The effect of intrathecal injection of irisin on pain threshold and expression rate of GABAB receptors in peripheral neuropathic pain model
ConclusionThe findings of the present study showed that acute administration of Irisin increases the pain threshold, but the chronic injection of resin does not have an effect on pain reduction and the expression of GABA receptors and it seems that this peptide is not a proper replacement for exercise in patients with neuropathic pain, who cannot exercise. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The effects of maternal diabetes and insulin treatment on neurogenesis in the developing hippocampus of male rats
This study aimed to investigate the effect of maternal diabetes and insulin treatment on the expression and distribution pattern of NeuN and DCX as two important markers of neurogenesis paradigm in developing rat hippocampus. All animals were randomly divided into three groups as follows: Control group, Diabetic (STZ-D), Diabetic treated with insulin (STZ-INS). Diabetes was induced in Wistar female rats by Sterptozotocin intraperitoneal injection (single does). Following confirmation of diabetes, animals were mated with non-diabetic males. Four to six units of protamine-Zinc insulin were delivered subcutaneously (SC) in in...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

OBscure but not OBsolete: Perturbations of the frontal cortex in common between rodent olfactory bulbectomy model and major depression
Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 91Author(s): Ramamoorthy Rajkumar, Gavin S. DaweAbstractOlfactory bulbectomy (OBX) has been used as a model of depression over several decades. This model presupposes a mechanism that is still not proven in clinical depression. A wealth of clinical literature has focused on the derangements in frontal cortex (prefrontal, orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices) associated with depression. In this comprehensive review, anatomical, electrophysiological and molecular sequelae of bulbectomy in the rodent frontal cortex are explored and compa...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Structural and lipid peroxidation effects of lead on rat hippocampus and its attenuation by hydrogen rich water
Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 91Author(s): Melad G. Paulis, Osama A. Hassan, Mohmed F. Abbass, Mostafa Abo-AL Hamad MohammadAbstractDespite the well-known toxicity and the efforts to control its exposure, lead still has a serious health concern, particularly in young ages. Chelation therapy cannot correct the neurocognitive effects of chronic exposure. So, there is a requirement to test different protective agents for lead intoxication. Hydrogen-rich water (HRW) has gained attraction recently as an antioxidant. Four groups of rats received sodium acetate, HRW, lead acetate...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A histopathological and biochemical evaluation of oxidative injury in the sciatic nerves of male rats exposed to a continuous 900-megahertz electromagnetic field throughout all periods of adolescence
In conclusion, our study results suggest that continuous exposure to a 900-MHz EMF for 1 h throughout adolescence can cause oxidative injury and thickening in the epineurium in the sciatic nerve in male rats. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Okadaic acid–induced tau hyperphosphorylation and the downregulation of Pin1 expression in primary cortical neurons
In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of tau hyperphosphorylation on Pin1 expression in primary cortical neurons in order to investigate the results of the pathological process on Pin1, an important enzyme involved in various cellular mechanisms. Primary cortical neurons were prepared from embryonic day 16 -Sprague Dawley rat embryos. The cultures were treated with 25 nM okadaic acid (OKA) on day 7 in order to promote tau hyperphosphorylation. The cytotoxicity was determined with LDH release and measured by ELISA. Tau phosphorylation was confirmed by western blot using anti-tau antibodies Thr231 and Tau-1. Pin1...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Transient global cerebral ischemia differentially affects cortex, striatum and hippocampus in Bilateral Common Carotid Arterial occlusion (BCCAo) mouse model
This study shows a region-specific temporal molecular response to global ischemia in the brain, which is important to get better insight into the pathophysiology since each region consists of different subsets of neurons that are having different susceptibility and tolerance pattern/level. This insight into a temporally different ischemic response and the underlying molecular basis might help in strategizing the effective therapeutics against stroke.Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The modular architecture and neurochemical patterns in the cerebellar cortex
Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 92Author(s): Sergei G. Kalinichenko, Igor I. PushchinAbstractThe review deals with topical issues of the neuronal arrangement underlying basic cerebellar functions. The cerebellum and its auxiliary structures contain several hundreds of modules (so called "microzones"). Each module receives the corticopetal input specific for the lobule it belongs to and forms the topographic projection. The precision of the major input-output signal flow in the cerebellar cortex is provided by a pronounced stratification of its synaptic zones of a var...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Age-dependent alterations in expression and co-localization of Pax6 and Ras-GAP in brain of aging mice
Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 92Author(s): Khushboo Srivastava, Ratnakar Tripathi, Rajnikant MishraAbstractAs the brain ages, the survival and plasticity of neurons and glia are compromised. The data-mining and in silico studies suggest interactions of Pax6 with Ras and binding sites in Ras-GAP promoter. The Pax6 also shows age-dependent alterations. Therefore, it is presumed that Pax6 may be associated with the Ras-GAP, a synaptic protein, either directly or indirectly in brain. The expression, co-localization and interaction of Pax6 and Ras-GAP in different regions of brai...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Differentiation of neural crest stem cells from nasal mucosa into motor neuron-like cells
Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 92Author(s): Zohreh Bagher, Seyed Kamran Kamrava, Rafieh Alizadeh, Mohammad Farhadi, Moloud Absalan, Masoumeh Falah, Faezeh Faghihi, Arash Zare-Sadeghi, Ali KomeiliAbstractCell transplantation is a potential therapeutic approach for repairing neuropathological and neurodegenerative disorders of central nervous system by replacing the degenerated cells with new ones. Among a variety of stem cell candidates to provide these new cells, olfactory ectomesenchymal stem cells (OE-MSCs) have attracted a great attention due to their neural crest origin, ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Markers for human brain pericytes and smooth muscle cells
Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 92Author(s): Leon C.D. Smyth, Justin Rustenhoven, Emma L. Scotter, Patrick Schweder, Richard L.M. Faull, Thomas I.H. Park, Mike DragunowAbstractBrain pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) are a critical component of the neurovascular unit and are important in regulating cerebral blood flow and blood-brain barrier integrity. Identification of subtypes of mural cells in tissue and in vitro is important to any study of their function, therefore we identified distinct mural cell morphologies in neurologically normal post-mortem human br...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Developmental dynamics of prepiriform cortex in prenatal human ontogenesis
Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 92Author(s): Anastasia. S. Kharlamova, Olga S. Godovalova, Olga I. Junemann, Sergei V. SavelievAbstractThe prepiriform cortex is a part of the phylogenetically oldest pallial division (paleocortex) representing the primary olfactory cortex. While olfactory centers in laboratory animals have been extensively investigated, the developmental timetable of the human prepiriform area is poorly understood. Thus, in the present study we aim to examine the prepiriform cortex in human fetuses from eight postconceptional weeks to birth. Based on cytoarchit...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Embryonic intraventricular transplantation of neural stem cells augments inflammation-induced prenatal brain injury
Conclusion This study suggests a promising prospect to initiate the treatment of prenatal brain injury before birth by intrauterine transplantation of NSCs. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - June 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Developmental dynamics of prepiriform cortex in prenatal human ontogenesis
Publication date: Available online 9 June 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Anastasia. S. Kharlamova, Olga S. Godovalova, Olga I. Junemann, Sergei V. Saveliev (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - June 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Markers for human brain pericytes and smooth muscle cells
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Leon C.D. Smyth, Justin Rustenhoven, Emma L. Scotter, Patrick Schweder, Richard L.M. Faull, Thomas I.H. Park, Mike Dragunow Brain pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) are a critical component of the neurovascular unit and are important in regulating cerebral blood flow and blood-brain barrier integrity. Identification of subtypes of mural cells in tissue and in vitro is important to any study of their function, therefore we identified distinct mural cell morphologies in neurologically normal post-mortem human br...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - June 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Okadaic acid –induced tau hyperphosphorylation and the downregulation of Pin1 expression in primary cortical neurons
In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of tau hyperphosphorylation on Pin1 expression in primary cortical neurons in order to investigate the results of the pathological process on Pin1, an important enzyme involved in various cellular mechanisms. Primary cortical neurons were prepared from embryonic day 16 -Sprague Dawley rat embryos. The cultures were treated with 25 nM okadaic acid (OKA) on day 7 in order to promote tau hyperphosphorylation. The cytotoxicity was determined with LDH release and measured by ELISA. Tau phosphorylation was confirmed by western blot using anti-tau antibodies Thr231 and Tau-1. Pin1...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - May 31, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Image Analyzing and Stereological Techniques
Publication date: Available online 29 May 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Suleyman Kaplan (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - May 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Differentiation of Neural Crest Stem Cells From Nasal Mucosa into Motor Neuron-Like Cells
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Zohreh Bagher, Seyed Kamran Kamrava, Rafieh Alizadeh, Mohammad Farhadi, Mahta Absalan, Masoumeh Falah, Faezeh Faghihi, Arash Zare-Sadegh, Ali Komeili Cell transplantation is a potential therapeutic approach for repairing neuropathological and neurodegenerative disorders of central nervous system by replacing the degenerated cells with new ones. Among a variety of stem cell candidates to provide these new cells, olfactory ectomesenchymal stem cells (OE-MSCs) have attracted a great attention due to their neural crest origin, ea...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - May 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pattern of tyrosine hydroxylase expression during aging of mesolimbic pathway of the rat
Publication date: Available online 26 May 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Bianca Norrara, Ana Cristina Arrais, Ianara Mendonça da Costa, Jose Ronaldo Santos, Jeferson de Souza Cavalcante, Fausto Pierdoná Guzen, Jose Rodolfo Lopes P. Cavalcanti, Marco Aurelio M. Freire Senescence is a physiological and progressive event that leads to the impairment of normal functions of the organism. The nervous system is one of the most affected systems during aging, presenting both structural and functional alterations associated with a decline in normal brain functions. In the present study we aime...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - May 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Age-dependent alterations in expression and co-localization of Pax6 and Ras-GAP in brain of aging mice
Publication date: Available online 19 May 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Khushboo Srivastava, Ratnakar Tripathi, Rajnikant Mishra As the brain ages, the survival and plasticity of neurons and glia are compromised. The data-mining and in silico studies suggest interactions of Pax6 with Ras and binding sites in Ras-GAP promoter. The Pax6 also shows age-dependent alterations. Therefore, it is presumed that Pax6 may be associated with the Ras-GAP, a synaptic protein, either directly or indirectly in brain. The expression, co-localization and interaction of Pax6 and Ras-GAP in different regions of brai...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - May 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The modular architecture and neurochemical patterns in the cerebellar cortex
Publication date: October 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 92 Author(s): Sergei G. Kalinichenko, Igor I. Pushchin The review deals with topical issues of the neuronal arrangement underlying basic cerebellar functions. The cerebellum and its auxiliary structures contain several hundreds of modules (so called "microzones"). Each module receives the corticopetal input specific for the lobule it belongs to and forms the topographic projection. The precision of the major input-output signal flow in the cerebellar cortex is provided by a pronounced stratification of its synaptic zones of a various ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - May 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Transient global cerebral ischemia differentially affects cortex, striatum and hippocampus in Bilateral Common Carotid Arterial occlusion (BCCAo) mouse model
This study shows a region-specific temporal molecular response to global ischemia in the brain, which is important to get better insight into the pathophysiology since each region consists of different subsets of neurons that are having different susceptibility and tolerance pattern/level. This insight into a temporally different ischemic response and the underlying molecular basis might help in strategizing the effective therapeutics against stroke. Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - April 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Structural and Lipid Peroxidation Effects of Lead on Rat Hippocampus and Its Attenuation by Hydrogen Rich Water
Publication date: Available online 22 April 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Melad G. Paulis, Osama A. Hassan, Mohmed F. Abbass, Mostafa Abo-AL Hamad Mohammad Despite the well-known toxicity and the efforts to control its exposure, lead still has a serious health concern, particularly in young ages. Chelation therapy cannot correct the neurocognitive effects of chronic exposure. So, there is a requirement to test different protective agents for lead intoxication. Hydrogen-rich water (HRW) has gained attraction recently as an antioxidant. Four groups of rats received sodium acetate, HRW, lead acetate...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - April 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Baseline Striatal and Nigral interneuronal protein levels in two distinct mice strains differ in accordance with their MPTP susceptibility
Publication date: Available online 22 April 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Bidisha Bhaduri, P.L. Abhilash, Phalguni Anand Alladi Epidemiological studies reveal an ethnicity-based bias in prevalence of Parkinson’s disease (PD), deriving from the differences that exist between Caucasians and African or Asian populations. Experimental mice models provide a scope to analyse the cellular mechanisms of differential susceptibility to PD. C57BL/6 J mice, for instance, are more susceptible to MPTP-induced Parkinsonism whereas CD-1 mice are resistant. In PD-pathogenesis, interneuronal contribution i...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - April 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Biochemical Deficits and Cognitive Decline in Brain Aging: Intervention by Dietary Supplements
Publication date: Available online 17 April 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Jit Poddar, Munmun Pradhan, Gargi Ganguly, Sasanka Chakrabarti The aging of brain in the absence of neurodegenerative diseases, usually called non-pathological brain aging or normal cognitive aging, is characterized by an impairment of memory and cognitive functions. The underlying cellular and molecular changes in the aging brain that include oxidative damage, mitochondrial impairment, changes in glucose-energy metabolism and neuroinflammation have been reported widely from animal experiments and human studies. The cogniti...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - April 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The impact of pericytes on the brain and approaches for their morphological analysis
Publication date: Available online 17 April 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Yaroslav Kolinko, Milena Kralickova, Zbynek Tonar The interest in investigating brain pericytes is growing due to their diverse influences on neuronal function. While numerous studies have investigated the particular properties and functions of pericytes, complex insight into their functional histology is often lacking. In this work, we review and combine the current knowledge regarding brain pericyte function in normal physiology and its role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and tumorigenesis. Special atte...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - April 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

OBscure but not OBsolete: Perturbations of the frontal cortex in common between rodent olfactory bulbectomy model and major depression
Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Ramamoorthy Rajkumar, Gavin S Dawe Olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) has been used as a model of depression over several decades. This model presupposes a mechanism that is still not proven in clinical depression. A wealth of clinical literature has focused on the derangements in frontal cortex (prefrontal, orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices) associated with depression. In this comprehensive review, anatomical, electrophysiological and molecular sequelae of bulbectomy in the rodent frontal cortex are explored and compare...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - April 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Obituary: Ersan Odaci, MD, PhD
Publication date: Available online 1 April 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - April 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The effects of maternal diabetes and insulin treatment on neurogenesis in the developing hippocampus of male rats
This study aimed to investigate the effect of maternal diabetes and insulin treatment on the expression and distribution pattern of NeuN and DCX as two important markers of neurogenesis paradigm in developing rat hippocampus. All animals were randomly divided into three groups as follows: Control group, Diabetic (STZ-D), Diabetic treated with insulin (STZ-INS). Diabetes was induced in Wistar female rats by Sterptozotocin intraperitoneal injection (single does). Following confirmation of diabetes, animals were mated with non-diabetic males. Four to six units of protamine-Zinc insulin were delivered subcutaneously (SC) in in...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Brain plasticity from fundamental research to clinic
Publication date: Available online 13 March 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Yves Tillet, Sylvie Chalon (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A histopathological and biochemical evaluation of oxidative injury in the sciatic nerves of male rats exposed to a continuous 900-megahertz electromagnetic field throughout all periods of adolescence
In conclusion, our study results suggest that continuous exposure to a 900-MHz EMF for 1 h throughout adolescence can cause oxidative injury and thickening in the epineurium in the sciatic nerve in male rats. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Nimodipine attenuates the parkinsonian neurotoxin, MPTP-induced changes in the calcium binding proteins, calpain and calbindin
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Alpana Singh, Poonam Verma, Anu Raju, Kochupurackal P. Mohanakumar We have recently demonstrated neuroprotective abilities of nimodipine, an L-type voltage dependent calcium channel (VDCC) blocker in cellular and animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). To understand the calcium regulatory mechanisms in the disease pathogenesis, the present study examined calcium regulatory proteins calbindin and calpain mRNA and protein levels employing quantitative PCR and western blot in 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium ion (MPP+)-treate...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)-derived retinal cells in disease modeling and regenerative medicine
Publication date: Available online 12 February 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Reena Rathod, Harshini Surendran, Rajani Battu, Jogin Desai, Rajarshi Pal Retinal degenerative disorders are a leading cause of the inherited, irreversible and incurable vision loss. While various rodent model systems have provided crucial information in this direction, lack of disease-relevant tissue availability and species-specific differences have proven to be a major roadblock. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) have opened up a whole new avenue of possibilities not just in understanding the disease mechani...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Temporal Lobe Epilepsy-induced Neurodegeneration and Cognitive Deficits: Implications for Aging
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Vrinda M., Arun S., Srikumar B.N., Bindu M. Kutty, Shankaranarayana Rao B.S. Epilepsy is a neurological condition associated with seizures, neurodegeneration, circuit reorganization, and other structural and functional abnormalities. These elements ultimately lead to behavioural alterations such as anxiety, depression, and importantly cognitive impairment like learning disability and memory impairment. These factors can attribute to acceleration of aging and cognitive impairment in middle-aged people, which is otherwise ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Non-invasive imaging modalities to study neurodegenerative diseases of aging brain
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Ramesh Naidu Annavarapu, Srujana Kathi, Vamsi Krishna Vadla The aim of this article is to highlight current approaches for imaging elderly brain, indispensable for cognitive neuroscience research with emphasis on the basic physical principles of various non-invasive neuroimaging techniques. The first part of this article presents a quick overview of the primary non-invasive neuroimaging modalities used by cognitive neuroscientists such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial electrical stimulation (tES),...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Biochemical markers of striatal desensitization in cortical-limbic hyperglutamatergic TS- & amp; OCD-like transgenic mice
Publication date: Available online 24 February 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Kylie B. O’Brien, Anjail Z. Sharrief, Eric J. Nordstrom, Anthony J. Travanty, Mailee Huynh, Megan P. Romero, Katie C. Bittner, Michael T. Bowser, Frank H. Burton Tics and compulsions in comorbid Tourette's syndrome (TS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are associated with chronic hyperactivity of parallel cortico/amygdalo-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) loop circuits. Comorbid TS- & OCD-like behaviors have likewise been observed in D1CT-7 mice, in which an artificial neuropotentiating transgene encod...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A brief update on physical and optical disector applications and sectioning-staining methods in neuroscience
Publication date: Available online 26 February 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Elfide Gizem Kivrak, Gamze Altun, Hamza Mohamed, Fathelrahman ALI, Hosam Eldeen E.G. Mohemmed, Suleyman Kaplan A quantitative description of a three-dimensional (3D) object based on two-dimensional images can be made using stereological methods These methods involve unbiased approaches and provide reliable results with quantitative data. The quantitative morphology of the nervous system has been thoroughly researched in this context. In particular, various novel methods such as design-based stere...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mapping the protein phosphorylation sites in human mitochondrial complex I (NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase): A bioinformatics study with implications for brain aging and neurodegeneration
Publication date: Available online 27 February 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Niya Gowthami, B. Sunitha, Manish Kumar, T.S.Keshava Prasad, N. Gayathri, B. Padmanabhan, M.M.Srinivas Bharath In eukaryotes, mitochondrial complex I (NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase; CI) is central to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Mammalian CI is a 45 subunit complex that forms supercomplexes with other OXPHOS complexes. Since CI defects are associated with aging and neurodegeneration, it is pertinent to understand its structure-function relationship. Although genetic mutations could lower CI activity causing mito...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Estrogen-induced neuroimmunomodulation as facilitator of and barrier to reproductive aging in brain and lymphoid organs
Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Srinivasan ThyagaRajan, Lalgi Hima, Uday P. Pratap, Hannah P. Priyanka, Ramasamy Vasantharekha Reproductive aging in females is marked by alterations in gonadal hormones, estrogen and progesterone, that facilitate cessation of reproductive cycles and onset of female-specific diseases such as autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases, hormone-dependent cancers, and osteoporosis. Bidirectional communication between the three homeostatic systems, nervous system, endocrine system, and immune system, is essential for the maintena...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Effect of Intrathecal Injection of Irisin on Pain Threshold and Expression Rate of GABAB Receptors in Peripheral Neuropathic Pain Model
Conclusion The findings of the present study showed that acute administration of Irisin increases the pain threshold, but the chronic injection of resin does not have an effect on pain reduction and the expression of GABA receptors and it seems that this peptide is not a proper replacement for exercise in patients with neuropathic pain, who cannot exercise. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Genistein attenuates seizure-induced hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor overexpression in ovariectomized rats
Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Mehdi Khodamoradi, Hamed Ghazvini, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani, Kaveh Shahveisi, Vahid Farnia, Hossein Zhaleh, Nasrin Abdoli, Zeinab Akbarnejad, Hakimeh Saadati, Vahid Sheibani (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Implication of regional brain serotonergic neurons in dorsal and median Raph é nuclei in adaptation to water lacking in Gerbillus tarabuli
This study suggested that neurons in DRN and MRN contain 5-HT in various amounts, thus allowing an adapted response to hydration status. These neurons could mediate one of the adaptation mechanisms of this animal to its desert biotope. Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Overexpression of miR-219 Promotes Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells into pre-Oligodendrocyte
This study aimed to assess the impact of miR-219-overexpression on hiPSCs. Initially, hiPSCs were induced with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), epidermalgrowth factor (EGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA, then, miR-219- green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing lentiviruses were utilized for cell infection. Microscopic observation revealed significant morphological changes and data obtained from quantitative reverse transcription PCR and immunofluorescence analysis of differentiated cells showed that the expression of various oligodendrocyte stage-specific markers such as Nestin, Olig2, Sox10, PDGFR&al...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

GDF11 expression in the adult rat central nervous system
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 89 Author(s): Yutaro Hayashi, Sumiko Mikawa, Kazuma Masumoto, Fuminori Katou, Kohji Sato Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), also known as bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP11), is a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily. Although GDF11 plays pivotal roles during development, including anterior/posterior patterning, formation of the kidney, stomach, spleen and endocrine pancreas, little information is available for GDF11 expression in the adult central nervous system (CNS). We, thus, investigated GDF11 exp...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Co-localization patterns of neurotensin receptor 1 and tyrosine hydroxylase in brain regions involved in motivation and social behavior in male European starlings
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 89 Author(s): Devin P. Merullo, Jeremy A. Spool, Changjiu Zhao, Lauren V. Riters Animals communicate in distinct social contexts to convey information specific to those contexts, such as sexual or agonistic motivation. In seasonally-breeding male songbirds, seasonal changes in day length and increases in testosterone stimulate sexually-motivated song directed at females for courtship and reproduction. Dopamine and testosterone may act in the same brain regions to stimulate sexually-motivated singing. The neuropeptide neurotensin, acting at the ne...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tyrosine hydroxylase afferents to the interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure are neurochemically distinct from those projecting to neighboring nuclei
Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi, Ayuka Ehara, Kazuhiko Nakadate, Shuichi Ueda The interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure (IPAC) is exclusively innervated by tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) fibers as observed in the other nuclei of the rat forebrain such as the striatum and nucleus accumbens. Distinguishing TH-IR afferents to the IPAC from those projecting to neighboring nuclei has been difficult. However, we previously showed that the TH-IR fibers projecting to the IPAC were invulnerable to ne...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - January 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Lycium barbarum polysaccharide protects diabetic peripheral neuropathy by enhancing autophagy via mTOR/p70S6K inhibition in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Publication date: Available online 30 December 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Si-Yang Liu, Ling Chen, Xiao-Cheng Li, Qi-Kuan Hu, Lan-Jie He Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), the major active component of Lycium barbarum, has been found to be effective in the management of some diabetic complications. We evaluated the protective effect of LBP in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and explored the possible mechanisms. We found that LBP mildly decreased blood glucose levels and partially rescued allodynia and hyperalgesia in the diabetes mellitus (DM) rats. For the electrophysiological function...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pattern of Aromatase mRNA Expression in the Brain of a Weakly Electric Fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus
Publication date: Available online 27 December 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Katherine Shaw, Rüdiger Krahe Aromatase is a steroidogenic enzyme involved in the conversion of testosterone into estradiol. Teleosts are unique among vertebrates in possessing two distinct aromatase genes that show different expression patterns within the body. Since the brain is the essential organ underlying the control of behavior, an understanding of the expression pattern of aromatase in the brain can help to identify neural circuits and behaviors that are most likely to be affected by aromatase activity. In a...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Collision of the glass shards with the eye: A computational fluid-structure interaction model
The objective of this study was to employ a Three-Dimensional (3D) computational Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) model of the human eye to assess the results of the glass shards collision with the eye. To do this, a rigid steel-based object hit a Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) glass wall at the velocities of 100, 150, and 200 m/sec and, subsequently, the resultant glass shards moved toward the eye. The amount of injury, then, quantified in terms of the stresses and strains. The results revealed the highest amount of stress in the cornea while the lowest one was observed in the vitreous body. It was also found th...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prevention of Chronic Immobilization Stress-induced Enhanced Expression of Glucocorticoid Receptors in the Prefrontal Cortex by Inactivation of Basolateral Amygdala
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Sunil Jamuna Tripathi, Suwarna Chakraborty, B.N. Srikumar, T.R. Raju, B.S. Shankaranarayana Rao Repeated exposure to stress precipitates anxiety, depression and cognitive deficits. Stress-induced activation of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is modulated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA). It is well established that BLA positively regulates the HPA axis and undergoes hypertrophy following chronic immobilization stress (CIS). However, it is not known whether inactivati...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research