Fujiwara , Hidemitsu Harada Tooth morphogenesis and differentiation of dental cells are governed by interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cells. During these processes, ameloblasts, which form enamel, undergo marked changes in their morphology and polarity, accompanied by dynamic cytoskeletal reorganization. Rho-associated coiled coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK), an effector molecule of the small G-protein RhoA, has been shown to control a wide range of cellu...
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Salivary gland gene therapy: Personal reflections
Publication date: February 2014 Source:Journal of Oral Biosciences, Volume 56, Issue 1 Author(s): Bruce J. Baum The purpose of this paper is to describe, in somewhat familiar terms, the personal experiences I had trying to develop a clinically useful gene therapy for dry mouth over an approximately 20-year period. That research journey, which reached fruition in a recently completed Phase I clinical trial, was nurtured by my long career spent at the US National Institutes of Health and, in particular, by working within its hospital, The Clinical Center, the largest research hospital in the world. Through this paper, I wi...
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Aging and its impact on innate immunity and inflammation: Implications for periodontitis
Publication date: February 2014 Source:Journal of Oral Biosciences, Volume 56, Issue 1 Author(s): George Hajishengallis The elderly exhibit increased susceptibility to a number of inflammatory or degenerative pathologies. Aging is similarly thought to be associated with increased prevalence and severity of periodontitis, although the underlying causes are poorly understood. Among the plausible mechanisms whereby aging could contribute to increased susceptibility to periodontitis are age-dependent alterations in the innate immune and inflammatory status of the host. This hypothesis is supported by studies in humans and an...
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Rho family small G proteins: Lessons from tissue-specific gene knockout studies
Publication date: February 2014 Source:Journal of Oral Biosciences, Volume 56, Issue 1 Author(s): Atsushi Yamada , Atsu Aiba , Ryutaro Kamijo Rac1 and Cdc42 are Rho small GTPases known to regulate multiple cellular functions including cytoskeletal organization, proliferation, and apoptosis. Recently, their tissue-specific roles have been uncovered, particularly in mammalian limb development, using limb bud mesenchyme-specific inactivated Rac1 (Rac1 fl/fl ; Prx1-Cre; and Rac1 cKO) and Cdc42 (Cdc421 fl/fl ; Prx1-Cre; and Cdc42 cKO) conditional knockout (cKO) mice. Both strains demonstrated striking syndactyly of the fore- ...
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

A novel animal model for dry mouth: E2f1-deficient NOD/SCID mice
Publication date: February 2014 Source:Journal of Oral Biosciences, Volume 56, Issue 1 Author(s): Keitaro Satoh , Takanori Narita , Miwako Matsuki-Fukushima , Ken Okabayashi , Fumie Yamazaki , Toshiaki Arai , Tatsuro Ito , Hidenobu Senpuku , Hiroshi Sugiya It is well known that hyposecretion of saliva and consequent dry mouth can lead to severe dental caries, periodontal disease, and mucosal infections. To investigate the mechanisms of hyposalivation, a dry mouth animal model is required. Recently, we established E2f1-deficient non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency disease (NOD/SCID.E2f1−/−) mic...
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Host–microbial co-evolution in periodontitis associated with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans infection
Publication date: February 2014 Source:Journal of Oral Biosciences, Volume 56, Issue 1 Author(s): Toshiyuki Nagasawa , Shintaro Shimizu , Satsuki Kato , Yuko Nakatsuka , Takashi Kado , Tatsuhiro Hidaka , Kaname Shirai , Mari Mori , Yasushi Furuichi Periodontitis is caused by bacterial biofilms composed of more than 800 bacterial species. Not all biofilm bacteria are equally pathogenic; Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is recognized as one of the most virulent periodontopathic bacteria. A. actinomycetemcomitans is also associated with systemic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and brain abscesses. Molecular ...
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Oral biosciences: The annual review 2013
Publication date: February 2014 Source:Journal of Oral Biosciences, Volume 56, Issue 1 Author(s): Hayato Ohshima (Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Life in a diverse oral community – Strategies for oxidative stress survival
Conclusion: The combination of these multifaceted strategies would provide a comprehensive defense and support system against the repetitive host immune response to promote microbial persistence and disease. (Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Transcellular invasive mechanisms of Porphyromonas gingivalis in host–parasite interactions
Publication date: May 2014 Source:Journal of Oral Biosciences, Volume 56, Issue 2 Author(s): Atsuo Amano , Masae Kuboniwa , Hiroki Takeuchi Porphyromonas gingivalis, a well-known periodontal pathogen, expresses a number of virulence factors, including fimbriae and gingipains. In addition, the pathogen utilizes two unique transcellular invasive mechanisms that cause cellular impairment in periodontal tissues; these mechanisms include bacterial entry into periodontal cells and bacterial shooting of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) into those cells. Gingival epithelial cells function as innate host defense barriers to prevent...
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The role of Actinomyces naeslundii peptidoglycan in alveolar bone resorption
Publication date: May 2014 Source:Journal of Oral Biosciences, Volume 56, Issue 2 Author(s): Takenori Sato , Kiyoko Watanabe , Toshizo Toyama , Hidefumi Kumada , Haruka Sasaki , Nobushiro Hamada Oral biofilms are composed of complex structured multi-species bacterial communities, which are the causative agents of periodontal diseases. The species Actinomyces naeslundii, formerly known as Actinomyces viscosus, have been isolated from oral cavities and gingival pockets. A. naeslundii is one of the early colonizers, and plays an important role in the formation of dental biofilms and induces alveolar bone destruction. Peptid...
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Oscillatory intracellular Ca2+ responses in living bone
Publication date: May 2014 Source:Journal of Oral Biosciences, Volume 56, Issue 2 Author(s): Yoshihito Ishihara , Yasuyo Sugawara , Hiroshi Kamioka , Noriaki Kawanabe , Keiji Naruse , Takashi Yamashiro Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) is an important secondary messenger that modulates many cellular processes. Its oscillatory signaling is considered to participate in the regulation of many different cell functions, including bone metabolism. However, it is not entirely clear whether Ca2+ oscillations occur between osteoblasts and osteocytes in integrated bone tissues because of the complex mineralized matrices surrounding bon...
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Regulation of BMP-induced osteoblastic differentiation by Ubc9 knockdown-mediated inhibition of SUMO modification
Conclusion These findings suggest that Ubc9 inhibits osteoblastic differentiation induced by BMP, at least in part, via SUMOylation of Smad4 and that the SUMOylation pathway is involved in osteoblastic differentiation in vivo. (Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

A review of the differing roles of dead and live osteocytes
Conclusion Dead osteocytes induce bone resorption, while live osteocytes enhance bone resorption and inhibit bone formation under physiological conditions, while their functions are augmented under unloaded conditions. (Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The sorting mechanism underlying the separation of salivary proteins into secretory granules in parotid glands
Conclusion These results suggest that the sorting of SS25H is completely passive. Thus, it can be used as standard protein that is not subject to any regulation for sorting. It will be useful to study the effect of fusion with other proteins on transport efficiency via regulated secretory pathways. Using the HaloTag technology provides useful information about granule biogenesis and sorting mechanisms. (Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Extracellular microRNAs in saliva
Conclusion This review summarizes the findings of recent reports that have investigated salivary miRNAs with the aim of establishing novel clinical biomarkers. (Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae: Recent developments describing the function and localization of mfa1 gene cluster proteins
Conclusion In this review, we describe recent discoveries regarding the Mfa1 gene cluster proteins and discuss similarities in function, localization, and amino acid sequence between the components of Mfa1 and FimA fimbriae. (Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Staphopains in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: Virulence activities related to the onset of septic shock, coagulation disorders, and infectious endocarditis
Conclusion Staphopains are potent virulence factors and are potentially involved in the onset of septic shock, coagulation disorders, and infectious endocarditis that occurs in S. aureus bacteremia. (Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Involvement of E2f1 deficiency in salivary gland hypofunction: A review of studies of E2f1-deficient NOD/SCID mice
Conclusion In E2f1-deficient NOD/SCID mice, the number of duct cells increased while the number of acinar cells decreased. The water channel aquaporin 5, a marker of acinar cells, demonstrated diffuse localization, ubiquitination, and decreased expression in E2f1-deficient NOD/SCID mice. These events seem to trigger salivary gland hypofunction in E2f1-deficient NOD/SCID mice, which suggest that E2f1 is a key factor in the development of xerostomia. (Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Signaling pathway and physiological role of the alpha-1 adrenergic receptor in human osteoblasts
Conclusion Experimental studies in osteoblasts suggest that not only the suppression of β2-adrenergic receptors but also the activation of α1-adrenergic receptors could lead to a treatment for osteoporosis. Studying the signaling pathway will help elucidate the mechanism underlying the regulation of bone metabolism via the α1-adrenergic receptor and also facilitate the development of a novel therapeutic strategy for osteoporosis. (Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Anaerobic culture to detect periodontal and caries pathogens
Conclusion In periodontitis and dental caries, anaerobic culture studies of advanced disease provided a comprehensive analysis of the microbiota of these infections. Anaerobic culture highlighted the limitation of PCR with standard primers that underestimate detection of Actinobacteria. (Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The role of nuclear factor-κB signaling in bone formation: One bite provides dual tastes
Conclusion Collectively, the data suggest that the inhibition of NF-κB is useful not only for inhibiting bone resorption but also for promoting bone formation, thus explaining the notion “one bite gets two tastes.” We believe that NF-κB-selective inhibitors may have the potential to improve BMP-induced bone regeneration. (Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

New functional aspects of CCN2 revealed by trans-omic approaches
Conclusion A new functional aspect of CCN2 as a metabolic supporter in cartilage was recently revealed by a metabolo-transcriptomic approach. In addition, a systematic interactomic approach is being used to characterize the molecular network around CCN2 that supports the multiple functionality of CCN2 in bone/cartilage. (Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Circadian regulation of bone metabolism by β-adrenergic signaling, glucocorticoids, and clock genes
Publication date: Available online 14 October 2014 Source:Journal of Oral Biosciences Author(s): Hisataka Kondo , Akifumi Togari Circadian rhythms have been identified in bone metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. It was recently reported that circadian rhythms are regulated by clock genes. The main circadian rhythms are generated by endogenous circadian clocks in suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). Recently, we reported that output signals from the SCN are transmitted from the master circadian rhythm to peripheral osteoblasts and osteoclasts through β-adrenergic signaling and/or gl...
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Basic research and clinical investigations of the neural basis of orofacial pain
Conclusions (1) Neurotransmitters released from the somata of TG neurons are involved in peripheral sensitization. (2) Neurotransmitter release from TG neurons is decreased by botulinum toxin-type A administration, suggesting that this toxin suppressed neurotransmitter release and alleviated the neuropathic pain-related behavior. (3) Altered states of glial cells and nociceptive neurons, in the Vc and C1–C2 are involved in pathological orofacial pain associated with trigeminal nerve injury or orofacial inflammation. (4) The trigeminal sensory nuclear complex, especially the trigeminal spinal subnucleus oralis, is inv...
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Overexpressing the NH2-terminal fragment of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) aggravates the periodontal defects in Dspp knockout mice
Conclusion Overexpressing the NH2-terminal fragment of DSPP worsened the periodontal defects in Dspp knockout mice, indicating that the NH2-terminal fragment of DSPP may exert an inhibitory role in the formation and mineralization of hard tissues in the periodontium. (Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Polarization of osteoclasts on dental implant materials is similar to that observed on bone
Conclusions These results demonstrate that osteoclasts are able to polarize on dental implant materials similar to the polarization observed on bone. (Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The role of extracellular ATP-mediated purinergic signaling in bone, cartilage, and tooth tissue
Conclusion Purinergic signaling is involved in osteogenesis, chondrogenesis, and dental sensory perception, indicating that ATP is an essential signaling molecule in bone, cartilage, and teeth. The downstream effects of ATP-mediated signaling are largely dependent on the receptors expressed in the tissue as well as the stage of cellular differentiation. While the current literature has greatly advanced our understanding of purinergic signaling, additional research is necessary to fully elucidate the function of ATP-mediated pathways. (Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Cell surface coaggregation receptor polysaccharide of oral streptococci
Conclusion Production of genetically modified polysaccharides on bacterial cell surfaces (i.e., carbohydrate engineering) appears to be useful for a wide range of potential applications for basic research on polysaccharide structure and function as well as in the possible production of new or improved vaccines. (Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Molecular mechanisms for bone resorption by gingipains: Degradation of osteoprotegerin by lysine-specific gingipain is a key factor for enhanced osteoclastogenesis
Conclusion Our data suggests that degradation of OPG by Kgp is a crucial event in the progression of osteolysis in periodontitis. (Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Assembly and function of PG27/LptO, PG0026, and HagA in the secretion and modification system of C-terminal domain proteins
Conclusion: These findings describe the assembly and function of PG27/LptO, PG0026, and HagA. (Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Membrane transporters in salivary exosomes and microvesicles as biomarkers of systemic or oral disease
Conclusion membrane transporters such as aquaporin, ion channels, carriers in saliva, and salivary exosomes or microvesicles, might be valuable biomarkers of systemic or oral health. (Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Epigenetics of oral infection and inflammatory diseases—DNA methylation changes in infections and inflammation diseases
Conclusion Since epigenetic modifications are reversible, aberrant DNA methylation is a possible therapeutic target for such diseases. However, little is known about the epigenetics in oral inflammatory diseases, and further investigation is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms before epigenetic therapy can be used to treat oral inflammatory diseases. (Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - November 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research