Correlation between type 2 diabetes, dry eye and Meibomian glands dysfunction
ConclusionsMGD in type 2 diabetic patients is more severe compared with nondiabetic patients. Longer duration of diabetes is associated with major symptoms and changes in MG. Diabetic group showed major changes in lids and tear function, accounting for evaporative dry eye and presenting a high degree of correlation with MG inflammation and obstruction.ResumenObjetivoEvaluar las glándulas de Meibomio, la superficie ocular y la función de la lágrima en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2, y estudiar la correlación entre estas situaciones.MétodosEstudio prospectivo de 76 varones, 37 de ellos con d...
Source: Journal of Optometry - May 25, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Corneo-pterygium total area measurements utilising image analysis method
Publication date: Available online 13 May 2019Source: Journal of OptometryAuthor(s): Hilmi Mohd Radzi, Mohd Kamal Khairidzan, Che Amin Mohd Zulfaezal, Esmady Ariffin AzrinAbstractPurposeTo describe an objective method to accurately quantify corneo-pterygium total area (CPTA) by utilising image analysis method and to evaluate its association with corneal astigmatism (CA).Methods120 primary pterygium participants were selected from patients who visited an ophthalmology clinic. We adopted image analysis software in calculating the size of invading pterygium to the cornea. The marking of the calculated area was done manually, ...
Source: Journal of Optometry - May 14, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Differential visual acuity – A new approach to measuring visual acuity
Publication date: Available online 9 May 2019Source: Journal of OptometryAuthor(s): Susan J. Leat, Cristina Yakobchuk-Stanger, Elizabeth L. IrvingAbstractBackgroundA novel type of acuity measurement, which we refer to as ‘differential acuity’, requires the observer to identify one unique target among three others which are identical. This is a proof of concept study aimed to determine if differential acuity is equivalent to standard measures of recognition acuity.MethodsTo create a range of visual acuity, vision was optically blurred in sixteen adults with normal visual acuity. Visual acuity was then measured w...
Source: Journal of Optometry - May 10, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Normative values of visual evoked potentials in Northeastern of Iran
Publication date: Available online 23 April 2019Source: Journal of OptometryAuthor(s): Monireh Mahjoob, Javad Heravian Shandiz, Ali Mirzajani, Asieh Ehsaei, Ebrahim JafarzadehpurAbstractPurposeVisual evoked potentials (VEPs) provide important diagnostic information related to the functional integrity of the visual pathways. The aim of this study was to establish normative values of different components of pattern reversal VEPs on Iranian normal adult subjects.MethodsMonocular and binocular pattern reversal VEPs were recorded on 59 healthy participants (22.55 ± 3.79 years old) using the Roland RETI system f...
Source: Journal of Optometry - April 24, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Uncontrolled experimentation is not an option for open minds: Ethical research is the answer
Publication date: April–June 2019Source: Journal of Optometry, Volume 12, Issue 2Author(s): David P Piñero (Source: Journal of Optometry)
Source: Journal of Optometry - April 5, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Presbyopic correction use and its impact on quality of vision symptoms
Publication date: Available online 29 March 2019Source: Journal of OptometryAuthor(s): Ahmed Sivardeen, Colm McAlinden, James S. WolffsohnAbstractAimTo assess real-world adoption of presbyopic correction and its impact on quality of vision.MethodThe use of visual corrections by 529 sequential patients (aged 36 years to 85 years, 50.4% female) attending 4 optometric practices in diverse areas across London were surveyed by interview and completed the quality of vision (QoV) questionnaire to evaluate visual symptoms.ResultsOver half of the population (54.7%) managed without glasses at least some of the time, while between 30...
Source: Journal of Optometry - March 31, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Effect of age on visual and refractive results after laser-assisted subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) with adjuvant use of mitomycin C
ConclusionsA tendency toward undercorrection and less predictability was found with aging after myopic LASEK with MMC for the correction of myopia.ResumenObjetivoEvaluar la influencia de la edad sobre los resultados visuales y refractivos tras queratomileusis subepitelial asistida por láser (LASEK) con uso adyuvante de mitomicina C (MMC) para la corrección de la miopía.MétodosEstudio de cohorte retrospectivo y no aleatorizado. Se incluyó en el estudio a un total de 1.374 ojos tratados con LASEK + MMC (comparamos 1.163 ojos de pacientes de edades comprendidas entre 18 y 40 a&ntil...
Source: Journal of Optometry - March 19, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Keratometry in children: Comparison between auto-refractokeratometer, rotating scheimpflug imaging, and biograph
ConclusionsKeratometry measurement with Nidek ARK-510A was not significantly different from Pentacam and Lenstar, and this device can be used in screening programs in emmetropes.ResumenObjetivoDeterminar la concordancia y validez de las mediciones queratométricas en niños con el autorefractoqueratómetro Nidek ARK-510A, comparadas con las imágenes de Scheimpflug con Pentacam y el biómetro Lenstar LS 900.MétodosEste estudio se realizó en 5.620 niños, de edades comprendidas entre 6 y 12 años, en Shahroud, Irán. Se compararon los valores queratométric...
Source: Journal of Optometry - March 16, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Peripheral refraction and spherical aberration profiles with single vision, bifocal and multifocal soft contact lenses
ConclusionWhen worn on eye, different commercially available lens types produce differences in the direction and magnitude of the peripheral refraction and spherical aberration profiles along different visual field meridians. This information may be relevant to refractive development and myopia control.ResumenObjetivoComparar los perfiles de refracción periférica y aberración esférica en tres meridianos del campo visual de 16 lentes de contacto (LC) comerciales de prueba monofocales (VS), bifocales (BF) y multifocales (MF), con control de visión simple.MétodoColocamos aleatoria y c...
Source: Journal of Optometry - February 14, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Long term outcomes of strabismus surgery for third nerve palsy
Publication date: Available online 4 January 2019Source: Journal of OptometryAuthor(s): Pilar Merino, Carlota Gutierrez, Pilar Gómez de Liaño, Marcela SrurAbstractPurposeTo report long-term outcomes of strabismus surgery for treatment of third nerve palsy.MethodsWe performed a 15-year retrospective study of patients who had undergone surgery. We analyzed preoperative mean deviation (at 6 months, 1 year after surgery, and at the end of follow-up), type of surgery, and factors predicting outcomes. A final deviation
Source: Journal of Optometry - January 5, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Optometry: a discipline and profession that feeds from and empowers other specialties
Publication date: January–March 2019Source: Journal of Optometry, Volume 12, Issue 1Author(s): José Manuel González-Méijome (Source: Journal of Optometry)
Source: Journal of Optometry - December 25, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

How frequently should asymptomatic patients be dilated? 20-year results
Publication date: Available online 2 November 2018Source: Journal of OptometryAuthor(s): Paul Varner (Source: Journal of Optometry)
Source: Journal of Optometry - November 3, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

In vivo assessment of the anterior scleral contour assisted by automatic profilometry and changes in conjunctival shape after miniscleral contact lens fitting
ConclusionsESP shows mild differences in scleral shape between eyes with regular and irregular corneas. ESP might be valuable in quantifying the mechanical impact of the ScCL on the anterior eye surface.ResumenObjetivoComparar la forma de la esclerótica anterior de los candidatos a utilizar lentes de apoyo escleral (ScCL) con córneas regulares e irregulares, y analizar los cambios inducidos en la forma de la superfície esclero-conjuntival tras el uso de dichas lentes.MétodosSe incluyeron consecutivamente treinta y cinco ojos de 18 sujetos (19 ojos con córneas irregulares y 16 con có...
Source: Journal of Optometry - November 3, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Characterization of optical performance with defocusing curve: Analysis of two refractive intraocular lens models with high and medium addition
ConclusionsThe high addition intraocular lens provides better visual acuity in the spatial range from infinity to the point close to 25 cm. The medium addition intraocular lens provides excellent visual acuity in far and intermediate vision.The defocus curve seems to be a valid and reproducible tool for evaluating the optical behavior of multifocal sector refractive lenses.ResumenObjetivoCaracterizar el comportamiento óptico de dos modelos de lentes intraoculares bifocales refractivas, con adición media y alta, utilizando curvas de desenfoque.MétodosSe incluyó en este estudio a 20 ojos de 2...
Source: Journal of Optometry - November 2, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Clinical evaluation of an automated subjective refraction method implemented in a computer-controlled motorized phoropter
ConclusionsThe proposed automated method is repeatable and more accurate than objective techniques in healthy adults. However, it is not accurate enough to replace the clinical subjective refraction yet and it should be tested in a wider population in terms of age, refraction and different ocular conditions. Despite these important limitations, this method has been shown to be a potentially valuable method to improve the access to primary eye care services in developing countries.ResumenObjetivoInvestigar un nuevo algoritmo para llevar a cabo una refracción automatizada no ciclopéjica en adultos.Método...
Source: Journal of Optometry - October 31, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Retinal glial changes in Alzheimer's disease – A review
The objective of this review is to compile the most relevant findings in the last 10 years relating to alterations in the eye in AD, and the role that glial cells play in the degenerative process in the retina in the context of neurodegeneration.ResumenLa enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA) es una demencia neurodegenerativa que se caracteriza por la deposición de placas beta-amiloides (βA) extracelulares, y la presencia de ovillos neurofibrilares. Hasta ahora, las técnicas utilizadas para analizar estos depósitos han sido poco accesibles, invasivas y costosas. Esto nos lleva a considerar nuevas ví...
Source: Journal of Optometry - October 29, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Comparison of macular retinal sensitivity and its contribution to the foveal sensitivity between diabetic and non-diabetic patients with normal visual acuity
ConclusionsSubjects without diabetes have a significantly higher sensitivity in the temporal retina compared with those with diabetes; points with highest mean retinal sensitivity do not correspond to the central four. The reduced sensitivity in point 1 decreases the mean foveal sensitivity in subjects with diabetes, because this variable correlates with lower perimetry points.ResumenObjetivoComparar la sensibilidad de la retina y evaluar su contribución a la sensibilidad de la fóvea en pacientes con y sin diabetes con agudeza visual normal.MétodosEstudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal y prosp...
Source: Journal of Optometry - October 29, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

An Eyelid Warming Device for the Management of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2018Source: Journal of OptometryAuthor(s): William Ngo, Sruthi Srinivasan, Lyndon JonesAbstractPurposeTo determine the effectiveness of the MGDRx EyeBag in managing meibomian gland dysfunction.MethodsThis was a prospective, randomized, controlled, observer-masked, bilateral eye study that enrolled 29 participants. Participants were randomized into either the EyeBag group or the control group. The EyeBag group used the EyeBag 10 minutes 2x/day, and the control group remained on their own dry eye treatment regimen (if applicable). All participants were observed at baseline, ...
Source: Journal of Optometry - October 17, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Pharmacology without drugs
Publication date: Available online 1 August 2018Source: Journal of OptometryAuthor(s): Jesús Pintor (Source: Journal of Optometry)
Source: Journal of Optometry - August 2, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

High-speed recording of thermal load during laser trans-epithelial corneal refractive surgery using a 750 Hz ablation system
ConclusionThe ITEC software is effective in controlling the maximum temperature rise during laser ablation in the extremely challenging situation of trans-PRK involving high ablation volumes of almost 6000 nl, potentially improving the outcomes. The ITEC system limited the maximum temperature to 39.7 °C in the epithelium, and 37.7 °C in the stroma. The epithelial temperature was always higher than stromal temperature (regardless of high or low fluence irradiation). Safety limit of 40 °C found in the literature was never reached.ResumenObjetivoEvaluar el aumento de temperatura de la có...
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 21, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Customary practices in the monitoring of dry eye disease in Sjogren's syndrome
ConclusionsThe monitoring of DED in SS is not uniform in optometric offices across North America. Creating accepted standards of testing will improve the ability of clinicians and researchers to communicate and understand the course of DED in SS.ResumenObjetivoLas pruebas diagnósticas para la enfermedad del ojo seco en el síndrome de Sjogren (SS) están bien descritas. Se ha publicado poco acerca de la supervisión de este síndrome del ojo seco autoinmune sistémico. Analizamos el SS relacionado con las pruebas de ojo seco en las prácticas optométricas de Norte Amé...
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 17, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The eyelash follicle features and anomalies: A review
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Journal of OptometryAuthor(s): Sarah Aumond, Etty BittonAbstractThe primary role of eyelashes is to protect and maintain the health of the lid margin. However, the mechanisms to fulfill this role are not fully understood. Unraveling these mechanisms will stand to greatly improve the efficiency of eye care professionals’ interventions in anomalies of the eyelashes. The aim of this article is to provide a review on eyelashes including highlights and new avenues for research; the biology of both the lash and its follicle; the pathophysiology and management of lash a...
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 17, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Tear instability importance, mechanisms, validity and reliability of assessment
ConclusionsFluorescein tear break up time assessments cannot be standardised and less-invasive methods are not yet standardised. Objective less-invasive and subjective fluorescein break up time tests do not appear to be measuring the same tear phenomena although both should be performed before other invasive procedures.ResumenObjetivoExaminar los factores que contribuyen a la estabilidad de la lágrima y a la validez y fiabilidad de los métodos utilizados para evaluar el tiempo de ruptura lagrimal, que forma parte esencial del examen de la estabilidad de la lágrima en los pacientes con ojo seco.Mé...
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Symmetry of peripheral retinal nonperfusion in diabetic retinopathy by ischemic index
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2018Source: Journal of OptometryAuthor(s): Ashley M. Speilburg, Bruce Teitelbaum, Yi Pang, Shaun IttiaraAbstractPurposeDiabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness among working-age adults in most developed countries. It affects eyes bilaterally and is generally believed to be symmetrical, yet there are few studies evaluating the symmetry of diabetic retinopathy. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the symmetry of the amount of peripheral retinal ischemia in patients with diabetic retinopathy.MethodsUltra-widefield fluorescein angiography images were obta...
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Validation of refraction and anterior segment parameters by a new multi-diagnostic platform (VX120)
ConclusionsThe VX120 provides consistent refraction and most anterior segment measurements in normal healthy eyes, with high levels of intra and inter-session repeatability.ResumenAntecedentesVX120 (Visionix Luneau, Francia) es una plataforma multi-diagnóstico novedosa que combina la auto-refracción basada en Hartmann–Shack, la topografía corneal mediante discos de Plácido, y las mediciones del segmento anterior realizadas mediante cámara de Scheimpflug. Analizamos la concordancia entre los diferentes parámetros medidos por VX120 con las técnicas aceptadas o de referen...
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Comparison of contrast sensitivity in β-thalassemia patients treated by deferoxamine or deferasirox
ConclusionsCS tests can detect visual disturbance in thalassemic patients before the impairment of visual acuity. It is suggested that CS tests be included in their regular eye examination.ResumenObjetivoComparar la sensibilidad de contraste (SC) en pacientes multitrasfundidos con β-talasemia y tratados con deferoxamina u Osveral.MétodosEn este estudio transversal, un total de 60 pacientes con β-talasemia (30 tratados con deferoxamina y 30 con deferasirox) fueron considerados como grupo de estudio, y 30 sujetos sanos pareados por edad y sexo fueron seleccionados como grupo control. A todos los sujetos se l...
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Refractive error magnitude and variability: Relation to age
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2018Source: Journal of OptometryAuthor(s): Elizabeth L. Irving, Carolyn M. Machan, Sharon Lam, Patricia K. Hrynchak, Linda LillakasAbstractPurposeTo investigate mean ocular refraction (MOR) and astigmatism, over the human age range and compare severity of refractive error to earlier studies from clinical populations having large age ranges.MethodsFor this descriptive study patient age, refractive error and history of surgery affecting refraction were abstracted from the Waterloo Eye Study database (WatES). Average MOR, standard deviation of MOR and astigmatism were assessed in re...
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Accommodation and age-dependent eye model based on in vivo measurements
ConclusionsThe proposed eye model is able to predict changes in objective refraction and accommodation response. It has the potential to be a useful design and testing tool for devices (e.g. intraocular lenses or contact lenses) designed to correct the eye's optical errors.ResumenObjetivoDesarrollar un modelo flexible de ojo medio que incorpore los cambios en función de la edad y la acomodación en todos los parámetros ópticos, incluyendo el diámetro de pupila de entrada, en condiciones ambientales fotópicas y naturales.MétodosRecopilamos medidas retrospectivas in vivo de tod...
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Is 25 Hz enough to accurately measure a dynamic change in the ocular accommodation?
ConclusionContrary to the previous findings, a dynamic accommodative response exhibited frequencies larger than 10 Hz. Stimulus direction and amplitude had no influence on the frequencies present in the dynamic response. Peak velocity and acceleration can be significantly underestimated when sampled at a lower rate. Taken as a whole, low sampling rate instruments can accurately estimate static accommodation, however, caution needs to be exercised when using them for dynamic accommodation.ResumenLa acomodación se registra a menudo a una tasa de muestreo baja, utilizando dispositivos tales como los autorrefract&o...
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Effect of phenylephrine on static and dynamic accommodation
ConclusionsThe mydriatic effect of the PHCl causes optical changes in the eye that can reduce the objective and subjective measurement of accommodation.ResumenObjetivoProbamos la hipótesis de que los cambios de la acomodación tras la instilación de Hidrocloruro de Fenilefrina (PHCl) observados en algunos estudios podrían estar originados por los cambios en la óptica.MétodosRealizamos dos experimentos para probar los efectos de PHCl sobre la acomodación estática y dinámica en 8 y 6 sujetos, respectivamente. Se registraron las mediciones objetivas de frente de on...
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Prevalence of esophoria in concussed patients
DiscussionNear esophoria was found in nearly one-third of this practice-based sample of concussed patients. Thus, it was more common than typically believed to be the case. Two proposed oculomotor-based mechanisms related to these symptomatic esophoric patients included phoria decompensation and excessive accommodative vergence.ResumenObjetivoEvaluar la prevalencia de la endoforia de cerca en pacientes con conmoción, en un centro privado de neuro-optometría.MétodosSe realizó un análisis retrospectivo, en un centro privado de neuro-optometría, con revisión de las historias de...
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Publication bias and the chase for statistical significance
Publication date: April–June 2018Source: Journal of Optometry, Volume 11, Issue 2Author(s): Iván Marín-Franch (Source: Journal of Optometry)
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Beta2 adrenergic receptor silencing change intraocular pressure in New Zealand rabbits
ConclusionThe use of siRNA against the beta2 adrenergic receptors could provide an interesting therapeutic strategy for glaucoma treatment.ResumenObjetivoEl glaucoma consiste en un grupo de neuropatías ópticas progresivas caracterizadas por degeneración del nervio óptico y pérdida irreversible del campo visual. La elevación de la presión intraocular es el único factor de riesgo tratable probado, centrándose los productos comerciales para el tratamiento del glaucoma en la reducción de la presión intraocular. Estos fármacos pueden tener diver...
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

More sensitive correlation of afferent pupillary defect with ganglion cell complex
This study investigated the correlation between the relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) in optic neuropathy.MethodsRAPD assessment was performed using a log unit neutral density filter bar. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography RTVue-100 (Optovue) was used to examine the subjects. The optic nerve head pattern (ONH) was subdivided and identified for the purpose of the study into circumpapillary RNFLT (cpRNFLT) and peripheral circumpapillary RNFLT (pcpRNFLT). The cpRNFLT, pcpRNFLT and ganglion cell complex (GCC) parameters were analyzed.ResultsEighteen females and ...
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Orbital magnetic resonance imaging is useful in age-related distance esotropia
Publication date: April–June 2018Source: Journal of Optometry, Volume 11, Issue 2Author(s): Pilar Gómez de Liaño Sanchez, Gloria Olavarri González, Pilar Merino Sanz, Jose C. Escribano VillafruelaAbstractPurposeTo describe findings for orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with age-related distance esotropia (ARDE).MethodsWe compared 31 orbital MRI from patients with ARDE (77 ± 7 SD years) with 2 control groups: 32 orbits from individuals aged 18–50 years (33 ± 8 SD years) and 16 orbits from individuals aged>60 years (77 ± ...
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Influence of refractive error on pupillary dynamics in the normal and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) populations
ConclusionsOver a range of dynamic and static pupillary parameters, the PLR was influenced by refractive error in both populations. In cases of high refractive error, the PLR parameters may need to be compensated for this factor for proper categorization and diagnosis.ResumenObjetivoExisten diversos estudios que han investigado el diámetro pupilar estático y basal en individuos con visión normal en todo el espectro de errores refractivos. Sin embargo, ninguno de ellos ha evaluado el reflejo dinámico pupilar a la luz (RPL). En el presente estudio, se evaluaron tanto los parámetros pupilare...
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Assessment of neuro-optometric rehabilitation using the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test in adults with acquired brain injury
DiscussionThe results of the present study demonstrated considerable improvements in the DEM test scores following the oculomotor-based training, thus reflecting more time-optimal and accurate saccadic tracking after the training. The DEM test should be considered as another clinical test of global saccadic tracking performance in the ABI population.ResumenObjetivoEste estudio piloto trató de determinar la eficacia del uso de la prueba DEM (Developmental Eye Movement) en la población adulta con daño cerebral adquirido (DCA) para cuantificar clínicamente los efectos de la rehabilitación/te...
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Agreement between total corneal astigmatism calculated by vector summation and total corneal astigmatism measured by ray tracing using Galilei double Scheimpflug analyzer
This study enrolled a total of 204 right eyes of 204 normal subjects. The eyes were measured using a Galilei double Scheimpflug analyzer. The measured parameters included simulated keratometric astigmatism using the keratometric index, anterior corneal astigmatism using the corneal refractive index, posterior corneal astigmatism, and TCARay. TCAVec was derived by vector summation of the astigmatism on the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces. The magnitudes and axes of TCAVec and TCARay were compared. The Pearson correlation coefficient and Bland–Altman plots were used to assess the relationship and agreement betw...
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Visual outcomes and management after corneal refractive surgery: A review
Publication date: April–June 2018Source: Journal of Optometry, Volume 11, Issue 2Author(s): Ane Murueta-Goyena, Pilar CañadasAbstractCorneal refractive surgery procedures are widely performed to permanently correct refractive errors. Overall, refractive surgeries are safe, predictable and present high rates of satisfaction. Nevertheless, the induced epithelial, stromal and nerve damage alters corneal integrity and function, triggering a regenerative response. Complications that arise from corneal wound healing process might directly impact on visual outcomes of keratorefractive procedures. Most of these compli...
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Goldmann applanation tonometry, rebound tonometry and dynamic contour tonometry in keratoconus
Publication date: April–June 2018Source: Journal of Optometry, Volume 11, Issue 2Author(s): Maddalena De Bernardo, Nicola Rosa (Source: Journal of Optometry)
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Reply to comment by De Bernardo and Rosa on “Evaluation of Goldmann applanation tonometry, rebound tonometry and dynamic contour tonometry in keratoconus”
Publication date: April–June 2018Source: Journal of Optometry, Volume 11, Issue 2Author(s): Fatih Özcura, Nilgün Yıldırım (Source: Journal of Optometry)
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Avoiding misinterpretations of Kappa angle for clinical research studies with Pentacam
Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018Source: Journal of OptometryAuthor(s): Manuel Rodríguez-Vallejo, David P. Piñero, Joaquín Fernández (Source: Journal of Optometry)
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Effect of age in the ciliary muscle during accommodation: Sectorial analysis
ConclusionThe anterior ciliary muscle area tends to increase with accommodation. The presbyopic nasal, inferior, and temporal ciliary muscle seem to have the same contractile capability as the young presbyopic ciliary muscle. These results might help to increase the evidences in the knowledge regarding the modern understanding of accommodation biometry and biomechanics.ResumenObjetivoComparar los cambios en el área del músculo ciliar en diferentes sectores entre ojos con pre-presbicia y presbicia durante la acomodación, por medio de un tomógrafo de coherencia óptica (OCT) de segmento ante...
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Enantiomorphism and rule similarity in the astigmatism axes of fellow eyes: A population-based study
Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018Source: Journal of OptometryAuthor(s): Hassan Hashemi, Amir Asharlous, Abbasali Yekta, Hadi Ostadimoghaddam, Masumeh Mohebi, Mohamadreza Aghamirsalim, Mehdi KhabazkhoobAbstractPurposeTo evaluate the relationship patterns between astigmatism axes of fellow eyes (rule similarity and symmetry) and to determine the prevalence of each pattern in the studied population.MethodsThis population-based study was conducted in 2015 in Iran. All participants had tests for visual acuity, objective refraction, subjective refraction (if cooperative), and assessment of eye health at the slit-la...
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Influence of contrast polarity on the accommodative response
ConclusionsContrast polarity does not seem to influence the accommodative response when reading text from an electronic microdisplay.ResumenObjetivoEvaluar los cambios de la respuesta acomodativa del ojo al leer un texto en diferentes condiciones de polaridad de contraste: letras negras sobre fondo blanco (condición BoW) y letras blancas sobre fondo negro (condición WoB).MétodosEn este estudio experimental participaron dieciocho sujetos de edades comprendidas entre 21 y 41 años. Se obtuvo objetivamente la respuesta acomodativa (AR) del ojo al leer un texto con polaridad de contraste BoW o WoB co...
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Effect of distance vision and refractive error on the spontaneous eye blink activity in human subjects in primary eye gaze
ConclusionsThe studies indicate that some form of visual target could be useful to promote constancy of spontaneous eye blink activity over time, but that a distance visual target (when provided) does not need to be seen clearly.ResumenObjetivoEvaluar si el tipo y visibilidad del objetivo visual afecta a la tasa de parpadeo espontáneo del ojo (SEBR) en posición primaria de la mirada y en silencio.MétodosSe realizaron grabaciones de vídeo de jóvenes adultos sanos, emétropes (n = 32), o que utilizaban gafas para el error refractivo (rango: –4,75 D y +4,5 D (n =&n...
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Expanding the traditional role of optometry: Current practice patterns and attitudes to enhanced glaucoma services in Ireland
ConclusionIrish optometrists are well equipped with the traditional tests used in glaucoma detection. However, implementation of enhanced referral schemes or glaucoma monitoring or management services would require equipment upgrades and associated training in at least half of the surveyed practices. There is strong interest in furthering optometric professional development and expanding the traditional role boundaries of optometrists, incorporating further education as an essential prerequisite to an enhanced scope of practice.ResumenObjetivoEstudiar la disponibilidad actual y el uso del equipo diagnóstico para la ...
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Immediate effect of a tear enhancer and meibomian gland expression on the corneal surface and whole eye higher order aberrations
Publication date: Available online 24 April 2018Source: Journal of OptometryAuthor(s): Giancarlo Montani, Paul J. Murphy, Sudi PatelAbstractPurposeTo investigate changes in higher order ocular aberrations (HOA) induced by the administration of 0.15% sodium hyaluronate tear enhancer (TE) and meibomian gland expression (ME) on the tear film of normal subjects.MethodsHOA values were obtained from the corneal surface (CS) and whole eye (WE), using a corneal topographer and Shack–Hartmann aberrometer, from both eyes of 50 subjects (25 females, mean age ± sd 32.5 ± 11.0 years, and 25 males...
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Accommodative insufficiency in a student population in Iran
ConclusionThe prevalence of AI in the present study is lower than the most prevalence rates reported in previous studies. In the present study, gender and AI showed a strong association, such that AI prevalence was significantly higher in females than males.ResumenObjetivoDeterminar la prevalencia de la insuficiencia acomodativa (IA) y su relación con la edad, sexo, y errores refractivos en una población universitaria de Irán.MétodosEl presente estudio se realizó de forma transversal en 2017. Se realizaron pruebas optométricas a todos los estudiantes, incluyendo medición de ...
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

HbA1c and retinal sensitivity in diabetics using microperimetry
ConclusionRetinal sensitivity at the central 10° of the macula is affected by changes in HbA1c values.ResumenObjetivoEl objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la relación entre los valores de HbA1c y la sensibilidad de la retina en los 10 grados centrales de la misma utilizando el microperímetro MP-1.MétodosSe realizó un estudio prospectivo en 32 sujetos sanos (grupo control) y 60 pacientes diabéticos. Los pacientes diabéticos se dividieron en dos grupos: el grupo 1 se compuso de 30 pacientes sin retinopatía diabética (RD), y el grupo 2 incluyó a 30 pacien...
Source: Journal of Optometry - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research