Prevalence of psychotropic medication use and association with challenging behaviour in adults with an intellectual disability. A total population study
ConclusionsThe use of a total population sample identified via multiple routes is less likely to overestimate prevalence rates of medication use. Current challenging behaviour was a predictor of medication use after controlling for other variables. Data indicate that there may be differences in prescribing patterns associated with different topographies of challenging behaviours. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - January 15, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: D. L. Bowring, V. Totsika, R. P. Hastings, S. Toogood, M. McMahon Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

The Mandarin Chinese version of the Beach Centre Family Quality of Life Scale: development and psychometric properties in Taiwanese families of children with developmental delay
Abstract BackgroundEarly intervention (EI) practitioners provide individualised family‐centred services to enhance the quality of life (QOL) of families of children with developmental delay (DD). Family QOL (FQOL) could be an important outcome indictor for EI, but there is no measurement tool for FQOL in Mandarin Chinese. The purpose of this study was to translate the Beach Centre FQOL Scale (BCFQOL) into Mandarin Chinese and to examine the psychometric properties of the scale in families of children with DD. MethodsTwo independent translations were performed by two bilingual professors whose mother tongue was Mandarin, ...
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - January 15, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: S. ‐J. Chiu, P. ‐T. Chen, Y. ‐T. Chou, L. ‐Y. Chien Tags: Original manuscript Source Type: research

Intellectual disability and patient activation after release from prison: a prospective cohort study
ConclusionsEx‐prisoners screening positive for possible intellectual disability have decreased patient activation for at least 6 months after release from prison. However, individuals whose possible intellectual disability is unidentified appear to be particularly vulnerable. Incarceration is a pivotal opportunity for the identification of intellectual disability and for initiating transitional linkages to health and intellectual disability‐specific community services for this marginalised population. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - January 15, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: J. T. Young, C. Cumming, K. Dooren, N. G. Lennox, R. Alati, M. J. Spittal, L. Brophy, D. B. Preen, S. A. Kinner Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

The nationwide register ‐based prevalence of intellectual disability during childhood and adolescence
ConclusionsCumulative prevalence of ID by year, until the age of 18, will provide a better estimate and understanding of the prevalence of ID than a point prevalence at any one point during the developmental years. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - January 15, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: H. Westerinen, M. Kaski, L. J. Virta, H. Kautiainen, K. H. Pitk älä, M. Iivanainen Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

Aboriginal prisoners and cognitive impairment: the impact of dual disadvantage on Social and Emotional Wellbeing
ConclusionsCulturally responsive disability assistance should be available at all phases of the justice system for Indigenous people with cognitive impairment to ensure that equitable care is accessible and needs are addressed. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - January 4, 2017 Category: Disability Authors: S. M. Shepherd, J. R. P. Ogloff, D. Shea, J. E. Pfeifer, Y. Paradies Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

Changes in objectively measured physical activity in adolescents with Down syndrome: the UP & DOWN longitudinal study
This study comprised a total of 99 adolescents with Down syndrome (38 girls) aged from 11 to 20 years old at baseline. Participants with valid accelerometer data at baseline and at least one of the follow‐up visits were included in the analysis. ResultsOverall, levels of physical activity observed in adolescents with Down syndrome declined from baseline to follow‐ups, but these changes were not significant (all P > 0.05). Moderate‐to‐moderately high tracking of physical activity was observed in adolescents with Down syndrome (all P 
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - December 31, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: R. Izquierdo ‐Gomez, D. Martinez‐Gómez, I. Esteban‐Cornejo, P. C. Hallal, L. García‐Cervantes, A. Villagra, O. L. Veiga, Tags: Original manuscript Source Type: research

Pain underreporting associated with profound intellectual disability in emergency departments
ConclusionsThe results suggest that persons with PID are less able to conceptualise and communicate information about their symptoms, especially as regards pain, and that this influences the diagnosis they are given when attending an ED. Professionals working in this environment need to be aware of this possibility so as not to underestimate or overlook such symptoms and the illnesses related to them. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - December 31, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: A. Amor ‐Salamanca, J. M. Menchon Tags: Original manuscript Source Type: research

The effect of slow ‐paced breathing on stress management in adolescents with intellectual disability
ConclusionsThe slow‐paced breathing task enhanced stress management to a greater extent than did listening to an audiobook. Slow‐paced breathing seems to be an easy to learn stress management technique that appears as an effective auxiliary method of lowering stress in adolescents with intellectual disabilities. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - November 30, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: S. Laborde, M. S. Allen, N. G öhring, F. Dosseville Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

Sensorimotor and visual perceptual functioning in school ‐aged children with Williams syndrome
ConclusionsOur findings characterised the profiles of body functions (sensorimotor functions and visual organisation) of children with DS, and revealed their correlations with activity participation. Interventions focused on improving body functions are needed while stressing the acquisition of functional skills that increase participation in age‐appropriate activities. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - November 30, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Y. ‐P. Wuang, H.‐Y. Tsai Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

Profiles of children with Down syndrome who meet screening criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD): a comparison with children diagnosed with ASD attending specialist schools
ConclusionFindings suggest that children with DS who meet screening criteria for ASD show similar profiles of communication and repetitive behaviours to those typically described in autism. However, they tend to have relatively milder social difficulties. It is important that clinicians are aware of this difference if children with DS and ASD are to be correctly diagnosed and eligible for specialist intervention and education services. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - November 21, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: G. Warner, P. Howlin, E. Salomone, J. Moss, T. Charman Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

JIDR: 60  years of diversity
(Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - November 13, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: C. Oliver, J. Waite Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Age and gender ‐related differences in emotional and behavioural problems and autistic features in children and adolescents with Down syndrome: a survey‐based study of 674 individuals
Abstract BackgroundRecent studies have indicated an increased risk of autism, behavioural and emotional problems and attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder in individuals with Down syndrome. MethodIn a large‐scale survey‐based study, we examined the rates of these problems and their relationship to age and gender, in a sample of 674 individuals (4–18 years) with Down syndrome. The relationship with IQ level was also explored in a subsample (n = 175). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Social Communication Questionnaire were used to assess behavioural and emotional proble...
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - November 12, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: T. N ærland, K. A. Bakke, S. Storvik, G. Warner, P. Howlin Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

Psychometric properties of the AIR Self ‐Determination Scale: the Chinese version (AIR SDS‐C) for Chinese people with intellectual disabilities
ConclusionsThe AIR SDS‐C appears to be a valid and reliable scale. This study examined adult groups as well as student groups. The application of the scale can thus be extended to a wider population. The implications for theory building and practice are discussed. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - November 10, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: P. K. S. Wong, D. F. K. Wong, X. Y. Zhuang, Y. Liu Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

Accuracy of the prediction equation for the determination of maximum heart rate in adults with Down syndrome
Abstract BackgroundThe purpose of the study was to determine if the regression formula developed for the prediction of maximum heart rate (HR) is valid for adults with Down syndrome (DS). MethodsThirty‐six adults with DS (31.7 ± 6.8 years; 20 men, 16 women) completed a maximal aerobic test. Maximum HR and VO2 peak were measured directly on a motorised treadmill with a metabolic analyser. Predicted HR was estimated with the regression equation developed for individuals with DS (Fernhall et al. 2001). Differences between measured versus predicted maximum HR were assessed with a dependent T‐tes...
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - October 31, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Pieter ‐Henk Boer Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

A matter of life and death: knowledge about the body and concept of death in adults with intellectual disabilities
ConclusionThe study highlights the relationship between knowledge about the goal of human body functioning and death comprehension in adults with ID. The potential that learning to adopt a ‘vitalistic’ approach to human functioning may have on the acquisition of a greater understanding of death and dying, understanding illness and supporting end‐of‐life planning is discussed. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - October 31, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: J. McEvoy, B. Treacy, J. Quigley Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

Problem behaviour in adolescent boys with fragile X syndrome: relative prevalence, frequency and severity
ConclusionsTaken together, these results refine and extend previous studies concerning the specificity of the behavioural phenotype in FXS and indicate that specific forms of problem behaviour shown by boys with FXS appear to differ from those exhibited by boys with mixed‐aetiology ID in terms of prevalence, frequency and severity. Studies employing more objective measures of frequency and severity, including direct observations, are needed to confirm these findings. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - October 12, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: S. S. Hall, R. P. Barnett, K. M. Hustyi Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

Children with autism spectrum disorder: teaching conversation involving feelings about events
ConclusionsTogether, the results of both studies suggest that, by providing an effective and reinforcing means of teaching both the function and the form of these tacts, conversations can be successfully initiated by children with ASD. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - October 11, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: K. Conallen, P. Reed Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

Health care utilisation among older persons with intellectual disability and dementia: a registry study
ConclusionsPersons with ID and dementia are less likely to receive planned health care than persons with dementia in the general population. They have, however, higher levels of unplanned health care utilisation. This may be an indication that the current support system is not sufficient to meet the challenges of increased longevity among persons with ID. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - October 10, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: A. Axmon, B. Karlsson, G. Ahlstr öm Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

Development and validation of the Learning Disabilities Needs Assessment Tool (LDNAT), a HoNOS ‐based needs assessment tool for use with people with intellectual disability
ConclusionsThe LDNAT had clinically utility when rating the needs of people with ID prior to condition‐specific assessment(s). Analyses of internal and external validity were promising. Further evaluation of its sensitivity to changes in needs is now required. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - October 10, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: J. Painter, L. Trevithick, R. P. Hastings, B. Ingham, A. Roy Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

Route ‐learning strategies in typical and atypical development; eye tracking reveals atypical landmark selection in Williams syndrome
DiscussionThe current results demonstrate that attention to landmarks during route learning reflects the types of landmarks remembered in memory tasks, that individuals with WS can learn a route if given sufficient exposure, but that this is accomplished within the context of an impaired ability to select appropriate landmarks. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - September 14, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: E. K. Farran, S. Formby, F. Daniyal, T. Holmes, J. Van Herwegen Tags: Special Issue Source Type: research

Editorial: Special edition on Williams Syndrome
(Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - September 14, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Deborah M. Riby, Melanie A. Porter Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Unsupportive parenting and internalising behaviour problems in children with or without intellectual disability
ConclusionsChildren with ID were found to be at higher risk of experiencing unsupportive, negative parenting than children with TD. Children of depressed fathers were especially vulnerable to developing internalising behaviour problems in an unsupportive parenting context. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - September 12, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: N. V. Rodas, S. M. Zeedyk, B. L. Baker Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

Breast cancer and screening in persons with an intellectual disability living in institutions in France
ConclusionsThe results of this study show that BC is equally as frequent among women with ID living in institutions as in the general population, and occurs at around the same age. Obesity was significantly more frequent among women in whom BC was diagnosed in our study. Participation in BC screening is slightly higher among women with ID living in institutions than among the general population. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - August 31, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: B. Tr étarre, S. Bourgarel, A. Stoebner‐Delbarre, W. Jacot, F. Bessaoud, D. Satge Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

Attentional bias in problematic drinkers with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability
ConclusionTaking the large variability in the strength of the attentional bias and the poor psychometric qualities of the measures into consideration, it is concluded that the use of these measures for clinical purposes is discouraged. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - August 31, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: N. Duijvenbode, R. Didden, H. P. L. M. Korzilius, R. C. M. E. Engels Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

‘What vision?’: experiences of Team members in a community service for adults with intellectual disabilities
DiscussionThe perceived absence of a vision for the service, combined with a dominant culture viewed by its members as strongly focussed on bureaucracy and process, potentially compromises the ability of these CTs to respond proactively to the needs of people with IDs. Given the changes in legislation, policy and practice that have taken place since CTs were established, it would be timely to revisit their role and purpose. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - August 31, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: I. C. H. Clare, E. M. Madden, A. J. Holland, C. J. T. Farrington, S. Whitson, S. Broughton, A. Lillywhite, E. Jones, K. A. Wade, M. Redley, A. P. Wagner Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

Predictors of self ‐reported alcohol use and attitudes toward alcohol among 11‐year‐old British children with and without intellectual disability
ConclusionPublic health interventions to reduce potentially harmful drinking among children in general must recognise that children with ID are a potentially high risk group and ensure that interventions are appropriately adjusted to take account of their particular needs and situation. Future research in this area is needed to untangle the causal pathways between attitudes toward alcohol and alcohol use among children with ID and the extent to which levels of alcohol use and predictors of alcohol use may be moderated by severity of ID. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - August 31, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: E. Emerson, J. Robertson, S. Baines, C. Hatton Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

Do ‐Not‐Attempt‐Resuscitation orders for people with intellectual disabilities: dilemmas and uncertainties for ID physicians and trainees. The importance of the deliberation process
ConclusionThe theory we developed clarifies that DNAR decision‐making for people with IDs is complex and causes uncertainties. This theory offers a sound basis for training courses for physicians to deal with uncertainties regarding DNAR decision‐making, as well as a method for advance care planning. Health care organisations are strongly advised to implement a procedure regarding DNAR decision‐making. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - August 26, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: A. M. A. Wagemans, H. M. J. Schrojenstein Lantman ‐de Valk, I. M. Proot, A. M. Bressers, J. Metsemakers, I. Tuffrey‐Wijne, M. Groot, L. M. G. Curfs Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

Executive function and academic achievement in primary – grade students with Down syndrome
ConclusionsAspects of EF are critical to academic achievement in DS but differentially so relative to typical development. Implications for educational instruction are discussed. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - August 25, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: E. Will, D. J. Fidler, L. Daunhauer, B. Gerlach ‐McDonald Tags: Original manuscript Source Type: research

Psychiatric hospitalisation among individuals with intellectual disability referred to the START crisis intervention and prevention program
ConclusionsAmong this high‐risk referred group, more than 1 in 4 individuals were hospitalised in the year prior to referral. While results from the analyses will help profile those at risk for hospitalisation, the findings suggest that interventions at the policy level may play an important role in reducing psychiatric hospitalisation. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - August 25, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: L. G. Kalb, J. Beasley, A. Klein, J. Hinton, L. Charlot Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

Developmental trajectories of structural and pragmatic language skills in school ‐aged children with Williams syndrome
ConclusionThe data provide new insights into diverging developmental trajectories across language domains. Expressive structural language skills tend to progress more rapidly than receptive language skills in children with WS causing more distinctive language profiles over time. Some children with WS seem to benefit from the growth in expressive structural language abilities to enhance their expressive pragmatic language skills, while in some others these abilities remain challenging. This study highlights the need for continued follow‐up of language challenges in WS and for a dynamic and individualised interventional ap...
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - August 22, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: E. Van Den Heuvel, E. Manders, A. Swillen, I. Zink Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

Visual –motor integration, visual perception and motor coordination in a population with Williams syndrome and in typically developing children
ConclusionsThe present study is the first to use all three tasks of the Beery‐VMI test. For the TD children, the performances on the three subtests did not show the same developmental trajectory. In contrast, the participants with WD did not show the same developmental trajectory. The participants with WD exhibited poor performances on all tasks with scores comparable with the 5‐year‐old TD children. As high correlations between these abilities were observed, improving VP and MC could help the development of VMI, which in turn could improve visual–spatial abilities in individuals with WS. (Source: Journal of In...
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - August 21, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: J. Heiz, K. Barisnikov Tags: Special Issue Source Type: research

Predictors of specific phobia in children with Williams syndrome
ConclusionChildren with behaviour regulation difficulties in or just below the clinical range were at the greatest risk of developing SP. These findings highlight the value of large samples and the importance of evaluating for nonlinear effects to provide accurate model specification when characterising relations among a dependent variable and possible predictors. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - August 21, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: C. H. Pitts, B. P. Klein ‐Tasman, J. W. Osborne, C. B. Mervis Tags: Special Issue Source Type: research

Oral Abstracts
(Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - August 15, 2016 Category: Disability Tags: Abstract Source Type: research

Invited Speakers
(Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - August 15, 2016 Category: Disability Tags: Abstract Source Type: research

Early/late ‐life adversities and behavioural phenotypes: insight into metabolomics, genomics and connectomics
(Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - August 15, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: Antonio Federico, Annapia Verri, Petrus J. Vries Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Mortality in people with intellectual disabilities in England
ConclusionsNational data about mortality in people with ID provides a basis for public health interventions. Linked data using GP records to identify people with ID could provide comprehensive population‐based monitoring in England, unbiased by the circumstances of illnesses or death; to date information governance constraints have prevented this. However, GPs in England currently identify only around 0.5% of the population as having ID, suggesting that individuals with mild, non‐syndromic ID are largely missed. Notably common causes of death suggest control of cardiovascular risk factors, epilepsy and dysphagia, manag...
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - August 1, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: G. Glover, R. Williams, P. Heslop, J. Oyinola, J. Grey Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

Reliability of parent report measures of sleep in children with Down syndrome
ConclusionThe study findings suggest that, among children with DS, the CSHQ and its subscales performed in a psychometrically sound and theoretically appropriate manner in relation to other measures of sleep, medical history of sleep problems, and daily reports of sleep and associated behaviours. The SDSC performed moderately well. When evaluating behavioural sleep disturbances among children with DS, the CSHQ is recommended based on its stronger psychometric properties. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - July 27, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: A. J. Esbensen, E. K. Hoffman Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

Author Index
(Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - July 21, 2016 Category: Disability Tags: Author Index Source Type: research

Scientific Poster Presentations
(Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - July 21, 2016 Category: Disability Tags: Abstract Source Type: research

Scientific Oral Presentations
(Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - July 21, 2016 Category: Disability Tags: Abstract Source Type: research

Invited Presentations
(Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - July 21, 2016 Category: Disability Tags: Abstract Source Type: research

Needs among persons with human immunodeficiency virus and intellectual and developmental disabilities in community mental health care: a cross ‐sectional study
ConclusionDespite elevated cognitive needs in the basic and self‐care/functional clusters for the ID group, limited other differences suggest that with moderate additional targeting, community mental health programmes for persons with HIV may be appropriate for men with ID. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - June 30, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: A. Durbin, F. Sirotich, Y. Lunsky, K. Roesslein, J. Durbin Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Learning from facial expressions in individuals with Williams syndrome
ConclusionsPossible explanations for the unique performance profile observed in the participants with WS are discussed. The results highlight the need to examine social competencies in the context of the cognitive demands characteristic of social environments. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - June 30, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: K. J. Goldman, J. A. Burack, C. Shulman Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

Community participation of youth with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder
ConclusionsThe current study highlights individual and environmental factors amenable to intervention that may foster successful community participation among youth with ASD and ID. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - June 30, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: A. Tint, A. L. Maughan, J. A. Weiss Tags: Special Issue Source Type: research

Capacity to improve fine motor skills in Williams syndrome
ConclusionsEstimating motor learning capacity and the depth of sleep disorder in a larger sample of WS individuals might reveal important relationships between sleep and learning, and contribute to efficient intervention methods improving skill acquisition in WS. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - June 30, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: A. Berencsi, F. Gombos, I. Kov ács Tags: Special Issue Source Type: research

Sleep problems and temperament in young children with Down syndrome and typically developing controls
ConclusionFindings indicated that sleep problems may serve as both cause and consequence of variability in effortful and inhibitory control and provide insight as to future experimental studies that should be conducted to better elucidate these relations. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - June 30, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: A. F. Lukowski, H. M. Milojevich Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

Intact attentional orienting towards inverted faces revealed by both manual responses and eye ‐movement measurement in individuals with Williams syndrome
ConclusionAlthough individuals with WS exhibited atypical gaze behaviour towards upright faces in our previous study, this unusual behaviour disappears if the faces are upside down. These findings suggest that local feature information alone (e.g. eyes) does not contribute to the heightened attention to faces, but configural information appears necessary for drawing attention to faces in individuals with WS, at least in the current experimental paradigm. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - June 30, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: M. Hirai, Y. Muramatsu, S. Mizuno, N. Kurahashi, H. Kurahashi, M. Nakamura Tags: Special Issue Source Type: research

Effects of therapeutic recreation on adults with ASD and ID: a preliminary randomized control trial
ConclusionsFindings provide support for inclusion of EF enrichment as a way to enhance effects of TR interventions for adults with ASD and ID. Preliminary results of this study can be considered in planning TR services in the future. In addition to TR‐EF program primary effects on EF, there were indirect benefits on adaptive behaviours, personal well‐being and social skills. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - June 30, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: D. Garc ía‐Villamisar, J. Dattilo, C. Muela Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

Processing of stimulus content but not of emotional valence is altered in persons with Williams syndrome
ConclusionsThere was no evidence of greater than typical perceptual, attentional or affective processing of social information in WS. The results support the idea that altered face perception processes and not the increased salience of social stimuli or difficulties with emotion discrimination may contribute to the hypersocial phenotype in WS. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - June 30, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: A. P. Key, E. M. Dykens Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research

Overweight and obesity among children at risk of intellectual disability in 20 low and middle income countries
ConclusionsThese results stand in stark contrast to evidence from high income countries which suggest that children with ID are at significantly increased risk of obesity when compared to their non‐intellectually disabled peers. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)
Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - June 30, 2016 Category: Disability Authors: A. Savage, E. Emerson Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research