Neural functions of the aging brain: Daily living, developmental and geriatric disabilities
Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 95Author(s): TR. Raju, KP. MohanakumarAbstractNeuronal, microglial, astrocytic and oligodendrocytic functions of the brain are significantly affected during normal aging, and more so if inflicted with neurological diseases. Aging is a consistent risk factor for many neurodegenerative diseases that are sporadic in nature, whereas developmental neurological disabilities stem from errors in brain development. The neuronal functions are affected in both developmental disabilities and geriatric diseases. This special issue, is based on the two-days m...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - January 10, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Automatic Stereology of Mean Nuclear Size of Neurons using an Active Contour Framework
Publication date: Available online 7 January 2019Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Hady Ahmady Phoulady, Dmitry Goldgof, Lawrence O. Hall, Kevin R. Nash, Peter R. MoutonAbstractThe use of unbiased stereology to quantify structural parameters such as mean cell and nuclear size (area and volume) can be useful for a wide variety of biological studies. Here we propose a novel segmentation framework using an Active Contour Model to automate the collection of stereology from stained cells and other objects in tissue sections. This approach is demonstrated for stained brain sections from young adult Fischer 344 r...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - January 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Distinct regional patterns in noradrenergic innervation of the rat prefrontal cortex
Publication date: Available online 7 January 2019Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Juan-Carlos Cerpa, Alain R. Marchand, Etienne CoutureauAbstractThe anatomy and functions of the rodent prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been extensively studied. It is now clear that the PFC is at the core of various executive functions and that these functions depend on monoaminergic neuromodulation. The PFC receives extensive projections from monoaminergic nuclei and, in particular, from the locus cœruleus (LC) which is the major source of noradrenaline (NA) in the cortex. Projections of this nucleus have long been consi...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - January 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Obvious anxiogenic-like effects of subchronic copper intoxication in rats, outcomes on spatial learning and memory and neuromodulatory potential of curcumin
Publication date: Available online 3 January 2019Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Abdellatif Abbaoui, Halima GamraniAbstractCopper (Cu) is a transition metal and an essential trace element, but excessive levels of Cu might disturb vital functions and systems including the Central Nervous System (CNS). Curcumin has numerous beneficial effects including protective potential on the CNS toxicity. Previous studies have revealed solid evidence showing metal elements implication in the physiopathology of psychiatric disorders, principally anxiety, as well as association between stressful conditions and the incep...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - January 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Serotonergic dysfunction in a model of parkinsonism induced by reserpine
Publication date: Available online 28 December 2018Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Pollyana C. Leal, José Marcos M. Bispo, Rovena C.G.J. Engelberth, Kayo Diogenes de A. Silva, Ywlliane R. Meurer, Alessandra M. Ribeiro, Regina H. Silva, Murilo Marchioro, José R. SantosAbstractParkinson’s disease (PD) is mainly characterized by a dopamine deficiency accompanied by structural and functional changes in striatal neuronal projections. However, studies have considered PD as a multi-systemic disease in which the neurodegenerative process extends beyond the dopaminergic system. Therefore, the ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Automated Cell Counts on Tissue Sections by Deep Learning and Unbiased Stereology
Publication date: Available online 27 December 2018Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Saeed S. Alahmari, Dmitry Goldgof, Lawrence Hall, Hady Ahmady Phoulady, Raj H. Patel, Peter R. MoutonAbstractIn recent decades stereology-based studies have played a significant role in understanding brain aging and developing novel drug discovery strategies for treatment of neurological disease and mental illness. A major obstacle to further progress in a wide range of neuroscience sub-disciplines remains the lack of high-throughput technology for stereology analyses. Though founded on methodologically unbiased principles...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A novel image segmentation method for the evaluation of inflammation-induced cortical and hippocampal white matter injury in neonatal mice
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2018Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Amin Mottahedin, Xiaoli Zhang, Aura Zelco, Maryam Ardalan, Jacqueline C.Y. Lai, Carina Mallard, Xiaoyang Wang, Hady Ahmady PhouladyAbstractThe developing brain is very susceptible to environmental insults, and very immature infants often suffer from long-term neurological syndromes associated with white matter injuries such as periventricular leukomalacia. Infection and inflammation are important risk factors for neonatal brain white matter injuries, but the evaluation of white matter injury in animal models, especially th...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Osmotic stress induces corticosteroid-binding globulin expression in the rat hypothalamo-hypophyseal system
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2018Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Elena V. Sivukhina, Gustav F. JirikowskiAbstractCorticosteroid-binding globulin CBG is expressed in magnocellular hypothalamic nuclei, in part colocalized with vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT). Here we subjected intact adult male rats to chronic osmotic stress to determine effects on distribution of CBG in VP and OT neurons and in neurons expressing corticotropin- releasing hormone (CRH). Drinking 2% NaCl solution for seven days resulted in increased CBG-immunoreactivity in magnocellular neurons. Triple immunofluorescenc...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurotransmitters are released in brain areas according to ultradian rhythms: Coincidence with ultradian oscillations of EEG waves
Publication date: Available online 18 December 2018Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Philippu AthineosAbstractUse of the push-pull superfusing technique has shown that in the brain the release rates of endogenous catecholamines, GABA, glutamate and histamine are not constant but fluctuate temporally according to ultradian rhythms. Rhythmic fluctuations have been found in the posterior and anterior hypothalamus, the locus coeruleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the mammillary body and the medial amygdaloid nucleus of cats and rats. Similar fluctuations appear in the nitric oxide signal registered in t...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Changes to the somatosensory barrel cortex in C57BL/6J mice at early adulthood (56 days post-natal) following prenatal alcohol exposure
This study reports on the consequence of prenatal exposure to alcohol on the somatosensory cortices of mice later in life. Two control groups, a sucrose and a non-treated control, were also examined. At postnatal day (PND) 56 the cerebral hemisphere of mice from each group were processed for cytochrome oxidase reactivity. In contrast to previous studies, there were no significant differences in the mean areas of: (I) the PMBSF enclosure, (II) the PMBSF barrels, (III) the individual PMBSF barrels and (IV) the septal portion of the PMBSF in the alcohol group compared to the controls. However barrel sizes in rows D and E in t...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in brains of patients with multiple system atrophy and patients with Parkinson’s disease
Publication date: Available online 14 December 2018Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Oliver Kaut, Klaus Kuchelmeister, Christoph Moehl, Ullrich WüllnerAbstractMultiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology, characterized pathologically by α-synuclein aggregates preferentially found in oligodendroglial cells. DNA methylation has emerged as a mechanism of regulation of α-synuclein expression. Reduced 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) DNA methylation of α-synuclein has been found in the brains of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). 5-hydroxyme...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Subchronic ketamine alters behaviour, metabolic indices and brain morphology in adolescent rats: involvement of oxidative stress, glutamate toxicity and caspase-3-mediated apoptosis
In conclusion, subchronic administration of ketamine to adolescent rats was associated with dose-related memory loss, oxidative stress and possibly caspase-3 mediated neurodegenerative changes. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Gene expression of AMPA, kainate, and NMDA receptor subunits in the pigeon spinal cord
This study examined the localization of postsynaptic neurons having three types of iGluRs in the pigeon spinal cord. Nine mRNAs of iGluR subunits – namely GluA1, GluA2, GluA3, and GluA4 for AMPA receptors; GluK1, GluK2, and GluK4 for kainate receptors; and GluN1 and GluN2A for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors – were analyzed by in situ hybridization. All three types of iGluRs were found in gray matter, with GluK4 and GluN1 subunits strongly expressed in laminae I–IX. GluA1 and GluA2 subunits were expressed in glial cells of white matter. In general, AMPA receptors were more weakly expressed than kain...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Fornix deep brain stimulation induces reduction of hippocampal synaptophysin levels
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2018Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Majed Aldehri, Yasin Temel, Ali Jahanshahi, Sarah HeschamAbstractFornix deep brain stimulation (DBS) has the ability to refurbish memory functions in animal models with experimental dementia. One of the possible underlying mechanisms is the acute increase of acetylcholine in the hippocampus. Another suggested hypothesis is neuroplasticity. Recent work in rats has shown that acute fornix DBS can modulate neurotrophic factors as well as synaptic plasticity markers on the short-term. Here, we want to test the hypothesis that a...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 94Author(s): (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - November 21, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Localization and expression of CTP: Phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase in rat brain following cocaine exposure
Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 96Author(s): Sumitra Pati, Lishann M. Ingram, Min K. Sun, John J. Wagner, Brian S. CummingsAbstractPhosphatidylcholine (PC) is a primary phospholipid and major source of secondary lipid messengers and also serves as a biosynthetic precursor for other membrane phospholipids. Phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) is the rate-limiting enzyme responsible for catalyzing the formation of PC. Changes in CCT activity have been associated with lipid dysregulation across various neurological disorders. Additionally, intermediates in PC synthesis, such a...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - November 21, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Increased cell number with reduced nitric oxide level and augmented superoxide dismutase activity in the anterior-pituitary region of young suicide completers
This study demonstrates that there is an increased number of cells, with an imbalance in oxidative stress without a process of lipid peroxidation in the anterior-pituitary region of young suicide completers.Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - November 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurochemical fingerprinting of amygdalostriatal and intra-amygdaloid projections: a tracing–immunofluorescence study in the rat
Publication date: Available online 6 November 2018Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Floris G. Wouterlood, Sanne van Oort, Lucian Bloemhard, Nico A. Flierman, Jorik Spijkerman, Chris I. Wright, Jeroen A.M. Beliën, Hendrik J. GroenewegenAbstractAmygdalostriatal and intra-amygdaloid fiber connectivity was studied in rats via injections of one of the tracers Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) or biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into various amygdaloid nuclei. To determine the neurotransmitter identity of labeled fibers we combined tracer detection with immunofluorescence staining, using antibodies...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - November 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Aromatase expression and function in the brain and behavior: A comparison across communication systems in teleosts
Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 94Author(s): Katherine ShawAbstractAromatase (Cyp19a1) is a steroidogenic enzyme that functions to convert aromatizable androgens into bioactive estrogens. The teleost brain is known to have the highest levels of aromatase activity among vertebrates, yet we know relatively little about the function of local estrogen production in teleost behavior. This review compares and contrasts the findings from behavioral studies in the visual, auditory, electrosensory, and olfactory systems, with expression studies in the brain and peripheral nervous syst...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - November 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tooth pulp injury induces sex-dependent neuronal reshaping in the ventral posterolateral nucleus of the rat thalamus
Publication date: Available online 2 November 2018Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Ismael Juárez, Julio César Morales-Medina, Julia Flores-Tochihuitl, Gamaliel Santiago Juárez, Gonzalo Flores, Hortencia Chávez OsekiAbstractOrofacial injuries often result in persistent pain and are therefore considered a common health problem worldwide. Considerable evidence suggests that peripheral sensory nerve injury results in diverse plastic changes in the central nervous system (CNS). Tooth pulp is innervated by trigeminal afferents which extend to the trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - November 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Evaluation of semi-automatic 3D reconstruction for studying geometry of dendritic spines
ConclusionThese findings suggest that the semi-automatic method may represent both a time-economic and reliable option for the purpose of studying spine geometry. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - October 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Localization and Expression of CTP:Phosphocholine Cytidylyltransferase in Rat Brain following Cocaine Exposure
Publication date: Available online 23 October 2018Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Sumitra Pati, Lishann M. Ingram, Min K. Sun, John J. Wagner, Brian S. CummingsAbstractPhosphatidylcholine (PC) is a primary phospholipid and major source of secondary lipid messengers and also serves as a biosynthetic precursor for other membrane phospholipids. Phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) is the rate-limiting enzyme responsible for catalyzing the formation of PC. Changes in CCT activity have been associated with lipid dysregulation across various neurological disorders. Additionally, intermediates in PC synthe...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - October 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Myostatin expression in the adult rat central nervous system
Publication date: Available online 24 October 2018Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Yutaro Hayashi, Sumiko Mikawa, Chikara Ogawa, Kazuma Masumoto, Fuminori Katou, Kohji SatoAbstractMyostatin (also called as growth and differentiation factor 8 or GDF8), a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily of secreted differentiation and growth factors, is a potent inhibitor of skeletal muscle mass in mammals. Although myostatin also plays pivotal roles in cardiac growth and metabolism, postnatal glucose metabolism and adipogenesis, little information is available for myostatin function...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - October 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effect of prenatal tramadol on postnatal cerebellar development: Role of oxidative stress
Publication date: Available online 17 October 2018Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Basma Emad Aboulhoda, Sherif S. HassanAbstractBackground and aimThe adverse neurological effects of tramadol have recently raised attention. The literature pertaining to studying postnatal cerebellar changes induced by prenatal tramadol is very scanty, thus the current study has been designed to improve understanding of the cerebellar oxidative stress-related alterations associated with tramadol administration during pregnancy in this critical period of neuronal differentiation and synaptic development, thereby highlighting...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - October 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of Craniopharyngioma Cyst Fluid on Neurons and Glial Cells cultured from rat brain hypothalamus
In this study, we have collected CP cyst fluid (CCF) from mostly young patients during surgical removal and exposed it 9-10 days in vitro to the primary cultures derived from rat brain hypothalamus for 48 hours. A gradual decline in cell viability was noted with increasing concentration of CCF. Moreover, a distinct degenerative morphological transformation was observed in neurons and glial cells, including appearance of blebbing and overall reduction of the cell volume. Further, enhanced expression of Caspase-3 in neurons and glial cells exposed to CCF by immunofluorescence imaging, supported by Western blot experim...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - October 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effect of long-term administration of antiretroviral drugs (Tenofovir and Nevirapine) on neuroinflammation and neuroplasticity in mouse hippocampi
Publication date: Available online 15 October 2018Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Simo S. Zulu, Nicola Simola, Musa V. Mabandla, William M.U. DanielsAbstractThe use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has been successful in suppressing HIV-1 replication and restoring peripheral immune functioning in HIV-infected individuals. Despite these advances in the management of HIV, neurocognitive impairments continue to be diagnosed in HIV-infected patients on treatment, even when the viral load is low. Of interest is the observation that deficiencies in brain function in these individuals are marked by ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - October 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Aromatase Expression and Function in the Brain and Behavior:A Comparison Across Communication Systems in Teleosts
Publication date: Available online 15 October 2018Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Katherine ShawAbstractAromatase (Cyp19a1) is a steroidogenic enzyme that functions to convert aromatizable androgens into bioactive estrogens. The teleost brain is known to have the highest levels of aromatase activity among vertebrates, yet we know relatively little about the function of local estrogen production in teleost behavior. This review compares and contrasts the findings from behavioral studies in the visual, auditory, electrosensory, and olfactory systems, with expression studies in the brain and peripheral nerv...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - October 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Nuclear organization and morphology of cholinergic neurons in the brain of the rock cavy (Kerodon rupestris) (Wied, 1820)
Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 94Author(s): N.R. Resende, P.L. Soares Filho, P.P.A. Peixoto, A.M. Silva, S.F. Silva, J.G. Soares, E.S. do Nascimento, J.C. Cavalcante, J.S. Cavalcante, M.S.M.O. CostaAbstractThe aim of this study was to conduct cytoarchitectonic studies and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemical analysis to delimit the cholinergic groups in the encephalon of the rock cavy (Kerodon rupestris), a crepuscular Caviidae rodent native to the Brazilian Northeast. Three young adult animals were anesthetized and transcardially perfused. The encephala were...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - October 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pluchea lanceolata protects hippocampal neurons from endothelin-1 induced ischemic injury to ameliorate cognitive deficits
Publication date: Available online 29 September 2018Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Ravi Mundugaru, Senthilkumar Sivanesan, Popa-Wagner A, Padmaja Udaykumar, Ramalingam Kirubagaran, Guruprasad KP, Vidyadhara D JAbstractIschemic brain injury is one of the leading causes of death and disability, where lack of disease modifying treatment strategies make us rely on symptomatic relief. Treatment principles from traditional systems of medicine may fill this gap and its validation in modern medicine perspective is important to bring them to mainstream. Here, we evaluated the neuroprotective efficacy of Ayurvedi...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - October 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 93Author(s): (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - October 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Image analysing and stereological techniques
Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 93Author(s): Suleyman Kaplan (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - October 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The effects of a continuous 1-h a day 900-MHz electromagnetic field applied throughout early and mid-adolescence on hippocampus morphology and learning behavior in late adolescent male rats
In conclusion, 900-MHz EMF applied in early and mid-adolescence causes no changes in learning, memory or locomotor behavior. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - September 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Long noncoding RNA SNHG16 reduced ketamine-induced neurotoxicity in human embryonic stem cell-derived neurons
ConclusionsSNHG16 is an important epigenetic factor which may functionally modulate ketamine-induced neurotoxicity through NeuroD1. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - August 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 92Author(s): (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - August 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The membrane mesenchymal stem cell derived conditioned medium exerts neuroprotection against focal cerebral ischemia by targeting apoptosis
Publication date: Available online 16 August 2018Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Masoumeh Faezi, Solmaz Nasseri Maleki, Nahid Aboutaleb, Mahin NikougoftarAbstractObjectiveThe mesenchymal stem cells derived from human amniotic membrane have the ability to secrete and release some factors that can promote the repair of damaged tissues. This secretome contains proteins and factors that reduce apoptosis and increase angiogenesis in the ischemia/reperfusion models. The present study was conducted to determine whether this secretome provides protection against transient focal cerebral ischemia.Materials and Me...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - August 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Birthdate-dependent heterogeneity of oculomotor neurons is involved in transmedian migration in the developing mouse midbrain
Publication date: Available online 16 August 2018Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Kohei Kawano, Hitoshi Gotoh, Tadashi Nomura, Katsuhiko OnoAbstractDuring the formation of the oculomotor nucleus (nIII), a subset of cells undergoes transmedian migration, crossing the midline to join the contralateral nucleus. A recent study reported that the onset of transmedian migration of nIII neurons is regulated by Slit/Robo signaling. However, developmental programs that differentiate migratory subpopulations of the nIII remain elusive. Here, we identified cellular and molecular characteristics of nIII neurons that a...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - August 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Reproductive status affects the expression of prolactin receptor mRNA in the brain of female Damaraland mole-rats
Publication date: Available online 15 August 2018Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Cornelia Voigt, Nigel BennettAbstractThe eusocial Damaraland mole-rat (Fukomys damarensis) represents an extreme example of reproductive skew, in that reproduction is completely blocked in female subordinate group members. It is thought that in these animals normal GnRH secretion from the hypothalamus is disrupted. Prolactin, a peptide hormone secreted from the anterior pituitary gland, has been implicated in a wide variety of functions. Well documented in rodents is its role in mediating lactational infertility. Elevated ci...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - August 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurochemical difference between somato- and viscero-projecting sensory neurons in the pig
In conclusion, the present report describes, for the first time, significant differences in the chemical coding between somato- and viscero-projecting sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia. Moreover, these results provide morphological basis for further functional studies, which may explain the exact roles played by various subpopulations of somato- and viscera-projecting sensory neurons. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - August 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Down-regulation of fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7) is a hallmark of the postpartum brain
Publication date: Available online 1 August 2018Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Terri M. Driessen, Changjiu Zhao, Marissa Saenz, Sharon A. Stevenson, Yuji Owada, Stephen C. GammieAbstractFatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7) is a versatile protein that is linked to glial differentiation and proliferation, neurogenesis, and multiple mental health disorders. Recent microarray studies identified a robust decrease in Fabp7 expression in key brain regions of the postpartum rodents. Given its diverse functions, Fabp7 could play a critical role in sculpting the maternal brain and promoting the maternal phenotype...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - August 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Enhanced neuroinflammatory responses after systemic LPS injection in IL-32β transgenic mice
Publication date: Available online 21 July 2018Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Sabita Neupane, Sunil Srivastav, Sunil Bhurtel, Nikita Katila, Sina Shadfar, Pil-Hoon Park, Jin Tae Hong, Dong-Young ChoiAbstractIL-32 is a proinflammatory cytokine, and involved in various diseases including infection, inflammation, and cancer. However, effects of IL-32 on neuroinflammation remain obscure. Herein, we examined the effects of IL-32β on systemic LPS-induced neuroinflammation using IL-32β transgenic (Tg) mice. IL-32β wild type (WT) and Tg mice received LPS injection (5 mg/kg, i.p.), and then...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Morphological and morphometrical maturation of ventral cochlear nucleus in human foetus
This study concluded that morphological and functional maturation of the human cochlear nuclei occurs simultaneously during mid-gestation which represents the critical period of development and continues up to term. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Comparison of unbiased stereological estimation of total number of cresyl violet stained neurons and parvalbumin positive neurons in the adult human spiral ganglion
Publication date: Available online 23 June 2017Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): C. Kaur, I. Pal, S. Saini, T.G. Jacob, T.C. Nag, A. Thakar, D.N. Bhardwaj, T.S. RoyAbstractEstimation of total number of neurons in the spiral ganglion (SG) at various ages and their functional status is important as these neurons are constantly exposed to noise and other environmental factors that may lead to neuronal loss with aging due to excitotoxic damage. Parvalbumin (PV) is a calcium-binding protein (CBP), found in highly metabolically active neurons. It helps in buffering cytosolic calcium, which is essential for neuro...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Myths and truths about the cellular composition of the human brain: A review of influential concepts
Publication date: Available online 2 September 2017Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Christopher S. von BartheldAbstractOver the last 50 years, quantitative methodology has made important contributions to our understanding of the cellular composition of the human brain. Not all of the concepts that emerged from quantitative studies have turned out to be true. Here, I examine the history and current status of some of the most influential notions. This includes claims of how many cells compose the human brain, and how different cell types contribute and in what ratios. Additional concepts entail whether we l...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Beneficial effects of dietary restriction in aging brain
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Ibanylla Kynjai Hynniewta Hadem, Teikur Majaw, Babiangshisha Kharbuli, Ramesh SharmaAbstractAging is a multifactorial complex process that leads to the deterioration of biological functions wherein its underlying mechanism is not fully elucidated. It affects the organism at the molecular and cellular level that contributes to the deterioration of structural integrity of the organs. The central nervous system is the most vulnerable organ affected by aging and its effect is highly heterogeneous. Aging causes alteration in the...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Convolvulus pluricaulis (Shankhapushpi) ameliorates human microtubule-associated protein tau (hMAPτ) induced neurotoxicity in Alzheimer’s disease Drosophila model
This study provides the first evidence that supplementation of C. pluricaulis along with the regular standard food ameliorate the neurotoxic effect of hMAPτ in AD Drosophila model and also reveals that it is a potent neuroprotective agent. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cellular calcium signaling in the aging brain
Publication date: Available online 9 November 2017Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Remya Chandran, Mantosh Kumar, Lakshmi Kesavan, Reena Sarah Jacob, Sowmya Gunasekaran, Sethu Lakshmi, C. Sadasivan, R.V. OmkumarAbstractAging in the biological system is an irreversible process. In the initial stages of lifespan aging improves survival skills of an organism while in the later stages aging reduce the survival skills. Aging is associated with changes in several cellular and molecular functions among which calcium signaling is a prominent one. Calcium signaling is essential for many vital functions of the brai...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mitochondrial SIRT3 and neurodegenerative brain disorders
Publication date: Available online 9 November 2017Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Anamika, Archita Khanna, Papia Acharjee, Arup Acharjee, Surendra Kumar TrigunAbstractSirtuins are highly conserved NAD+ dependent class III histone deacetylases and catalyze deacetylation and ADP ribosylation of a number of non-histone proteins. Since, they require NAD+ for their activity, the cellular level of Sirtuins represents redox status of the cells and thereby serves as bona fide metabolic stress sensors. Out of seven homologues of Sirtuins identified in mammals, SIRT3, 4 & 5 have been found to be localized and ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Vitamin C prevents hypothyroidism associated neuronal damage in the hippocampus of neonatal and juvenile rats: A stereological study
Publication date: Available online 24 November 2017Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Elnaz Khordad, Fatemeh Alipour, Farimah Beheshti, Mahmoud Hosseini, Ali Akbar Rajabzadeh, Farimah Asiaei, Masoumeh SeghatoleslamAbstractHypothyroidism causes an imbalance in antioxidant and pro-oxidants criteria in the brain and enhances the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neuronal damage has been observed following an excessive ROS. The main purpose of this study was to examine the preventive effect of vitamin C on hypothyroidism associated neuronal damage in the hippocampus of neonatal and juvenile ra...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Reinforcing mitochondrial functions in aging brain: An insight into Parkinson's disease therapeutics
Publication date: Available online 18 December 2017Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): G. Chandra, R.A. Shenoi, R. Anand, U. Rajamma, K.P. MohanakumarAbstractMitochondria, the powerhouse of the neural cells in the brain, are also the seat of certain essential gene signaling pathways that control neuronal functions. Deterioration of mitochondrial functions has been widely reported in normal aging as well as in a spectrum of age-associated neurological diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). Evidences accumulated in the recent past provide not only advanced information on the causes of mitochondria...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prevention of chronic immobilization stress-induced enhanced expression of glucocorticoid receptors in the prefrontal cortex by inactivation of basolateral amygdala
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2017Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Sunil Jamuna Tripathi, Suwarna Chakraborty, B.N. Srikumar, T.R. Raju, B.S. Shankaranarayana RaoAbstractRepeated exposure to stress precipitates anxiety, depression and cognitive deficits. Stress-induced activation of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is modulated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA). It is well established that BLA positively regulates the HPA axis and undergoes hypertrophy following chronic immobilization stress (CIS). However, it is not known whether inact...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research