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Moving beyond the monosyllable in models of skilled reading: Mega-study of disyllabic nonword reading
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 93 Author(s): Petroula Mousikou, Jasmin Sadat, Rebecca Lucas, Kathleen Rastle Most English words are polysyllabic, yet research on reading aloud typically focuses on monosyllables. Forty-one skilled adult readers read aloud 915 disyllabic nonwords that shared important characteristics with English words. Stress, pronunciation, and naming latencies were analyzed and compared to data from three computational accounts of disyllabic reading, including a rule-based algorithm (Rastle & Coltheart, 2000) and connectionist approaches (the CDP++ mode...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 20, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Relative contributions of semantic and phonological associates to over-additive false recall in hybrid DRM lists
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 93 Author(s): Jason R. Finley, Victor W. Sungkhasettee, Henry L. Roediger, David A. Balota Two experiments explored false recall of unstudied critical items (e.g., chair) following the presentation of 16 semantic associates to the critical word (e.g., sit, desk), 16 phonological associates to the critical word (e.g., cheer, hair), and every composition of hybrid list in between (e.g., 14 semantic and 2 phonological associates). Results replicated the over-additive pattern of critical false recall from hybrid lists relative to pure lists found by Wa...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 19, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Examining the dynamics of strategic search from long-term memory
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 93 Author(s): Nash Unsworth In two experiments the dynamic nature of strategic search from long-term memory was examined. Participants retrieved exemplars from various categories over several minutes. Periodically during retrieval participants were presented with a probe asking what strategies, if any, they were currently using to retrieve the desired information. This novel thought probe technique allowed for insights into the nature of in-the-moment retrieval strategies. Across both experiments it was found that participants reported using a vari...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 11, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Spoken-word recognition in 2-year-olds: The tug of war between phonological and semantic activation
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 93 Author(s): Janette Chow, Anne Aimola Davies, Kim Plunkett Previous studies demonstrate that while toddlers can match words with their referent before the age of one, they only begin to extract phonologically- and semantically-related information from speech later in the second year. However, the order and manner in which this information is extracted remains unresolved. In two experiments, we adapted the adult four-picture Visual World Paradigm (VWP) (Huettig & McQueen, 2007) for toddler testing: toddlers hear a spoken word and see pictu...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - October 10, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Do resource constraints affect lexical processing? Evidence from eye movements
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 93 Author(s): Mallorie Leinenger, Mark Myslín, Keith Rayner, Roger Levy Human language is massively ambiguous, yet we are generally able to identify the intended meanings of the sentences we hear and read quickly and accurately. How we manage and resolve ambiguity incrementally during real-time language comprehension given our cognitive resources and constraints is a major question in human cognition. Previous research investigating resource constraints on lexical ambiguity resolution has yielded conflicting results. Here we present results ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 29, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Does working memory have a single capacity limit?
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 93 Author(s): Robert Taylor, Hana Thomson, David Sutton, Chris Donkin Debate continues over whether visual working memory has a single, fixed capacity. Empirically, performance in working memory tasks worsens as the complexity of stimuli increases. However, there exist two explanations for this result. One proposal is that visual working memory is capable of holding fewer complex stimuli. The alternative proposal is that visual working memory can store 3–4 items, irrespective of their complexity. According to this fixed-capacity explanation, ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 27, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Eye movements in forced-choice recognition: Absolute judgments can preclude relative judgments
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 93 Author(s): Jeffrey J. Starns, Tina Chen, Adrian Staub Forced choice recognition is usually assumed to involve a relative judgment process in which each test alternative is matched to memory and the one with the highest memory strength is selected. We monitored eye movements during a forced-choice recognition test to determine if absolute judgments also play a role; that is, do participants ever select an item because its memory strength exceeds an absolute criterion without comparing it to the other item? The results strongly supported a role fo...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 20, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Competition between phonological and semantic cues in noun class learning
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Jennifer Culbertson, Annie Gagliardi, Kenny Smith Learning noun classification systems, like gender, involves inferring a language-particular set of (often probabilistic) cues to class membership. Previous work has shown that learners rely disproportionately on phonological cues (e.g., Gagliardi & Lidz, 2014; Karmiloff-Smith, 1981). Surprisingly, this occurs even when competing semantic cues are more reliable predictors of class. We investigate two possible explanations for this: first, that phonological cues are more salie...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 15, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Cleaning working memory: The fate of distractors
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Isabelle Dagry, Evie Vergauwe, Pierre Barrouillet As a capacity-limited system, working memory (WM) is at risk to be cluttered by no-longer-relevant items and distractors, which makes it necessary for WM to have some cleaning mechanism. A prominent approach in WM assumes that active inhibition by deletion of distractors fulfills this function, more efficient inhibition resulting in better WM performance. This hypothesis was tested here in the context of WM span tasks in which distractors have to be processed while maintaining targe...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 15, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Subject encodings and retrieval interference
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 93 Author(s): Nathan Arnett, Matthew Wagers Interference has been identified as a cause of processing difficulty in linguistic dependencies, such as the subject-verb relation (Van Dyke and Lewis, 2003). However, while mounting evidence implicates retrieval interference in sentence processing, the nature of the retrieval cues involved - and thus the source of difficulty - remains largely unexplored. Three experiments used self-paced reading and eyetracking to examine the ways in which the retrieval cues provided at a verb characterize subjects. Synt...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 15, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Exploring the relations between word frequency, language exposure, and bilingualism in a computational model of reading
Publication date: April 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 93 Author(s): Padraic Monaghan, Ya-Ning Chang, Stephen Welbourne, Marc Brysbaert Individuals show differences in the extent to which psycholinguistic variables predict their responses for lexical processing tasks. A key variable accounting for much variance in lexical processing is frequency, but the size of the frequency effect has been demonstrated to reduce as a consequence of the individual’s vocabulary size. Using a connectionist computational implementation of the triangle model on a large set of English words, where orthographic, phono...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 12, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

What children learn from adults ’ utterances: An ephemeral lexical boost and persistent syntactic priming in adult–child dialogue
Publication date: December 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 91 Author(s): Holly P. Branigan, Janet F. McLean We show that children’s syntactic production is immediately affected by individual experiences of structures and verb–structure pairings within a dialogue, but that these effects have different timecourses. In a picture-matching game, three- to four-year-olds were more likely to describe a transitive action using a passive immediately after hearing the experimenter produce a passive than an active (abstract priming), and this tendency was stronger when the verb was repeated (lexical bo...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 8, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Thirty years of structural priming: An introduction to the special issue
Publication date: December 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 91 Author(s): Gary S. Dell, Victor S. Ferreira (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - September 8, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Prosodic prominence shifts are anaphoric
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Jeffrey Klassen, Michael Wagner This paper presents evidence that shifts in prosodic prominence are anaphoric and require a contextually salient antecedent, similar to pronouns. The argument is based on a series of experiments looking at prosodic optionality in dialogues in which there are multiple potential antecedents embedded in a contextually salient coordinated structure. By looking at the interaction with adverbs that restrict the choice of antecedent, we show that the observed prosodic variability reveals different anaphoric...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 12, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Perceptual fluency contributes to effects of stimulus size on judgments of learning
We presented stimuli that were initially so small as to be entirely unrecognizable but that gradually increased in size. Stimuli were pictures of common objects (Experiment 1), faces (Experiment 2), and words (Experiments 3 and 4). People indicated when they could identify the stimulus and then made a JOL. The time required for participants to identify each stimulus was our measure of perceptual fluency. In Experiments 1 to 3, we manipulated the speed of the clarification process across trials. Results showed that the less time it took to identify the clarifying stimuli, independent of clarification speed, the higher one&r...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - August 2, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Visual interference disrupts visual knowledge
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Pierce Edmiston, Gary Lupyan We show that visual interference impairs people’s ability to make use of visual knowledge. These results provide strong evidence that making use of stored visual knowledge—long-term memory of what things look like—depends on perceptual mechanisms. In the first set of studies, we show that presenting visual noise patterns during or after hearing a verbal cue greatly reduces the effectiveness of the cue on a simple visual discrimination task. In the second experiment, participants wer...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 29, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Digging up the building blocks of language: Age-of-acquisition effects for multiword phrases
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Inbal Arnon, Stewart M. McCauley, Morten H. Christiansen Words are often seen as the core representational units of language use, and the basic building blocks of language learning. Here, we provide novel empirical evidence for the role of multiword sequences in language learning by showing that, like words, multiword phrases show age-of-acquisition (AoA) effects. Words that are acquired earlier in childhood show processing advantages in adults on a variety of tasks. AoA effects highlight the role of words in the developing lan...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 25, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Graphotactics and spelling: Evidence from consonant doubling
We examined the factors that influence adults’ choices in one such case: single- versus double-letter spellings of medial consonants in English. The major systematic influence on the choice between medial singletons and doublets has been thought to be phonological context: whether the preceding vowel is phonologically long or short. With phonological context equated, we found influences of graphotactic context—both the number of letters in the spelling of the vowel and the spelling sequence following the medial consonant—in adults’ spelling of nonwords and in the English vocabulary itself. Existing ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 25, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Prosody conveys speaker ’s intentions: Acoustic cues for speech act perception
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 88 Author(s): Nele Hellbernd, Daniela Sammler Action-theoretic views of language posit that the recognition of others’ intentions is key to successful interpersonal communication. Yet, speakers do not always code their intentions literally, raising the question of which mechanisms enable interlocutors to exchange communicative intents. The present study investigated whether and how prosody—the vocal tone—contributes to the identification of “unspoken” intentions. Single (non-)words were spoken with six intonations re...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 21, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Production –comprehension asymmetries and the acquisition of evidential morphology
Publication date: August 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 89 Author(s): Ercenur Ünal, Anna Papafragou Although children typically comprehend the links between specific forms and their meanings before they produce the forms themselves, the opposite pattern also occurs. The nature of these ‘reverse asymmetries’ between production and comprehension remains debated. Here we focus on a striking case where production precedes comprehension in the acquisition of Turkish evidential morphology and explore theoretical explanations of this asymmetry. We show that 3- to 6-year-old Turkish learner...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 21, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Phonetic variation in bilingual speech: A lens for studying the production –comprehension link
Publication date: August 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 89 Author(s): Melinda Fricke, Judith F. Kroll, Paola E. Dussias We exploit the unique phonetic properties of bilingual speech to ask how processes occurring during planning affect speech articulation, and whether listeners can use the phonetic modulations that occur in anticipation of a codeswitch to help restrict their lexical search to the appropriate language. An analysis of spontaneous bilingual codeswitching in the Bangor Miami Corpus (Deuchar, Davies, Herring, Parafita Couto, & Carter, 2014) reveals that in anticipation of switch...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 21, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The development of children ’s ability to track and predict turn structure in conversation
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Marisa Casillas, Michael C. Frank Children begin developing turn-taking skills in infancy but take several years to fluidly integrate their growing knowledge of language into their turn-taking behavior. In two eye-tracking experiments, we measured children’s anticipatory gaze to upcoming responders while controlling linguistic cues to turn structure. In Experiment 1, we showed English and non-English conversations to English-speaking adults and children. In Experiment 2, we phonetically controlled lexicosyntactic and proso...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 21, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The development of children’s ability to track and predict turn structure in conversation
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Marisa Casillas, Michael C. Frank Children begin developing turn-taking skills in infancy but take several years to fluidly integrate their growing knowledge of language into their turn-taking behavior. In two eye-tracking experiments, we measured children’s anticipatory gaze to upcoming responders while controlling linguistic cues to turn structure. In Experiment 1, we showed English and non-English conversations to English-speaking adults and children. In Experiment 2, we phonetically controlled lexicosyntactic and proso...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 17, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Bilingual non-selective lexical access in sentence contexts: A meta-analytic review
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Justin Lauro, Ana I. Schwartz Research on bilingual sentence processing demonstrates effects of cross-language activation during lexical access. However, there are mixed findings regarding the ability of semantically-constraining sentences to eliminate non-selective effects. In a quantitative meta-analysis the magnitude of cognate facilitation was examined as a function of sentence constraint, task and language of the sentence [native language (L1) versus second (L2)] as moderator variables. Twenty-six studies met criteria for m...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 16, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The generation effect revisited: Fewer generation constraints enhances item and context memory
This study further advances the idea that self-generation is a powerful mnemonic that leads to enriched memory representations for both the item and context, especially when fewer generation constraints are imposed. (Source: Journal of Memory and Language)
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 16, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The structure of working memory in young children and its relation to intelligence
This study investigated the structure of working memory in young school-age children by testing the fit of three competing theoretical models using a wide variety of tasks. The best fitting models were then used to assess the relationship between working memory and nonverbal measures of fluid reasoning (Gf) and visual processing (Gv) intelligence. One hundred sixty-eight English-speaking 7–9year olds with typical development, from three states, participated. Results showed that Cowan’s three-factor embedded processes model fit the data slightly better than Baddeley and Hitch’s (1974) three-factor model (s...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 14, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Testing the context-change account of list-method directed forgetting: The role of retention interval
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Magdalena Abel, Karl-Heinz T. Bäuml People can voluntarily forget previously studied material when cued to do so. Such directed forgetting may arise because the forget cue induces a change in mental context, thus causing context-dependent forgetting. This context-change account predicts that both context-dependent forgetting and directed forgetting should be relatively transient and be reduced, if not eliminated, after prolonged retention interval. In each of two experiments, participants studied two lists of items and betw...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 11, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Task-dependent motor representations evoked by spatial words: Implications for embodied accounts of word meaning
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Corson N. Areshenkoff, Daniel N. Bub, Michael E.J. Masson Embodied accounts contend that word meaning is grounded in sensorimotor representation. In support of this view, research has found rapid motor priming effects on vertical movements for words like eagle or shoe, which differ as to whether they are typically associated with an up or down spatial direction. These priming effects are held to be the result of motor representations evoked as an obligatory part of understanding the meaning of a word. In a series of experiments...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 8, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Learning metathesis: Evidence for syllable structure constraints
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Sara Finley One of the major questions in the cognitive science of language is whether the perceptual and phonological motivations for the rules and patterns that govern the sounds of language are a part of the psychological reality of grammatical representations. This question is particularly important in the study of phonological patterns – systematic constraints on the representation of sounds, because phonological patterns tend to be grounded in phonetic constraints. This paper focuses on phonological metathesis, which ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 8, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Structural priming in artificial languages and the regularisation of unpredictable variation
We present a novel experimental technique using artificial language learning to investigate the relationship between structural priming during communicative interaction, and linguistic regularity. We use unpredictable variation as a test-case, because it is a well-established paradigm to study learners’ biases during acquisition, transmission and interaction. We trained participants on artificial languages exhibiting unpredictable variation in word order, and subsequently had them communicate using these artificial languages. We found evidence for structural priming in two different grammatical constructions and acro...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 7, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The role of mediator strength in learning from retrieval
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Shana K. Carpenter, Kam Leung Yeung Previous studies have provided support for the idea that information activated during retrieval can act as a mediator that facilitates later recall of a target. Evidence for this has been obtained from a paradigm involving independent cues in which participants initially learn cue-target pairs through retrieval (Mother: _____) or restudying (Mother: Child), and later show stronger benefits of retrieval over restudy in recalling targets from final test cues that are strongly related to the orig...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - July 7, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Late consequences of early selection: When memory monitoring backfires
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Katarzyna Zawadzka, Maciej Hanczakowski, Edward L. Wilding At retrieval, people can adopt a retrieval orientation by which they recreate the mental operations used at encoding. Monitoring by retrieval orientation leads to assessing all test items for qualities related to the encoding task, which enriches foils with some of the qualities already possessed by targets. We investigated the consequences of adopting a retrieval orientation under conditions of repeated monitoring of the same foils. Participants first processed foils i...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - June 22, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Language processing, acceptability, and statistical distribution: A study of null and overt subjects in Brazilian Portuguese
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Amit Almor, Jefferson de Carvalho Maia, Maria Luiza Cunha Lima, Mirta Vernice, Carlos Gelormini-Lezama Two experiments and a corpus study tested whether Brazilian Portuguese (BP), which has been argued to be shifting from null subjects toward overt subjects indeed shows a comprehension preference for reduced over fuller anaphors for salient antecedents, and whether comprehension is better explained as an imbalance between processing cost and discourse function (pragmatics account), or simply the frequency of different constru...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - June 11, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Readers generalize adaptation to newly-encountered dialectal structures to other unfamiliar structures
Publication date: Available online 10 June 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Scott H. Fraundorf, T. Florian Jaeger Growing evidence suggests that syntactic processing may be guided in part by expectations about the statistics of the input that comprehenders have encountered; however, these statistics and even the syntactic structures themselves vary from situation to situation. Some recent work suggests that readers can adapt to variability in the frequencies of known, but infrequent syntactic structures. But, the relation between adaptation to altered frequencies of familiar structures and learning...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - June 10, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The role of schematic support in age-related associative deficits in short-term and long-term memory
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Dwight J. Peterson, Nicholas E. Schmidt, Moshe Naveh-Benjamin Older, relative to younger adults, exhibit an associative memory deficit in short-term and long-term memory, characterized by difficulty in binding distinct components to form associations, while item memory remains largely intact. Reduced performance emerges mostly due to high false alarm rates in older adults’ associative memory. One factor that could increase older adult false alarm rates during associative recognition memory tests is a decreased use of reco...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - June 10, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Explaining human performance in psycholinguistic tasks with models of semantic similarity based on prediction and counting: A review and empirical validation
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Paweł Mandera, Emmanuel Keuleers, Marc Brysbaert Recent developments in distributional semantics (Mikolov, Chen, Corrado, & Dean, 2013; Mikolov, Sutskever, Chen, Corrado, & Dean, 2013) include a new class of prediction-based models that are trained on a text corpus and that measure semantic similarity between words. We discuss the relevance of these models for psycholinguistic theories and compare them to more traditional distributional semantic models. We compare the models’ performances on a large datas...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - June 9, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Visually perceived spatial distance affects the interpretation of linguistically mediated social meaning during online language comprehension: An eye tracking reading study
We examined to what extent object distance effects on sentence interpretation depend upon a one-to-one mapping (relating objects to nouns). The eye-tracking record showed that spatial distance effects extended to abstract language other than semantic similarity and that these effects occurred as soon as the readers encountered linguistic information about social relations – independent of whether that information was conveyed by the (coordinated) nouns or by other constituents. Finally, the direction of the spatial distance effects seemed to depend on the activation level of the spatial distance representations, as d...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - June 6, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Putting things in new places: Linguistic experience modulates the predictive power of placement verb semantics
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Geertje van Bergen, Monique Flecken A central question regarding predictive language processing concerns the extent to which linguistic experience modulates the process. We approached this question by investigating sentence processing in advanced second language (L2) users with different native language (L1) backgrounds. Using a visual world eye tracking paradigm, we investigated to what extent L1 and L2 participants showed anticipatory eye movements to objects while listening to Dutch placement event descriptions. L2 groups dif...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - June 5, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Letter coding in visual word recognition: The impact of embedded words
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Marcus Taft, Joe Xu, Sonny Li Nonword classification responses are examined in this study to establish the amount of interference arising from the presence of an embedded word. In Experiment 1, greater interference is found from an initial embedding (e.g., furb vs lurb, cf. fur) than a final embedding (e.g., clid vs clig, cf. lid). In addition, an “outer” embedding (e.g., jomb vs vomb, cf. job) generates interference that is no greater than for an initial embedding. These results are inconsistent with the idea of le...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - June 5, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Is the Levels of Processing effect language-limited?
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 92 Author(s): Alan D. Baddeley, Graham J. Hitch The concept of Levels of Processing (LOP), proposing that deep coding enhances retention, has played a central role in the study of episodic memory. Evidence has however been based almost entirely on retention of individual words. Across five experiments, we compare LOP effects between visual and verbal stimuli, using judgments of pleasantness as a method of inducing deep encoding and a range of shallow encoding judgments selected so as to be applicable to both verbal and visual stimuli. LOP eff...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 30, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Shared and distinct mechanisms in deriving linguistic enrichment
We report three priming experiments that test whether there are shared enrichment mechanisms across a diverse range of linguistic categories. We find that quantifier, number, and ad hoc enrichments exhibit robust priming within their categories and between each other. Plural enrichments, in contrast, demonstrate within-category priming but no between-category priming. Our results demonstrate that (1) enrichment typically thought of as pragmatic or semantic can be primed in the same way as syntactic structures and (2) there are mechanisms that are shared across different enrichment categories, and that some phenomena (e.g.,...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 21, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Grammatical constraints on language switching: Language control is not just executive control
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 90 Author(s): Tamar H. Gollan, Matthew Goldrick The current study investigated the roles of grammaticality and executive control on bilingual language selection by examining production speed and failures of language control, or intrusion errors (e.g., saying el instead of the), in young and aging bilinguals. Production of mixed-language connected speech was elicited by asking Spanish–English bilinguals to read aloud paragraphs that had mostly grammatical (conforming to naturally occurring constraints) or mostly ungrammatical (haphazard m...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 18, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Primed codeswitching in spontaneous bilingual dialogue
Publication date: Available online 14 May 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Melinda Fricke, Gerrit Jan Kootstra Structural priming has played an important role in research on both monolingual and bilingual language production. However, studies of bilingual priming have mainly used priming as an experimental tool, focusing on cross-language priming between single-language sentences, which is a relatively infrequent form of communication in real life. We investigated priming in spontaneous bilingual dialogue, focusing on a hallmark of bilingual language use: codeswitching. Based on quantitative analys...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 14, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Recalibration effects in judgments of learning: A signal detection analysis
In this study we investigated the influence of list composition on judgments of learning (JOLs). To this end, we compared JOLs assigned in a multi-cycle procedure to a set of moderately difficult word pairs. Experiment 1 revealed that when difficult new pairs were added to the study list, the mean of JOLs assigned to the moderate pairs increased as compared to the baseline. In Experiment 2, we reversed this pattern by including easy new pairs in the study list. By analyzing metacognitive ROCs (MROCs), we demonstrate that these results were caused by criterion shifts, by which participants adjusted the level of evidence nee...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 14, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Does bilingualism shape inhibitory control in the elderly?
In this study we test the effects of bilingualism on elderly lifelong bilinguals whose cognitive abilities are in decline, thus making any benefits more salient. Firstly we compare 24 bilinguals and 24 carefully matched monolinguals on verbal and the numerical Stroop tasks, obtaining no differences in monitoring or inhibitory measures. Secondly we explore the modulations that the proficiency in the L2 might cause to executive control functions, as measured by the same tasks, by testing 70 elderly bilinguals who vary in their L2 mastery from very low to perfectly fluent. Results show no modulation in any of the indices due ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 14, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Perceptual-motor determinants of auditory-verbal serial short-term memory
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 90 Author(s): Robert W. Hughes, Cindy Chamberland, Sébastien Tremblay, Dylan M. Jones The role of the compatibility between obligatory perceptual organization and the active assembly of a motor-plan in auditory-verbal serial recall was examined. The classic finding that serial recall is poorer with ear-alternating items was shown to be related to spatial-source localization, thereby confirming a basic tenet of the perceptual-motor account and disconfirming an early account characterizing the two ears as separate input-channels (Experi...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 8, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

A meta-analysis of syntactic priming in language production
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Kyle Mahowald, Ariel James, Richard Futrell, Edward Gibson We performed an exhaustive meta-analysis of 73 peer-reviewed journal articles on syntactic priming from the seminal Bock (1986) paper through 2013. Extracting the effect size for each experiment and condition, where the effect size is the log odds ratio of the frequency of the primed structure X to the frequency of the unprimed structure Y, we found a robust effect of syntactic priming with an average weighted odds ratio of 1.67 when there is no lexical overlap and ...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 6, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

The temporal dynamics of perceptual uncertainty: eye movement evidence from Cantonese segment and tone perception
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 90 Author(s): Jessie S. Nixon, Jacolien van Rij, Peggy Mok, R. Harald Baayen, Yiya Chen Two visual world eyetracking experiments investigated how acoustic cue value and statistical variance affect perceptual uncertainty during Cantonese consonant (Experiment 1) and tone perception (Experiment 2). Participants heard low- or high-variance acoustic stimuli. Euclidean distance of fixations from target and competitor pictures over time was analysed using Generalised Additive Mixed Modelling. Distance of fixations from target and competitor pictu...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - May 6, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Making long-distance relationships work: Quantifying lexical competition with Hidden Markov Models
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 90 Author(s): Julia Strand, David Liben-Nowell A listener recognizes a stimulus word from acoustic–phonetic input by discriminating that word’s representation from those of other words. The Neighborhood Activation Model (NAM; Luce & Pisoni, 1998) is a long-standing and deeply influential model quantifying how properties of the stimulus word and its competitors influence recognition. The current project incorporates Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) into the NAM’s framework to more flexibly evaluate the influence of multiple...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - April 29, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Unifying structural priming effects on syntactic choices and timing of sentence generation
Publication date: Available online 26 April 2016 Source:Journal of Memory and Language Author(s): Katrien Segaert, Linda Wheeldon, Peter Hagoort We investigated whether structural priming of production latencies is sensitive to the same factors known to influence persistence of structural choices: structure preference, cumulativity and verb repetition. In two experiments, we found structural persistence only for passives (inverse preference effect) while priming effects on latencies were stronger for the actives (positive preference effect). We found structural persistence for passives to be influenced by immediate pr...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - April 26, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research