Ginsenoside Rh2 attenuates microglial activation against toxoplasmic encephalitis via TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway
Publication date: Available online 14 June 2019Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Xiang Xu, Lan Jin, Tong Jiang, Ying Lu, Fumie Aosai, Hu-Nan Piao, Guang-Hua Xu, Cheng-Hua Jin, Xue-Jun Jin, Juan Ma, Lian-Xun PiaoAbstractBackgroundGinsenoside Rh2 (GRh2) is a characterized component in red ginseng widely used in Korea and China. GRh2 exhibits a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer properties. However, its effects on Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection have not been clarified yet.MethodsThe effect of GRh2 against T. gondii was assessed under in vitro ...
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - June 14, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Diol-Ginsenosides from Korean Red Ginseng Delay the Development of Type 1 Diabetes in Diabetes-Prone BioBreeding Rats
ConclusionDiol-GF, but not Triol-GF, significantly delayed the development of insulitis and T1D in DP-BB rats. The anti-diabetogenic action of Diol-GF may result from the decrease in cytokine production and increase in β-cell resistance to cytokine/free radical-induced cytotoxicity. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - June 13, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Korean Red Ginseng alleviates neuroinflammation and promotes cell survival in the intermittent heat stress-induced rat brain by suppressing oxidative stress via estrogen receptor beta and brain-derived neurotrophic factor upregulation
ConclusionILTHS induced oxidative stress responses and inflammatory molecules, which can lead to impaired neurogenesis and ultimately neuronal death, whereas, KRG, being the antioxidant, inhibited neuronal damage and increased cell viability. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - June 11, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Safety and antifatigue effect of Korean Red Ginseng: a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial
ConclusionOur study revealed that KRG has a potent antifatigue effect without significant adverse effects in people with deficiency syndrome. Although a larger sample size and longer treatment may be required for a more definite conclusion, this clinical trial is the first to disprove the common conception of “fireness” related to KRG. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - June 8, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of a gintonin-enriched fraction on hair growth: an in vitro and in vivo study
ConclusionTopical application of GEF promotes mouse hair growth through HFDPC proliferation. GEF could be one of the main components of ginseng that promotes hair growth and could be used to treat human alopecia.Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - June 7, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of gut microbiota on the pharmacokinetics of protopanaxadiol ginsenosides Rd, Rg3, F2, and compound K in healthy volunteers treated orally with Red ginseng
Publication date: Available online 5 June 2019Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Jeon-Kyung Kim, Min Sun Choi, Woonhee Jeung, Jehyeon Ra, Hye Hyun Yoo, Dong-Hyun KimAbstractBackgrounds: It is well recognized that gut microbiota is involved in the biotransformation of ginsenosides by converting the polar ginsenosides to non-polar bioactive ginsenosides. However, the roles of the gut microbiota on the pharmacokinetics of ginsenosides in humans have not yet been fully elucidated.MethodsRed ginseng (RG) or fermented Red ginseng (FRG) was orally administered to 34 healthy Korean volunteers, and the serum concentratio...
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - June 6, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Korean Red Ginseng increases defective pol gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-1-infected patients; inhibition of its detection during ginseng-based combination therapy
ConclusionThe proportion of Δpol depends on template size as well as KRG treatment. HAART decreases the detection of Δpol.Graphical abstractInternal deletion in the pol gene (Δpol) can be induced by taking Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) and the proportion of Δpol increases with a longer target size of PCR. In both 1.2-kb and 3.0-kb targeting PCR, the Δpol was significantly lower during ginseng based combination therapy (GCT; KRG plus HAART) and HAART than in the KRG treatment period. The reason for this might be the reduction of Δpol detection by limit dilution effect. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - June 6, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Korean Red Ginseng extract ameliorates melanogenesis in humans and induces antiphotoaging effects in ultraviolet B–irradiated hairless mice
ConclusionTherefore, we conclude that KRG is an excellent skin whitening and antiaging product. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - June 1, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Structural characteristics of a red ginseng acidic polysaccharide, rhamnogalacturonan-I, with immunostimulating activity from red ginseng
This study aimed to characterize the immunostimulatory and structural properties of the red ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP; Panax ginseng Meyer), a polysaccharide fraction (RGP-AP) isolated from red ginseng via hot water extraction, followed by amylase and, subsequently, pectinase digestion and ethanol precipitation. Next, a complex acidic polysaccharide (RGP-AP-I) was purified to homogeneity from RGP-AP via size-exclusion chromatography using Sephadex G-100. Peritoneal macrophages stimulated using RGP-AP-I significantly augmented the production of various cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, and tumor necrosi...
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - May 30, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Quinetides: diverse post-translational modified peptides of ribonuclease-like storage protein from Panaxquinquefolius as markers for differentiating Ginseng species
ConclusionWe provide specific information on PQ peptides, and propose the clinical application of peptide markers to distinguish PQ from P. ginseng.Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - May 30, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Metabolomes and transcriptomes revealed the saponin distribution in root tissues of Panax quinquefolius and Panax notoginseng
In this study, the representative ginsenosides were detected and quantified by MALDI-MS imaging and HPLC analysis to demonstrate saponin distribution in the roots tissues of P. quinquefolius and P. notoginseng. And saponin metabolite profiles were analyzed by metabolomes to obtain the biomarkers of different roots tissues. Finally, the transcriptomes analysis was performed to demonstrate the molecular mechanisms of saponin distribution by gene profiles.ResultsThere were saponin distribution in the root tissues differed between P. quinquefolius and P. notoginseng. 88 and 24 potential biomarkers were detected by metabolomes ...
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - May 29, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Genetic diversity among cultivated and wild Panax ginseng populations revealed by high-resolution microsatellite markers
ConclusionGinseng has a relatively high level of genetic diversity and cultivated and wild groups have similar levels of genetic diversity. Collectively, our data demonstrate that current breeding populations have abundant genetic diversity for breeding of elite ginseng cultivars. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - May 26, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Korean red ginseng alleviates neuroinflammation and promotes cell survival in intermittent heat stress-induced rat brain by suppressing oxidative stress via ER-β and BDNF upregulation
ConclusionILTHS induced oxidative stress responses and inflammatory molecules, which can lead to impaired neurogenesis and ultimately neuronal death, whereas, KRG, being the antioxidant inhibited neuronal damage and increased cell viability. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - May 24, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Safety and anti-fatigue effect of Korean Red Ginseng: A randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial
ConclusionsOur study revealed that KRG has a potent anti-fatigue effect without significant adverse effects in people with deficiency syndrome. Although a larger sample size and longer treatment may be required for a more definite conclusion, this clinical trial is the first to disprove the common conception of “fireness” related to KRG. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - May 22, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Ginsenosides analysis of New Zealand–grown forest Panax ginseng by LC-QTOF-MS/MS
ConclusionThis study provides the first-ever comprehensive report on NZ-grown wild simulated P. ginseng. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - May 21, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng chemoprevents both initiation and promotion of cutaneous carcinoma by enhancing cell-mediated immunity and maintaining redox homeostasis
ConclusionAccording to the study results, ginseng can be potentially used for cutaneous carcinoma as a chemopreventive agent by enhancing cell-mediated immunity and maintaining redox homeostasis with multiple components, targets and links. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - May 21, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Role of Korean Ginseng and Ginsenosides in the Modulation of Platelet Functions and Cardiovascular Diseases
Publication date: Available online 21 May 2019Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Muhammad Irfan, Minki Kim, Man Hee RheeAbstractCardiovascular diseases prevail among modern societies and underdeveloped countries, and a high mortality rate has also been reported by the World Health Organization affecting millions of people worldwide. Hyperactive platelets are the major culprits in thrombotic disorders. A group of drugs is available to deal with such platelet-related disorders; however, sometimes, side effects and complications caused by these drugs outweigh their benefits. Ginseng and its nutraceuticals have been...
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - May 21, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Korean Red ginseng extract ameliorates melanogenesis in humans and induces anti-photo aging effects in ultraviolet B-irradiated hairless mice
ConclusionTherefore, we conclude that KRG is an excellent skin whitening and antiaging product.Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - May 15, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Structural characteristics of a RGAP (red ginseng acidic polysaccharide), rhamnogalacturonan I with immuno-stimulating activity from red ginseng
This study aimed to characterize the immunostimulatory and structural properties of red ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP; Panax ginseng Meyer), a polysaccharide fraction (RGP-AP) isolated from red ginseng via hot water extraction followed by amylase and, subsequently, pectinase digestion and ethanol precipitation. Next, a complex acidic polysaccharide (RGP-AP-I) was purified to homogeneity from RGP-AP via size-exclusion chromatography using Sephadex G-100. Peritoneal macrophages stimulated using RGP-AP-I significantly augmented the production of various cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, and tumor necrosis fac...
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - May 15, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Proteomic Studies of putative molecular signatures for Biological Effects by Korean Red Ginseng
ConclusionThe DEPs appear to increase the innate and acquired immunity as well as immune cell movement. These results suggest that KRG can stimulate immune responses. This analysis refined our targets of interest to include the potential functions of KRG. Furthermore, we validated the potential molecular targets of the functions, representatively LCN2, CRAMP, and HLA-DQB1 by western blotting. These results may provide molecular signature candidates to elucidate the mechanisms of the immune response by KRG. Here, we demonstrate a strategy of tissue proteomics for the discovery of the molecular function of KRG.Graphical abst...
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - May 11, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Ginsenosides analysis of New Zealand grown forest Panax ginseng using LC-QTOF-MS/MS
ConclusionThis study provides the first ever comprehensive report on NZ grown wild simulated P. ginseng.Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - May 3, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Amino acid, fatty acid, and carbohydrate metabolomic profiles with ginsenoside-induced insecticidal efficacy against Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee)
ConclusionsPDS decreased the consumption index, relative growth rate, approximate digestibility, conversion of ingested and digested food in 3rd instar larvae of O. furnacalis in a dose-dependent manner. PDS decreased 15 free amino acids, 16 free fatty acids, and 5 carbohydrates and increased the levels of palmitoleic acid, palmitic acid, and 9-octadecenoic acid in 3rd instar larvae. The activity of detoxification-related enzymes, such as AChE, GST, CYP540, CarE, TH, ACP and ALP, was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in 3rd instar larvae exposed to PDS. These data confirmed the inhibitory effect of PDS against growth, foo...
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - April 29, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Overexpression of ginseng cytochrome P450 CYP736A12 alters plant growth and confers phenylurea herbicide tolerance in Arabidopsis
ConclusionPgCYP736A12 does not respond to the well-known secondary metabolite elicitor JA, which suggests that it may not function in ginsenoside biosynthesis. Heterologous overexpression of PgCYP736A12 reveals that this gene is actually involved in herbicide metabolism. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - April 20, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Appropriate nitrogen application enhances saponin synthesis and growth mediated by optimizing root nutrient uptake ability
ConclusionAppropriate N fertilizer rates could optimize both root architecture and nutrient uptake efficiency, then promote both the accumulation of dry matter and the synthesis of saponins. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - April 18, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Metabolomic Understanding of Intrinsic Physiology in Panax ginseng During Whole Growing Seasons
ConclusionThis study highlights the intrinsic metabolic characteristics of ginseng plants and their associations with climate changes during their growth. It provides important information not only for better understanding of metabolic phenotype of ginseng, but also for quality improvement of ginseng through modification of cultivation. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - April 18, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Ginsenoside Rk1 is a novel inhibitor of NMDA receptors in cultured rat hippocampal neurons
ConclusionTaken together, our results suggest that ginsenoside Rk1 might be a novel component contributable to the development of ginseng-based therapeutic treatments for neurodegenerative diseases. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - April 15, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

20(S)-protopanaxadiol promotes the migration, proliferation, and differentiation of neural stem cells by targeting GSK-3β in the Wnt/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway
ConclusionPPD promotes NSC proliferation and neural differentiation in vitro via activation of the Wnt/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway by targeting GSK-3β, potentially having great significance for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - April 12, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Remarkable impact of amino acids on ginsenoside transformation from fresh ginseng to red ginseng
ConclusionAmino acids can remarkably affect the acidity of P. ginseng sample by altering the pH value. They were the main influential factors for the ginsenoside transformation. These results are useful in elucidating why and how steaming induces the structural change of ginsenoside in P. ginseng, and also provides an effective and green approach to regulate the ginsenoside conversion using amino acids during the steaming process. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - April 11, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

20(S)-protopanaxadiol promotes the migration, proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells by targeting GSK-3β in the Wnt/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway
ConclusionPPD promotes NSC proliferation and neural differentiation in vitro via activation of the Wnt/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway by targeting GSK-3β, potentially having great significance for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - March 26, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Panax ginseng–derived fraction BIOGF1K reduces atopic dermatitis responses via suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway
ConclusionsBIOGF1K attenuated the AD response, hence supporting its use as a promising and natural approach for treating AD. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - March 20, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Korean red ginseng enhances cardiac hemodynamics on doxorubicin-induced toxicity in rats
ConclusionThese mean that KRG mitigates myocardial damage by modulating the hemodynamics, histopathological, and oxidative stress related to DOX-induced cardiomyopathy in rats. The results of the present study showed protective effects for KRG on cardiac toxicity. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - March 15, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Ginsenoside Rg3 protects against iE-DAP–induced endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition by regulating the miR-139-5p–NF-κB axis
ConclusionThese results suggest, for the first time, that Rg3 can be used to inhibit inflammation-induced EndMT and may be a novel therapeutic option against EndMT-associated vascular diseases. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - March 8, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Fermented red ginseng and ginsenoside Rd alleviate ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis in mice by suppressing IgE, IL-4, and IL-5 expression
Conclusion: fRG and ginsenoside Rd may alleviate AR by suppressing IgE, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 expression and restoring the composition of gut microbiota. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - March 8, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Protein Target Identification of Ginsenosides in Skeletal Muscle Tissues: Discovery of Natural Small-Molecule Activators of Muscle-Type Creatine Kinase
ConclusionOur results suggest a cellular target and an initiating molecular event by which ginseng reduces fatigue. All these findings indicate PPD as a small-molecular activator of CK-MM, which can help in further developing better CK-MM activators based on the dammarane-type triterpenoid structure. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - March 8, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Stem-leaf saponins from Panax notoginseng counteract aberrant autophagy and apoptosis in hippocampal neurons of mice with cognitive impairment induced by sleep deprivation
ConclusionSLSP could alleviate cognitive impairment induced by SD, which was achieved probably through suppressing the abnormal autophagy and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. The findings may contribute to the clinical application of SLSP in the prevention or therapy of neurological disorders associated with SD. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - March 1, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Panax ginseng derived fraction BIOGF1K reduces atopic dermatitis responses via suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway
ConclusionsBIOGF1K attenuated the AD response, hence supporting its use as a promising and natural approach for treating AD. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - March 1, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Ginsenoside Rg3 and Korean red ginseng extract epigenetically regulate the tumor-related long noncoding RNAs RFX3-AS1 and STXBP5-AS1
ConclusionThe current study is the first to identify lncRNAs that are regulated by the presence of Rg3 and KRG extract and that subsequently contribute to inhibiting the proliferation of cancer cells. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - March 1, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Pathogenesis Strategies and Regulation of Ginsenosides by Two Species of Ilyonectria in Panax ginseng: Power of Speciation
ConclusionInfection by the weakly aggressive I. robusta led to the upregulation of ginsenoside production and biosynthesis, probably because only a low level of ROS was induced. In contrast, the more aggressive I. mors-panacis suppressed ginsenoside biosynthesis, probably because of higher ROS levels and subsequent induction of programmed cell death pathways. Furthermore, I. mors-panacis may have increased its virulence by resisting the cytotoxicity of ROS. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - February 21, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Unraveling dynamic metabolomes underlying different maturation stages of berries harvested from Panax ginseng
Publication date: Available online 20 February 2019Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Mee Youn Lee, Han Sol Seo, Digar Singh, Sang Jun Lee, Choong Hwan LeeAbstractBackgroundGinseng berries (GBs) show temporal metabolic variations among different maturation stages, determining their organoleptic and functional properties.MethodsWe analyzed metabolic variations concomitant to five different maturation stages of GBs including immature green (IG), mature green (MG), partially red (PR), fully red (FR) and over-mature red (OR) using mass spectrometry (MS) based metabolomic profiling and multivariate analyses.ResultsTh...
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - February 21, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Advances in the chemistry, pharmacological diversity, and metabolism of 20(R)-ginseng saponins
In this study, the discovery, identification, chemical epimerization, microbial transformation, pharmacological activities, and metabolism of 20(R)-ginseng saponins are summarized. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - February 17, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Ginsenoside Rb1 and Rb2 upregulate Akt/mTOR signaling–mediated muscular hypertrophy and myoblast differentiation
ConclusionRb1 and Rb2 upregulate myotube growth and myogenic differentiation through activating Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and inducing myogenic conversion of fibroblasts. Thus, our first finding indicates that Rb1 and Rb2 have strong potential as a helpful remedy to prevent and treat muscle atrophy, such as age-related muscular dystrophy. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - February 17, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study to assess the effects of protopanaxadiol saponin-enriched ginseng extract and pectinase-processed ginseng extract on the prevention of acute respiratory illness in healthy people
ConclusionsThe results support the feasibility of a full-scale trial. GS-3K8 and GISNT appear to have a positive tendency towards preventing the development of ARI and reducing the symptom duration. A randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm these findings. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - February 12, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Ginsenoside Rg3 protects against γ-d-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid–induced endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition by regulating the miR-139-5p–NF-κB axis
ConclusionThese results suggest, for the first time, that Rg3 can be used to inhibit inflammation-induced EndMT and may be a novel therapeutic option against EndMT-associated vascular diseases. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - February 7, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

New hydroperoxylated and 20,24-epoxylated dammarane triterpenes from the rot roots of Panax notoginseng
ConclusionThirty dammarane-type triterpenes and saponins were isolated from the rot roots of P. notoginseng. Among them, seven triterpenes, namely 20(S)-dammar-25-ene-24(S)-hydroperoxyl-3β,6α,12β,20-tetrol (1), 20(S)-dammar-3-oxo-23-ene-25-hydroperoxyl-6α,12β,20-triol (2), 20(S)-dammar-12-oxo-23-ene-25-hydroperoxyl-3β,6α,20-triol (3), 20(S)-dammar-3-oxo-23-ene-25-hydroperoxyl-12β,20-diol (4), 20(S),24(R)-epoxy-3,4-seco-dammar-25-hydroxy-12-one-3-oic acid (5), 20(S),24(R)-epoxy-3,4-seco-dammar-25-hydroxy-12-one-3-oic acid methyl ester (6), and 6α-hydroxy-22,23,24,25,26,27-hex...
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - February 7, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Stem-leaf saponins from Panax notoginseng counteracts aberrant autophagy and apoptosis in hippocampal neurons of mice with cognitive impairment induced by sleep deprivation
Conclusion SLSP could alleviate cognitive impairment induced by SD, which was achieved probably through suppressing the abnormal autophagy and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. The findings may contribute to the clinical application of SLSP in the prevention or therapy of neurological disorders associated with sleep deprivation. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - February 7, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Compatibility effects of ginseng and Ligustrum lucidum Ait herb pair on hematopoietic recovery in mice with cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression and its material basis
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2019Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Jiahong Han, Min Dai, Yan Zhao, Enbo Cai, Lianxue Zhang, Xiaohuan Jia, Nian Sun, Xuan Fei, Hui ShuAbstractBackgroundGinseng (G) and Ligustrum lucidum Ait (LLA) are core traditional Chinese medicines in treating myelosuppression formula. The present study was designed to profile effect of G and LLA herb pair (G-LLA) on myelosuppressed mouse.MethodsThe mice myelosuppression model was established by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cyclophosphamide (Cy). Hematopoietic function of bone marrow was measured by hemopoietic progenito...
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - February 6, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Taxonomy of fungal complex causing red-skin root of Panax ginseng in China
ConclusionFungal complex is the causal agent of red-skin root in P. ginseng. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - February 6, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Advances in the chemistry, pharmacological diversity and metabolism of 20(R)-ginseng saponins
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2019Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Chaoming Wang, Juan Liu, Jianqiang Deng, Jiazhen Wang, Weizhao Weng, Hongxia Chu, Qingguo MengAbstractGinseng has been used as a popular herbal medicine in East Asia for at least two millennia. However, 20(R)-ginseng saponins, one class of important rare ginsenosides, are rare in natural products. 20(R)-ginseng saponins are generally prepared by chemical epimerization and microbial transformation from 20(S)-isomers. The C20 configuration of 20(R)-ginseng saponins are usually determined by 13C NMR and X-ray single-crystal diffrac...
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - February 1, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Ginsenoside Rb1 and Rb2 upregulate Akt/mTOR signaling-mediated muscular hypertrophy and myoblast differentiation
ConclusionRb1 and Rb2 upregulate myotube growth and myogenic differentiation through activating Akt/mTOR signaling and induce myogenic conversion of fibroblasts. Thus, our first finding indicates that Rb1 and Rb2 have strong potential as a helpful remedy to prevent and treat muscle atrophy, such as age-related muscular dystrophy. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - February 1, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Overexpression of ginseng patatin-related phospholipase pPLAIIIβ alters the polarity of cell growth and decreases lignin content in Arabidopsis
ConclusionOverexpression of pPLAIIIβ retarded cell elongation in all the tested organs except seeds, which were longer and thicker than those of the controls. Shorter root length is related to auxin-responsive genes and its stunted phenotype showed decreased lignin content. (Source: Journal of Ginseng Research)
Source: Journal of Ginseng Research - January 25, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research