Quinolinic acid-immunoreactivity in the naïve mouse brain
Publication date: January 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 71 Author(s): Yara Pujol Lopez, Gunter Kenis, Bart P.F. Rutten, Aye M. Myint, Harry W.M. Steinbusch, Daniel L.A. van den Hove Quinolinic acid (QUIN) has been suggested to be involved in infections, inflammatory neurological disorders and in the development of psychiatric disorders. In this view, several studies have been performed to investigate QUIN localization in the brain and its neurotoxic effects. However, evidence is lacking regarding QUIN in healthy, control conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the region-specific...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

BCL11B/CTIP2 is highly expressed in GABAergic interneurons of the mouse somatosensory cortex
In this study we show that BCL11B is extensively expressed in S1 GABAergic interneurons, throughout the three main subgroups (somatostatin-, parvalbumin- and 5HT3a-expresssing). Almost all BCL11B positive cells in the upper S1 layers were GABAergic interneurons and surprisingly, almost 40% of the BCL11B positive neurons in layer V were GABAergic interneurons. Single cell mRNA sequencing data revealed higher Bcl11b expression in S1 interneurons compared to deep layer pyramidal neurons. The highest levels of Bcl11b expression were found within the 5HT3a population, specifically in putative neurogliaform interneuron subclasse...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Multiplexed Neurochemical Signaling by Neurons of the Ventral Tegmental Area
Publication date: Available online 4 January 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): David J. Barker, David H. Root, Shiliang Zhang, Marisela Morales The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is an evolutionarily conserved structure that has roles in reward-seeking, safety-seeking, learning, motivation, and neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction and depression. The involvement of the VTA in these various behaviors and disorders is paralleled by its diverse signaling mechanisms. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of neuronal diversity in the VTA with a focus on cell phenotypes that partic...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Does prolonged radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi devices induce DNA damage in various tissues of rats?
In conclusion, long-term exposure to 2.4GHz RF radiation (Wi-Fi) does not cause DNA damage of the organs investigated in this study except testes. The results of this study indicated that testes are more sensitive organ to RF radiation. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The 2100MHz radiofrequency radiation of a 3G-mobile phone and the DNA oxidative damage in brain
Publication date: Available online 8 January 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Duygu Şahin, Elçin Özgür, Göknur Güler, Arın Tomruk, İlhan Ünlü, Aylin Sepici-Dinçel, Nesrin Seyhan We aimed to evaluate the effect of 2100MHz radiofrequency radiation emitted by a generator, simulating a 3G-mobile phone on the brain of rats during 10 and 40 days of exposure. The female rats were randomly divided into four groups. Group I; exposed to 3G modulated 2100MHz RFR signal for 6h/day, 5 consecutive days/wk for 2 weeks, Group II; control 10 days, were kept in a...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Differential expression of calbindin in nigral dopaminergic neurons in two mice strains with differential susceptibility to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine
Publication date: Available online 8 January 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): D.J. Vidyadhara, H. Yarreiphang, P.L. Abhilash, T.R. Raju, Phalguni Anand Alladi Parkinson’s disease (PD) affects the A9 dopaminergic (DA) neurons of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) whereas other DA neuronal subtypes are spared. The role of calbindin in this differential vulnerability has been long elicited, and is seen in the MPTP induced mice models of PD. A peculiar feature of mice models is the strain specific differences in the susceptibility to MPTP. Here, calbindin-D28K expression in DA neurons of ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Nuclear organisation of some immunohistochemically identifiable neural systems in five species of insectivore—Crocidura cyanea, Crocidura olivieri, Sylvisorex ollula, Paraechinus aethiopicus and Atelerix frontalis
Publication date: March 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 72 Author(s): Tanya Calvey, Nina Patzke, Nigel C. Bennett, Kaswera-Kyamakya Consolate, Emmanuel Gilissen, Abdulaziz N. Alagaili, Osama B. Mohammed, John D. Pettigrew, Paul R. Manger The organization of the cholinergic, catecholaminergic, and serotonergic neurons in the brains of five species of insectivores and the orexinergic (hypocretinergic) system in four insectivore species is presented. We aimed to investigate the nuclear complement of these neural systems in comparison to those of other mammalian species. Brains of insectivores w...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Alterations of neurochemical expression of the coeliac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex (CSMG) neurons supplying the prepyloric region of the porcine stomach following partial stomach resection.
Publication date: March 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 72 Author(s): Katarzyna Palus, Jarosław Całka The purpose of the present study was to determine the response of the porcine coeliac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex (CSMG) neurons projecting to the prepyloric area of the porcine stomach to peripheral neuronal damage following partial stomach resection. To identify the sympathetic neurons innervating the studied area of stomach, the neuronal retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB) was applied to control and partial stomach resection (RES) groups. On the 22nd day after FB injection, following lap...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Melanin-concentrating hormone projections to the dorsal raphe nucleus: An immunofluorescence and in vivo microdialysis study
Publication date: March 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 72 Author(s): Jessika Urbanavicius, Patricia Lagos, Pablo Torterolo, Juan A. Abin-Carriquiry, Cecilia Scorza Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-containing neurons are localized in the lateral hypothalamus and incerto-hypothalamic areas, and project to several brain regions including the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). The MCHergic system has been involved in the regulation of emotional states and we have demonstrated that MCH microinjections into the rat DRN promote a depressive-like state. To understand the MCHergic transmission into the DRN,...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Fluorination of an antiepileptic drug: A self supporting transporter by oxygen enrichment mechanism
Publication date: March 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 72 Author(s): V. Natchimuthu, J. Amoros, S. Ravi Drug therapy of seizures involves producing high levels of antiepileptic drugs in the blood. Drug must enter the brain by crossing from the blood into the brain tissue, called a transvascular route (TVR). Even before the drug can reach the brain tissue, factors such as systemic toxicity, macrophage phagocytises and reduction in oxygen content limit the success of this TVR. Encapsulating the drug within a nano scale delivering system, synthesising drugs with low molecular weight are the best mec...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Localization of TRPV1 and P2X3 in unmyelinated and myelinated vagal afferents in the rat
Publication date: March 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 72 Author(s): Sam M. Hermes, Michael C. Andresen, Sue A. Aicher The vagus nerve is dominated by afferent fibers that convey sensory information from the viscera to the brain. Most vagal afferents are unmyelinated, slow-conducting C-fibers, while a smaller portion are myelinated, fast-conducting A-fibers. Vagal afferents terminate in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) in the dorsal brainstem and regulate autonomic and respiratory reflexes, as well as ascending pathways throughout the brain. Vagal afferents form glutamatergic excitatory synap...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The link between radiofrequencies emitted from wireless technologies and oxidative stress
Publication date: Available online 12 September 2015 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Suleyman Dasdag, Mehmet Zulkuf Akdag Wireless communication such as cellular telephones and other types of handheld phones working with frequencies of 900MHz, 1800MHz, 2100MHz, 2450MHz have been increasing rapidly. Therefore, public opinion concern about the potential human health hazards of short and long-term effect of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. Oxidative stress is a biochemical condition, which is defined by the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the anti-oxidative defense. In this...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - October 1, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Imaging the time-integrated cerebral metabolic activity with subcellular resolution through nanometer-scale detection of biosynthetic products deriving from 13C-glucose
Publication date: Available online 25 September 2015 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Yuhei Takado, Graham Knott, Bruno M. Humbel, Mojgan Masoodi, Stéphane Escrig, Anders Meibom, Arnaud Comment Glucose is the primary source of energy for the brain but also an important source of building blocks for proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Little is known about the use of glucose for biosynthesis in tissues at the cellular level. We demonstrate that local cerebral metabolic activity can be mapped in mouse brain tissue by quantitatively imaging the biosynthetic products deriving from [U-13C]gluc...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - September 26, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Maternal exposure to a continuous 900-MHz electromagnetic field provokes neuronal loss and pathological changes in cerebellum of 32-day-old female rat offspring
In conclusion, our study results show that prenatal exposure to EMF affects the development of Purkinje cells in the female rat cerebellum and that the consequences of this pathological effect persist after the postnatal period. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - September 22, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The link between radiofrequencies emitted from wirelles technologies and oxidative stress
Publication date: Available online 12 September 2015 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Suleyman Dasdag, Mehmet Zulkuf Akdag Wireless communication such as cellular telephones and other types of handheld phones working with frequencies of 900MHz, 1800MHz, 2100MHz, 2450MHz have been increasing rapidly. Therefore, public opinion concern about the potential human health hazards of short and long-term effect of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. Oxidative stress is a biochemical condition, which is defined by the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the anti-oxidative defense. In this...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - September 12, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Microwave frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) produce widespread neuropsychiatric effects including depression
Publication date: Available online 21 August 2015 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Martin L. Pall Non-thermal microwave/lower frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) act via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. Calcium channel blockers block EMF effects and several types of additional evidence confirm this mechanism. Low intensity microwave EMFs have been proposed to produce neuropsychiatric effects, sometimes called microwave syndrome, and the focus of this review is whether these are indeed well documented and consistent with the known mechanism(s) of action of such EMFs. VGCCs occur in v...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - August 21, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Orexinergic bouton density is lower in the cerebral cortex of cetaceans compared to artiodactyls
This study provides a comparison of orexinergic bouton density in the cerebral cortex of twelve cetartiodactyl species (ten artiodactyls and two cetaceans) by means of immunohistochemical staining and stereological analysis. It was found that the morphology of the axonal projections of the orexinergic system to the cerebral cortex was similar across all species, as the presence, size and proportion of large and small orexinergic boutons were similar. Despite this, orexinergic bouton density was lower in the cerebral cortex of the cetaceans studied compared to the artiodactyls studied, even when corrected for brain mass, ne...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 30, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The centrally projecting Edinger–Westphal nucleus—I: Efferents in the rat brain
Publication date: October 2015 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 68 Author(s): Edmilson D. Dos Santos Júnior, André V. Da Silva, Kelly R.T. Da Silva, Carlos A.S. Haemmerle, Daniella S. Batagello, Joelcimar M. Da Silva, Leandro B. Lima, Renata J. Da Silva, Giovanne B. Diniz, Luciane V. Sita, Carol F. Elias, Jackson C. Bittencourt The oculomotor accessory nucleus, often referred to as the Edinger–Westphal nucleus [EW], was first identified in the 17th century. Although its most well known function is the control of pupil diameter, some controversy has arisen regarding the exact...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 28, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Temporal changes in calcium-binding proteins in the medial geniculate nucleus of the monkey Sapajus apella
This study investigated, for the first time, day/night differences in the amounts of parvalbumin-, calretinin- and calbindin-containing neurons in the thalamic auditory center of a non-human primate, Sapajus apella. The immunoreactivity of the PV-IR, CB-IR and CR-IR neurons demonstrated different distribution patterns between the subdivisions of the medial geniculate. Moreover, a high number of CB- and CR-IR neurons were found during day, whereas PV-IR was predominant at night. We conclude that in addition to the chemical heterogeneity of the medial geniculate nucleus with respect to the expression of calcium-binding prote...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 27, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Bird eyes distinguish summer from winter: Retinal response to acute photoperiod change in the night-migratory redheaded bunting
Publication date: Available online 26 July 2015 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Gaurav Majumdar, Garima Yadav, Sangeeta Rani, Vinod Kumar Eyes are the part of the circadian timekeeping system but not involved in the photoperiod regulated seasonal physiology in songbirds. Herein, two experiments tested whether eyes detect and respond to seasonal change in the photoperiod environment, by examining gene and protein expressions in the retinas of redheaded buntings exposed to a single long day (LD, 16L:8D), with controls on short days (SD, 8L:16D). In the first experiment, mRNA expression of genes impli...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 27, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Hippocampal GABA transporter distribution in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis
Conclusion These data confirm that GABA-transporter expression is spatially and isoform-specific reduced and GABA-transporter 3 positive cell numbers are unchanged in hippocampal sclerosis. Implications for the use of GABAergic antiepileptic therapies in hippocampal sclerosis vs non-hippocampal sclerosis patients remain to be studied. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 24, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Gender and Age Related Changes in Number of Dopaminergic Neurons in Adult Human Olfactory Bulb
Conclusion Factors such as gender and age may affect the number of dopaminergic neurons, and there is a correlation between increased dopaminergic neurons and olfactory performance. Moreover, the increase in dopaminergic cells in the olfactory bulb of the elderly may indicate the existence of rostral migratory stream in adult humans. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 24, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The centrally projecting edinger-westphal nucleus - i: efferents in the rat brain
Publication date: Available online 21 July 2015 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Edmilson D. Dos Santos Júnior, André V. Da Silva, Kelly R.T. Da Silva, Carlos A.S. Haemmerle, Daniella S. Batagello, Joelcimar M. Da Silva, Leandro B. Lima, Renata J. Da Silva, Giovanne B. Diniz, Luciane V. Sita, Carol F. Elias, Jackson C. Bittencourt The oculomotor accessory nucleus, often referred to as the Edinger-Westphal nucleus [EW], was first identified in the 17th century. Although its most well known function is the control of pupil diameter, some controversy has arisen regarding the exact...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 22, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Distribution of histaminergic neuronal cluster in the rat and mouse hypothalamus
Publication date: Available online 9 July 2015 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Chinatsu Moriwaki , Seiichi Chiba , Huixing Wei , Taishi Aosa , Hirokazu Kitamura , Keisuke Ina , Hirotaka Shibata , Yoshihisa Fujikura Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) catalyzes the biosynthesis of histamine from l-histidine and is expressed throughout the mammalian nervous system by histaminergic neurons. Histaminergic neurons arise in the posterior mesencephalon during the early embryonic period and gradually develop into two histaminergic substreams around the lateral area of the posterior hypothalamus and the more anterior...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 11, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Local Cutaneous Nerve Terminal and Mast Cell Responses to Manual Acupuncture in Acupoint LI4 Area of the Rats
Publication date: Available online 3 July 2015 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Mei-Ling Wu , Dong-Sheng Xu , Wan-Zhu Bai , Jing-Jing Cui , Hong-Ming Shu , Wei He , Xiao-Yu Wang , Hong Shi , Yang-Shuai Su , Ling Hu , Bing Zhu , Xiang-Hong Jing Previous studies have shown that the effects of manual acupuncture (MA) are contributed by collagen fibers and mast cells in local acupoints, at which acupuncture stimulation causes various afferent fiber groups to be excited. However what happens in local nerve fibers and mast cells after MA remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the response of cu...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - July 4, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Fractone aging in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle
Publication date: Available online 14 June 2015 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Aurelien Kerever , Taihei Yamada , Yuji Suzuki , Frederic Mercier , Eri Arikawa-Hirasawa In adulthood, the subventricular zone (SVZ) is one of the restricted places where neurogenesis persists. In this neurogenic niche, specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) structures termed fractones contact neural stem cells and their immediate progeny. Fractones are composed of ubiquitous ECM components including heparan sulfate proteoglycans such as perlecan and agrin. We have previously shown that fractones can capture growth factors ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - June 15, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Differential expression of the calcium-sensing receptor in the ischemic and border zones after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2015 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Jeong Sook Noh , Ha-Jin Pak , Yoo-Jin Shin , Tae-Ryong Riew , Joo-Hee Park , Young Wha Moon , Mun-Yong Lee G-protein-coupled calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) has been recently recognized as an important modulator of diverse cellular functions, beyond the regulation of systemic calcium homeostasis. To identify whether CaSR is involved in the pathophysiology of stroke, we studied the spatiotemporal regulation of CaSR protein expression in rats undergoing transient focal cerebral ischemia, which was induced by middle cerebral ar...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - May 23, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Localization and Regulation of Reproductive Steroid Receptors in the Raphe Serotonin System of Male Macaques
In conclusion, the stimulatory effect of androgens on TPH2 and SERT mRNA expression is mediated indirectly by neighboring neurons contain AR. The stimulatory effect of E, derived from T metabolism, on serotonin transport is partially mediated directly via nuclear ERs. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - April 24, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Real-time monitoring of electrically evoked catecholamine signals in the songbird striatum using in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry
Publication date: Available online 18 April 2015 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Amanda R. Smith , Paul A. Garris , Joseph M. Casto Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry is a powerful technique for monitoring rapid changes in extracellular neurotransmitter levels in the brain. In vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry has been used extensively in mammalian models to characterize dopamine signals in both anesthetized and awake preparations, but has yet to be applied to a non-mammalian vertebrate. The goal of this study was to establish in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in a songbird, the European starling, to faci...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - April 18, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Evidence for prostaglandin E2 receptor expression in the intramural ganglia of the guinea pig urinary bladder
Publication date: March–April 2015 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 64–65 Author(s): Mohammad S. Rahnama’i , Ramona Hohnen , Philip E.V. van Kerrebroeck , Gommert A. van Koeveringe Intramural ganglia are present in the bladder wall of several species including human, pig, and guinea-pig. It has been suggested that there is a network of intramural ganglia in the bladder of these species that may be part of a motor-sensory system and receive afferent input. Prostaglandins (PG) have been suggested to play a role in this afferent signalling mechanism. To investigate the distribution of the p...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - April 17, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Distribution of the orexin-1 receptor (OX1R) in the mouse forebrain and rostral brainstem: A characterisation of OX1R-eGFP mice
Publication date: Available online 1 April 2015 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Sarah Sulaiman Ch’ng , Andrew J. Lawrence We have utilised a transgenic reporter mouse in which green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression is driven by the orexin-1 receptor (OX1R) promoter to systematically map the distribution of OX1R-expressing neurons throughout the mouse forebrain and rostral brainstem. GFP labelling was observed in perikarya and fibres in an extensive range of brain loci encompassing the olfactory and cerebral cortices, dorsal and ventral pallidum, hippocampus, amygdaloid regions, septal areas, ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - April 17, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Changes of gene expression of Gal3, Hsp27, Lcn2, and Timp1 in rat substantia nigra following medial forebrain bundle transection using a candidate gene microarray
Publication date: Available online 6 April 2015 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Yoon-Jung Choy , Sung-Young Hong , Sang-Jin Pack , Ran-Sook Woo , Tai-Kyoung Baik , Dae-Yong Song Neuroinflammation is an early event and important contributor to the pathobiology of neurodegenerative diseases. Neuroglia, especially microglia, are a major central nervous system population that can modulate neuroinflammation. To determine potential key molecules in this process, we employed microarray analysis in the substantia nigra (SN) following medial forebrain bundle (MFB) transection and analyzed the temporal expressio...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - April 17, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Parvalbumin expression in the claustrum of the adult dog. An immunohistochemical and topographical study with comparative notes on the structure of the nucleus
Publication date: March–April 2015 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 64–65 Author(s): Andrea Pirone , Chiara Magliaro , Elisabetta Giannessi , Arti Ahluwalia Although the detailed structure and function of the claustrum remain enigmatic, its extensive reciprocal connection with the cortex suggests a role in the integration of multisensory information. Claustrum samples, obtained from necropsy of four dogs, were formalin fixed for paraffin embedding. Sections were either stained for morpho-histological analysis or immunostained for parvalbumin (PV). We focused on PV because in cortical and hippo...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 13, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Using Sepia melanin as a PD model to describe the binding characteristics of neuromelanin – A critical review
Publication date: March–April 2015 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 64–65 Author(s): Rhiannon L. Schroeder , Kay L. Double , Jacobus P. Gerber Parkinson's disease is characterised pathologically by a relatively selective death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. The vulnerability of these neurons appears to be linked to the pigment neuromelanin. However, as yet there is limited understanding behind the mechanisms of this disease process. Complications arise due to the difficulty in obtaining appreciable quantities of neuromelanin. Furthermore, an appropriate model for...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 13, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Diabetes mellitus affects activity of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha in rat trigeminal ganglia
Publication date: March–April 2015 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 64–65 Author(s): Milka Jerić , Ana Vuica , Matija Borić , Livia Puljak , Antonia Jeličić Kadić , Ivica Grković , Natalija Filipović The activity of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (CaMKIIα) may play a critical role in the modulation of nociceptor activity and plasticity of primary sensory trigeminal neurons. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunoreactivity of phosphorylated CaMKIIα (pCaMKIIα) in subpopulations of trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons in rat models of early ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 13, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Interstrain differences of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits in the hippocampus and induction of hippocampal sclerosis with pilocarpine in mice
Publication date: March–April 2015 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 64–65 Author(s): Endre Dobó , Ibolya Török , András Mihály , Norbert Károly , Beáta Krisztin-Péva Rodent strains used in epilepsy research have various neurological characteristics. These differences were suggested to be attributed to the diverse densities of the ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) subunits. However, previous studies failed to find interstrain differences in the hippocampal receptor levels. We supposed that a detailed layer-to-layer analysis of the iGluR su...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 13, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Increases in PKC gamma expression in trigeminal spinal nucleus is associated with orofacial thermal hyperalgesia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice
Publication date: January 2015 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 63 Author(s): Hong-Ying Xie , Fei Xu , Yue Li , Zhao-Bin Zeng , Ran Zhang , Hui-Jun Xu , Nian-Song Qian , Yi-Guan Zhang Painful diabetic polyneuropathy (PDN) at the early phrase of diabetes frequently exhibits increased responsiveness to nociception. In diabetic patients and animal models, alterations in the transmission of orofacial sensory information have been demonstrated in trigeminal system. Herein, we examined the changes of protein kinase Cγ subunit (PKCγ) in trigeminal spinal nucleus (Sp5C) and observed the development of ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - January 25, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Insight to leptin's function
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 61–62 Author(s): Tamas Kozicz (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 12, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Hippocampal CA field neurogenesis after pilocarpine insult: The hippocampal fissure as a neurogenic niche
Publication date: March 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 56 Author(s): Limei Zhang , Vito S. Hernández , Felipe S. Estrada , Rafael Luján Pilocarpine model for temporal lobe epilepsy has shown aberrant neurogenesis, but mainly restricted to the dentate gyrus (DG). Herein, by using a modified protocol, combining pilocarpine with ipratropium bromide, we unexpectedly observed a heretofore-unrecognized distinct cellular population expressing the neuroprogenitor marker doublecortin (DCX) on post insult days (PID) 10, 14 and 18, mainly located in the temporal segment of the hippocampal fissure...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Non-serine-phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase expressing neurons are present in mouse striatum, accumbens and cortex that increase in number following dopaminergic denervation
Publication date: March 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 56 Author(s): Candan Depboylu Neurons partially expressing individual enzymes of dopamine (DA) biosynthesis, e.g. tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or aromatic acid decarboxylase, are found in different areas of the central nervous system, continuously or transiently in normal and pathological conditions. This current study analyzed if TH neurons exist in target areas of ventral midbrain dopaminergic neurons and how they react to dopaminergic denervation. High power analysis of brain tissue sections revealed that TH-immunopositive neurons were present i...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sexually-dimorphic expression of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the brain of a vocal teleost fish (Porichthys notatus)
Publication date: March 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 56 Author(s): Geraldine K.E. Goebrecht , Robert A. Kowtoniuk , Brenda G. Kelly , J. Matthew Kittelberger Vocal communication has emerged as a powerful model for the study of neural mechanisms of social behavior. Modulatory neurochemicals postulated to play a central role in social behavior, related to motivation, arousal, incentive and reward, include the catecholamines, particularly dopamine and noradrenaline. Many questions remain regarding the functional mechanisms by which these modulators interact with sensory and motor systems. Here, we be...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The aging human cochlear nucleus: Changes in the glial fibrillary acidic protein, intracellular calcium regulatory proteins, GABA neurotransmitter and cholinergic receptor
Publication date: March 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 56 Author(s): Saroj Sharma , Tapas C. Nag , Alok Thakar , Daya N. Bhardwaj , Tara Sankar Roy The human auditory system is highly susceptible to environmental and metabolic insults which further affect the biochemical and physiological milieu of the cells that may contribute to progressive, hearing loss with aging. The cochlear nucleus (CN) is populated by morphologically diverse types of neurons with discrete physiological and neurochemical properties. Between the dorsal and the ventral cochlear nucleus (DCN and VCN), the VCN is further sub-divi...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Bone morphogenetic protein-4 inhibits adult neurogenesis and is regulated by fractone-associated heparan sulfates in the subventricular zone
Publication date: May 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 57–58 Author(s): Frederic Mercier , Vanessa Douet Fractones are extracellular matrix structures that display a fractal ultrastructure and that are visualized as puncta after immunolabeling for laminin or heparan sulfate proteoglycans. In the adult brain, fractones are found throughout the subventricular zone (SVZ). The role of fractones is just emerging. We have recently shown that fractones sequester fibroblast growth factor-2 and bone morphogenetic protein-7 from the brain ventricles to regulate cell proliferation in the SVZ of the latera...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Efferent projections of the suprachiasmatic nucleus based on the distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactive fibers in the hypothalamus of Sapajus apella
In this study, we mapped VIP (VIP-ir) and AVP (AVP-ir) immunoreactive (ir) fibers and endings in the hypothalamus of the primate Sapajus apella via immunohistochemical and morphologic study. Regarding the fiber distribution pattern, AVP-ir and VIP-ir fibers were identified in regions of the tuberal hypothalamic area, retrochiasmatic area, lateral hypothalamic area, and anterior hypothalamic area. VIP-ir and AVP-ir fibers coexisted in several hypothalamic areas; however, AVP-ir fibers were predominant over VIP-ir fibers in the posterior hypothalamus and medial periventricular area. This distribution pattern and the receivin...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Immunohistochemical analysis of Pax6 and Pax7 expression in the CNS of adult Xenopus laevis
Publication date: May 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 57–58 Author(s): Sandra Bandín , Ruth Morona , Jesús M. López , Nerea Moreno , Agustín González Pax6 and Pax7 are transcription factors essential for the development of the CNS. In addition, increasing data, mainly obtained in amniotes, support that they are expressed in subsets of neurons in the adult, likely playing a role in maintaining neuron type identity. In the present study we analyzed the detailed distribution of Pax6 and Pax7 cells in the adult CNS of Xenopus laevis. Immunohistochemistry with ant...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cellular profile of the dorsal raphe lateral wing sub-region: Relationship to the lateral dorsal tegmental nucleus
Publication date: May 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 57–58 Author(s): Rani K. Vasudeva , Barry D. Waterhouse As one of the main serotonergic (5HT) projections to the forebrain, the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) has been implicated in disorders of anxiety and depression. Although the nucleus contains the densest population of 5HT neurons in the brain, at least 50% of cells within this structure are non-serotonergic, including a large population of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) containing neurons. The DRN has a unique topographical efferent organization and can also be divided into sub-regions based...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sex hormone binding globulin in the rat olfactory system
Publication date: May 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volumes 57–58 Author(s): V. Ploss , V.M. Gebhart , W. Dölz , G.F. Jirikowski Ovarian steroids are known to act on the olfactory system. Their mode of action, however, is mostly unclear to date since nuclear receptors are lacking in sensory neurons. Here we used immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR to study expression and distribution of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in the rat olfactory system. Single sensory cells in the olfactory mucosa and their projections in the olfactory bulb showed specific SHBG immunostaining as determined by double im...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Histopathology of motor cortex in an experimental focal ischemic stroke in mouse model
In this study, focal cerebral ischemia was induced in mice by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. We studied cortical layers I, II/III, V and VI in the caudal forelimb area (CFA) and medial agranular cortex (AGm) from control and C57BL/6 mice induced with ischemic stroke. Based on our analysis of CFA and AGm motor cortex, significant differences were observed in the numbers of neurons, astrocytes and microglia in the superficial II/III and deep V cortical layers. Cellular changes were more prominent in layer V of the CFA with nuclear pyknosis, chromatin fragmentation, necrosis and degeneration, as well as, morphologic...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The impact of leptin on perinatal development and psychopathology
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Jeanette C. Valleau , Elinor L. Sullivan Leptin has long been associated with metabolism as it is a critical regulator of both food intake and energy expenditure, but recently, leptin dysregulation has been proposed as a mechanism of psychopathology. This review discusses the evidence supporting a role for leptin in mental health disorders and describes potential mechanisms that may underlie this association. Leptin plays a critical role in pregnancy and in fetal growth and development. Leptin's role and profile during devel...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chemical identity of hypothalamic neurons engaged by leptin in reproductive control
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2014 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Dhirender V. Ratra , Carol F. Elias The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin plays a critical role as a metabolic cue for the reproductive system. Conditions of low leptin levels observed in negative energy balance and loss-of-function mutations of leptin or leptin receptor genes are characterized by decreased fertility. In recent years, advances have been made for identifying possible hypothalamic neurons relaying leptin’s neuroendocrine control of reproductive function. Studies from different laboratories have demonstrat...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 5, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research