Galacto-oligosaccharides Protect the Intestinal Barrier by Maintaining the Tight Junction Network and Modulating the Inflammatory Responses after a Challenge with the Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol in Human Caco-2 Cell Monolayers and B6C3F1 Mice [Nutritional Immunology]
Background: The integrity of the epithelial layer in the gastrointestinal tract protects organisms from exposure to luminal antigens, which are considered the primary cause of chronic intestinal inflammation and allergic responses. The common wheat-associated fungal toxin deoxynivalenol acts as a specific disruptor of the intestinal tight junction network and hence might contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. Objective: The aim of the current study was to assess whether defined galacto-oligosaccharides (GOSs) can prevent deoxynivalenol-induced epithelial dysfunction. Methods: Human epithelial inte...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Akbari, P., Braber, S., Alizadeh, A., Verheijden, K. A., Schoterman, M. H., Kraneveld, A. D., Garssen, J., Fink-Gremmels, J. Tags: Nutritional Immunology Source Type: research

Household Food Insecurity Is a Stronger Marker of Adequacy of Nutrient Intakes among Canadian Compared to American Youth and Adults [Community and International Nutrition]
Conclusions: This study suggests that household food insecurity is a stronger marker of nutritional vulnerability in Canada than in the United States. The results highlight the need for research to elucidate the effects of domestic policies affecting factors such as food prices and fortification on the nutritional manifestations of food insecurity. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Kirkpatrick, S. I., Dodd, K. W., Parsons, R., Ng, C., Garriguet, D., Tarasuk, V. Tags: Community and International Nutrition Source Type: research

Malawian Mothers Consider Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Acceptable for Children throughout a 1-Year Intervention, but Deviation from User Recommendations Is Common [Community and International Nutrition]
Conclusions: The acceptability of LNS products was good and was sustained for 12 mo in this rural Malawian population. However, sharing of the products with family members and deviation from other feeding recommendations were frequent, which means that individually targeted children were likely to receive less than the intended dose of the LNS. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00945698. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Ashorn, U., Alho, L., Arimond, M., Dewey, K. G., Maleta, K., Phiri, N., Phuka, J., Vosti, S. A., Zeilani, M., Ashorn, P. Tags: Community and International Nutrition Source Type: research

Midupper Arm Circumference Outperforms Weight-Based Measures of Nutritional Status in Children with Diarrhea [Community and International Nutrition]
Background: Undernutrition contributes to 45% of all deaths in children
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Modi, P., Nasrin, S., Hawes, M., Glavis-Bloom, J., Alam, N. H., Hossain, M. I., Levine, A. C. Tags: Community and International Nutrition Source Type: research

A Randomized Trial of Iron-Biofortified Pearl Millet in School Children in India [Community and International Nutrition]
The objective of this randomized efficacy trial was to determine the effects of iron-biofortified pearl millet (Fe-PM) on iron status compared with control pearl millet (Control-PM). Methods: A randomized trial of biofortified pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), bred to enhance iron content, was conducted in 246 children (12–16 y) for 6 mo in Maharashtra, India. Iron status [hemoglobin, serum ferritin (SF), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and total body iron (TBI)], inflammation (C-reactive protein and α-1 acid glycoprotein), and anthropometric indices were evaluated at enrollment and after 4 and 6 mo. Hodg...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Finkelstein, J. L., Mehta, S., Udipi, S. A., Ghugre, P. S., Luna, S. V., Wenger, M. J., Murray-Kolb, L. E., Przybyszewski, E. M., Haas, J. D. Tags: Community and International Nutrition Source Type: research

Higher Protein Intake Is Associated with Higher Lean Mass and Quadriceps Muscle Strength in Adult Men and Women [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that maintaining adequate protein intake with age may help preserve muscle mass and strength in adult men and women. Dietary protein types may differentially affect muscle mass and strength. Whether PP is a marker of dietary quality or has a direct effect on muscle strength (independent of lean mass) needs to be further clarified. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Sahni, S., Mangano, K. M., Hannan, M. T., Kiel, D. P., McLean, R. R. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Confirmatory Factor Analysis Compared with Principal Component Analysis to Derive Dietary Patterns: A Longitudinal Study in Adult Women [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusion: Although quite similar dietary patterns were derived with the use of PCA and CFA, this study supports the alternative use of CFA to PCA for the identification of dietary patterns in epidemiologic studies. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Bedard, A., Garcia-Aymerich, J., Sanchez, M., Le Moual, N., Clavel-Chapelon, F., Boutron-Ruault, M.-C., Maccario, J., Varraso, R. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Palm Oil Consumption Increases LDL Cholesterol Compared with Vegetable Oils Low in Saturated Fat in a Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusions: Palm oil consumption results in higher LDL cholesterol than do vegetable oils low in saturated fat and higher HDL cholesterol than do trans fat–containing oils in humans. The effects of palm oil on blood lipids are as expected on the basis of its high saturated fat content, which supports the reduction in palm oil use by replacement with vegetable oils low in saturated and trans fat. This systematic review was registered with the PROSPERO registry at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42012002601#.VU3wvSGeDRZ as CRD42012002601. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Sun, Y., Neelakantan, N., Wu, Y., Lote-Oke, R., Pan, A., van Dam, R. M. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Vitamin B-12 Deficiency in Children Is Associated with Grade Repetition and School Absenteeism, Independent of Folate, Iron, Zinc, or Vitamin A Status Biomarkers [Nutritional Epidemiology]
We examined the associations of micronutrient status biomarkers with the risk of grade repetition and rates of school absenteeism in a cohort of school children. Methods: We recruited 3156 children aged 5–12 y from public schools in Bogota, Colombia. Circulating ferritin, hemoglobin, zinc, vitamin A, and vitamin B-12; erythrocyte folate; and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were measured in blood samples obtained at the beginning of the year. Absenteeism was recorded weekly during the school year, and grade repetition was determined the next year. Risk ratios for grade repetition and rate ratios for absenteeism were es...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Duong, M.-C., Mora-Plazas, M., Marin, C., Villamor, E. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

A Healthy Lifestyle Score Is Associated with Cardiometabolic and Neuroendocrine Risk Factors among Puerto Rican Adults [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Background: Although individual healthy lifestyle behaviors may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, few studies have analyzed the combined effect of multiple lifestyle components as one all-inclusive measure on such outcomes, much less in minority populations. Objective: We aimed to develop a Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS) that included several lifestyle recommendations and to test its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and allostatic load (AL) and their cardiometabolic and neuroendocrine factors in Puerto Ricans. Methods: In a cross-sectional study in 787 Puerto Ricans living in Boston (aged 45–75 y), we deve...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Sotos-Prieto, M., Bhupathiraju, S. N., Falcon, L. M., Gao, X., Tucker, K. L., Mattei, J. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Usual Dietary Energy Density Distribution Is Positively Associated with Excess Body Weight in Mexican Children [Nutritional Epidemiology]
The objective of this study was to compare usual DED distributions of nonoverweight vs. overweight or obese (OW/O) Mexican children. Methods: The study used 24-h recall (24HR) data from 2367 children aged 5–11 y from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012). Repeated 24HR measures were obtained in a random sample (~10%) to estimate usual intake distributions by using the Iowa State University (PC-Side) method. Implausible dietary reports were identified. Multivariate linear regression models were used to evaluate the relation between DED and body mass index status and to compare results w...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Aburto, T. C., Cantoral, A., Hernandez-Barrera, L., Carriquiry, A. L., Rivera, J. A. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Calcium Plus Vitamin D Supplementation During the Third Trimester of Pregnancy in Adolescents Accustomed to Low Calcium Diets Does Not Affect Infant Bone Mass at Early Lactation in a Randomized Controlled Trial [Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition]
Background: Pregnancy and lactation in adolescents with low calcium intake may impair fetal growth and infant bone mass. Objective: We investigated the effects of calcium plus vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy in Brazilian adolescent mothers consuming low calcium diets (~600mg/d) on fetal biometry and infant bone mass, and the relation between infant and maternal bone mass during early lactation. Methods: Infants of mothers who received calcium (600 mg/d) plus cholecalciferol (200 IU/d) supplementation (n = 30) or placebo (n = 26) from 26 wk of gestation until parturition were studied. Fetal biometric measuremen...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Diogenes, M. E. L., Bezerra, F. F., Rezende, E. P., Donangelo, C. M. Tags: Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition Source Type: research

Vitamin B-12 Status Differs among Pregnant, Lactating, and Control Women with Equivalent Nutrient Intakes [Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition]
Background: Limited data are available from controlled studies on biomarkers of maternal vitamin B-12 status. Objective: We sought to quantify the effects of pregnancy and lactation on the vitamin B-12 status response to a known and highly controlled vitamin B-12 intake. Methods: As part of a 10–12 wk feeding trial, pregnant (26–29 wk gestation; n = 26), lactating (5 wk postpartum; n = 28), and control (nonpregnant, nonlactating; n = 21) women consumed vitamin B-12 amounts of ~8.6 μg/d [mixed diet (~6 μg/d) plus a prenatal multivitamin supplement (2.6 μg/d)]. Serum vitamin B-12, holotranscobalamin (bio...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Bae, S., West, A. A., Yan, J., Jiang, X., Perry, C. A., Malysheva, O., Stabler, S. P., Allen, R. H., Caudill, M. A. Tags: Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition Source Type: research

Dietary Silicon Deficiency Does Not Exacerbate Diet-Induced Fatty Lesions in Female ApoE Knockout Mice [Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition]
Background: Dietary silicon has been positively linked with vascular health and protection against atherosclerotic plaque formation, but the mechanism of action is unclear. Objectives: We investigated the effect of dietary silicon on 1) serum and aorta silicon concentrations, 2) the development of aortic lesions and serum lipid concentrations, and 3) the structural and biomechanic properties of the aorta. Methods: Two studies, of the same design, were conducted to address the above objectives. Female mice, lacking the apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene, and therefore susceptible to atherosclerosis, were separated into 3 groups o...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Jugdaohsingh, R., Kessler, K., Messner, B., Stoiber, M., Pedro, L. D., Schima, H., Laufer, G., Powell, J. J., Bernhard, D. Tags: Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition Source Type: research

Maternal Choline Status, but Not Fetal Genotype, Influences Cord Plasma Choline Metabolite Concentrations [Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition]
Background: Choline deficiency during pregnancy can lead to adverse birth outcomes, including impaired neurodevelopment and birth defects. Genetic variants of choline and one-carbon metabolism may also influence birth outcomes by altering plasma choline concentrations. The effects of maternal ad libitum choline intake during pregnancy and fetal genetic variants on maternal and cord concentrations of choline and its metabolites are unknown. Objectives: This prospective study sought to assess the effect of 1) maternal dietary choline intake on maternal and cord plasma concentrations of choline and its metabolites, and 2) fet...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Visentin, C. E., Masih, S., Plumptre, L., Malysheva, O., Nielsen, D. E., Sohn, K.-J., Ly, A., Lausman, A. Y., Berger, H., Croxford, R., El-Sohemy, A., Caudill, M. A., O'Connor, D. L., Kim, Y.-I. Tags: Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition Source Type: research

Lactation Consultant Support from Late Pregnancy with an Educational Intervention at 4 Months of Age Delays the Introduction of Complementary Foods in a Randomized Controlled Trial [Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition]
Conclusions: Providing an LC and educational resources at 4-mo postpartum to predominantly well-educated, mainly European, women can delay the introduction of complementary foods until 5 mo of age, but not until the WHO recommendation of 6 mo. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00892983. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Cameron, S. L., Heath, A.-L. M., Gray, A. R., Churcher, B., Davies, R. S., Newlands, A., Galland, B. C., Sayers, R. M., Lawrence, J. A., Taylor, B. J., Taylor, R. W. Tags: Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition Source Type: research

Bovine Colostrum Modulates Myeloablative Chemotherapy-Induced Gut Toxicity in Piglets [Nutrition and Disease]
Background: Intensive chemotherapy frequently results in gut toxicity, indicated by oral and intestinal mucositis, resulting in poor treatment outcomes and increased mortality. There are no effective preventive strategies against gut toxicity and the role of diet is unknown. Objective: We hypothesized that the severity of chemotherapy-induced gut toxicity in early life is diet-dependent, and that intake of bovine colostrum (BC) provides better gut protection than an artificial milk replacer (MR). Methods: A total of 37 3-d-old pigs received for 6 d either intravenous saline control or myeloablative treatment with busulfa...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Pontoppidan, P. E., Shen, R. L., Cilieborg, M. S., Jiang, P., Kissow, H., Petersen, B. L., Thymann, T., Heilmann, C., Muller, K., Sangild, P. T. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Intake Has No Dose-Response Effect on Conventional Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Overweight Adults at High Risk of Developing Cardiovascular Disease [Nutrition and Disease]
Background: Improving diet and lifestyle is important for prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Observational evidence suggests that increasing fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption may lower CVD risk, largely through modulation of established risk factors, but intervention data are required to fully elucidate the mechanisms by which FVs exert benefits on vascular health. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the dose-response effect of FV intake on cardiovascular risk factors in adults at high CVD risk. Methods: This was a randomized controlled parallel group study involving overweight adults (BMI:>27 ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: McEvoy, C. T., Wallace, I. R., Hamill, L. L., Hunter, S. J., Neville, C. E., Patterson, C. C., Woodside, J. V., Young, I. S., McKinley, M. C. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Supplementation of the Pure Flavonoids Epicatechin and Quercetin Affects Some Biomarkers of Endothelial Dysfunction and Inflammation in (Pre)Hypertensive Adults: A Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial [Nutrition and Disease]
Conclusions: In (pre)hypertensive men and women, epicatechin may contribute to the cardioprotective effects of cocoa and tea through improvements in endothelial function. Quercetin may contribute to the cardioprotective effects of tea possibly by improving endothelial function and reducing inflammation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01691404. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Dower, J. I., Geleijnse, J. M., Gijsbers, L., Schalkwijk, C., Kromhout, D., Hollman, P. C. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Cheddar Cheese Ripening Affects Plasma Nonesterified Fatty Acid and Serum Insulin Concentrations in Growing Pigs [Nutrition and Disease]
The objective of this study was to investigate by means of a porcine model how cheeses with different ripening times affect blood glucose, insulin, and lipid concentrations and fecal-fat excretion. Methods: A parallel-arm randomized intervention study with 36 Landrace x Yorkshire x Duroc crossbred 3-mo-old female pigs was conducted. The pigs were fed a 21-d butter-rich run-in diet (143 g of butter/kg diet), followed by a 14-d intervention with 1 of 3 isocaloric diets: 4-mo ripened cheddar (4-MRC) diet, 14-mo ripened cheddar (14-MRC) diet, or 24-mo ripened cheddar (24-MRC) diet (350 g of cheese/kg diet). Serum cholesterol, ...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Thorning, T. K., Bendsen, N. T., Jensen, S. K., Ardo, Y., Tholstrup, T., Astrup, A., Raben, A. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 Modulates Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in Older Men and Women [Nutrition and Disease]
Background: Advancing age is linked to a decrease in beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium spp. and reduced aspects of innate immune function. Objectives: We investigated whether daily consumption of a probiotic [Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (BC30); GanedenBC30] could improve immune function and gut function in men and women aged 65–80 y, using a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. Method: Thirty-six volunteers were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either a placebo (microcrystalline cellulose) or the probiotic BC30 (1 x 109 colony-forming units/capsule). Volunteers consumed 1 treat...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Nyangale, E. P., Farmer, S., Cash, H. A., Keller, D., Chernoff, D., Gibson, G. R. Tags: Nutrition and Disease Source Type: research

Ingestion of Casein in a Milk Matrix Modulates Dietary Protein Digestion and Absorption Kinetics but Does Not Modulate Postprandial Muscle Protein Synthesis in Older Men [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Conclusions: Casein ingestion in a milk matrix delays protein digestion and absorption but does not modulate postprandial muscle protein synthesis when compared to the ingestion of micellar casein only in healthy older men. This trial was registered at Nederlands Trial Register as NTR4429. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Churchward-Venne, T. A., Snijders, T., Linkens, A. M., Hamer, H. M., van Kranenburg, J., van Loon, L. J. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Citrulline Supplementation Induces Changes in Body Composition and Limits Age-Related Metabolic Changes in Healthy Male Rats [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Background: Aging is associated with profound metabolic disturbances, and citrulline may be of use to limit them. Objective: The aim of this work was to evaluate the long-term effect of citrulline supplementation on metabolism in healthy aged rats. Methods: Twenty-month-old male rats were randomly assigned to be fed (ad libitum) for 12 wk with either a citrulline-enriched diet (1 g ⋅ kg–1 ⋅ d–1) or a standard diet [rendered isonitrogenous by addition of nonessential amino acids (NEAAs)]. Motor activity and muscle strength were measured, body composition was assessed, and muscle metabolism (protein str...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Moinard, C., Le Plenier, S., Noirez, P., Morio, B., Bonnefont-Rousselot, D., Kharchi, C., Ferry, A., Neveux, N., Cynober, L., Raynaud-Simon, A. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Fermented Infant Formula Increases Ileal Protein Digestibility and Reduces Ileal Proteolytic Activity Compared with Standard and Hydrolyzed Infant Formulas in Piglets [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Conclusions: The FF in piglets had a significantly higher apparent ileal crude protein digestibility than the SF and HF and displayed lower ileal proteolytic activity than the SF. Both effects may contribute to the alleviation of functional gastrointestinal symptoms reported in infants fed fermented infant milk formula. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Abrahamse, E., Huybers, S., Alles, M. S., Renes, I. B., Knol, J., Bouritius, H., Ludwig, T. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Low-Molecular-Weight Peptides from Salmon Protein Prevent Obesity-Linked Glucose Intolerance, Inflammation, and Dyslipidemia in LDLR-/-/ApoB100/100 Mice [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Background: We previously reported that fish proteins can alleviate metabolic syndrome (MetS) in obese animals and human subjects. Objectives: We tested whether a salmon peptide fraction (SPF) could improve MetS in mice and explored potential mechanisms of action. Methods: ApoB100 only, LDL receptor knockout male mice (LDLR–/–/ApoB100/100) were fed a high-fat and -sucrose (HFS) diet (25 g/kg sucrose). Two groups were fed 10 g/kg casein hydrolysate (HFS), and 1 group was additionally fed 4.35 g/kg fish oil (FO; HFS+FO). Two other groups were fed 10 g SPF/kg (HFS+SPF), and 1 group was additionally fed 4.35 g FO...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Chevrier, G., Mitchell, P. L., Rioux, L.-E., Hasan, F., Jin, T., Roblet, C. R., Doyen, A., Pilon, G., St-Pierre, P., Lavigne, C., Bazinet, L., Jacques, H., Gill, T., McLeod, R. S., Marette, A. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

High Preformed Vitamin A Intake during Pregnancy Prevents Embryonic Accumulation of Intact {beta}-Carotene from the Maternal Circulation in Mice [Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions]
Conclusions: In mice, transfer of intact BC to the embryo is attenuated by high tissue vitamin A concentrations. Maternal vitamin A intake and BC availability activate a placental transcriptional response to protect the embryo from retinoid and carotenoid excess. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Wassef, L., Shete, V., Costabile, B., Rodas, R., Quadro, L. Tags: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Source Type: research

Dietary Plant Sterol Esters Must Be Hydrolyzed to Reduce Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption in Hamsters [Biochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Mechanisms]
This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the cholesterol-lowering effects of PSE require hydrolysis to free sterols (FSs). Methods: Male Syrian hamsters were fed atherogenic diets (AIN-93M purified diet containing 0.12% cholesterol and 8% coconut oil) to which one of the following was added: no PSEs or ethers (control), 5% sterol stearate esters, 5% sterol palmitate esters (PEs), 5% sterol oleate esters (OEs), 5% sterol stearate ethers (STs; to mimic nonhydrolyzable PSE), or 3% FSs plus 2% sunflower oil. The treatments effectively created a spectrum of PSE hydrolysis across which cholesterol metabolism could be...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Carden, T. J., Hang, J., Dussault, P. H., Carr, T. P. Tags: Biochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Mechanisms Source Type: research

Expression of Selenoprotein Genes Is Affected by Obesity of Pigs Fed a High-Fat Diet [Biochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Mechanisms]
This study explored impacts of high-fat diet-induced obesity on inflammation and expressions of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes in 10 tissues of pigs. Methods: Plasma and 10 tissues were collected from pigs (n = 10) fed a corn-soy–based control diet or that diet containing 3–7% lard from weanling to finishing (180 d). Plasma concentrations (n = 8) of cytokines and thyroid hormones and tissue mRNA abundance (n = 4) of 25 selenoprotein genes and 16 obesity-related genes were compared between the pigs fed the control and high-fat diets. Stepwise regression was applied to analyze correlations among all thes...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Zhao, H., Li, K., Tang, J.-Y., Zhou, J.-C., Wang, K.-N., Xia, X.-J., Lei, X. G. Tags: Biochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Mechanisms Source Type: research

Common Variants at Putative Regulatory Sites of the Tissue Nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase Gene Influence Circulating Pyridoxal 5'-Phosphate Concentration in Healthy Adults [Biochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Mechanisms]
Background: Vitamin B-6 interconversion enzymes are important for supplying pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the co-enzyme form, to tissues. Variants in the genes for these enzymes [tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate oxidase, pyridoxal kinase, and pyridoxal phosphatase] could affect enzyme function and vitamin B-6 status. Objectives: We tested whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes influence vitamin B-6 status markers [plasma PLP, pyridoxal (PL), and 4-pyridoxic acid (PA)], and explored potential functional effects of the SNPs. Methods: Study subjects were young,...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Carter, T. C., Pangilinan, F., Molloy, A. M., Fan, R., Wang, Y., Shane, B., Gibney, E. R., Midttun, O., Ueland, P. M., Cropp, C. D., Kim, Y., Wilson, A. F., Bailey-Wilson, J. E., Brody, L. C., Mills, J. L. Tags: Biochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Mechanisms Source Type: research

Toward a Just, Nutritious, and Sustainable Food System: The False Dichotomy of Localism versus Supercenterism [Issues and Opinions]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Smith Taillie, L., Jaacks, L. M. Tags: Issues and Opinions Source Type: research

Importance of Animals in Agricultural Sustainability and Food Security [Issues and Opinions]
A conservative projection shows the world’s population growing by 32% (to 9.5 billion) by 2050 and 53% (to 11 billion) by 2100 compared with its current level of 7.2 billion. Because most arable land worldwide is already in use, and water and energy also are limiting, increased production of food will require a substantial increase in efficiency. In this article, we highlight the importance of animals to achieving food security in terms of their valuable contributions to agricultural sustainability, especially in developing countries, and the high nutritional value of animal products in the diet. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - July 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Reynolds, L. P., Wulster-Radcliffe, M. C., Aaron, D. K., Davis, T. A. Tags: Issues and Opinions Source Type: research

Calendar of Events [From the American Society for Nutrition]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Tags: From the American Society for Nutrition Source Type: research

Erratum for Hector et al. Whey protein supplementation preserves postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis during short-term energy restriction in overweight and obese adults. J Nutr 2015;145:246-52. [Errata]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Tags: Errata Source Type: research

Erratum for Vadiveloo et al. Greater healthful food variety as measured by the US Healthy Food Diversity Index is associated with lower odds of metabolic syndrome and its components in US adults. J Nutr 2015;145:564-71. [Errata]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Tags: Errata Source Type: research

Reply to Traissac et al. [Letters to the Editor]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Schroder, H., Funtikova, A. Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Association of Soft Drink Consumption with Increased Waist Circumference Should Be Adjusted for Body Mass Index [Letters to the Editor]
(Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Traissac, P., El Ati, J., Gartner, A., Martin-Prevel, Y., Delpeuch, F. Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

A Dual-Carbon-and-Nitrogen Stable Isotope Ratio Model Is Not Superior to a Single-Carbon Stable Isotope Ratio Model for Predicting Added Sugar Intake in Southwest Virginian Adults [Methodology and Mathematical Modeling]
Conclusions: The data do not provide evidence that the dual-isotope method is superior for predicting AS/SSB intakes within a southwest Virginian population. Our results support the potential of the 13C value of finger-stick blood to serve as an objective measure of AS/SSB intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02193009. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Hedrick, V. E., Zoellner, J. M., Jahren, A. H., Woodford, N. A., Bostic, J. N., Davy, B. M. Tags: Methodology and Mathematical Modeling Source Type: research

The Probiotic Mixture VSL#3 Has Differential Effects on Intestinal Immune Parameters in Healthy Female BALB/c and C57BL/6 Mice [Nutritional Immunology]
Conclusion: VSL#3 treatment mediates mouse strain–specific alterations in immunologic phenotype in conditions of homeostasis, suggesting that the effects of probiotic bacteria depend on the genetic background of the host. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Mariman, R., Tielen, F., Koning, F., Nagelkerken, L. Tags: Nutritional Immunology Source Type: research

Supplementation of Maternal Diets during Pregnancy and for 6 Months Postpartum and Infant Diets Thereafter with Small-Quantity Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Does Not Promote Child Growth by 18 Months of Age in Rural Malawi: A Randomized Controlled Trial [Community and International Nutrition]
Conclusions: The findings do not support a hypothesis that provision of SQ-LNSs to women in pregnancy and postpartum and to children from 6 to 18 mo of age would promote child growth in this Malawian study area. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01239693. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Ashorn, P., Alho, L., Ashorn, U., Cheung, Y. B., Dewey, K. G., Gondwe, A., Harjunmaa, U., Lartey, A., Phiri, N., Phiri, T. E., Vosti, S. A., Zeilani, M., Maleta, K. Tags: Community and International Nutrition Source Type: research

Environmental, Dietary, and Behavioral Factors Distinguish Chinese Adults with High Waist-to-Height Ratio with and without Inflammation [Community and International Nutrition]
Conclusion: These results document different underlying pathogenic and obesogenic risk factors for visceral adiposity with and without inflammation in Chinese adults, suggesting that context-specific approaches may be needed to prevent and treat inflammation. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Thompson, A. L., Adair, L., Gordon-Larsen, P., Zhang, B., Popkin, B. Tags: Community and International Nutrition Source Type: research

Prenatal Supplementation with Docosahexaenoic Acid Has No Effect on Growth through 60 Months of Age [Community and International Nutrition]
Conclusion: Prenatal DHA supplementation did not affect height, weight, or BMI through 60 mo of age. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00646360. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Gonzalez-Casanova, I., Stein, A. D., Hao, W., Garcia-Feregrino, R., Barraza-Villarreal, A., Romieu, I., Rivera, J. A., Martorell, R., Ramakrishnan, U. Tags: Community and International Nutrition Source Type: research

The Deuterium Oxide-to-the-Mother Method Documents Adequate Breast-Milk Intake among Sri Lankan Infants [Community and International Nutrition]
The objectives of this study were to measure the human milk intake of Sri Lankan infants during the first 6 mo of age and to document the breastfeeding practices of their mothers. Methods: Forty-eight healthy mother-infant dyads were randomly recruited for this cross-sectional study at well-baby clinics. Milk intake was measured using the deuterium oxide–to-the-mother technique over a period of 2 wk. Information on breastfeeding practice and living standards of the participants were gathered using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results: Human milk intake was 672 ± 123 g ⋅ d–1 (mean &plus...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Bandara, T., Hettiarachchi, M., Liyanage, C., Amarasena, S., Wong, W. W. Tags: Community and International Nutrition Source Type: research

A 2-Year Integrated Agriculture and Nutrition and Health Behavior Change Communication Program Targeted to Women in Burkina Faso Reduces Anemia, Wasting, and Diarrhea in Children 3-12.9 Months of Age at Baseline: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial [Community and International Nutrition]
This study assessed the impact of Helen Keller International's (HKI) 2-y integrated agriculture [homestead food production (HFP)] and nutrition and health behavior change communication (BCC) program, targeted to women, on children's (3–12.9 mo old at baseline) anthropometry (stunting, wasting, and underweight), mean hemoglobin (Hb), anemia (Hb
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Olney, D. K., Pedehombga, A., Ruel, M. T., Dillon, A. Tags: Community and International Nutrition Source Type: research

Reported and Observed Controlling Feeding Practices Predict Child Eating Behavior after 12 Months [Community and International Nutrition]
Background: Controlling feeding practices are linked to children’s self-regulatory eating practices and weight status. Maternal reports of controlling feeding practices are not always significantly related to independently rated mealtime observations. However, prior studies only assessed 1 mealtime observation, which may not be representative of typical mealtime settings or routines. Objectives: The first aim was to examine associations between reported and observed maternal pressure to eat and restriction feeding practices at baseline (T1) and after ~12 mo (T2). The second aim was to evaluate relations between mate...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Bergmeier, H. J., Skouteris, H., Haycraft, E., Haines, J., Hooley, M. Tags: Community and International Nutrition Source Type: research

Maternal Protein Intake during Pregnancy Is Not Associated with Offspring Birth Weight in a Multiethnic Asian Population [Nutritional Epidemiology]
We examined the associations between maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy and infant birth size. Methods: Pregnant women (n = 835) from the Singapore GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes) mother–offspring cohort were studied. At 26–28 wk of gestation, the macronutrient intake of women was ascertained with the use of 24 h dietary recalls and 3 d food diaries. Weight, length, and ponderal index of their offspring were measured at birth. Associations were assessed by substitution models with the use of multiple linear regressions. Results: Mean ± SD maternal energy intake and p...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Chong, M. F.-F., Chia, A.-R., Colega, M., Tint, M.-T., Aris, I. M., Chong, Y.-S., Gluckman, P., Godfrey, K. M., Kwek, K., Saw, S.-M., Yap, F., van Dam, R. M., Lee, Y. S., on behalf of the GUSTO study group Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Breastfeeding Status at Age 3 Months Is Associated with Adiposity and Cardiometabolic Markers at Age 4 Years in Mexican Children [Nutritional Epidemiology]
The objective was to assess the association of BF status at 3 mo and duration with adiposity and cardiometabolic markers at 4 y. Methods: We studied 727 children with prospectively collected BF information and anthropometric measurements at 4 y, of whom 524 provided a nonfasting blood sample. BF status at 3 mo was classified as exclusive or predominant (EBF-PreBF), partial (PaBF), or nonbreastfeeding (NBF). Total duration of any BF was classified as 6 to 12 mo, and>12 mo. We modeled associations of BF with body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceri...
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Ramirez-Silva, I., Rivera, J. A., Trejo-Valdivia, B., Martorell, R., Stein, A. D., Romieu, I., Barraza-Villarreal, A., Ramakrishnan, U. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Dietary Fat Intake Modifies the Effect of a Common Variant in the LIPC Gene on Changes in Serum Lipid Concentrations during a Long-Term Weight-Loss Intervention Trial [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusion: Dietary fat intake modifies the effect of a common variant in LIPC on changes in serum lipids during a long-term weight-loss intervention in overweight or obese adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Xu, M., Ng, S. S., Bray, G. A., Ryan, D. H., Sacks, F. M., Ning, G., Qi, L. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Urinary Excretion of Select Dietary Polyphenol Metabolites Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Proximate but Not Remote Follow-Up in a Prospective Investigation in 2 Cohorts of US Women [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusions: These results suggest that specific flavonoid subclasses, including flavanones and flavonols, as well as caffeic acid, are associated with a lower T2D risk in relatively short-term follow-up but not during longer follow-up. Substantial within-person variability of the metabolites in single spot urine samples may limit the ability to capture associations with long-term disease risk. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Sun, Q., Wedick, N. M., Tworoger, S. S., Pan, A., Townsend, M. K., Cassidy, A., Franke, A. A., Rimm, E. B., Hu, F. B., van Dam, R. M. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Impacts of In Utero and Early Infant Taste Experiences on Later Taste Acceptance: A Systematic Review [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusion: Our systematic review clearly shows programming of the acceptance of bitter and specific tastes. For other tastes the results were either equivocal or confined to a few number of studies that precluded us from drawing conclusions. Further research should examine the association of salty and sour taste exposures on later preferences of these tastes. Long-term studies and randomized clinical trials on each type of taste are needed. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Nehring, I., Kostka, T., von Kries, R., Rehfuess, E. A. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research

Maternal Prepregnant Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain Are Associated with Initiation and Duration of Breastfeeding among Norwegian Mothers [Nutritional Epidemiology]
Conclusions: The results show the importance of encouraging women to start pregnancy with a healthy BMI as well as to have GWG within recommendations for the benefit of successful breastfeeding. The interactions with medical conditions further highlight the complexity of the associations. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)
Source: Journal of Nutrition - June 1, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Winkvist, A., Brantsaeter, A. L., Brandhagen, M., Haugen, M., Meltzer, H. M., Lissner, L. Tags: Nutritional Epidemiology Source Type: research