The ontogenetic development of neurons containing calcium-binding proteins in the septum of the guinea pig: Late onset of parvalbumin immunoreactivity versus calbindin and calretinin
Publication date: January 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 79 Author(s): Beata Hermanowicz-Sobieraj, Anna Robak The study describes the immunoreactivity of calbindin (CB), calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV), their distribution pattern and the co-distribution of CB and CR as well as CB and PV in the septum of the guinea pig during development. Immunohistochemistry was conducted on embryonic (E40, E50, E60), newborn (P0) and postnatal (P5, P10, P20, P40, P100) guinea pig brains. The presence of both CB and CR was detected at E40, while PV began to be observed at E60. Immunoreactivity for CB was constan...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - October 29, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Synaptotagmin 7 and SYNCRIP proteins are ubiquitously expressed in the rat brain and co-localize in Purkinje neurons
Publication date: January 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 79 Author(s): Larisa Tratnjek, Marko Živin, Gordana Glavan Synaptotagmin 7 (SYT7) is ubiquitously expressed calcium sensor, involved in neuronal membrane trafficking. Immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that SYT7 interacts with Synaptotagmin-binding, cytoplasmic RNA-interacting protein (SYNCRIP). SYNCRIP is a component of mRNA granules, which are transported to dendrites and are prerequisite for synaptic plasticity. Given the potential significance of SYT7 regulation in processes of neurodegeneration, which are characterized by high l...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - October 29, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Distribution and sub-types of afferent fibre in the mouse urinary bladder
Conclusions Different types of afferent nerve fibres were identified in the sub-urothelium of the mouse bladder. At the bladder base the sub-urothelium is more densely innervated than the lateral wall by CGRP-IR and VAChT-IR afferent nerve fibres. CGRP and NF afferent nerve fibres in the muscle layer probably relay afferent input to external ganglia located near the bladder base. The identification of different afferent nerves in the sub-urothelium suggests a functional heterogeneity of the afferent nerve fibres in the urinary bladder. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - October 29, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Fine structure of interleukin 18 (IL-18) receptor-immunoreactive neurons in the retrosplenial cortex and its changes in IL18 knockout mice
Publication date: December 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 78 Author(s): Tetsu Hayakawa, Masaki Hata, Sachi Kuwahara-Otani, Kyosuke Yamanishi, Hideshi Yagi, Haruki Okamura Interleukin 18 (IL-18) participates in the inflammatory immune response of lymphocytes. Delay in learning or memory are common in the IL-18 knockout mouse. Many IL-18-immunoreactive neurons are found in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) and the subiculum. These neurons also contain the IL-18 receptor. We determined the location and the ultrastructure of the IL-18 receptor-immunoreactive neurons in the RSC and observed changes in the IL...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - October 6, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Up-regulation of neurofilament light chains is associated with diminished immunoreactivities for MAP2 and tau after ischemic stroke in rodents and in a human case
In conclusion, this study provides evidence for an opposite reaction of microtubule-associated proteins and neurofilaments after focal cerebral ischemia. Accordingly, cytoskeletal elements appear as a promising target for stroke treatment. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - September 18, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity and its relations with gonadotropin-releasing hormone and neuropeptide Y in the preoptic area of the guinea pig
In conclusion, the morphological evidence of contacts between TH- and GnRH-IR nerve structures may be the basis of catecholaminergic control of GnRH release in the preoptic area of the male guinea pig. Moreover, TH-IR neurons were conatcted by NPY-IR fibers and TH and NPY colocalized in some fibers, thus NPY may regulate catecholaminergic neurons in the POA. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - September 18, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Adverse effects in lumbar spinal cord morphology and tissue biochemistry in Sprague Dawley male rats following exposure to a continuous 1-h a day 900-MHz electromagnetic field throughout adolescence
In conclusion, our study results suggest that continuous exposure to a 900-MHz EMF for 1h a day through all stages of adolescence can result in impairments at both morphological and biochemical levels in the lumbar region spinal cords of Sprague Dawley rats. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - September 18, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Interspecies Comparison of the Functional Characteristics of Plasma Membrane Monoamine Transporter (PMAT) between Human, Rat and Mouse
In conclusion, the present study demonstrated interspecies similarities in the functional characteristics of human and rodent PMAT/Pmat, which indicate a practical utility of rat and mouse animal models for further investigating and extrapolating the in vivo function of PMAT in humans. Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - September 16, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh)-immunoreactive (ir) axon varicosities target a subset of growth hormone-releasing hormone (ghrh)-ir neurons in the human hypothalamus
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Michael Peroski, Nikoletta Proudan, George Grignol, Istvan Merchenthaler, Bertalan Dudas It is a general consensus that stress is one of the major factors that suppresses growth. Previous studies revealed that the catecholaminergic and neuropeptide Y (NPY) systems, involved in the activation of stress-related neuronal circuits, influence growth hormone (GH)-release via modulating growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) secretion. Indeed, catecholaminergic and NPY-immunoreactive (IR) axon varicosities abut on the surface...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - September 15, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Fluoxetine prevents the memory deficits and reduction in hippocampal cell proliferation caused by valproic acid
Publication date: Available online 9 September 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Jariya Umka Welbat, Preeyanuch Sangrich, Apiwat Sirichoat, Pornthip Chaisawang, Wunnee Chaijaroonkhanarak, Parichat Prachaney, Wanassanun Pannangrong, Peter Wigmore Valproic acid (VPA), a commonly used antiepileptic drug, has been reported to cause cognitive impairments in patients. In a previous study, using a rodent model, we showed that VPA treatment impaired cognition which was associated with a reduction in the cell proliferation required for hippocampal neurogenesis. The antidepressant fluoxetine has been shown to ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - September 14, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The efficacy of Schwann cell transplantation on motor function recovery after spinal cord injuries in animal models: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Conclusion Transplantation of Schwann cells can moderately improve motor function recovery. It seems that inter-species differences might exist regarding the efficacy of this cells. Therefore, this should be taken into account when using Schwann cells in clinical trials regarding spinal cord injuries. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - September 6, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Localization of rem2 in the central nervous system of the adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Publication date: Available online 4 September 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Anna G. Downs, Katie R. Scholles, David M. Hollis Rem2 is member of the RGK (Rem, Rad, and Gem/Kir) subfamily of the Ras superfamily of GTP binding proteins known to influence Ca2+ entry into the cell. In addition, Rem2, which is found at high levels in the vertebrate brain, is also implicated in cell proliferation and synapse formation. Though the specific, regional localization of Rem2 in the adult mammalian central nervous system has been well-described, such information is lacking in other vertebrates. We sought to l...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - September 4, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Axon pathology and repair
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 76, Part A Author(s): Anna King, Alison Canty (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - August 31, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Alterations in behaviour, cerebral cortical morphology and cerebral oxidative stress markers following aspartame ingestion
Conclusion The study showed morphological alterations consistent with neuronal injury and biochemical changes of oxidative stress. These data therefore supports the need for caution in the indiscriminate use of aspartame as a non-nutritive sweetener. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - August 24, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Exposure to mild stress and brain derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF) immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei: Comparison between aged and adult rats.
Publication date: Available online 24 August 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Ewa Badowska-Szalewska, Beata Ludkiewicz, Rafał Krawczyk, Janusz Moryś It seems that age-dependent changes in stress response may be correlated with alterations in the hypothalamic brain derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF). Two hypothalamic nuclei, ie. paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) are closely related to the stress response. Therefore, the aim of our study was to explore the influence of acute and chronic high-light open field (HL-OF) or forced swim (FS) stimulation on the density of BDNF immunoreactive (ir) ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - August 24, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurochemical Compartmentalization within the Pigeon Basal Ganglia
Publication date: Available online 22 August 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Laura L. Bruce, Jonathan T. Erichsen, Anton Reiner The goals of this study were to use multiple informative markers to define and characterize the neurochemically distinct compartments of the pigeon basal ganglia, especially striatum and accumbens. To this end, we used antibodies against 12 different neuropeptides, calcium-binding proteins or neurotransmitter-related enzymes that are enriched in the basal ganglia. Our results clarify boundaries between previously described basal ganglia subdivisions in birds, and reveal co...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - August 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chordin and noggin expression in the adult rat trigeminal nuclei
Publication date: Available online 18 August 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Yutaro Hayashi, Sumiko Mikawa, Kazuma Masumoto, Fuminori Katou, Kohji Sato Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) exert its biological functions by interacting with membrane bound receptors. However, functions of BMPs are also regulated in the extracellular space by secreted antagonistic regulators, such as chordin and noggin. Although the deep involvement of BMP signaling in the development and functions of the trigeminal nuclei has been postulated, little information is available for its expression in the trigeminal nuclei. W...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - August 19, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Validation of antibodies for neuroanatomical localization of the P2Y11 receptor in macaque brain
Publication date: Available online 8 August 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Karin Dreisig, Matilda Degn, Louise Sund, Piotr Hadaczek, Lluis Samaranch, Waldy San Sebastian, Krystof Bankiewicz, Birgitte Rahbek Kornum Focus on the purinergic receptor P2Y11 has increased following the finding of an association between the sleep disorder narcolepsy and a genetic variant in P2RY11 causing decreased gene expression. Narcolepsy is believed to arise from an autoimmune destruction of the hypothalamic neurons that produce the neuropeptide hypocretin/orexin. It is unknown how a decrease in expression of P2Y11 ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - August 8, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Crosstalk Between Insulin and Dopamine Signaling: A Basis for the Metabolic Effects of Antipsychotic Drugs
Publication date: Available online 29 July 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Abigail I. Nash In the setting of rising rates of obesity and metabolic syndrome, characterized in part by hyperinsulinemia, it is increasingly important to understand the mechanisms that contribute to insulin dysregulation. The higher risk for metabolic syndrome imparted by antipsychotic medication use highlights one such mechanism. Though there is great variation in the number and types of signaling pathways targeted by these medications, the one common mechanism of action is through dopamine. Dopamine’s effects on i...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 31, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Biochemical and histological studies on adverse effects of mobile phone radiation on rat ’s brain
Publication date: December 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 78 Author(s): Shaymaa Hussein, Abdel-Aleem El-Saba, Mona K. Galal With the rapid development of electronic technologies, the public concern about the potential health hazards induced by radiofrequency (RF) radiation has been grown. To investigate the effect of 1800MHz RF radiation emitted from mobile phone on the rat’s brain, the present study was performed. Forty male rats were randomly divided into two equal groups; control and exposed group. The later one exposed to 1800MHz emitted from mobile phone with an SAR value of 0.6W/kg for tw...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 31, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Recent advances in brain development
Publication date: September 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 75, Part A (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 29, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Age and Gender Related Prevalence of Intracranial Calcifications in CT Imaging; Data from 12,000 Healthy Subjects
Conclusions Showing associations and dissociations from the literature, our study provides a baseline data regarding the prevalence of various types of intracranial calcifications. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 28, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Biochemical and histological studies on adverse effects of mobile phone radiation on rat ’s brain.
Publication date: Available online 26 July 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Shaymaa Hussein, Abdel-Aleem El-Saba, Mona K. Galal With the rapid development of electronic technologies, the public concern about the potential health hazards induced by radiofrequency (RF) radiation has been grown. To investigate the effect of 1800MHz RF radiation emitted from mobile phone on the rat's brain, the present study was performed. Forty male rats were randomly divided into two equal groups; control and exposed group. The later one exposed to 1800MHz emitted from mobile phone with an SAR value of 0.6W/Kg for...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 27, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of GSM modulated radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation on permeability of blood –brain barrier in male & amp; female rats
This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of pulse modulated 900MHz and 1800MHz radio-frequency radiation on the permeability of blood–brain barrier of rats. Study was performed with 6 groups of young adult male and female wistar albino rats. The permeability of blood-brain barrier to intravenously injected evans blue dye was quantitatively examined for both control and radio-frequency radiarion exposed groups. For male groups; Evans blue content in the whole brain was found to be 0.08±0.01mg% in the control, 0.13±0.03mg% in 900MHz exposed and 0.26±0.05mg% in 1800MHz exposed ani...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 27, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tyrosine hydroxylase-producing neurons in the human cerebral cortex do not colocalize with calcium-binding proteins or the serotonin 3A receptor
Publication date: Available online 20 July 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Stephen E. Asmus, Mary Ann Raghanti, Eric R. Beyerle, Julia C. Fleming-Beattie, Sarah M. Hawkins, Courtney M. McKernan, Nicholas A. Rauh Interneurons of the cerebral cortex play a significant role in cortical information processing and are of clinical interest due to their involvement in neurological disorders. In the human neocortex, three subsets of interneurons can be identified based on the production of the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin, calretinin or calbindin. A subset of interneurons in the mouse corte...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 22, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mitochondrial regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production —Unexpected observations in early postnatal cerebral vasculature
Publication date: July 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 74 Author(s): S. Wolf, A. Mattheis, U. Laufs, C. Meier, T. Tschernig Nicotinamide-nucleotide-transhydrogenase (Nnt) is a mitochondrial protein. It is altered and functionally lacking in the C57BL/6J sub-strain. This leads to the generation of more radical oxygen species than in the C57BL/6N sub-strain. During studies on the effect of Nnt in perinatal hypoxia the cerebral vasculature was investigated in postnatal day 9 mice using post mortem arterial filling with silicone rubber compounds. Surprisingly, the tiny vessels were no longer uniform...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

IFC: Aims & amp; Editorial Board
Publication date: July 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 74 (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The musical centers of the brain: Vladimir E. Larionov (1857 –1929) and the functional neuroanatomy of auditory perception
Publication date: November 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 77 Author(s): Lazaros C. Triarhou, Tatyana Verina In 1899 a landmark paper entitled “On the musical centers of the brain” was published in Pflügers Archiv, based on work carried out in the Anatomo-Physiological Laboratory of the Neuropsychiatric Clinic of Vladimir M. Bekhterev (1857–1927) in St. Petersburg, Imperial Russia. The author of that paper was Vladimir E. Larionov (1857–1929), a military doctor and devoted brain scientist, who pursued the problem of the localization of function in the canine and human a...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The distribution of muscarinic M1 receptors in the human hippocampus
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Elizabeth Scarr, Myoung Suk Seo, Timothy Douglas Aumann, Gursharan Chana, Ian Paul Everall, Brian Dean The muscarinic M1 receptor plays a significant role in cognition, probably by modulating information processing in key regions such as the hippocampus. To understand how the muscarinic M1 receptor achieves these functions in the hippocampus, it is critical to know the distribution of the receptor within this complex brain region. To date, there are limited data on the distribution of muscarinic M1 receptors in the hu...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 19, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pernicious effects of long-term, continuous 900-MHz electromagnetic field throughout adolescence on hippocampus morphology, biochemistry and pyramidal neuron numbers in 60-day-old Sprague Dawley male rats
This study investigated the 60-day-old male rat hippocampus following exposure to 900 megahertz (MHz) EMF throughout the adolescent period using stereological, histopathological and biochemical analysis techniques. Eighteen male Sprague Dawley rats aged 21days were assigned into control, sham and EMF groups on a random basis. No procedure was performed on the control group rats. The EMF group (EMFGr) was exposed to a 900-MHz EMF for 1hour daily from beginning to end of adolescence. The sham group rats were held in the EMF cage but were not exposed to EMF. All rats were sacrificed at 60days of age. Their brains were extract...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 18, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Spred-2 expression is associated with neural repair of injured adult zebrafish brain
Publication date: Available online 15 July 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Fei Tieng Lim, Satoshi Ogawa, Ishwar S. Parhar Sprouty-related protein-2 (Spred-2) is a negative regulator of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) pathway, which is important for cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation, plasticity and survival. Nevertheless, its general molecular characteristics such as gene expression patterns and potential role in neural repair in the brain remain unknown. Thus, this study aimed to characterize the expression of spred-2 in the zebrafish brain. Digoxigenin-in situ hybridiza...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 17, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Induction of mice adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into functional motor neuron-like cells
Publication date: Available online 11 July 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Rafal H. Abdullah, Nahi Y. Yaseen, Shahlaa M Salih, Ahmad Adnan Al-Juboory, Ayman Hassan, Ahmed Majeed Al-Shammari The differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into acetylcholine secreted motor neuron-like cells, followed by elongation of the cell axon, is a promising treatment for spinal cord injury and motor neuron cell dysfunction in mammals. Differentiation is induced through a pre-induction step using Beta- mercaptoethanol (BME) followed by four days of induction with retinoic acid and sonic hedgehog. This...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 13, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroanatomical evidence for the involvement of β-endorphin during reproductive stress response in the fish Oreochromis mossambicus
Publication date: Available online 7 July 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Ambarisha Chabbi, C.B. Ganesh Although neuroendocrine regulation of stress response involving hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis is well established in mammals, the mechanism of functioning of endocrine-stress axis is not completely elucidated in fish. Our previous studies suggested a possible role for the opioidergic mediation of reproductive stress response in fish. In the present investigation, by immunocytochemical approach, we studied the distribution of β-endorphin (β-EP) secreting neurons in the brain of t...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuronal expression of c-Fos after epicortical and intracortical electric stimulation of the primary visual cortex
Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Belal Neyazi, Kerstin Schwabe, Mesbah Alam, Joachim K. Krauss, Makoto Nakamura Electrical stimulation of the primary visual cortex (V1) is an experimental approach for visual prostheses. We here compared the response to intracortical and epicortical stimulation of the primary visual cortex by using c-Fos immunoreactivity as a marker for neuronal activation. The primary visual cortex of male Sprague Dawley rats was unilaterally stimulated for four hours using bipolar electrodes placed either intracortically in layer IV ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - June 28, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The benefits of magnetic resonance imaging methods to extend the knowledge of the anatomical organisation of the periaqueductal gray in mammals
In conclusion firstly, the MRI seems to be the best judicious method to compare species and improve the comprehension of the role of the PAG. Secondly, MRI is an in vivo method aimed to manage repeated measures in the same cohort of subjects allowing to study the impact of aging and the development on the anatomical organisation of the PAG. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - June 24, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Alpha-synuclein modulates dopamine neurotransmission
Publication date: Available online 19 June 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Brittany Butler, Danielle Sambo, Habibeh Khoshbouei Alpha-synuclein is a small, highly charged protein encoded by the synuclein or SNCA gene that is predominantly expressed in central nervous system neurons. Although its physiological function remains enigmatic, alpha-synuclein is implicated in movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, multiple system atrophy, and in neurodegenerative diseases such as Dementia with Lewy bodies. Here we have focused on reviewing the existing literature pertaining to wild-type ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - June 20, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The musical centers of the brain: Vladimir E. Larionov (1857–1929) and the functional neuroanatomy of auditory perception
Publication date: Available online 16 June 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Lazaros C. Triarhou, Tatyana Verina In 1899 a landmark paper entitled “On the musical centers of the brain” was published in Pflügers Archiv, based on work carried out in the Anatomo-Physiological Laboratory of the Neuropsychiatric Clinic of Vladimir M. Bekhterev (1857–1927) in St. Petersburg, Imperial Russia. The author of that paper was Vladimir E. Larionov (1857–1929), a military doctor and devoted brain scientist, who pursued the problem of the localization of function in the canine and hu...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - June 17, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Nuclear organization of the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area and retrorubral field of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus): A cytoarchitectonic and TH-immunohistochemistry study
Publication date: Available online 9 June 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): José R.L.P. Cavalcanti, André L.B. Pontes, Felipe P. Fiuza, Kayo D.A. Silva, Fausto P. Guzen, Eudes E.S. Lucena, Expedito S. Nascimento-Júnior, Judney C. Cavalcante, Miriam S.M.O. Costa, Rovena C.G.J. Engelberth, Jeferson S. Cavalcante It is widely known that the catecholamine group is formed by dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline, whose synthesis is regulated by the enzyme called tyrosine hydroxylase. Thus, 3-hydroxytyramine/dopamine (DA) is a precursor of the noradrenaline and adrenaline ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - June 10, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The axon as a physical structure in health and acute trauma
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Matthew T.K. Kirkcaldie, Jessica M. Collins The physical structure of neurons – dendrites converging on the soma, with an axon conveying activity to distant locations – is uniquely tied to their function. To perform their role, axons need to maintain structural precision in the soft, gelatinous environment of the central nervous system and the dynamic, flexible paths of nerves in the periphery. This requires close mechanical coupling between axons and the surrounding tissue, as well as an elastic, robust axopla...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - June 4, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Comparing Glutamatergic Neuron Population in the Mediodorsal Thalamic Nucleus of Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) and Normal Control Wistar Rats
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Safiye Çavdar, Merve Özgür, Özlem Kirazlı, Serçin Karahüseyinoğlu, Filiz Onat An imbalance between GABAergic inhibition and glutamatergic excitation is suspected to play a role in the genesis of epileptic processes. In the present study we quantified the number of glutamate+ve neurons in the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) of genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) and compared these with values for normal Wistar rats. The MD thalamic nucleus was removed from each anim...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - June 1, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Optic nerve injury upregulates retinoic acid signaling in the adult frog visual system
Publication date: Available online 27 May 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Mildred V. Duprey-Díaz, Jonathan M. Blagburn, Rosa E. Blanco Retinoic acid (RA) is important during development, in neuronal plasticity, and also in peripheral nervous system regeneration. Here we use the frog visual system as a model to investigate the changes in RA signaling that take place after axonal injury to the central nervous system. Immunocytochemistry was used to localize different components of RA signaling within sections of the retina and optic tectum, namely, the synthetic enzyme retinaldehyde dehydr...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - May 28, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Anti-NGF monoclonal antibody muMab 911 does not deplete neurons in the superior cervical ganglia of young or old adult rats
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): John Marcek, Carlin Okerberg, Chang-Ning Liu, David Potter, Paul Butler, Magalie Boucher, Mark Zorbas, Peter Mouton, Jens Nyengaard, Chris Somps Nerve growth factor (NGF) blocking therapies are an emerging and effective approach to pain management. However, concerns about the potential for adverse effects on the structure and function of the peripheral nervous system have slowed their development. Early studies using NGF antisera in adult rats reported effects on the size and number of neurons in the sympathetic ch...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - May 24, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Review: The axon as a physical structure in health and acute trauma
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Matthew T.K. Kirkcaldie, Jessica M. Collins The physical structure of neurons – dendrites converging on the soma, with an axon conveying activity to distant locations – is uniquely tied to their function. To perform their role, axons need to maintain structural precision in the soft, gelatinous environment of the central nervous system and the dynamic, flexible paths of nerves in the periphery. This requires close mechanical coupling between axons and the surrounding tissue, as well as an elastic, robust axopla...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - May 24, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Estrogen modulation of calretinin and BDNF expression in midbrain dopaminergic neurons of ovariectomised mice
Publication date: Available online 19 May 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Hongliang Yii, Xiaohang Bao, Xiaotong Tang, Xiaotang Fan, Haiwei Xu Estrogen attenuates the loss of dopamine neurons from the substantia nigra in animal models of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and excitatory amino-acid induced neurotoxicity by interactions with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and calretinin (CR) containing dopaminergic (DA) neurons. To examine this interaction more closely, we treated the ovariectomised (OVX) mice with estrodial for 10 days, and compared these mice to those OVX mice injected ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - May 19, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The effects of amphetamine exposure on juvenile rats on the neuronal morphology of the limbic system at prepubertal, pubertal and postpubertal ages
Publication date: Available online 18 May 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Hiram Tendilla-Beltrán, Luis Enrique Arroyo-García, Alfonso Diaz, Israel Camacho-Abrego, Fidel de la Cruz, Antonio Rodríguez-Moreno, Gonzalo Flores Amphetamines (AMPH) are psychostimulants widely used for therapy as well as for recreational purposes. Previous results of our group showed that AMPH exposure in pregnant rats induces physiological and behavioral changes in the offspring at prepubertal and postpubertal ages. In addition, several reports have shown that AMPH are capable of modifying the...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - May 18, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Local differences in calretinin immunoreactivity in the optic tectum of the ocellated dragonet
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Tim Ulama, Michael H. Hofmann The optic tectum of the ocellated dragonet (Synchiropus ocellatus) was studied with immunohistochemistry. Antibodies raised against the calcium binding protein calretinin (CR) revealed a lamination similar to that already reported for other ray finned fish. Most immunoreactive fibers could be observed in those layers receiving retinal afferents and most immunoreactive cells occur in the stratum periventriculare. However, there are marked differences in the presence of other calretinin-positive...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - May 10, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Female-biased sex difference in vasotocin-immunoreactive neural structures in the developing quail brain
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Nicoletta Aste, Naoki Yoshioka, Emiko Sakamoto, Noboru Saito The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis pars medialis (BSTM), medial preoptic nucleus (POM), and lateral septal region (LS) exhibit more vasotocin-immunoreactive (VT-ir) neural structures in male than in female adult quail. VT-ir cells and fibers in these regions are sensitive to gonadal steroids only in males. The insensitivity of adult female VT-ir neural structures to sex steroids is attributed to estradiol exposure during a critical period in embryonic life....
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - May 6, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Changes in the female arcuate nucleus morphology and neurochemistry after chronic ethanol consumption and long-term withdrawal
Publication date: Available online 3 May 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Elce C.C. Rebouças, Sandra Leal, Susana M. Silva, Susana I. Sá Ethanol is a macronutrient whose intake is a form of ingestive behavior, sharing physiological mechanisms with food intake. Chronic ethanol consumption is detrimental to the brain, inducing gender-dependent neuronal damage. The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARN) is a modulator of food intake that expresses feeding-regulatory neuropeptides, such as alpha melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Despite its involvement...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - May 4, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Axonopathy in peripheral neuropathies: mechanisms and therapeutic approaches for regeneration
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Lila M. Landowski, Peter James B. Dyck, JaNean Engelstad, Bruce V. Taylor Peripheral neuropathies (PNs) are injuries or diseases of the nerves which arise from varied aetiology, including metabolic disease, trauma and drug toxicity. The clinical presentation depends on the type of neuropathy, and may include the loss of motor, sensory and autonomic functions, or development of debilitating neuropathic pain distal to the injury site. It can be challenging to identify the aetiology of PNs, as the clinical syndromes are ofte...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - May 2, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cloning and Localization of Immediate Early Response 2 (ier2) Gene in the Brain of Medaka
Publication date: Available online 28 April 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Shogo Moriya, Dipti Chourasia, Kai We Ng, Nazmina Bahadur Khel, Ishwar S. Parhar Immediate early response (IER) 2 gene, a member of the IER family, is a gene of unknown function which is affected by external stimuli in the brain. In the present study, the full length sequence and localization of medaka (Oryzias latipes) ier2 was investigated in the brain to understand the functions of Ier2 in the future studies. The full length sequence of medaka ier2 was identified using a 3′-, 5′- rapid amplification of ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - April 29, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research