Leptin in teleostean fish, towards the origins of leptin physiology
Publication date: Available online 27 June 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Marnix Gorissen , Gert Flik Teleostean leptin was first cloned in 2005, more than a decade after the discovery of mammalian leptin. The reason for this delay lies in the very poor primary sequence conservation (∼13–25%) between mammalian and fish leptins. These low sequence conservations indicate a high degree of molecular evolvability and warrant a search for different and original functions of leptin in teleosts. Indeed, new and original insights are obtained because of the unique phylogenetic position of teleos...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The neuroanatomical function of leptin in the hypothalamus
Publication date: Available online 4 July 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): M.M.H. van Swieten , R. Pandit , R.A.H. Adan , G. van der Plasse The anorexigenic hormone leptin plays an important role in the control of food intake and feeding-related behavior, for an important part through its action in the hypothalamus. The adipose-derived hormone modulates a complex network of several intercommunicating orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides in the hypothalamus to reduce food intake and increase energy expenditure. In this review we present an updated overview of the functional role of leptin in re...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Leptin action in the midbrain: From reward to stress
Publication date: Available online 5 July 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Lu Xu The midbrain is a heterogenous brain structure that serves important roles in feeding regulation, motivation and reward, movement and stress adaptation. One common feature of different midbrain regions is that they all express the long form of leptin receptor (LepRb). Leptin is mainly produced and secreted by white adipose tissue, informing the brain centers via LepRb about the amount of fat storage in the body. In this way, leptin exerts its action in the midbrain to regulate different functions. First, this review de...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The hypothalamic ventral premammillary nucleus: A key site in leptin's regulation of reproduction
Publication date: Available online 27 August 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Rebecca L. Leshan , Donald W. Pfaff Reproduction is an energy-expensive process that relies on indicators of energy availability to adjust its proper functioning. The adipokine leptin provides one such metabolic signal, with leptin receptor-expressing neurons at sites widespread within the CNS, including regions associated with the neuroendocrine reproductive axis. One substantial population lies within the hypothalamic ventral premammillary nucleus (PMv), a region itself linked to reproductive control, which may provide ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cannabinoid receptor CB2 is expressed on vascular cells, but not astroglial cells in the post-mortem human Huntington's disease brain
Publication date: September 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 59–60 Author(s): Megan J. Dowie , Natasha L. Grimsey , Therri Hoffman , Richard L.M. Faull , Michelle Glass Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurological disease with motor, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. Characterised by neuronal degeneration, HD pathology is initially apparent in the striatum and cortex. Considerable research has recently suggested that the neurological immune response apparent in brain injury and disease may provide a valuable therapeutic target. Cannabinoid CB2 receptors are localised and up-regulate...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Distribution and morphological characteristics of striatal interneurons expressing calretinin in mice: A comparison with human and nonhuman primates
Publication date: September 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 59–60 Author(s): Sarah Petryszyn , Jean-Martin Beaulieu , André Parent , Martin Parent Striatal interneurons display a morphological and chemical heterogeneity that has been particularly well characterized in rats, monkeys and humans. By comparison much less is known of striatal interneurons in mice, although these animals are now widely used as transgenic models of various neurodegenerative diseases. The present immunohistochemical study aimed at characterizing striatal interneurons expressing calretinin (CR) in mice compared ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Immunohistochemical mapping of pro-opiomelanocortin- and pro-dynorphin-derived peptides in the alpaca (Lama pacos) diencephalon
Publication date: September 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 59–60 Author(s): B. Manso , M.L. Sánchez , L.E. Medina , L.A. Aguilar , Z. Díaz-Cabiale , J.A. Narváez , R. Coveñas Using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, we studied the distribution of cell bodies and fibres containing non-opioid peptides (adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone) and opioid peptides (beta-endorphin (1–27), alpha-neo-endorphin, leucine-enkephalin) in the alpaca diencephalon. No immunoreactive cell bodies containing ACTH were found. Perikarya con...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Altered neurochemical levels in the rat brain following chronic nicotine treatment
Publication date: September 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 59–60 Author(s): Sara Falasca , Vaclav Ranc , Filomena Petruzziello , Abbas Khani , Robert Kretz , Xiaozhe Zhang , Gregor Rainer Converging evidence shows that neurochemical systems are crucial mediators of nicotine dependence. Our present study evaluates the effect of 3-month chronic nicotine treatment on the levels of multiple quaternary ammonium compounds as well as glutamate and gamma aminobutyric acid in the rat prefrontal cortex, dorsal striatum and hypothalamus. We observed a marked decrease of acetylcholine levels in the dorsa...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, calbindin, calretinin and parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the medial geniculate body of the guinea pig
Publication date: September 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 59–60 Author(s): Janusz Najdzion , Barbara Wasilewska , Krystyna Bogus-Nowakowska , Anna Robak The purpose of this study was to describe the distribution and colocalization of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and three calcium-binding proteins (calbindin, calretinin and parvalbumin) in each main division of the medial geniculate body (MGB) in the guinea pig. From low to moderate CART immunoreactivity was observed in all divisions of the MGB, although in most of its length only fibers and neuropil were labeled. A sm...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cellular localization of 5α-reductase in the rat cerebellum
Publication date: September 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 59–60 Author(s): Emi Kiyokage , Kazunori Toida , Toshiko Suzuki-Yamamoto , Kazunori Ishimura The enzyme 5α-reductase catalyzes the transformation of progesterone, testosterone, and deoxycorticosterone into 5α-reduced metabolites, which are recognized as neurosteroids in the brain with variable potential neuroactivity. Two isoforms of 5α-reductase were identified in rodents, and, of these, 5α-reductase type 1 (5α-R1) is abundantly expressed in the brain. To understand the multiple influences of neurosteroi...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A neuroanatomical analysis of the effects of a memory impairing dose of scopolamine in the rat brain using cytochrome c oxidase as principle marker
Publication date: September 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 59–60 Author(s): Sarah Hescham , Yasin Temel , João Casaca-Carreira , Kemal Arslantas , Youssef Yakkioui , Arjan Blokland , Ali Jahanshahi Acetylcholine plays a role in mnemonic and attentional processes, but also in locomotor and anxiety-related behavior. Receptor blockage by scopolamine can therefore induce cognitive as well as motor deficits and increase anxiety levels. Here we show that scopolamine, at a dose that has previously been found to affect learning and memory performance (0.1mg/kg i.p.), has a widespread effect on...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

IFC: Aims & Editorial Board
Publication date: September 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 59–60 (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Leptin and its receptors
Publication date: Available online 16 September 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Nobuhiro Wada , Satoshi Hirako , Fumiko Takenoya , Haruaki Kageyama , Mai Okabe , Seiji Shioda Leptin is mainly produced in the white adipose tissue before being secreted into the blood and transported across the blood–brain barrier. Leptin binds to a specific receptor (LepR) that has numerous subtypes (LepRa, LepRb, LepRc, LepRd, LepRe, and LepRf). LepRb, in particular, is expressed in several brain nuclei, including the arcuate nucleus, the paraventricular nucleus, and the dorsomedial, lateral and ventromedial ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Leptin and aging: Review and questions with particular emphasis on its role in the central regulation of energy balance
Publication date: Available online 16 September 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Márta Balaskó , Szilvia Soós , Miklós Székely , Erika Pétervári Leptin is produced mainly in the white adipose tissue and emerged as one of the key catabolic regulators of food intake and energy expenditure. During the course of aging characteristic alterations in body weight and body composition in humans and mammals, i.e. middle-aged obesity and aging anorexia and cachexia, suggest age-related regulatory changes in energy balance in the background. Aging has been assoc...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Visuospatial learning and memory in the Cebus apella and microglial morphology in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and CA1 lacunosum molecular layer
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 61–62 Author(s): Carlos Santos-Filho , Camila M. de Lima , César A.R. Fôro , Marcus A. de Oliveira , Nara G.M. Magalhães , Cristovam Guerreiro-Diniz , Daniel G. Diniz , Pedro F. da C. Vasconcelos , Cristovam W.P. Diniz We investigated whether the morphology of microglia in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus (DG-Mol) or in the lacunosum molecular layer of CA1 (CA1-LMol) was correlated with spatial learning and memory in the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). Learning and memory was tested in 4 monkeys with visuo-s...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Transcriptional and structural plasticity of tyrosine hydroxylase expressing neurons in both striatum and nucleus accumbens following dopaminergic denervation
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 61–62 Author(s): Candan Depboylu , Martin Klietz , Lukas Maurer , Wolfgang H. Oertel , Kazuto Kobayashi , Eberhard Weihe , Günter U. Höglinger , Martin K.-H. Schäfer Mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene promoter were used to visualize transcriptional as well as structural regulation of TH cells following prolonged dopaminergic denervation. A unilateral lesion of the medial forebrain bundle was induced by 6-hydroxydopamine. In the unlesioned contralateral st...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Acid-sensing ion channel 1 and nitric oxide synthase are in adjacent layers in the wall of rat and human cerebral arteries
In this study, we sought to determine if ASIC1 is present in intact rat and human major cerebral arteries. A potential physiological significance of such a finding is suggested by studies showing that nitric oxide (NO), which acts as a powerful vasodilator, may modulate proton-gated currents in cultured cells expressing ASIC1s. Because both constitutive NO synthesizing enzymes, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS), are expressed in cerebral arteries we also studied the anatomical relationship between ASIC1 and nNOS or eNOS in both rat and human cerebral arteries. Western blot analysis demonstrat...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuronal expression of SOX2 is enriched in specific hypothalamic cell groups
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 61–62 Author(s): Sarah Hoefflin , David A. Carter The transcription factor SOX2 has many established roles in neural development but is generally considered to have limited activity in the adult brain. As part of a study of neuronal phenotypes in the adult rodent hypothalamus, we have now used immunohistochemical analysis to investigate the expression of SOX2 in the adult rat and mouse hypothalamus. Our analysis has revealed that SOX2 protein is extensively expressed in cells of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Co-localization with t...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Innervation pattern of polycystic ovaries in the women
In conclusion, our results suggest that the changes in the innervation pattern of the polycystic ovaries in human may play an important role in the pathogenesis and/or course of this disorder. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cutaneous expression of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in rats with type 1 and type 2 diabetes
This study is the first description of cutaneous CaMKII expression pattern in a diabetic model. CaMKII could play a role in transformation of skin layers and contribute to cutaneous diabetic changes. Further research on physiological role of CaMKII in skin and its role in cutaneous diabetic complications should be undertaken in order to elucidate its function in epidermis. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

GRS defective axonal distribution as a potential contributor to distal spinal muscular atrophy type V pathogenesis in a new model of GRS-associated neuropathy
In this study, using an adenovirus vector system equipped with a neuron-specific promoter, we constructed a new GRS-associated neuropathy mouse model. We found that wild-type GRS (WT) is distributed in peripheral axons, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cell bodies, central axon terminals and motor neuron cell bodies in the mouse model. In contrast, the L129P mutant GRS was localized in DRG and motor neuron cell bodies. Thus, we propose that the disease-causing L129P mutant is linked to a distribution defect in peripheral nerves in vivo. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Expression of vesicular glutamate transporter 3 mRNA in the brain and retina of the pigeon
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 61–62 Author(s): Yasuro Atoji , Mohammad Rabiul Karim Vesicular glutamate transporters (vGluTs), which accumulate glutamate into synaptic vesicles, are classified into three subtypes in mammalian brains: vGluT1, vGluT2, and vGluT3. VGluT3 is localized in non-glutamatergic neurons of the brain and retinal amacrine cells. In birds, the vGluT3 genome is found, but its distribution in the brain or retina is unknown. The present study was conducted to analyze vGluT3 cDNA sequence and elucidate its distribution in the pigeon brain and retina...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Localization of sex hormone binding globulin in the rat vomeronasal organ
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 61–62 Author(s): V.M. Ploß , V.M. Gebhart , D. Gisder , W. Dölz , G.F. Jirikowski Volatile and non-volatile derivates of gonadal steroids are known to act as pheromones in many mammalian species. Pheromones have multiple effects on the brain via the olfactory system. Their primary port of entry seems to be the vomeronasal organ (VNO) but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are unclear so far. Recently we localized sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in both the main and the accessory olfactory system of rat with...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity in the cat claustrum: A light- and electron-microscopic investigation
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 61–62 Author(s): D.V. Hinova-Palova , B. Landzhov , E. Dzhambazova , M. Minkov , L. Edelstein , L. Malinova , A. Paloff , W. Ovtscharoff The claustrum is a telencephalic nucleus located ventrolateral to the basal ganglia in the mammalian brain. It has an extensive reciprocal connectivity with most if not all of the cerebral cortex, in particular, primary sensory areas. However, despite renewed and growing interest amongst investigators, there remains a paucity of data concerning its peptidergic profile. The aim of the present study was...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Nuclear organization of cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems in the brain of the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii)
This study investigated the nuclear organization of four immunohistochemically identifiable neural systems (cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic) within the brains of three male Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii), which had a mean brain mass of 11.6g. We found that the nuclei generally observed for these systems in other mammalian brains were present in the brain of the Tasmanian devil. Despite this, specific differences in the nuclear organization of the cholinergic, catecholaminergic and serotonergic systems appear to carry a phylogenetic signal. In the cholinergic system, only the dorsal hyp...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Calcium-binding proteins in the laterodorsal thalamic nucleus during development of the guinea pig
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 61–62 Author(s): Witold Żakowski , Krystyna Bogus-Nowakowska , Barbara Wasilewska , Beata Hermanowicz , Anna Robak The laterodorsal thalamic nucleus (LD) is often treated as a part of the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) because of its location and similar connectivity. Our previous studies have shown that distribution of three calcium-binding proteins, i.e. calbindin D28k (CB), calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV), changes within the ATN during development of the guinea pig. The aim of this study is to examine the immunoreactivity patt...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor immunoreactive vagal sensory neurons innervating the gastrointestinal tract of the rat
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 61–62 Author(s): Tetsu Hayakawa , Sachi Kuwahara-Otani , Seishi Maeda , Koichi Tanaka , Makoto Seki We have determined whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor immunoreactive (BDNF-ir) neurons in the vagal ganglia innervate the gastrointestinal tract. Many BDNF-ir neurons were medium in size and located throughout the jugular and nodose ganglia. When Fluorogold was injected into the wall of the cervical esophagus, many retrogradely Fluorogold-labeled neurons were found in both the jugular ganglion and the nodose ganglion. When Fluorog...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Different distributions of preproMCH and hypocretin/orexin in the forebrain of the pig (Sus scrofa domesticus)
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 61–62 Author(s): S. Chometton , G. Franchi , C. Houdayer , A. Mariot , F. Poncet , D. Fellmann , Y. Tillet , P.Y. Risold Neurons producing melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) or hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) have been implicated in the sleep/wake cycle and feeding behavior. Sleep and feeding habits vary greatly among mammalian species, depending in part of the prey/predatory status of animals. However, the distribution of both peptides has been described in only a limited number of species. In this work, we describe the distribution of MCH ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Differential distribution of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-beta (ARNT or ARNT2) in mouse substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 61–62 Author(s): J.A.D. Dela Cruz , R. Schmidt-Kastner , J.A.A. Stevens , H.W.M. Steinbusch , B.P.F. Rutten Hypoxia has been proposed as a mechanism underlying gene–environment interactions in the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) could mediate the interactions. In the current study, we analyzed the HIF-1 beta subunit, as formed by aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) or ARNT2, in the mouse substantia nigra (SN) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We performed imm...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Immunofluorescently labeling glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 coupled with confocal imaging for identifying GABAergic somata in the rat dentate gyrus—A comparison with labeling glutamic acid decarboxylase 67
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 61–62 Author(s): Xiaochen Wang , Fei Gao , Jianchun Zhu , Enpu Guo , Xueying Song , Shuanglian Wang , Ren-Zhi Zhan As γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is synthesized by two isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), namely, GAD65 and GAD67, immunohistochemically targeting either isoform of GAD is theoretically useful for identifying GABAergic cell bodies. In practice, targeting GAD67 remains to be a popular choice. However, identifying GABAergic cell bodies with GAD67 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, especially in...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Distribution of immunoreactive glutamine synthetase in the adult human and mouse brain. Qualitative and quantitative observations with special emphasis on extra-astroglial protein localization
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 61–62 Author(s): Hans-Gert Bernstein , Jana Bannier , Gabriela Meyer-Lotz , Johann Steiner , Gerburg Keilhoff , Henrik Dobrowolny , Martin Walter , Bernhard Bogerts Glutamine synthetase catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of ammonia and glutamate to form glutamine, thus playing a pivotal role in glutamate and glutamine homoeostasis. Despite a plethora of studies on this enzyme, knowledge about the regional and cellular distribution of this enzyme in human brain is still fragmentary. Therefore, we mapped fourteen post-mortem brains...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Expression and colocalization patterns of calbindin-D28k, calretinin and parvalbumin in the rat hypothalamic arcuate nucleus
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 61–62 Author(s): Kylie S. Foo , Arash Hellysaz , Christian Broberger Calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) form a diverse group of molecules that function as signal transducers or as intracellular buffers of Ca2+ concentration. They have been extensively used to histochemically categorize cell types throughout the brain. One region which has not yet been characterized with regard to CaBP expression is the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, which plays a vital role in neuroendocrine control and the central regulation of energy metabolism. Using i...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Plexin a4 expression in adult rat cranial nerves
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 61–62 Author(s): Claire-Anne Gutekunst , Robert E. Gross PlexinsA1–A4 participate in class 3 semaphorin signaling as co-receptors to neuropilin 1 and 2. PlexinA4 is the latest member of the PlexinA subfamily to be identified. In previous studies, we described the expression of PlexinA4 in the brain and spinal cord of the adult rat. Here, antibodies to PlexinA4 were used to reveal immunolabeling in most of the cranial nerve surveyed. Labeling was found in the olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, v...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Capsaicin-responsive corneal afferents do not contain TRPV1 at their central terminals in trigeminal nucleus caudalis in rats
We examined the substrates for ocular nociception in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Capsaicin application to the ocular surface in awake rats evoked nocifensive responses and suppressed spontaneous grooming responses. Thus, peripheral capsaicin was able to activate the central pathways encoding ocular nociception. Our capsaicin stimulus evoked c-Fos expression in a select population of neurons within rostral trigeminal nucleus caudalis in anesthetized rats. These activated neurons also received direct contacts from corneal afferent fibers traced with cholera toxin B from the corneal surface. However, the central terminals...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Expression of nestin in superior cervical ganglia of rats is influenced by gender and gonadectomy
Publication date: Available online 4 December 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Natalija Filipović , Tomislav Mašek , Ivica Grković Neurons and glia arise from neural progenitor cells that express nestin. Although substantial changes in neuronal development were observed during the postnatal period, data concerning dynamics of nestin expression in the superior cervical ganglia (SCG) of rat during that period are lacking. It is known that gonadectomy and steroid hormones influence the development of neurons in the SCG during the postnatal period, but there are no data on how they influence t...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The synergistic effect between β-amyloid1–42 and α-synuclein on the synapses dysfunction in hippocampal neurons
Conclusion There was synergistic effect between Aβ and α-syn on synapses dysfunction through reducing the synapsin I content, inhibiting the synaptic vesicle recycling and down-regulating the expression of CSPα in several neurodegenerative diseases. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Kv3.1b and Kv3.3 channel subunit expression in murine spinal dorsal horn GABAergic interneurones
In this study, two transgenic Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) knock-in murine lines, namely GAD65-GFP and GAD67-GFP (Δneo) mice, were used to profile expression of Shaw-related Kv3.1b and Kv3.3 K+-channel subunits in dorsal horn interneurones. Neuronal expression of these subunits confers specific biophysical characteristic referred to as ‘fast-spiking’. Immuno-labelling for Kv3.1b or Kv3.3 revealed the presence of both of these subunits across the dorsal horn, most abundantly in laminae I–III. Co-localization studies in transgenic mice indicated that Kv3.1b but not Kv3.3 was associated with GAD65-G...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - November 4, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Distribution of Serotonin 4(a) Receptors in the juvenile Rat Brain and Spinal Cord
This study investigates the topographical distribution of the 5-HT4(a)-receptor in the juvenile rat brain and spinal cord, which is important for neuromodulation of cellular excitability and could be involved in various developmental processes of the central nervous system. We analysed the 5-HT4(a)-receptor at protein level with a monospecific polyclonal antibody by using an immunohistochemical staining. We saw an intensive staining in some areas of the cortex, in the olfactory bulb, in most areas of the cerebellum, in hippocampal areas like the dentate gyrus and in several different areas of the brainstem, especially in t...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - November 4, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research