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ERAP1 and PDE8A Are Downregulated in Cattle Protected against Bovine Tuberculosis
In this study, we found thatERAP1 andPDE8A were downregulated in vaccinated cattle that were protected from experimentalM. bovis challenge. Remarkably, both genes encode proteins that have been negatively associated with immune protection against bTB.J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2017;27:237-245 (Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 14, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

< b > < i > ERAP1 < /i > < /b > and < b > < i > PDE8A < /i > < /b > Are Downregulated in Cattle Protected against Bovine Tuberculosis
In this study, we found thatERAP1 andPDE8A were downregulated in vaccinated cattle that were protected from experimentalM. bovis challenge. Remarkably, both genes encode proteins that have been negatively associated with immune protection against bTB.J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2017;27:237-245 (Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 13, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Expression and Characterization of Serotype 2 < b > < i > Streptococcus suis < /i > < /b > Arginine Deiminase
Conclusions: This study profoundly demonstrated the involvement of ArcA enzymatic activity inS. suis survival under acidic conditions.J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2017;27:133-146 (Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 12, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Structure-Function Analysis of the Periplasmic Escherichia coli Cyclophilin PpiA in Relation to Biofilm Formation
The presence of peptidyl-prolylcis/trans isomerases (PPIases, EC: 5.2.1.8) in all domains of life indicates their biological importance. Cyclophilin PpiA, present in the periplasm of gram-negative bacteria, possesses PPIase activity but its physiological functionsare still not clearly defined. Here, we demonstrate that the #x0394;ppiA deletion strain fromEscherichia coli exhibits an increased ability for biofilm formation and enhanced swimming motility compared to the wild-type strain. To identify structural features of PpiA which are necessary for the negative modulation of biofilm formation, we constructed a series of mu...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 11, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Structure-Function Analysis of the Periplasmic < b > < i > Escherichia coli < /i > < /b > Cyclophilin PpiA in Relation to Biofilm Formation
The presence of peptidyl-prolylcis/trans isomerases (PPIases, EC: 5.2.1.8) in all domains of life indicates their biological importance. Cyclophilin PpiA, present in the periplasm of gram-negative bacteria, possesses PPIase activity but its physiological functionsare still not clearly defined. Here, we demonstrate that the #x0394;ppiA deletion strain fromEscherichia coli exhibits an increased ability for biofilm formation and enhanced swimming motility compared to the wild-type strain. To identify structural features of PpiA which are necessary for the negative modulation of biofilm formation, we constructed a series of mu...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 8, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Overexpression of a Laccase with Dye Decolorization Activity from Bacillus sp. Induced in Escherichia coli
In this study, a novel laccase gene was cloned from Bacillus sp., analyzed, and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. The laccase was highly induced in theE. coli expression system with a maximum intracellular activity of 16 U mg-1 protein. The optimal temperature and pH of the purified laccase were 40 °C and 4.6, respectively, when ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate]) was used as the substrate. The purified laccase showed high stability in the pH range of 3.0-9.0, and retained more than 70% of its activity after 24 h of incubation at 40°C with a pH value of 9.0. Furthermore , the enzyme ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 1, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Overexpression of a Laccase with Dye Decolorization Activity from < b > < i > Bacillus < /i > < /b > sp. Induced in < b > < i > Escherichia coli < /i > < /b >
In this study, a novel laccase gene was cloned from Bacillus sp., analyzed, and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. The laccase was highly induced in theE. coli expression system with a maximum intracellular activity of 16 U mg-1 protein. The optimal temperature and pH of the purified laccase were 40 °C and 4.6, respectively, when ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate]) was used as the substrate. The purified laccase showed high stability in the pH range of 3.0-9.0, and retained more than 70% of its activity after 24 h of incubation at 40°C with a pH value of 9.0. Furthermore , the enzyme ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - August 31, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Rare Human Codons and HCMV Translational Regulation
Restriction of protein synthesis characterizes human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latency in the human host. In analyzing the molecular factors that hinder HCMV expression, the present study shows that HCMV genes frequently use 6 rare codons, i.e., GCG (Ala), CCG (Pro), CGT (Arg), CGC (Arg), TCG (Ser), and ACG (Thr). In some instances, the rare host codons are clustered along viral nucleotide sequences and represent the majority in sequences encoding short alanine and proline repeats. Given the positive correlation between codon usage, tRNA content, and protein production, the results support the hypothesis that HCMV usage of ra...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - August 31, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Influence of NanoLC Column and Gradient Length as well as MS/MS Frequency and Sample Complexity on Shotgun Protein Identification of Marine Bacteria
Protein identification by shotgun proteomics, i.e., nano-liquid chromatography (nanoLC) peptide separation online coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS)/MS, is the most widely used gel-free approach in proteome research. While the mass spectrometer accounts for mass accuracy and MS/MS frequency, the nanoLC setup and gradient time influence the number of peptides available for MS analysis, which ultimately determine the number of proteins identifiable. Here, we report on the influence of (i) analytical column length (15, 25, or 50 cm) coupled to (ii) the applied gradient length (120, 240, 360, 480, ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - August 29, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Heterologous Expression of Spinosyn Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Streptomyces Species Is Dependent on the Expression of Rhamnose Biosynthesis Genes
This report demonstrates spinosyn production in 2Streptomyces strains and stresses the essential role of rhamnose in this process. This work also provides a potential alternative route for producing spinosyn analogs by means of genetic manipulation in the heterologous hosts.J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2017;27:190-198 (Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - August 21, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Heterologous Expression of Spinosyn Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in < b > < i > Streptomyces < /i > < /b > Species Is Dependent on the Expression of Rhamnose Biosynthesis Genes
This report demonstrates spinosyn production in 2Streptomyces strains and stresses the essential role of rhamnose in this process. This work also provides a potential alternative route for producing spinosyn analogs by means of genetic manipulation in the heterologous hosts.J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2017;27:190-198 (Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - August 18, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A Review of Conventional PCR Assays for the Detection of Selected Phytopathogens of Wheat
This article reviews frequently used DNA regions for fungus identification and discusses already known PCR assays for detection of the aforementioned wheat pathogens. We demonstrate that PCR-based wheat pathogen identification assays require further research. In particular, the number of diagnostic tests forFusarium graminearum,Puccinia spp., andP. tritici-repentis are insufficient.J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2017;27:175-189 (Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - August 3, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Antitumor Effect of a DNA Vaccine Harboring Prostate Cancer-Specific Antigen with IL-12 as an Intramolecular Adjuvant
To improve the lower immune intensity of DNA vaccines, we developed a DNA vaccine based on prostate cancer-specific antigen (PSA), which has been suggested as a potential target for prostate cancer therapy, and enhanced the DNA vaccine potency using interleukin-12 (IL-12) as an intramolecular adjuvant. A series of DNA plasmids encoding human PSA, IL-12, and their conjugates was constructed and injected into female mice intramuscularly, followed by an electric pulse. The humoral and cellular immune responses after immunization were detected by ELISA and ELISPOT, respectively. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of these pl...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - August 3, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Progress in Bacillus subtilis Spore Surface Display Technology towards Environment, Vaccine Development, and Biocatalysis
Spore surface display is the most desirable with enhanced effects, low cost, less time consuming and the most promising technology for environmental, medical, and industrial development. Spores have various applications in industry due to their ability to survive in harsh industrial processes including heat resistance, alkaline tolerance, chemical tolerance, easy recovery, and reusability. Yeast and bacteria, including gram-positive and -negative, are the most frequently used organisms for the display of various proteins (eukaryotic and prokaryotic), but unlike spores, they can rupture easily due to nutritive properties, s...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 13, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Progress in < b > < i > Bacillus subtilis < /i > < /b > Spore Surface Display Technology towards Environment, Vaccine Development, and Biocatalysis
Spore surface display is the most desirable with enhanced effects, low cost, less time consuming and the most promising technology for environmental, medical, and industrial development. Spores have various applications in industry due to their ability to survive in harsh industrial processes including heat resistance, alkaline tolerance, chemical tolerance, easy recovery, and reusability. Yeast and bacteria, including gram-positive and -negative, are the most frequently used organisms for the display of various proteins (eukaryotic and prokaryotic), but unlike spores, they can rupture easily due to nutritive properties, s...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 12, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Genomics Perspectives on Metabolism, Survival Strategies, and Biotechnological Applications of Brettanomyces bruxellensis LAMAP2480
In conclusion, the analysis of the genome ofB. bruxellensis LAMAP2480 reaffirms the biotechnological potential of this strain. This research represents an interesting platform for the study of the spoilage yeastB. bruxellensis.J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2017;27:147-158 (Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 9, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Genomics Perspectives on Metabolism, Survival Strategies, and Biotechnological Applications of < b > < i > Brettanomyces bruxellensis < /i > < /b > LAMAP2480
In conclusion, the analysis of the genome ofB. bruxellensis LAMAP2480 reaffirms the biotechnological potential of this strain. This research represents an interesting platform for the study of the spoilage yeastB. bruxellensis.J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2017;27:147-158 (Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 8, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Expression and Characterization of Serotype 2 Streptococcus suis Arginine Deiminase
Conclusions: This study profoundly demonstrated the involvement of ArcA enzymatic activity inS. suis survival under acidic conditions.J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2017;27:133-146 (Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 28, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Science, Innovation and the Future of Humanity
J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2017;27:128-132 (Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 27, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Synthetic, Switchable Enzymes
The construction of switchable, radiation-controlled, aptameric enzymes - “swenzymes ” - is, in principle, feasible. We propose a strategy to make such catalysts from 2 (or more) aptamers each selected to bind specifically to one of the substrates in, for example, a 2-substrate reaction. Construction of a combinatorial library of candidate swenzymes entails selecting a set of a million aptamers that bind one substrate and a second set of a million aptamers that bind the second substrate; the aptamers in these sets are then linked pairwise by a linker, thus bringing together the substrates. In the presence of th...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 27, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Purification and Biochemical and Kinetic Properties of an Endo-Polygalacturonase from the Industrial Fungus < b > < i > Aspergillus sojae < /i > < /b >
An endo-polygalacturonase secreted byAspergillus sojaewas characterized after being purified to homogeneity from submerged cultures with orange peel as the sole carbon source by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatographies. According to SDS-PAGE and analytical isoelectric focusing analyses, the enzyme presents a molecular weight of 47 kDa and pI value of 4.2. This enzyme exhibits considerable stability under highly acidic to neutral conditions (pH 1.5-6.5) and presents a half-life of 2 h at 50 °C. Besides its activity towards pectin and polygalacturonic acid, the enzyme displays pectin-releasing activity, acting be...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 27, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Protection against Legionnaire's Disease: Recombinant Flagellin A of Legionella pneumophila Can Induce Protective Immunity against Bacteremia in a BALB/c Murine Model
To investigate the immunoprotective effects of the recombinant type A flagellin (FLA), theflaA gene ofLegionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strain Paris was cloned into pET28a(+). Recombinant FLA (rFLA) was overexpressed inE. coli BL21 (DE3) and purified by Ni2+ exchange chromatography. Female BALB/c aged 6-8 weeks were immunized with 20 μg of rFLA. Nonimmunized mice along with mice inoculated with a sublethal dose of liveL. pneumophila intravenously were considered as negative and positive controls, respectively. A significant serum antibody response was observed in female BALB/c mice immunized with rFLA. Production of IF...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 25, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Protection against Legionnaire's Disease: Recombinant Flagellin A of < b > < i > Legionella pneumophila < /i > < /b > Can Induce Protective Immunity against Bacteremia in a BALB/c Murine Model
To investigate the immunoprotective effects of the recombinant type A flagellin (FLA), theflaA gene ofLegionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strain Paris was cloned into pET28a(+). Recombinant FLA (rFLA) was overexpressed inE. coli BL21 (DE3) and purified by Ni2+ exchange chromatography. Female BALB/c aged 6-8 weeks were immunized with 20 μg of rFLA. Nonimmunized mice along with mice inoculated with a sublethal dose of liveL. pneumophila intravenously were considered as negative and positive controls, respectively. A significant serum antibody response was observed in female BALB/c mice immunized with rFLA. Production of IF...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 25, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Relative Strengths and Regulation of Different Promoter-Associated Sequences for Various blaSHV Genes and Their Relationships to β-Lactam Resistance
Conclusion: The mRNA expression and β-lactam resistance of theblaSHV showed consistencies and inconsistencies with the strengths of the promoter-associated sequences. The mechanisms accounting for these discrepancies need further investigation.J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2017;27:91-101 (Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 23, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Relative Strengths and Regulation of Different Promoter-Associated Sequences for Various < b > < i > bla < /i > < /b > < sub > SHV < /sub > Genes and Their Relationships to β-Lactam Resistance
Conclusion: The mRNA expression and β-lactam resistance of theblaSHV showed consistencies and inconsistencies with the strengths of the promoter-associated sequences. The mechanisms accounting for these discrepancies need further investigation.J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2017;27:91-101 (Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 23, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Mating of 2 Laboratory Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Resulted in Enhanced Production of 2-Phenylethanol by Biotransformation of < smlcap > L < /smlcap > -Phenylalanine
2-Phenylethanol (2-PE) is an aromatic alcohol with a rosy scent which is widely used in the food, fragrance, and cosmetic industries. Promising sources of natural 2-PE are microorganisms, especially yeasts, which can produce 2-PE by biosynthesis and biotransformation. Thus, the first challenging goal in the development of biotechnological production of 2-PE is searching for highly productive yeast strains. In the present work, 5 laboratorySaccharomyces cerevisiae strains were tested for the production of 2-PE. Thereafter, 2 of them were hybridized by a mating procedure and, as a result, a new diploid,S. cerevisiae AM1-d, w...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 24, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Mating of 2 Laboratory < b > < i > Saccharomyces cerevisiae < /i > < /b > Strains Resulted in Enhanced Production of 2-Phenylethanol by Biotransformation of < smlcap > L < /smlcap > -Phenylalanine
2-Phenylethanol (2-PE) is an aromatic alcohol with a rosy scent which is widely used in the food, fragrance, and cosmetic industries. Promising sources of natural 2-PE are microorganisms, especially yeasts, which can produce 2-PE by biosynthesis and biotransformation. Thus, the first challenging goal in the development of biotechnological production of 2-PE is searching for highly productive yeast strains. In the present work, 5 laboratorySaccharomyces cerevisiae strains were tested for the production of 2-PE. Thereafter, 2 of them were hybridized by a mating procedure and, as a result, a new diploid,S. cerevisiae AM1-d, w...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 23, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Photometric Determination of Ammonium and Phosphate in Seawater Medium Using a Microplate Reader
To more efficiently process the large sample numbers for quantitative determination of ammonium (NH4+) and phosphate (orthophosphate, PO43-) generated during comprehensive growth experiments with the marineRoseobacter group member Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395, specific colorimetric assays employing a microplate reader (MPR) were established. The NH4+ assay is based on the reaction of NH4+ with hypochlorite and salicylate, yielding a limit of detection of 14 µM, a limit of quantitation of 36 µM, and a linear range for quantitative determination up to 200 µM. The PO43-assay is based on the complex formati...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 7, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Influences of Various Peptide Linkers on the Thermotoga maritima MSB8 Nitrilase Displayed on the Spore Surface of Bacillus subtilis
In the present study, fusion genes composed ofThermotoga maritima MSB8 nitrilase andBacillus subtilis 168 outer coat protein CotG were constructed with various peptide linkers and displayed onB. subtilis DB 403 spores. The successful display of CotG-nit fusion proteins on the spore surface ofB. subtilis was verified by Western blot analysis and activity measurement. It was demonstrated that the fusion with linker GGGGSEAAAKGGGGS presented the highest thermal and pH stability, which is 2.67- and 1.9-fold of the fusion without linker. In addition, fusion with flexible linker (GGGGS)3 demonstrated better thermal and pH stabil...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - January 20, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Requirements for Septal Localization and Chromosome Segregation Activity of the DNA Translocase SftA from < b > < i > Bacillus subtilis < /i > < /b >
Bacillus subtilis possesses 2 DNA translocases that affect late stages of chromosome segregation: SftA separates nonsegregated DNA prior to septum closure, while SpoIIIE rescues septum-entrapped DNA. We provide evidence that SftA is associated with the division machinery via a stretch of 47 amino acids within its N-terminus, suggesting that SftA is recruited by protein-protein interactions with a component of the division machinery. SftA was also recruited to mid-cell in the absence of its first 20 amino acids, which are proposed to contain a membrane-binding motif. Cell fractionation experiments showed that SftA can be fo...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - January 20, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Influences of Various Peptide Linkers on the < b > < i > Thermotoga maritima < /i > < /b > MSB8 Nitrilase Displayed on the Spore Surface of < b > < i > Bacillus subtilis < /i > < /b >
In the present study, fusion genes composed ofThermotoga maritima MSB8 nitrilase andBacillus subtilis 168 outer coat protein CotG were constructed with various peptide linkers and displayed onB. subtilis DB 403 spores. The successful display of CotG-nit fusion proteins on the spore surface ofB. subtilis was verified by Western blot analysis and activity measurement. It was demonstrated that the fusion with linker GGGGSEAAAKGGGGS presented the highest thermal and pH stability, which is 2.67- and 1.9-fold of the fusion without linker. In addition, fusion with flexible linker (GGGGS)3 demonstrated better thermal and pH stabil...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - January 19, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Production and Rheological Properties of Welan Gum Produced by Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 31555 with Different Nitrogen Sources
This study aimed to investigate the effect of nitrogen sources on the production and rheological properties of welan gum produced bySphingomonas sp. ATCC 31555. Six different nitrogen sources were used for ATCC 31555 fermentation, and 2 of these were further analyzed due to their more positive influence on welan gum production and bacterial biomass. Bacterial biomass, welan gum yield, welan viscosity, molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, acyl content, and welan structure were analyzed. Welan gum production and the biomass concentration of ATCC 31555 were higher in media containing NaNO3 and beef extract. Welan vis...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - January 17, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Complete Sequence and Organization of pFR260, the Bacillus thuringiensis INTA Fr7-4 Plasmid Harboring Insecticidal Genes
We report the complete sequence and analysis of pFR260, a novel megaplasmid of 260,595 bp from theBacillus thuringiensis strain INTA Fr7-4 isolated in Argentina. It carries 7 insecticidal genes: 3cry8 copies previously reported, 2vip1, and 2vip2. Also, it carries a gene encoding a putative atypical Cry protein. These genes are arranged in a region of approximately 105 kbp in size with characteristics of a pathogenicity island with a potential coleopteran-specific insecticide profile. DNA strand composition asymmetry, as determined by GC skew analysis, and the presence of a Rep protein involved in the initiation of replicat...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - January 17, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Production and Rheological Properties of Welan Gum Produced by < b > < i > Sphingomonas < /i > < /b > sp. ATCC 31555 with Different Nitrogen Sources
This study aimed to investigate the effect of nitrogen sources on the production and rheological properties of welan gum produced bySphingomonas sp. ATCC 31555. Six different nitrogen sources were used for ATCC 31555 fermentation, and 2 of these were further analyzed due to their more positive influence on welan gum production and bacterial biomass. Bacterial biomass, welan gum yield, welan viscosity, molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, acyl content, and welan structure were analyzed. Welan gum production and the biomass concentration of ATCC 31555 were higher in media containing NaNO3 and beef extract. Welan vis...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - January 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Complete Sequence and Organization of pFR260, the < b > < i > Bacillus thuringiensis < /i > < /b > INTA Fr7-4 Plasmid Harboring Insecticidal Genes
We report the complete sequence and analysis of pFR260, a novel megaplasmid of 260,595 bp from theBacillus thuringiensis strain INTA Fr7-4 isolated in Argentina. It carries 7 insecticidal genes: 3cry8 copies previously reported, 2vip1, and 2vip2. Also, it carries a gene encoding a putative atypical Cry protein. These genes are arranged in a region of approximately 105 kbp in size with characteristics of a pathogenicity island with a potential coleopteran-specific insecticide profile. DNA strand composition asymmetry, as determined by GC skew analysis, and the presence of a Rep protein involved in the initiation of replicat...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - January 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Antipathy of Trichoderma against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.: Evaluation of Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymatic Activities and Molecular Diversity Analysis of Antagonists
The fungusTrichoderma is a teleomorph of theHypocrea genus and associated with biological control of plant diseases. The microscopic, biochemical, and molecular characterization ofTrichodermawas carried out and evaluated for in vitro antagonistic activity against the fungal pathogenSclerotium rolfsii causing stem rot disease in groundnut. In total, 11 isolates ofTrichoderma were examined for antagonism at 6 and 12 days after inoculation (DAI). Out of 11,T. virensNBAII Tvs12 evidenced the highest (87.91%) growth inhibition of the test pathogen followed byT. koningii MTCC 796 (67.03%),T. virideNBAII Tv23 (63.74%), andT. harz...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - January 13, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Antipathy of < b > < i > Trichoderma < /i > < /b > against < b > < i > Sclerotium rolfsii < /i > < /b > Sacc.: Evaluation of Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymatic Activities and Molecular Diversity Analysis of Antagonists
The fungusTrichoderma is a teleomorph of theHypocrea genus and associated with biological control of plant diseases. The microscopic, biochemical, and molecular characterization ofTrichodermawas carried out and evaluated for in vitro antagonistic activity against the fungal pathogenSclerotium rolfsii causing stem rot disease in groundnut. In total, 11 isolates ofTrichoderma were examined for antagonism at 6 and 12 days after inoculation (DAI). Out of 11,T. virensNBAII Tvs12 evidenced the highest (87.91%) growth inhibition of the test pathogen followed byT. koningii MTCC 796 (67.03%),T. virideNBAII Tv23 (63.74%), andT. harz...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - January 12, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Role of the ydiB Gene, Which Encodes Quinate/Shikimate Dehydrogenase, in the Production of Quinic, Dehydroshikimic and Shikimic Acids in a PTS- Strain of Escherichia coli
We report the effect of the inactivation or the overexpression ofydiB inE. coli strain PB12.SA22 on SA, QA, and DHS production in batch fermentor cultures. The results showed that the inactivation ofydiBresulted in a 75% decrease in the molar yield of QA and a 6.17% reduction in the yield of QA (mol/mol) relative to SA with respect to the parental strain. The overexpression ofydiB caused a 500% increase in the molar yield of QA and resulted in a 152% increase in QA (mol/mol) relative to SA, with a sharp decrease in SA production. Production of SA, QA, and DHS in parental and derivativeydiBstrains suggests that the synthesi...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 18, 2016 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Role of the < b > < i > ydiB < /i > < /b > Gene, Which Encodes Quinate/Shikimate Dehydrogenase, in the Production of Quinic, Dehydroshikimic and Shikimic Acids in a PTS < sup > - < /sup > Strain of < b > < i > Escherichia coli < /i > < /b >
We report the effect of the inactivation or the overexpression ofydiB inE. coli strain PB12.SA22 on SA, QA, and DHS production in batch fermentor cultures. The results showed that the inactivation ofydiBresulted in a 75% decrease in the molar yield of QA and a 6.17% reduction in the yield of QA (mol/mol) relative to SA with respect to the parental strain. The overexpression ofydiB caused a 500% increase in the molar yield of QA and resulted in a 152% increase in QA (mol/mol) relative to SA, with a sharp decrease in SA production. Production of SA, QA, and DHS in parental and derivativeydiBstrains suggests that the synthesi...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 17, 2016 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A Codon Deletion at the Beginning of Green Fluorescent Protein Genes Enhances Protein Expression
Recombinant protein expression is one of the key issues in protein engineering and biotechnology. Among the different models for assessing protein production and structure-function studies, green fluorescent protein (GFP) is one of the preferred models because of its importance as a reporter in cellular and molecular studies. In this research we analyze the effect of codon deletions near the amino terminus of different GFP proteins on fluorescence. Our study includes Gly4 deletions in the enhanced GFP (EGFP), the red-shifted GFP and the red-shifted EGFP. The Gly4 deletion mutants and their corresponding wild-type counterpa...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 7, 2016 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 26, 2016
J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2016;26:I-IV (Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 25, 2016 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

HA1-2-fljB Vaccine Induces Immune Responses against Pandemic Swine-Origin H1N1 Influenza Virus in Mice
In 2009, a novel pandemic swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus caused a public emergency of international concern. Vaccination is the primary strategy for the control of influenza epidemics. However, the poor immunopotency of many vaccine antigens is a major barrier to the development of effective vaccines against influenza. Flagellin, a Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) ligand, has been used as an adjuvant to enhance the immunopotency of vaccines in preclinical studies. Here, we developed a recombinant candidate vaccine, HA1-2-fljB, in which the globular head of the hemagglutinin (HA) antigen (residues 62-284) from H1N1 virus ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 7, 2016 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Molecular Epidemiology of Human Metapneumovirus in Riyadh Province, Saudi Arabia
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important cause of respiratory tract illness in children. Two HMPV subgroups, A and B, and four genotypes, A1, A2, B1 and B2, have been identified. Concurrent circulation of the different genotypes in yearly epidemics has been recorded globally, but not in Saudi Arabia. The current report was designed to study HMPV epidemiology in Saudi children and to analyze the genetic diversity and circulation patterns. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (n = 174) were collected from hospitalized children in Riyadh (2008-2009). The screening of samples using real-time RT-PCR identified 19 HMPV strains. The majo...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 30, 2016 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Evidence of Interruption of the comM Gene in a Large Series of Clinical Isolates of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii
This study demonstrated that thecomM gene is targeted by transposons in Iranian MDR-AB isolates belonging to different GCs. The data also showed that the carriage of interruptedcomM is not exclusive to MDR isolates ofA. baumannii.J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2016;26:410-413 (Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 16, 2016 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Proteomic Analyses Uncover the Mechanisms Underlying Antibiotic Resistance Differences among Three Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates
This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the antibiotic resistance difference among threeAcinetobacter baumannii isolates. FiftyA. baumannii isolates were first subjected to an antimicrobial susceptibility test, then three isolates differing in antibiotic resistance were selected and subjected to iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification)-based proteomics analysis. Differential proteins among the threeA. baumannii isolates were further identified and subjected to gene ontology functional enrichment analysis. A resistant isolate (A1), a less resistant one (A8) and a susceptible...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 16, 2016 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Evidence of Interruption of the < b > < i > comM < /i > < /b > Gene in a Large Series of Clinical Isolates of Multidrug-Resistant < b > < i > Acinetobacter baumannii < /i > < /b >
This study demonstrated that thecomM gene is targeted by transposons in Iranian MDR-AB isolates belonging to different GCs. The data also showed that the carriage of interruptedcomM is not exclusive to MDR isolates ofA. baumannii.J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2016;26:410-413 (Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 15, 2016 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Proteomic Analyses Uncover the Mechanisms Underlying Antibiotic Resistance Differences among Three < b > < i > Acinetobacter baumannii < /i > < /b > Isolates
This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the antibiotic resistance difference among threeAcinetobacter baumannii isolates. FiftyA. baumannii isolates were first subjected to an antimicrobial susceptibility test, then three isolates differing in antibiotic resistance were selected and subjected to iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification)-based proteomics analysis. Differential proteins among the threeA. baumannii isolates were further identified and subjected to gene ontology functional enrichment analysis. A resistant isolate (A1), a less resistant one (A8) and a susceptible...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 15, 2016 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Systems Perspective of Morbillivirus Replication
Systems biology refers to system-wide changes in biological components such as RNA/DNA (genomics), protein (proteomics) and lipids (lipidomics). In this review, we provide comprehensive information about morbillivirus replication. Besides discussing the role of individual viral/host proteins in virus replication, we also discuss how systems-level analyses could improve our understanding of morbillivirus replication, host-pathogen interaction, immune response and disease resistance. Finally, we discuss how viroinformatics is likely to provide important insights for understanding genome-genome, genome-protein and protein-pro...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 10, 2016 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Transport and Catabolism of Pentitols by Listeria monocytogenes
Transposon insertion intoListeria monocytogenes lmo2665, which encodes an EIIC of the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS), was found to preventD-arabitol utilization. We confirm this result with a deletion mutant and show that Lmo2665 is also required forD-xylitol utilization. We therefore called this protein EIICAxl. Both pentitols are probably catabolized via the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) becauselmo2665 belongs to an operon, which encodes the three PTSAxl components, two sugar-P dehydrogenases, and most PPP enzymes. The two dehydrogenases oxidize the pentitol-phosphates produced during ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - August 24, 2016 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Analysis of 58 Families of Holins Using a Novel Program, PhyST
We have designed a freely accessible program, PhyST, which allows the automated characterization of any family of homologous proteins within the Transporter Classification Database. The program performs an NCBI-PSI-BLAST search and reports (1) the average protein sequence length with standard deviations, (2) the average predicted number of transmembrane segments, (3) the total number of homologues retrieved, (4) a quantitative list of all source phyla, and (5) potential fusion proteins of sizes considerably exceeding the average size of the proteins retrieved. We have applied this program to 58 families of holins, and the ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology - August 23, 2016 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research