A brief update on physical and optical disector applications and sectioning-staining methods in neuroscience
Publication date: Available online 26 February 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Elfide Gizem Kivrak, Gamze Altun, Hamza Mohamed, Fathelrahman ALI, Hosam Eldeen E.G. Mohemmed, Suleyman Kaplan A quantitative description of a three-dimensional (3D) object based on two-dimensional images can be made using stereological methods These methods involve unbiased approaches and provide reliable results with quantitative data. The quantitative morphology of the nervous system has been thoroughly researched in this context. In particular, various novel methods such as design-based stere...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mapping the protein phosphorylation sites in human mitochondrial complex I (NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase): A bioinformatics study with implications for brain aging and neurodegeneration
Publication date: Available online 27 February 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Niya Gowthami, B. Sunitha, Manish Kumar, T.S.Keshava Prasad, N. Gayathri, B. Padmanabhan, M.M.Srinivas Bharath In eukaryotes, mitochondrial complex I (NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase; CI) is central to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Mammalian CI is a 45 subunit complex that forms supercomplexes with other OXPHOS complexes. Since CI defects are associated with aging and neurodegeneration, it is pertinent to understand its structure-function relationship. Although genetic mutations could lower CI activity causing mito...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Estrogen-induced neuroimmunomodulation as facilitator of and barrier to reproductive aging in brain and lymphoid organs
Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Srinivasan ThyagaRajan, Lalgi Hima, Uday P. Pratap, Hannah P. Priyanka, Ramasamy Vasantharekha Reproductive aging in females is marked by alterations in gonadal hormones, estrogen and progesterone, that facilitate cessation of reproductive cycles and onset of female-specific diseases such as autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases, hormone-dependent cancers, and osteoporosis. Bidirectional communication between the three homeostatic systems, nervous system, endocrine system, and immune system, is essential for the maintena...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Effect of Intrathecal Injection of Irisin on Pain Threshold and Expression Rate of GABAB Receptors in Peripheral Neuropathic Pain Model
Conclusion The findings of the present study showed that acute administration of Irisin increases the pain threshold, but the chronic injection of resin does not have an effect on pain reduction and the expression of GABA receptors and it seems that this peptide is not a proper replacement for exercise in patients with neuropathic pain, who cannot exercise. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Genistein attenuates seizure-induced hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor overexpression in ovariectomized rats
Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Mehdi Khodamoradi, Hamed Ghazvini, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani, Kaveh Shahveisi, Vahid Farnia, Hossein Zhaleh, Nasrin Abdoli, Zeinab Akbarnejad, Hakimeh Saadati, Vahid Sheibani (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Implication of regional brain serotonergic neurons in dorsal and median Raph é nuclei in adaptation to water lacking in Gerbillus tarabuli
This study suggested that neurons in DRN and MRN contain 5-HT in various amounts, thus allowing an adapted response to hydration status. These neurons could mediate one of the adaptation mechanisms of this animal to its desert biotope. Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Overexpression of miR-219 Promotes Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells into pre-Oligodendrocyte
This study aimed to assess the impact of miR-219-overexpression on hiPSCs. Initially, hiPSCs were induced with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), epidermalgrowth factor (EGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA, then, miR-219- green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing lentiviruses were utilized for cell infection. Microscopic observation revealed significant morphological changes and data obtained from quantitative reverse transcription PCR and immunofluorescence analysis of differentiated cells showed that the expression of various oligodendrocyte stage-specific markers such as Nestin, Olig2, Sox10, PDGFR&al...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

GDF11 expression in the adult rat central nervous system
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 89 Author(s): Yutaro Hayashi, Sumiko Mikawa, Kazuma Masumoto, Fuminori Katou, Kohji Sato Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), also known as bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP11), is a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily. Although GDF11 plays pivotal roles during development, including anterior/posterior patterning, formation of the kidney, stomach, spleen and endocrine pancreas, little information is available for GDF11 expression in the adult central nervous system (CNS). We, thus, investigated GDF11 exp...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Co-localization patterns of neurotensin receptor 1 and tyrosine hydroxylase in brain regions involved in motivation and social behavior in male European starlings
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 89 Author(s): Devin P. Merullo, Jeremy A. Spool, Changjiu Zhao, Lauren V. Riters Animals communicate in distinct social contexts to convey information specific to those contexts, such as sexual or agonistic motivation. In seasonally-breeding male songbirds, seasonal changes in day length and increases in testosterone stimulate sexually-motivated song directed at females for courtship and reproduction. Dopamine and testosterone may act in the same brain regions to stimulate sexually-motivated singing. The neuropeptide neurotensin, acting at the ne...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tyrosine hydroxylase afferents to the interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure are neurochemically distinct from those projecting to neighboring nuclei
Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi, Ayuka Ehara, Kazuhiko Nakadate, Shuichi Ueda The interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure (IPAC) is exclusively innervated by tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) fibers as observed in the other nuclei of the rat forebrain such as the striatum and nucleus accumbens. Distinguishing TH-IR afferents to the IPAC from those projecting to neighboring nuclei has been difficult. However, we previously showed that the TH-IR fibers projecting to the IPAC were invulnerable to ne...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - January 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Lycium barbarum polysaccharide protects diabetic peripheral neuropathy by enhancing autophagy via mTOR/p70S6K inhibition in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Publication date: Available online 30 December 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Si-Yang Liu, Ling Chen, Xiao-Cheng Li, Qi-Kuan Hu, Lan-Jie He Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), the major active component of Lycium barbarum, has been found to be effective in the management of some diabetic complications. We evaluated the protective effect of LBP in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and explored the possible mechanisms. We found that LBP mildly decreased blood glucose levels and partially rescued allodynia and hyperalgesia in the diabetes mellitus (DM) rats. For the electrophysiological function...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pattern of Aromatase mRNA Expression in the Brain of a Weakly Electric Fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus
Publication date: Available online 27 December 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Katherine Shaw, Rüdiger Krahe Aromatase is a steroidogenic enzyme involved in the conversion of testosterone into estradiol. Teleosts are unique among vertebrates in possessing two distinct aromatase genes that show different expression patterns within the body. Since the brain is the essential organ underlying the control of behavior, an understanding of the expression pattern of aromatase in the brain can help to identify neural circuits and behaviors that are most likely to be affected by aromatase activity. In a...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Collision of the glass shards with the eye: A computational fluid-structure interaction model
The objective of this study was to employ a Three-Dimensional (3D) computational Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) model of the human eye to assess the results of the glass shards collision with the eye. To do this, a rigid steel-based object hit a Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) glass wall at the velocities of 100, 150, and 200 m/sec and, subsequently, the resultant glass shards moved toward the eye. The amount of injury, then, quantified in terms of the stresses and strains. The results revealed the highest amount of stress in the cornea while the lowest one was observed in the vitreous body. It was also found th...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prevention of Chronic Immobilization Stress-induced Enhanced Expression of Glucocorticoid Receptors in the Prefrontal Cortex by Inactivation of Basolateral Amygdala
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Sunil Jamuna Tripathi, Suwarna Chakraborty, B.N. Srikumar, T.R. Raju, B.S. Shankaranarayana Rao Repeated exposure to stress precipitates anxiety, depression and cognitive deficits. Stress-induced activation of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is modulated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA). It is well established that BLA positively regulates the HPA axis and undergoes hypertrophy following chronic immobilization stress (CIS). However, it is not known whether inactivati...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Topographic specializations of catecholaminergic cells and ganglion cells and distribution of calcium binding proteins in the crepuscular rock cavy (Kerodon rupestris) retina
Publication date: Available online 22 December 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Francisco Gilberto Oliveira, Expedito Silva do Nascimento-Júnior, Judney Cley Cavalcante, Fausto Pierdoná Guzen, Jeferson de Souza Cavalcante, Joacil Germano Soares, José Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva Cavalcanti, Leandro Moura de Freitas, Miriam Stela Maris de Oliveira Costa, Belmira Lara da Silveira Andrade-da-Costa The rock cavy (Kerodon rupestris) is a crepuscular Hystricomorpha rodent that has been used in comparative analysis of retinal targets, but its retinal organization remains to be investigated. ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 22, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cortical and spinal conditioned media modify the inward ion currents AND excitability and PROMOTE DIFFERENTIATION of human striatal primordium.
Publication date: Available online 20 December 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Eglantina Idrizaj, Erica Sarchielli, Annamaria Morelli, Rachele Garella, Maria Caterina Baccari, Pasquale Gallina, Gabriella Barbara Vannelli, Fabio Francini, Roberta Squecco Human striatal precursor cells (HSPs) isolated from ganglionic eminence may differentiate in electrophysiologically functional excitable neuron-like cells and a number of endogenous molecules such as hormones, neurotransmitters or growth factors can actually regulate neuronal growing and differentiation. The purpose of this research was to assess, b...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Reinforcing mitochondrial functions in aging brain: An insight into Parkinson's disease therapeutics
Publication date: Available online 18 December 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): G. Chandra, R.A. Shenoi, R. Anand, U. Rajamma, K.P. Mohanakumar Mitochondria, the powerhouse of the neural cells in the brain, are also the seat of certain essential gene signaling pathways that control neuronal functions. Deterioration of mitochondrial functions has been widely reported in normal aging as well as in a spectrum of age-associated neurological diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). Evidences accumulated in the recent past provide not only advanced information on the causes of mitochondrial bio...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Changes in the Element Concentration of the Dorsal Hippocampus CA1 Region during Memory Consolidation and Reconsolidation
Publication date: Available online 14 December 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Paulo Fernandes Costa Jobim, Carla Eliete Iochims dos Santos, Luka Jeromel, Primoz Pellicon, Livio Amaral, Johnny Ferraz Dias The concentration and distribution of Mg, P, Cl, K, Cu and Zn in the dorsal hippocampus CA1 region of rat brains were studied during memory consolidation and reconsolidation processes stimulated with inhibitory avoidance (IA) tests. Experimental rats were divided into four groups: i) group not submitted to inhibitory avoidance task (IA-N); ii) group submitted to inhibitory avoidance training sessi...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 15, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Convolvulus pluricaulis (Shankhapushpi) ameliorates human microtubule-associated protein tau (hMAP τ) induced neurotoxicity in Alzheimer’s disease Drosophila model
This study provides the first evidence that supplementation of C. pluricaulis along with the regular standard food ameliorate the neurotoxic effect of hMAPτ in AD Drosophila model and also reveals that it is a potent neuroprotective agent. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and nervous system development
Publication date: Available online 4 November 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Süleyman Kaplan (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A strategic plan to identify key neurophysiological mechanisms and brain circuits in autism
Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Frédérique Bonnet-Brilhault, Laurice Tuller, Philippe Prévost, Joëlle Malvy, Rasha Zebib, Sandrine Ferré, Christophe dos Santos, Sylvie Roux, Emmanuelle Houy-Durand, Rémy Magné, Yassine Mofid, Marianne Latinus, Claire Wardak, Nadia Aguillon-Hernandez, Magali Batty, Marie Gomot Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) cover a large variety of clinical profiles which share two main dimensions: social and communication impairment and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cellular calcium signaling in the aging brain
Publication date: Available online 9 November 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Remya Chandran, Mantosh Kumar, Lakshmi Kesavan, Reena Sarah Jacob, Sowmya Gunasekaran, Sethu Lakshmi, C. Sadasivan, R.V. Omkumar Aging in the biological system is an irreversible process. In the initial stages of lifespan aging improves survival skills of an organism while in the later stages aging reduce the survival skills. Aging is associated with changes in several cellular and molecular functions among which calcium signaling is a prominent one. Calcium signaling is essential for many vital functions of the brain and...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mitochondrial SIRT3 and neurodegenerative brain disorders
Publication date: Available online 9 November 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Anamika, Archita Khanna, Papia Acharjee, Arup Acharjee, Surendra Kumar Trigun Sirtuins are highly conserved NAD+ dependent class III histone deacetylases and catalyze deacetylation and ADP ribosylation of a number of non-histone proteins. Since, they require NAD+ for their activity, the cellular level of Sirtuins represents redox status of the cells and thereby serves as bona fide metabolic stress sensors. Out of seven homologues of Sirtuins identified in mammals, SIRT3, 4 & 5 have been found to be localized and a...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Vitamin C prevents hypothyroidism associated neuronal damage in the hippocampus of neonatal and juvenile rats: A stereological study
Publication date: Available online 24 November 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Elnaz Khordad, Fatemeh Alipour, Farimah Beheshti, Mahmoud Hosseini, Ali Akbar Rajabzadeh, Farimah Asiaei, Masoumeh Seghatoleslam Hypothyroidism causes an imbalance in antioxidant and pro-oxidants criteria in the brain and enhances the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neuronal damage has been observed following an excessive ROS. The main purpose of this study was to examine the preventive effect of vitamin C on hypothyroidism associated neuronal damage in the hippocampus of neonatal and juvenile rats. P...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sequence and localization of kcnk10a in the brain of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio)
In this study, the full length sequence and localization of kcnk10a in the brain was investigated and gene expressions of the TREK channel family were examined to investigate association with reproduction. We initially identified the full length cDNA sequence of kcnk10a using Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends and localization in the zebrafish brain using in situ hybridization. Furthermore, we examined the gene expression differences of kcnk2b, kcnk10a and kcnk10b mRNA between genders as well as developmental stages by real-time PCR. The deduced amino acid sequence of the identified kcnk10a mRNA contains highly conserved two...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Incomplete concordance of dopamine transporter Cre (DATIREScre)-mediated recombination and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the mouse forebrain
This study extends earlier literature focusing primarily on DAT expression in midbrain structures to demonstrate a heterogeneity of DAT and TH co-localization in forebrain neurons, particularly those in the hypothalamus. It also highlights the importance of carefully selecting and validating transgenic mouse lines when studying dopaminergic neurons. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Spinal cord self-repair during tail regeneration in Polypedates maculatus and putative role of FGF1 as a neurotrophic factor
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 88 Author(s): Jutshina Hota, Sushri Sangita Pati, Pravati Kumari Mahapatra Spinal cord injury could be fatal in man and often results in irreversible medical conditions affecting mobility. However, anuran amphibians win over such pathological condition by the virtue of regeneration abilities. The tail of anuran tadpoles therefore allures researchers to study spinal cord injury and self- repair process. In the present study, we inflicted injury to the spinal cord by means of surgical transection of the tail and investigated the self-repair activit...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chitosan-film associated with mesenchymal stem cells enhanced regeneration of peripheral nerves: A rat sciatic nerve model
Conclusion Taken together, mesenchymal stem cells associated with Cs could improve functional and histomorphological properties of the sciatic nerve after injury which may have some clinical outcomes as well. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of spermine and the passive avoidance learning (PAL) following cerebral ischemia in chicks: Association with neuroprotection of pyramidal cells
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 88 Author(s): Suleyman Kaplan, M. Emin Onger, B. Zuhal Altunkaynak, Ebru Elibol, Omur G. Deniz, M. Önder Karayiğit, Murat Yarım, Cafer Marangoz, Murat Çetin Ragbetli The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of spermine and the passive avoidance learning on hippocampus following transient cerebral ischemia in the chicks. The study is composed of the pure control (CG), sham (SG) and experimental groups (n=20). Experimental groups (ischemia group, IG and ischemia-spermine group, ISG) were exposed to ischemia for 20min wherea...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Diffusion tensor and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging findings in the brains of professional musicians
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 88 Author(s): Niyazi Acer, Serap Bastepe-Gray, Ayse Sagiroglu, Kazim Z. Gumus, Levent Degirmencioglu, Gokmen Zararsiz, Muhammet Usame Ozic Professional musicians represent an ideal model to study the training-induced brain plasticity. The current study aimed to investigate the brain volume and diffusion characteristics of musicians using structural magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The combined use of volumetric and diffusion methods in studying musician brain has not been done in literature. Our study group consisted of seve...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Numerical and length densities of microvessels in the human brain: Correlation with preferential orientation of microvessels in the cerebral cortex, subcortical grey matter and white matter, pons and cerebellum
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 88 Author(s): Tereza Kubíková, Petra Kochová, Petr Tomášek, Kirsti Witter, Zbyněk Tonar To provide basic data on the local differences in density of microvessels between various parts of the human brain, including representative grey and white matter structures of the cerebral hemispheres, the brain stem and the cerebellum, we quantified the numerical density NV and the length density LV of microvessels in two human brains. We aimed to correlate the density of microvessels with previously published data on thei...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Changes in the expression and localization of signaling molecules in mouse facial motor neurons during regeneration of facial nerves
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 88 Author(s): Jeongtae Kim, Shiori Kobayashi, Chigusa Shimizu-Okabe, Akihito Okabe, Changjong Moon, Taekyun Shin, Chitoshi Takayama After injury, peripheral axons usually re-extend toward their target, and neuronal functions recover. Previous studies have reported that expression of various molecules are transiently altered in motor neurons after nerve injury, but the time course of these changes and their relationship with functional recovery have not been clearly demonstrated. We used the mouse facial nerve transection and suturing model, and e...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Nicotine-induced CREB and DeltaFosB activity is modified by caffeine in the brain reward system of the rat
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 88 Author(s): Przemysław Kowiański, Grażyna Lietzau, Aleksandra Steliga, Ewelina Czuba, Beata Ludkiewicz, Monika Waśkow, Jan H. Spodnik, Janusz Moryś Coffee and nicotine consumption are frequently combined, indicating possible intensifying effect of caffeine on smoking behavior, although neurobiological background of this phenomenon remains unknown. We aimed at determining the effect of caffeine and nicotine, applied separately or simultaneously, on activation of six structures of the brain reward system: nucleus accumbens (NAc), ventral teg...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Distribution of Smad mRNA and proteins in the rat brain
In this study, we examined the expression of Smad1, -2, -3, -4, -5, and -8 mRNA in the rat brain by means of RT-PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH). In addition, we examined the nuclear accumulation of Smad1, -2, -3, -5, and -8 proteins after intracerebroventricular injection of TGF-β1, activin A, or BMP6 with immunohistochemistry to investigate whether TGF-β, activin, and/or BMP activate Smads in the rat brain. RT-PCR analysis revealed that Smad1, -2, -3, -4, -5, and -8 mRNA was expressed in the brain and that the Smad3 and Smad8 mRNA differed in the expression level between brain regions. For example, there wer...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Distribution of NADPH-diaphorase reactivity in the central nervous system of the common toad (Bufo bufo)
We examined the distribution of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d)-reactive elements in the central nervous system (CNS) of the common toad, Bufo bufo. The investigation involved adult male and female toads collected during the breeding season. Labeled neurons of different morphological appearances (weakly or darkly stained, unipolar, bipolar, and multipolar) and fibers were observed across all subdivisions of the amphibian brain. Overall, a similar distribution of NADPH-d-labeled neurons was observed in the brain of male and female toads. In the secondary prosencephalon NADPH-d-labeled neuron...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Beneficial effects of dietary restriction in aging brain
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Ibanylla Kynjai Hynniewta Hadem, Teikur Majaw, Babiangshisha Kharbuli, Ramesh Sharma Aging is a multifactorial complex process that leads to the deterioration of biological functions wherein its underlying mechanism is not fully elucidated. It affects the organism at the molecular and cellular level that contributes to the deterioration of structural integrity of the organs. The central nervous system is the most vulnerable organ affected by aging and its effect is highly heterogeneous. Aging causes alteration in the stru...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - October 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Peripheral nerve and diclofenac sodium: Molecular and clinical approaches
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Arife Ahsen Kaplan, Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Ömür Gülsüm Deniz, Gamze Altun Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most frequently prescribed medications worldwide. Diclofenac sodium (DS), one of these NSAIDs, has a high specificity for arachidonic acid-degrading cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 enzymes. This drug can be used to relieve neuropathic pain. In this review, we examine the relevant researches, including in vivo, animal, and clinical human studies, with the aim of understanding the ef...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - September 15, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Nuclear organisation of cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic neurons in two relatively large-brained rodent species —The springhare (Pedetes capensis) and Beecroft’s scaly-tailed Squirrel (Anomalurus beecrofti)
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Jordan Sweigers, Adhil Bhagwandin, Muhammad A. Spocter, Consolate Kaswera-Kyamakya, Emmanuel Gilissen, Paul R. Manger, Busisiwe C. Maseko The present study describes the nuclear organization of the cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems in the brains of the springhare and Beecroft’s scaly-tailed squirrel following immunohistochemical labelling. We aimed to investigate any differences in the nuclear organization of these neural systems when compared to previous data on other species of...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - September 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Methyl aspartylphenylalanine, the pons and cerebellum in mice: An evaluation of motor, morphological, biochemical, immunohistochemical and apoptotic effects
In this study, adult mice were assigned to five groups, and administered vehicle (distilled water), or aspartame (20, 40, 80 and 160mg/kg body weight) for 28days. Behavioural tests to assess motor-balance and gait were conducted on day 28, following which animals were sacrificed. Sections of the cerebellar cortex and pons were processed, for general histology and Bielschwosky’s silver staining protocol. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) immunoreactivity were assessed. Antioxidant status and aspartic acid/cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase)-3 levels were also assessed using...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - September 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

How motor, cognitive and musical expertise shapes the brain: Focus on fMRI and EEG resting-state functional connectivity
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Pauline Cantou, Hervé Platel, Béatrice Desgranges, Mathilde Groussard Brain activity and structure are shaped by life experiences. This plasticity has often been demonstrated with different types of expertise by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). Experts showed domain-specific functional neural changes during completion of a task when compared to non-experts. However, all of these results are task-dependent and even though they have proven useful for understan...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - September 6, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Myths and truths about the cellular composition of the human brain: A review of influential concepts
Publication date: Available online 2 September 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Christopher S. Bvon Bartheld Over the last 50 years, quantitative methodology has made important contributions to our understanding of the cellular composition of the human brain. Not all of the concepts that emerged from quantitative studies have turned out to be true. Here, I examine the history and current status of some of the most influential notions. This includes claims of how many cells compose the human brain, and how different cell types contribute and in what ratios. Additional concepts entail whether we lose ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - September 3, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The in situ morphology of microglia is highly sensitive to the mode of tissue fixation
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Bogdan Cătălin, Laura Stopper, Tudor-Adrian Bălşeanu, Anja Scheller Microglia are known as the most motile cells in the central nervous system (CNS). It was shown in vivo that they permanently scan their direct microenvironment and react to pathological conditions within minutes. Many studies of brain pathologies use fixed brain tissue to investigate cellular changes. Unfortunately, due to technical reasons, the time span between the induction of the fixation procedure (start of the perfusion) and the finally-fixed t...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - September 2, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

How Motor, Cognitive and Musical Expertise Shapes the Brain: Focus on the fMRI and EEG Resting-State Functional Connectivity
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Pauline Cantou, Hervé Platel, Béatrice Desgranges, Mathilde Groussard Brain activity and structure are shaped by life experiences. This plasticity has often been demonstrated with different types of expertise by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). Experts showed domain-specific functional neural changes during completion of a task when compared to non-experts. However, all of these results are task-dependent and even though they have proven useful for understan...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - August 31, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Protective Effect of α-Lipoic Acid against α-Cypermethrin-Induced Changes in Rat Cerebellum
This study was planned to evaluate the possible role of α-lipoic acid in α −cypermethrin induced toxicity in brain of male albino rats. Rats were divided into four groups. The control, α-cypermethrin, α-lipoic acid and α −cypermethrin plus α-lipoic acid treated groups. The duration of the experiment was four weeks. Our results showed that the administration of α-cypermethrin caused a significant decreased in γ- aminobutyric acid level, acetylcholinesterase, catalase, superoxide dismutase activities and increase in lipid peroxidation in cerebellum. Furthermore, the...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - August 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Parvalbumin, but not calretinin, neurons express high levels of α1-containing GABAA receptors, α7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and D2-dopamine receptors in the basolateral amygdala of the rat
In conclusion, the present results indicate that not only principal neurons but also GABAergic interneurons have specific receptors, which allow these cells to respond to the GABAergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic inputs coming to the basolateral amygdala of the rat. Since these cells receive intrinsic GABAergic inputs, they are strongly interconnected. Since they also receive extrinsic cholinergic and dopaminergic inputs, such stimulation may result in stimulus-driven feed-forward control of the principal neurons. The effects of such control may be either feed-forward inhibition of the principal neurons via α7 nico...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - August 20, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tamoxifen and amphetamine abuse: Are there therapeutic possibilities?
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 83–84 Author(s): Sarah Mikelman, Natalie Mardirossian, Margaret E. Gnegy Although best known as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), tamoxifen is a drug with a wide range of activities. Tamoxifen has demonstrated some efficacy has a therapeutic for bipolar mania and is believed to exert these effects through inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC). As the symptoms of amphetamine treatment in rodents are believed to mimic the symptoms of a manic episode, many of the preclinical studies for this indication have demonstrated that ta...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - August 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Acute spinal cord injury: a review of pathophysiology and potential of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pharmacological intervention
Publication date: Available online 10 August 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Emrullah Hayta, Hasan Elden Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the serious central nervous system injuries, which can lead to significant neurological impairments and a reduction in quality of life with loss in sensory and motor functions. Although recent advancements contribute to the understanding of the underlying pathophysiological processes developed after SCI, currently, there is limited innovative and effective treatment options besides conventional rehabilitation and management of SCI to alleviate the conditi...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - August 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Extending the family: Roles for uptake2 transporters in regulation of monoaminergic signaling
Publication date: Available online 28 July 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Paul J. Gasser, Lynette C. Daws (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial for the special issue: Monoamine transporters in health and disease
Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Paul J. Gasser, Lynette C. Daws (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Receptor visualization and the atomic bomb. A historical account of the development of the chemical neuroanatomy of receptors for neurotransmitters and drugs during the Cold War
Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): J.M. Palacios, G. Mengod This is a historical account of how receptors for neurotransmitters and drugs got to be seen at the regional, cellular, and subcellular levels in brain, in the years going from the end of the World War II until the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Cold War (1945-1991). The realization in the US of the problem of mental health care, as a consequence of the results of medical evaluation for military service during the war, let the US Government to act creating among other things the National Institute...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research