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Exploring the relations between word frequency, language exposure, and bilingualism in a computational model of reading
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 93 Author(s): Padraic Monaghan, Ya-Ning Chang, Stephen Welbourne, Marc Brysbaert Individuals show differences in the extent to which psycholinguistic variables predict their responses for lexical processing tasks. A key variable accounting for much variance in lexical processing is frequency, but the size of the frequency effect has been demonstrated to reduce as a consequence of the individual’s vocabulary size. Using a connectionist computational implementation of the triangle model on a large set of English words, where orthographic, phono...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 12, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

What children learn from adults ’ utterances: An ephemeral lexical boost and persistent syntactic priming in adult–child dialogue
Publication date: December 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 91 Author(s): Holly P. Branigan, Janet F. McLean We show that children’s syntactic production is immediately affected by individual experiences of structures and verb–structure pairings within a dialogue, but that these effects have different timecourses. In a picture-matching game, three- to four-year-olds were more likely to describe a transitive action using a passive immediately after hearing the experimenter produce a passive than an active (abstract priming), and this tendency was stronger when the verb was repeated (lexical bo...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 8, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Thirty years of structural priming: An introduction to the special issue
Publication date: December 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 91 Author(s): Gary S. Dell, Victor S. Ferreira (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 8, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Prosodic prominence shifts are anaphoric
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Jeffrey Klassen, Michael Wagner This paper presents evidence that shifts in prosodic prominence are anaphoric and require a contextually salient antecedent, similar to pronouns. The argument is based on a series of experiments looking at prosodic optionality in dialogues in which there are multiple potential antecedents embedded in a contextually salient coordinated structure. By looking at the interaction with adverbs that restrict the choice of antecedent, we show that the observed prosodic variability reveals different anaphoric...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 12, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Perceptual fluency contributes to effects of stimulus size on judgments of learning
We presented stimuli that were initially so small as to be entirely unrecognizable but that gradually increased in size. Stimuli were pictures of common objects (Experiment 1), faces (Experiment 2), and words (Experiments 3 and 4). People indicated when they could identify the stimulus and then made a JOL. The time required for participants to identify each stimulus was our measure of perceptual fluency. In Experiments 1 to 3, we manipulated the speed of the clarification process across trials. Results showed that the less time it took to identify the clarifying stimuli, independent of clarification speed, the higher one&r...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 2, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Visual interference disrupts visual knowledge
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Pierce Edmiston, Gary Lupyan We show that visual interference impairs people’s ability to make use of visual knowledge. These results provide strong evidence that making use of stored visual knowledge—long-term memory of what things look like—depends on perceptual mechanisms. In the first set of studies, we show that presenting visual noise patterns during or after hearing a verbal cue greatly reduces the effectiveness of the cue on a simple visual discrimination task. In the second experiment, participants wer...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 29, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Digging up the building blocks of language: Age-of-acquisition effects for multiword phrases
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Inbal Arnon, Stewart M. McCauley, Morten H. Christiansen Words are often seen as the core representational units of language use, and the basic building blocks of language learning. Here, we provide novel empirical evidence for the role of multiword sequences in language learning by showing that, like words, multiword phrases show age-of-acquisition (AoA) effects. Words that are acquired earlier in childhood show processing advantages in adults on a variety of tasks. AoA effects highlight the role of words in the developing lan...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 25, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Graphotactics and spelling: Evidence from consonant doubling
We examined the factors that influence adults’ choices in one such case: single- versus double-letter spellings of medial consonants in English. The major systematic influence on the choice between medial singletons and doublets has been thought to be phonological context: whether the preceding vowel is phonologically long or short. With phonological context equated, we found influences of graphotactic context—both the number of letters in the spelling of the vowel and the spelling sequence following the medial consonant—in adults’ spelling of nonwords and in the English vocabulary itself. Existing ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 25, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Prosody conveys speaker ’s intentions: Acoustic cues for speech act perception
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 88 Author(s): Nele Hellbernd, Daniela Sammler Action-theoretic views of language posit that the recognition of others’ intentions is key to successful interpersonal communication. Yet, speakers do not always code their intentions literally, raising the question of which mechanisms enable interlocutors to exchange communicative intents. The present study investigated whether and how prosody—the vocal tone—contributes to the identification of “unspoken” intentions. Single (non-)words were spoken with six intonations re...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 21, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Production –comprehension asymmetries and the acquisition of evidential morphology
Publication date: August 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 89 Author(s): Ercenur Ünal, Anna Papafragou Although children typically comprehend the links between specific forms and their meanings before they produce the forms themselves, the opposite pattern also occurs. The nature of these ‘reverse asymmetries’ between production and comprehension remains debated. Here we focus on a striking case where production precedes comprehension in the acquisition of Turkish evidential morphology and explore theoretical explanations of this asymmetry. We show that 3- to 6-year-old Turkish learner...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 21, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Phonetic variation in bilingual speech: A lens for studying the production –comprehension link
Publication date: August 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 89 Author(s): Melinda Fricke, Judith F. Kroll, Paola E. Dussias We exploit the unique phonetic properties of bilingual speech to ask how processes occurring during planning affect speech articulation, and whether listeners can use the phonetic modulations that occur in anticipation of a codeswitch to help restrict their lexical search to the appropriate language. An analysis of spontaneous bilingual codeswitching in the Bangor Miami Corpus (Deuchar, Davies, Herring, Parafita Couto, & Carter, 2014) reveals that in anticipation of switch...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 21, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The development of children ’s ability to track and predict turn structure in conversation
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Marisa Casillas, Michael C. Frank Children begin developing turn-taking skills in infancy but take several years to fluidly integrate their growing knowledge of language into their turn-taking behavior. In two eye-tracking experiments, we measured children’s anticipatory gaze to upcoming responders while controlling linguistic cues to turn structure. In Experiment 1, we showed English and non-English conversations to English-speaking adults and children. In Experiment 2, we phonetically controlled lexicosyntactic and proso...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 21, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The development of children’s ability to track and predict turn structure in conversation
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Marisa Casillas, Michael C. Frank Children begin developing turn-taking skills in infancy but take several years to fluidly integrate their growing knowledge of language into their turn-taking behavior. In two eye-tracking experiments, we measured children’s anticipatory gaze to upcoming responders while controlling linguistic cues to turn structure. In Experiment 1, we showed English and non-English conversations to English-speaking adults and children. In Experiment 2, we phonetically controlled lexicosyntactic and proso...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 17, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Bilingual non-selective lexical access in sentence contexts: A meta-analytic review
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Justin Lauro, Ana I. Schwartz Research on bilingual sentence processing demonstrates effects of cross-language activation during lexical access. However, there are mixed findings regarding the ability of semantically-constraining sentences to eliminate non-selective effects. In a quantitative meta-analysis the magnitude of cognate facilitation was examined as a function of sentence constraint, task and language of the sentence [native language (L1) versus second (L2)] as moderator variables. Twenty-six studies met criteria for m...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 16, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The generation effect revisited: Fewer generation constraints enhances item and context memory
This study further advances the idea that self-generation is a powerful mnemonic that leads to enriched memory representations for both the item and context, especially when fewer generation constraints are imposed. (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 16, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The structure of working memory in young children and its relation to intelligence
This study investigated the structure of working memory in young school-age children by testing the fit of three competing theoretical models using a wide variety of tasks. The best fitting models were then used to assess the relationship between working memory and nonverbal measures of fluid reasoning (Gf) and visual processing (Gv) intelligence. One hundred sixty-eight English-speaking 7–9year olds with typical development, from three states, participated. Results showed that Cowan’s three-factor embedded processes model fit the data slightly better than Baddeley and Hitch’s (1974) three-factor model (s...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 14, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Testing the context-change account of list-method directed forgetting: The role of retention interval
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Magdalena Abel, Karl-Heinz T. Bäuml People can voluntarily forget previously studied material when cued to do so. Such directed forgetting may arise because the forget cue induces a change in mental context, thus causing context-dependent forgetting. This context-change account predicts that both context-dependent forgetting and directed forgetting should be relatively transient and be reduced, if not eliminated, after prolonged retention interval. In each of two experiments, participants studied two lists of items and betw...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Task-dependent motor representations evoked by spatial words: Implications for embodied accounts of word meaning
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Corson N. Areshenkoff, Daniel N. Bub, Michael E.J. Masson Embodied accounts contend that word meaning is grounded in sensorimotor representation. In support of this view, research has found rapid motor priming effects on vertical movements for words like eagle or shoe, which differ as to whether they are typically associated with an up or down spatial direction. These priming effects are held to be the result of motor representations evoked as an obligatory part of understanding the meaning of a word. In a series of experiments...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 8, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Learning metathesis: Evidence for syllable structure constraints
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Sara Finley One of the major questions in the cognitive science of language is whether the perceptual and phonological motivations for the rules and patterns that govern the sounds of language are a part of the psychological reality of grammatical representations. This question is particularly important in the study of phonological patterns – systematic constraints on the representation of sounds, because phonological patterns tend to be grounded in phonetic constraints. This paper focuses on phonological metathesis, which ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 8, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Structural priming in artificial languages and the regularisation of unpredictable variation
We present a novel experimental technique using artificial language learning to investigate the relationship between structural priming during communicative interaction, and linguistic regularity. We use unpredictable variation as a test-case, because it is a well-established paradigm to study learners’ biases during acquisition, transmission and interaction. We trained participants on artificial languages exhibiting unpredictable variation in word order, and subsequently had them communicate using these artificial languages. We found evidence for structural priming in two different grammatical constructions and acro...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 7, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The role of mediator strength in learning from retrieval
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Shana K. Carpenter, Kam Leung Yeung Previous studies have provided support for the idea that information activated during retrieval can act as a mediator that facilitates later recall of a target. Evidence for this has been obtained from a paradigm involving independent cues in which participants initially learn cue-target pairs through retrieval (Mother: _____) or restudying (Mother: Child), and later show stronger benefits of retrieval over restudy in recalling targets from final test cues that are strongly related to the orig...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 7, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Late consequences of early selection: When memory monitoring backfires
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Katarzyna Zawadzka, Maciej Hanczakowski, Edward L. Wilding At retrieval, people can adopt a retrieval orientation by which they recreate the mental operations used at encoding. Monitoring by retrieval orientation leads to assessing all test items for qualities related to the encoding task, which enriches foils with some of the qualities already possessed by targets. We investigated the consequences of adopting a retrieval orientation under conditions of repeated monitoring of the same foils. Participants first processed foils i...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - June 22, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Language processing, acceptability, and statistical distribution: A study of null and overt subjects in Brazilian Portuguese
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Amit Almor, Jefferson de Carvalho Maia, Maria Luiza Cunha Lima, Mirta Vernice, Carlos Gelormini-Lezama Two experiments and a corpus study tested whether Brazilian Portuguese (BP), which has been argued to be shifting from null subjects toward overt subjects indeed shows a comprehension preference for reduced over fuller anaphors for salient antecedents, and whether comprehension is better explained as an imbalance between processing cost and discourse function (pragmatics account), or simply the frequency of different constru...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - June 11, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Readers generalize adaptation to newly-encountered dialectal structures to other unfamiliar structures
Publication date: Available online 10 June 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Scott H. Fraundorf, T. Florian Jaeger Growing evidence suggests that syntactic processing may be guided in part by expectations about the statistics of the input that comprehenders have encountered; however, these statistics and even the syntactic structures themselves vary from situation to situation. Some recent work suggests that readers can adapt to variability in the frequencies of known, but infrequent syntactic structures. But, the relation between adaptation to altered frequencies of familiar structures and learning...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - June 10, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The role of schematic support in age-related associative deficits in short-term and long-term memory
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Dwight J. Peterson, Nicholas E. Schmidt, Moshe Naveh-Benjamin Older, relative to younger adults, exhibit an associative memory deficit in short-term and long-term memory, characterized by difficulty in binding distinct components to form associations, while item memory remains largely intact. Reduced performance emerges mostly due to high false alarm rates in older adults’ associative memory. One factor that could increase older adult false alarm rates during associative recognition memory tests is a decreased use of reco...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - June 10, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Explaining human performance in psycholinguistic tasks with models of semantic similarity based on prediction and counting: A review and empirical validation
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Paweł Mandera, Emmanuel Keuleers, Marc Brysbaert Recent developments in distributional semantics (Mikolov, Chen, Corrado, & Dean, 2013; Mikolov, Sutskever, Chen, Corrado, & Dean, 2013) include a new class of prediction-based models that are trained on a text corpus and that measure semantic similarity between words. We discuss the relevance of these models for psycholinguistic theories and compare them to more traditional distributional semantic models. We compare the models’ performances on a large datas...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - June 9, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Visually perceived spatial distance affects the interpretation of linguistically mediated social meaning during online language comprehension: An eye tracking reading study
We examined to what extent object distance effects on sentence interpretation depend upon a one-to-one mapping (relating objects to nouns). The eye-tracking record showed that spatial distance effects extended to abstract language other than semantic similarity and that these effects occurred as soon as the readers encountered linguistic information about social relations – independent of whether that information was conveyed by the (coordinated) nouns or by other constituents. Finally, the direction of the spatial distance effects seemed to depend on the activation level of the spatial distance representations, as d...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - June 6, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Putting things in new places: Linguistic experience modulates the predictive power of placement verb semantics
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Geertje van Bergen, Monique Flecken A central question regarding predictive language processing concerns the extent to which linguistic experience modulates the process. We approached this question by investigating sentence processing in advanced second language (L2) users with different native language (L1) backgrounds. Using a visual world eye tracking paradigm, we investigated to what extent L1 and L2 participants showed anticipatory eye movements to objects while listening to Dutch placement event descriptions. L2 groups dif...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - June 5, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Letter coding in visual word recognition: The impact of embedded words
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Marcus Taft, Joe Xu, Sonny Li Nonword classification responses are examined in this study to establish the amount of interference arising from the presence of an embedded word. In Experiment 1, greater interference is found from an initial embedding (e.g., furb vs lurb, cf. fur) than a final embedding (e.g., clid vs clig, cf. lid). In addition, an “outer” embedding (e.g., jomb vs vomb, cf. job) generates interference that is no greater than for an initial embedding. These results are inconsistent with the idea of le...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - June 5, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Is the Levels of Processing effect language-limited?
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Alan D. Baddeley, Graham J. Hitch The concept of Levels of Processing (LOP), proposing that deep coding enhances retention, has played a central role in the study of episodic memory. Evidence has however been based almost entirely on retention of individual words. Across five experiments, we compare LOP effects between visual and verbal stimuli, using judgments of pleasantness as a method of inducing deep encoding and a range of shallow encoding judgments selected so as to be applicable to both verbal and visual stimuli. LOP eff...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 30, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Shared and distinct mechanisms in deriving linguistic enrichment
We report three priming experiments that test whether there are shared enrichment mechanisms across a diverse range of linguistic categories. We find that quantifier, number, and ad hoc enrichments exhibit robust priming within their categories and between each other. Plural enrichments, in contrast, demonstrate within-category priming but no between-category priming. Our results demonstrate that (1) enrichment typically thought of as pragmatic or semantic can be primed in the same way as syntactic structures and (2) there are mechanisms that are shared across different enrichment categories, and that some phenomena (e.g.,...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 21, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Grammatical constraints on language switching: Language control is not just executive control
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 90 Author(s): Tamar H. Gollan, Matthew Goldrick The current study investigated the roles of grammaticality and executive control on bilingual language selection by examining production speed and failures of language control, or intrusion errors (e.g., saying el instead of the), in young and aging bilinguals. Production of mixed-language connected speech was elicited by asking Spanish–English bilinguals to read aloud paragraphs that had mostly grammatical (conforming to naturally occurring constraints) or mostly ungrammatical (haphazard m...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 18, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Primed codeswitching in spontaneous bilingual dialogue
Publication date: Available online 14 May 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Melinda Fricke, Gerrit Jan Kootstra Structural priming has played an important role in research on both monolingual and bilingual language production. However, studies of bilingual priming have mainly used priming as an experimental tool, focusing on cross-language priming between single-language sentences, which is a relatively infrequent form of communication in real life. We investigated priming in spontaneous bilingual dialogue, focusing on a hallmark of bilingual language use: codeswitching. Based on quantitative analys...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 14, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Recalibration effects in judgments of learning: A signal detection analysis
In this study we investigated the influence of list composition on judgments of learning (JOLs). To this end, we compared JOLs assigned in a multi-cycle procedure to a set of moderately difficult word pairs. Experiment 1 revealed that when difficult new pairs were added to the study list, the mean of JOLs assigned to the moderate pairs increased as compared to the baseline. In Experiment 2, we reversed this pattern by including easy new pairs in the study list. By analyzing metacognitive ROCs (MROCs), we demonstrate that these results were caused by criterion shifts, by which participants adjusted the level of evidence nee...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 14, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Does bilingualism shape inhibitory control in the elderly?
In this study we test the effects of bilingualism on elderly lifelong bilinguals whose cognitive abilities are in decline, thus making any benefits more salient. Firstly we compare 24 bilinguals and 24 carefully matched monolinguals on verbal and the numerical Stroop tasks, obtaining no differences in monitoring or inhibitory measures. Secondly we explore the modulations that the proficiency in the L2 might cause to executive control functions, as measured by the same tasks, by testing 70 elderly bilinguals who vary in their L2 mastery from very low to perfectly fluent. Results show no modulation in any of the indices due ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 14, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Perceptual-motor determinants of auditory-verbal serial short-term memory
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 90 Author(s): Robert W. Hughes, Cindy Chamberland, Sébastien Tremblay, Dylan M. Jones The role of the compatibility between obligatory perceptual organization and the active assembly of a motor-plan in auditory-verbal serial recall was examined. The classic finding that serial recall is poorer with ear-alternating items was shown to be related to spatial-source localization, thereby confirming a basic tenet of the perceptual-motor account and disconfirming an early account characterizing the two ears as separate input-channels (Experi...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 8, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

A meta-analysis of syntactic priming in language production
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Kyle Mahowald, Ariel James, Richard Futrell, Edward Gibson We performed an exhaustive meta-analysis of 73 peer-reviewed journal articles on syntactic priming from the seminal Bock (1986) paper through 2013. Extracting the effect size for each experiment and condition, where the effect size is the log odds ratio of the frequency of the primed structure X to the frequency of the unprimed structure Y, we found a robust effect of syntactic priming with an average weighted odds ratio of 1.67 when there is no lexical overlap and ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 6, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The temporal dynamics of perceptual uncertainty: eye movement evidence from Cantonese segment and tone perception
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 90 Author(s): Jessie S. Nixon, Jacolien van Rij, Peggy Mok, R. Harald Baayen, Yiya Chen Two visual world eyetracking experiments investigated how acoustic cue value and statistical variance affect perceptual uncertainty during Cantonese consonant (Experiment 1) and tone perception (Experiment 2). Participants heard low- or high-variance acoustic stimuli. Euclidean distance of fixations from target and competitor pictures over time was analysed using Generalised Additive Mixed Modelling. Distance of fixations from target and competitor pictu...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 6, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Making long-distance relationships work: Quantifying lexical competition with Hidden Markov Models
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 90 Author(s): Julia Strand, David Liben-Nowell A listener recognizes a stimulus word from acoustic–phonetic input by discriminating that word’s representation from those of other words. The Neighborhood Activation Model (NAM; Luce & Pisoni, 1998) is a long-standing and deeply influential model quantifying how properties of the stimulus word and its competitors influence recognition. The current project incorporates Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) into the NAM’s framework to more flexibly evaluate the influence of multiple...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - April 29, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Unifying structural priming effects on syntactic choices and timing of sentence generation
Publication date: Available online 26 April 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Katrien Segaert, Linda Wheeldon, Peter Hagoort We investigated whether structural priming of production latencies is sensitive to the same factors known to influence persistence of structural choices: structure preference, cumulativity and verb repetition. In two experiments, we found structural persistence only for passives (inverse preference effect) while priming effects on latencies were stronger for the actives (positive preference effect). We found structural persistence for passives to be influenced by immediate pr...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - April 26, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Linking recognition and production: Cross-modal transfer effects between picture naming and lexical decision during first and second language processing in bilinguals
Publication date: Available online 20 April 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Eva Van Assche, Wouter Duyck, Tamar H. Gollan The present study examined the extent to which word production and recognition rely on shared representations in lexical access by examining cross-modality transfer effects and frequency effects in a training paradigm. Participants were trained in reading high- and low-frequency words in a lexical decision task and were subsequently tested in producing picture names and vice versa, both in their second (Experiment 1) and in their first language (Experiment 2). The same pattern...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - April 20, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

A test of interference versus decay in working memory: Varying distraction within lists in a complex span task
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 90 Author(s): Simon Farrell, Klaus Oberauer, Martin Greaves, Kazimir Pasiecznik, Stephan Lewandowsky, Christopher Jarrold We tested two competing explanations of the effect of processing on working memory. According to decay models, memory representations decay during processing and can be rehearsed or refreshed in the free time between processing steps. Alternatively, one interference-based model assumes that processing involves encoding of distractor representations in working memory, and free time is used to remove distractors. In sever...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - April 18, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The testing effect is moderated by experimental design
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 90 Author(s): Neil W. Mulligan, Jonathan A. Susser, S. Adam Smith A number of encoding variables are moderated by experimental design, such that an effect (e.g., the generation effect) on free recall is larger in mixed-list than pure-list designs. Experiments 1 through 4 consistently found that the testing effect is moderated by experimental design across differences in materials, list structure, list length, presence of feedback, and rates of retrieval-practice success. In these experiments, each study list was followed by its own free recal...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - April 7, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Competition between multiple words for a referent in cross-situational word learning
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 90 Author(s): Viridiana L. Benitez, Daniel Yurovsky, Linda B. Smith Three experiments investigated competition between word–object pairings in a cross-situational word-learning paradigm. Adults were presented with One-Word pairings, where a single word labeled a single object, and Two-Word pairings, where two words labeled a single object. In addition to measuring learning of these two pairing types, we measured competition between words that refer to the same object. When the word–object co-occurrences were presented intermixed i...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - March 30, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Cross-linguistic structural priming in multilinguals: Further evidence for shared syntax
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 90 Author(s): Robert J. Hartsuiker, Saskia Beerts, Maaike Loncke, Timothy Desmet, Sarah Bernolet Four cross-linguistic structural priming experiments with multilinguals investigated whether syntactic representations for different languages are shared or separate and whether such representations in the first language are stored in a fundamentally different way from those in later acquired languages. The experiments tested whether structural priming within a language differs from priming between languages and whether priming between a first a...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - March 29, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Evidence for the influence of syntax on prosodic parsing
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 90 Author(s): Andrés Buxó-Lugo, Duane G. Watson We investigate whether expectations based on syntactic position influence the processing of intonational boundaries. In a boundary detection task, we manipulated (a) the strength of cues to the presence of a boundary and (b) whether or not a location in the sentence was a plausible location for an intonational boundary to occur given the syntactic structure. Listeners consistently reported hearing more boundaries at syntactically licensed locations than at syntactically unlicensed l...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - March 27, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The independence of syntactic processing in Mandarin: Evidence from structural priming
We report five experiments that used a structural priming paradigm to investigate the independence of syntactic processing in Mandarin. In a recognition memory task, Mandarin native speakers described ditransitive events after repeating prime sentences with a double object (DO) or prepositional object (PO) structure. Participants tended to repeat syntactic structure across prime and target sentences. Critically, this tendency occurred whether or not semantic features (animacy of the recipient) were also repeated across sentences, both when the verb was repeated and when it was not. We conclude that Mandarin speakers comput...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - March 22, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Same, different, or closely related: What is the relationship between language production and comprehension?
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Antje S. Meyer, Falk Huettig, Willem J.M. Levelt (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - March 22, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Grammatical encoding and learning in agrammatic aphasia: Evidence from structural priming
Publication date: Available online 21 March 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Soojin Cho-Reyes, Jennifer E. Mack, Cynthia K. Thompson The present study addressed open questions about the nature of sentence production deficits in agrammatic aphasia. In two structural priming experiments, 13 aphasic and 13 age-matched control speakers repeated visually- and auditorily-presented prime sentences, and then used visually-presented word arrays to produce dative sentences. Experiment 1 examined whether agrammatic speakers form structural and thematic representations during sentence production, whereas Expe...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - March 21, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

What children learn from adults’ utterances: An ephemeral lexical boost and persistent syntactic priming in adult–child dialogue
Publication date: Available online 9 March 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Holly P. Branigan, Janet F. McLean We show that children’s syntactic production is immediately affected by individual experiences of structures and verb–structure pairings within a dialogue, but that these effects have different timecourses. In a picture-matching game, three- to four-year-olds were more likely to describe a transitive action using a passive immediately after hearing the experimenter produce a passive than an active (abstract priming), and this tendency was stronger when the verb was repeated (le...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - March 11, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research