Validation of the transferability of membrane-based fed-batch shake flask cultivations to stirred-tank reactor using three different protease producing Bacillus strains
This study successfully demonstrates the transferability of membrane-based fed-batch shake flask cultivations to laboratory-scale stirred tank reactors. (Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering)
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - June 21, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Dynamic behaviors of batch anaerobic systems of food waste for methane production under different organic loads, substrate to inoculum ratios and initial pH
This study characterized dynamic behaviors of batch anaerobic digesters treating food waste in terms of methane production, organics destruction and process stability under different organic loads (OLs), substrate to inoculum (S/I) ratios [on volatile solid (VS) basis] and initial pH. The results showed that OL, S/I ratio and initial pH significantly affected batch anaerobic process. Methane yield was proved to be inversely proportional to OL and S/I ratio. Digester with lowest OL (5 g VS/L) obtained greatest methane yield (551.4 mL/g VS), highest organics removal (94.1%) and good stability. Enhancing OL to 10&nb...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - June 21, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Control of AtaA-mediated bacterial immobilization by casein hydrolysates
Publication date: Available online 14 June 2019Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Yuki Ohara, Shogo Yoshimoto, Katsutoshi HoriAcinetobacter sp. Tol 5 exhibits an autoagglutinating nature and high adhesiveness to various abiotic surfaces through its bacterionanofiber protein AtaA. We have developed new bacterial immobilization methods utilizing the high adhesiveness of AtaA. We previously reported that salt is essential for the adhesiveness of AtaA. In the current study, we unexpectedly found that Tol 5 cells were not immobilized onto polyurethane foam support during growth in LB medium although...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - June 15, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Optimization of aqueous enzymatic method for Camellia sinensis oil extraction and reuse of enzymes in the process
Publication date: Available online 14 June 2019Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Li Peng, Qin Ye, Xiaoying Liu, Shulai Liu, Xianghe MengAqueous enzymatic extraction of Camellia sinensis oil was studied. The results suggested that saponin removal pretreatment assisted by ultrasound was effective in decreasing emulsification and in enhancing the free oil recovery. After 70% isopropanol extraction for 30 min under ultrasound, the residue of C. sinensis seeds was further hydrolyzed with free cellulase and Alcalase for 5 h, and calcium ions were concurrently added during enzymatic hydrolysis (...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - June 15, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Designing cellulolytic enzyme systems for biorefinery: From nature to application
Publication date: Available online 13 June 2019Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Verawat Champreda, Wuttichai Mhuantong, Hataikarn Lekakarn, Benjarat Bunterngsook, Pattanop Kanokratana, Xin-Qing Zhao, Fei Zhang, Hiroyuki Inoue, Tatsuya Fujii, Lily EurwilaichitrCellulolytic enzymes play a key role on conversion of lignocellulosic plant biomass to biofuels and biochemicals in sugar platform biorefineries. In this review, we survey composite carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) among groups of cellulolytic fungi and bacteria that exist under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Recent advances in design...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - June 14, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Isolation and characterization of a moderate thermophilic Paenibacillus naphthalenovorans strain 4B1 capable of degrading dibenzofuran from dioxin-contaminated soil in Vietnam
Publication date: Available online 13 June 2019Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Le Thi Ha Thanh, Tran Vu Ngoc Thi, Masaki Shintani, Ryota Moriuchi, Hideo Dohra, Nguyen Hoang Loc, Kazuhide KimbaraA moderate thermophilic dibenzofuran (DF) degrader, strain 4B1, was isolated from dioxin-contaminated soil in Vietnam under thermophilic condition. A 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis assigned the strain to genus Paenibacillus. The optimum growth temperature of strain 4B1 was 45°C with a doubling time of 2.7 h in the presence of DF as a sole carbon and energy source. The rate of its growth and DF-de...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - June 13, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In vitro and in vivo fabrication of stable human hepatocyte tissue in combination with normal fibroblasts derived from donors of various ages
Publication date: Available online 13 June 2019Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Yusuke Sakai, Makiko Koike, Tomomi Murai, Masaaki Hidaka, Akihiko Soyama, Mitsuhisa Takatsuki, Susumu EguchiIn order to establish a minimally invasive and safe liver regenerative technology, a technique for fabricating liver tissue possessing a vascular network was developed by subcutaneously transplanting a cell sheet composed of primary human hepatocytes and normal fibroblasts. However, differences in fibroblast characteristics owing to donor age may threaten the stability of liver tissue regenerated via this technol...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - June 13, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Simple method for analyzing the purity of protease-containing samples by acid-treatment SDS-PAGE
In this study, we investigated the methods for analyzing the purity of Dispase I, a thermolysin-like neutral protease. When we analyzed D protease, a neutral metalloprotease component of Dispase I and highly purified Dispase I using the conventional SDS-PAGE method, a large number of bands were detected in both cases. These bands (putative D protease fragments) were assumed to result from autolysis. To inactivate D protease (optimal pH 7–8), 0.05 M sulfuric acid was utilized (pH 0.7–2.5). Using a conventional sample preparation solution, acid-treated Dispase I samples (without boiling) were made, and SDS-P...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - June 12, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Role of N-glycosylation on the specific activity of a Coprinopsis cinerea laccase Lcc9 expressed in Pichia pastoris
Publication date: Available online 11 June 2019Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Ganfei Xu, Yawen Wu, Yinliang Zhang, Wei Fang, Yazhong Xiao, Zemin FangLaccase Lcc9 from Coprinopsis cinerea heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris (rLcc9) displayed different molecular weight and specific activity from the native laccase (nLcc9). Glycosylation may play a role in regulating the Lcc9 specific activity. To elucidate this hypothesis, in this study, firstly we demonstrated that rLcc9 and nLcc9 were glycoproteins, and then enzymatically deglycosylated them. The obtained drLcc9 and dnLcc9 showed an appa...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - June 12, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Anti-osteoporotic effects of syringic acid and vanilic acid in the extracts of waste beds after mushroom cultivation
Publication date: Available online 8 June 2019Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Teruyoshi Tanaka, Hiroki Onuma, Takashi Shigihara, Eiichi Kimura, Yasuhisa Fukuta, Norifumi Shirasaka, Tatsuya Moriyama, Yoshimi HommaIn recent years, the number of patients with osteoporosis has increased as population grows older. Therefore, the chemoprevention of osteoporosis by better nutrition is important. White-rot fungi degrades milled wood lignin for growth and development. This degradation results in the formation of phenolic compounds such as syringic acid (SA) and vanillic acid (VA). In the artificial cultur...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - June 9, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Survival of membrane-damaged Escherichia coli in a cytosol-mimicking solution
This study demonstrates a technique that allows temporal loss of the selective permeability of the cell membrane while maintaining the viability of cells that may be useful for the introduction of membrane-impermeable molecules into E. coli cells. (Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering)
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - June 9, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Improving the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effect of Illigera aromatica by fermentation with Clonostachys rogersoniana
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2019Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Jian-Wei Dong, Xue-Jiao Li, Hong-Yan Zhao, Kai-Quan Liu, Jun-You Shi, Yu-Feng Li, Cui Yang, Yun-Gui HeIlligera aromatica was fermented by Clonostachys rogersoniana. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory effects of unfermented and fermented I. aromatica revealed that C. rogersoniana-fermented I. aromatica (CFIA) induced significantly more AChE inhibitory activity (IC50: 35.4 ± 2.1 μg/mL). The biotransformation of actinodaphnine (1) into (4R,6aS)-4-hydroxyactinodaphnine (2) was...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - June 8, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Enhanced production of ethyl acetate using co-culture of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae
This study investigated ethyl acetate production using a co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y3401 and Wickerhamomyces anomalus Y3604. More ethyl acetate was produced in mixed fermentations using both yeasts than in single fermentations. The highest ethyl acetate yield was 6.41 g/L using a Y3401/Y3604 ratio of 3:1. Synergistic fermentation using both yeasts not only improved ethyl acetate production, but also increased the contents of other flavor compounds, such as β-phenethyl alcohol and phenethyl acetate. Therefore, the co-culture of S. cerevisiae and W. anomalus had a positive effect on ethyl ace...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - June 6, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Direct electron transfer of Cellulomonas fimi and microbial fuel cells fueled by cellulose
Publication date: Available online 27 May 2019Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Wichean Khawdas, Keigo Watanabe, Hajime Karatani, Yuji Aso, Tomonari Tanaka, Hitomi OharaThe strain of Cellulomonas fimi NBRC 15513 can generate electricity with cellulose as fuel without mediator using a single chamber type microbial fuel cell (MFC) which had 100 mL of chamber and 50 cm2 of the air cathode. The MFCs were operated over five days and showed the maximum current density of 10.0 ± 1.8 mA/m2, the maximum power density of 0.74 ± 0.07 mW/m2 and the ohmic resistance of 6.9 ...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - May 28, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Glucose and arabinose dependent mineral phosphate solubilization and its succinate-mediated catabolite repression in Rhizobium sp. RM and RS
Publication date: Available online 28 May 2019Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Ekta Joshi, Bhagya Iyer, Shalini RajkumarRhizobium sp. RM and RS are Vigna radiata root nodule isolates with the ability to solubilize tricalcium phosphate and rock phosphate under 50 mM Tris-Cl buffering conditions. Rhizobium sp. RM and RS were unique as they could produce two different organic acids, gluconic acid and oxalic acid using glucose and arabinose, respectively, which are two of the most prominent sugars present in the rhizospheric soil. However, P solubilization in these isolates was repressed in the p...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - May 28, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

B-cell receptor-based multitargeting method for simultaneous production of novel multiple monoclonal antibodies
This study strongly suggests that simultaneous production of novel monoclonal antibodies directed against multiple antigens of interest by the MT method can be feasible. (Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering)
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - May 28, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

De novo transcriptome analysis of Pleurotus djamor to identify genes encoding CAZymes related to the decomposition of corn stalk lignocellulose
Publication date: Available online 27 May 2019Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Yanli Li, Jiahao Liu, Gang Wang, Meiying Yang, Xue Yang, Tongbing Li, Guang ChenCAZymes play a very important role in the biotransformation of corn stalk biomass, which is an important resource for sustainable development. Pleurotus djamor can produce CAZymes related to the decomposition of corn stalk lignocellulose biomass in sole corn stalk substrate; however, little is known about their encoding genes. In order to identify CAZymes encoding genes, RNA high-throughput sequencing of P. djamor was performed in this ...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - May 27, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Efficient expression of a novel thermophilic fungal β-mannosidase from Lichtheimia ramosa with broad-range pH stability and its synergistic hydrolysis of locust bean gum
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2019Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Jianhua Xie, Zhimei He, Zheng Wang, Bin Wang, Li Panβ-Mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.25) is an exoglycosidase specific for the hydrolysis of terminal β-1,4-glycosidic linkage in mannan which can be applied in the food manufacture, animal feed, bioethanol making and coffee extraction industries. A novel β-mannosidase gene (Lrman5A) from Lichtheimia ramosa was synthesized and recombinantly expressed in Pichia pastoris X33. Lrman5A encodes 444 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 51.0 kDa which shares...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - May 24, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Bicarbonate and unsaturated fatty acids enhance capsular polysaccharide synthesis gene expression in oral streptococci, Streptococcus anginosus
In this study, we investigate the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2), bicarbonate (HCO3-) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) on CP synthesis of S. anginosus. We found that CP production increased when bacteria were exposed to high concentrations of CO2. This increase was similarly observed in the presence of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) under atmospheric condition. Since ectopic expression of carbonic anhydrase, which converts CO2 to HCO3-, eliminated the requirement for CO2 in CP production and growth of S. anginosus lacking this enzyme, it seemed that HCO3- is an essential factor for CP production. Furthermore, UFA...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - May 24, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Characterization of silver nanoparticle-modified decellularized rat esophagus for esophageal tissue engineering: Structural properties and biocompatibility
The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to improve the structural stability and biocompatibility of decellularized rat esophagi. AgNPs have the advantage over currently used agents in that they bind with collagen fibers in a highly ordered manner, via non-covalent binding mechanisms forming multiple binding sites, while other agents provide only two-point connections between collagen molecules. Rat esophagi were decellularized, loaded with 5 μg/mL of AgNPs (100 nm), and then treated with an immobilization-complex buffer composed of ethyl carbodiimide hydrochlorid...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - May 24, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Plasmid-encoded glycosyltransferase operon is responsible for exopolysaccharide production, cell aggregation, and bile resistance in a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus brevis KB290
In conclusion, the three eps genes in pKB290-1 were sufficient for EPS biosynthesis with glucose and N-acetylglucosamine, and were responsible for cell aggregation and bile resistance. We consider these phenotypes to be at least partly responsible for KB290-specific properties. (Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering)
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - May 24, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Effects of rubber elongation factor and small rubber particle protein from rubber-producing plants on lipid metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Publication date: Available online 20 May 2019Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Saki Yokota, Takeshi GotohThe common proteins rubber elongation factor (REF) and small rubber particle protein (SRPP) are associated with Hevea brasiliensis (Hb) rubber particles. They are involved in the stability of rubber particles and natural rubber biosynthesis. Recently, we cloned cDNAs encoding REF and SRPP from laticifers of Ficus carica (Fc). In the present study, we overexpressed REF/SRPPs (HbREF, FcREF, and FcSRPP) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in anticipation of future rubber biosynthesis in recombinant yeast....
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - May 21, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Characterization of a novel salt-, xylose- and alkali-tolerant GH43 bifunctional β-xylosidase/α-l-arabinofuranosidase from the gut bacterial genome
This study was the first to identify and characterize NaCl-tolerant β-xylosidase/α-l-arabinofuranosidase from the gut microbiota. The enzyme's salt, xylose, and alkali stability and resistance to various chemicals make it a potential biocatalyst for the saccharification of lignocellulose, the food industry, and industrial processes conducted in sea water. (Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering)
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - May 18, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Effect on growth, sugar consumption, and aerobic ethanol fermentation of homologous expression of the sugar transporter gene Pshxt1 in the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624
This study identified an MFS sugar transporter gene (Pshxt1) of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 expressed in liquid culture containing low concentrations of nitrogen source. Homologous expression of Pshxt1 dramatically increased the rates of glucose, fructose, mannose, and xylose consumption. Galactose consumption increased slightly but significantly. These data suggest that Pshxt1 has broad affinity for monosaccharides. In contrast, a transformant homologously expressing Pshxt1 consumed glucose in preference to xylose in wood enzymatic-digestion liquor and liquid culture. Additionally, homologous express...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - May 18, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Oligomerization of a modular ribozyme assembly of which is controlled by a programmable RNA–RNA interface between two structural modules
Publication date: Available online 17 May 2019Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Ryusei Tsuruga, Narumi Uehara, Yuki Suzuki, Hiroyuki Furuta, Hiroshi Sugiyama, Masayuki Endo, Shigeyoshi Matsumura, Yoshiya IkawaBimolecular ribozymes derived by physical dissection of unimolecular ribozymes consisting of two structural modules are promising platforms for the design and construction of assembled RNA nanostructures. Unit RNAs to be assembled intermolecularly into one-dimensional (1D) oligomers are designed by reconnecting the two structural modules in a manner different from the parent ribozymes. This st...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - May 18, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Community composition and methane oxidation activity of methanotrophs associated with duckweeds in a fresh water lake
Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Hiroyuki Iguchi, Ryohei Umeda, Hiroki Taga, Tokitaka Oyama, Hiroya Yurimoto, Yasuyoshi SakaiMethanotrophs are the only biological sink of the greenhouse gas methane. To understand the ecological features of methanotrophs in association with plants in the methane emitting environments, we investigated the community composition and methane oxidation of methanotrophs associated with duckweeds in a fresh water lake. Duckweeds collected from Lake Biwa, Japan over three summers showed methane consumption activity between 0.00...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - May 18, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Influence of shaking culture on the biological functions of cell aggregates incorporating gelatin hydrogel microspheres
The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of shaking culture on the biological functions of cell aggregates incorporating gelatin hydrogel microspheres in terms of the microspheres/cells ratio. The mixture of MC3T3-E1 cells and the microspheres was cultured in the U-bottomed wells of 96-well plate pre-coated with poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to form cell aggregates incorporating microspheres. When incubated in the static or shaking culture, the size of cell aggregates increased with amounts of gelatin hydrogel microspheres but was similar between the two cultures. At the smaller ratio of microspheres to cel...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - May 16, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Improvement of protein content and decrease of anti-nutritional factors in olive cake by solid-state fermentation: A way to valorize this industrial by-product in animal feed
Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Salima Chebaibi, Mathilde Leriche Grandchamp, Grégoire Burgé, Tiphaine Clément, Florent Allais, Fatiha LaziriThe present work investigates the bioconversion of the olive cake (OC) generated by olive oil industries in Morocco through solid-state fermentation using selected filamentous fungi to increase its nutritional values for subsequent valorization as ruminants feed. The fungi, namely Beauveria bassiana, Fusarium flocciferum, Rhizodiscina cf. lignyota, and Aspergillus niger were cultured on OC fo...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - May 16, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Osteogenic induction of human mesenchymal stem cells in multilayered electrospun scaffolds at different flow rates and configurations in a perfusion bioreactor
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Maliheh Yaghoobi, Sameereh Hashemi-Najafabadi, Masoud Soleimani, Ebrahim Vasheghani-FarahaniElectrospun scaffolds are potentially interesting in bone tissue engineering due to a strong structural similarity to the natural bone matrix. To investigate the osteogenic behavior of cells on the scaffolds, dynamic culture of cells is essential to simulate the biological environment. In the present study, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured on multilayer nanohydroxyapatite-polycaprolactone electrospun scaffolds a...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - May 11, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Overexpression system for recombinant RNA in Corynebacterium glutamicum using a strong promoter derived from corynephage BFK20
Publication date: Available online 7 May 2019Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Shuhei Hashiro, Mayu Mitsuhashi, Hisashi YasuedaIn recent years, it has been shown that recombinant RNA molecules have a great potential in mRNA therapy and as novel agricultural pesticides. We developed a fundamental system for efficient production of target RNA molecules in Corynebacterium glutamicum, composed of a strong promoter named F1 and a terminator derived from corynephage BFK20 in a high-copy number plasmid vector. As a target model RNA for overexpression, we designed and used an RNA molecule [designated U1A*-...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - May 9, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Viral protein R inhibitors from Swertia chirata of Myanmar
Publication date: Available online 7 May 2019Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): So-Yeun Woo, Nwet Nwet Win, Wyine Myat Noe Oo, Hla Ngwe, Takuya Ito, Ikuro Abe, Hiroyuki MoritaViral protein R (Vpr) is a small, basic accessory protein (14 kDa) that is well conserved in Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Numerous investigations over the past 2 decades have suggested that Vpr would be an attractive target for HIV disease treatment. Small molecules, including fumagillin, damnacanthal, quercetin, vipirinin, isopimarane diterpenoids, picrasane quass...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - May 9, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Establishment of DHFR-deficient HEK293 cells for high yield of therapeutic glycoproteins
In this study, we established a DHFR-deficient HEK293 cell line for the high yield of recombinant proteins. We doubly knocked out DHFR and DHFR2 in the MAN1A1/A2/B1/C1-quadruple knockout HEK293 (QD-KO) cells, using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The DHFR-deficient QD-KO cells were used to overexpress two proteins, lysosomal acid lipase and the constant fragment of human immunoglobulin G1 by the DHFR/MTX gene-amplification method. This method resulted in a dramatic increase in the two protein expressions in the DHFR-deficient QD-KO cells by increasing MTX concentration. Our system could be adopted in the production of several reco...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - April 26, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Development and economic analysis of bioethanol production facilities using lignocellulosic biomass
In this study, 100,000 kL of bioethanol could be produced annually from 606,061 tons of M. sacchariflorus and the production cost was calculated to be $1.76/L. However, the by-products of this process such as xylose molasses and lignin can be sold or used as a heat source, which can decrease the ethanol production costs. Therefore, the final ethanol production cost was calculated to be $1.31/L, and is considerably influenced by the enzyme cost. The results and data obtained should contribute to the development of a commercial-scale lignocellulosic bioethanol plant. (Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering)
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - April 26, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Effect of pepA deletion and overexpression in Aspergillus luchuensis on sweet potato shochu brewing
In this study, we examined acid protease PepA's role in shochu production. For this purpose, we constructed pepA deletion and overexpression strains, using a black koji mold Aspergillus luchuensis RIB 2604 (NBRC 4314), with the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. The rice koji, prepared using a pepA disruptant (ΔpepA) and pepA-overexpressing strain (OEpepA), demonstrated 1/2- and 24-fold acid protease activities compared to that prepared using the parental strain, respectively. A small-scale test of sweet potato shochu brewing indicated the mash of ΔpepA had a lower amino acid concentration, while the...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - April 26, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Preparation of chitosan microcarriers by high voltage electrostatic field and freeze drying
Publication date: Available online 24 April 2019Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Zekang Lu, Yan Zhou, Baolin LiuIn this paper, a biocompatible, non-toxic porous chitosan microcarrier was prepared by high voltage electrostatic field and freeze drying technology. The chitosan solution was pushed from the syringe drop into the sodium polyphosphate solution using a booster pump. The droplet diameter of the chitosan solution was adjusted by the voltage of the electrostatic field formed between the syringe and the sodium polyphosphate solution. The droplets were dropped into a sodium polyphosphate solut...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - April 25, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Nonnatural biosynthetic pathway for 2-hydroxylated xanthophylls with C50-carotenoid backbone
In this study, a carotenoid 2,2'-hydroxylase (crtG) from Brevundimonas sp. SD212 was coexpressed together with our laboratory-engineered C50-zeaxanthin and C50-astaxanthin biosynthetic pathways. We identified six novel nonnatural C50-xanthophylls, namely, C50-nostoxanthin, C50-caloxanthin, C50-adonixanthin, C50-4-ketonostoxanthin, C50-2-hydroxyastaxanthin, and C50-2,2′-dihydroxyastaxanthin. (Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering)
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - April 25, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Cobalt-dependent inhibition of nitrite oxidation in Nitrobacter winogradskyi
Publication date: Available online 24 April 2019Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Richard Metzner, Taiji Nomura, Naoki Kitaoka, Akinori Ando, Jun Ogawa, Yasuo KatoNitrobacter winogradskyi is an abundant, intensively studied autotrophic nitrite-oxidizing bacterium, which is frequently used as a model strain in the two-step nitrification of ammonia (NH3) to nitrate (NO3−) via nitrite (NO2−), either in activated sludge, agricultural field studies or more recently in artificial microbial consortia for organic hydroponics. We observed a hitherto unknown cobalt ion-dependent inhibition of cel...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - April 25, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Comparison of microbial community and metabolites in spontaneous fermentation of two types Daqu starter for traditional Chinese vinegar production
Publication date: Available online 22 April 2019Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Hanlan Tang, Hebin Liang, Jiankun Song, Weifeng Lin, Lixin LuoDaqu starter, an important saccharifying and fermenting agent for the brewing process of traditional vinegar, is manufactured by spontaneous solid-state fermentation which routinely undergoes low or medium incubation temperature. Previous studies have demonstrated that the temperature plays a pivotal role in Daqu quality. Hence, to explore the feasibility of high temperature fermentation applied in the vinegar Daqu brewing and provide guidelines of controll...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - April 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Mechanism underlying the bioleaching process of LiCoO2 by sulfur-oxidizing and iron-oxidizing bacteria
Publication date: Available online 20 April 2019Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Weijin Wu, Xiaocui Liu, Xu Zhang, Xiyan Li, Yongqiu Qiu, Minglong Zhu, Wensong TanBenefiting from lower operational costs and energy requirements than do hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical processes in metal recovery, the bioleaching of LiCoO2 through the use of sulfur-oxidizing and iron-oxidizing bacteria has drawn increasing attention. However, the bioleaching mechanism of LiCoO2 has not been clearly elaborated. In the present study, the effects of the energy source of bacteria, such as Fe2+, pyrite and S0, an...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - April 22, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

gRNA-transient expression system for simplified gRNA delivery in CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing
In this study, we have developed a simplified method, called the guide RNA-transient expression system (gRNA-TES), to deliver gRNA in yeast. In gRNA-TES, a DNA fragment containing the promoter and gRNA is prepared by two simple PCR steps and co-transformed with a DNA module into the host strain; all steps including PCR steps and yeast transformation are completed within 5–6 h in a single day, in contrast to conventional plasmid-based gRNA delivery systems, which require at least 3–4 days to construct and verify the gRNA-expressing plasmids. The performance of gRNA-TES was evaluated by the replacement of 15...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - April 20, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Preparation of poly(lactic acid) from Prosopis juliflora and incorporation of chitosan for packaging applications
In this study, we have experimented for the lactic acid production using Lactobacillus delbrueckii MTCC 911 with Prosopis juliflora as a substrate for fermentation. As a result, 38.23 g/L of lactic acid was produced. Modified ring-opening polymerization with direct polycondensation method was followed to convert lactic acid into polylactic acid, and membrane prepared with 0.25 mm thickness having PLA/chitosan 60/40 composition shows better results with a tensile strength of 17.809 MPa and an elongation at break of 300.11%. The oxygen transmission rate results show low permeability of 1614.21 (cm3/(m2·...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - April 20, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Activity-stability trade-off in random mutant proteins
Publication date: Available online 12 April 2019Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Ryo Kurahashi, Shun-ichi Tanaka, Kazufumi TakanoIn our previous study, we investigated the relationship between protein evolution and stability through the random mutational drift of an esterase from hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii. The results revealed that evolvability, which is the appearance frequency of variants with higher activity than the parent protein, correlates with parental stability. This suggests that protein evolution that does not take stability into account does not make sense. Here, w...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - April 14, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO)-mediated de novo synthesis of glycolate-based polyhydroxyalkanoate in Escherichia coli
In this study, we focused on the fact that glycolate (GL) derived from 2PG can be incorporated into the bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) as the monomeric constituent by using the evolved PHA synthase (PhaC1PsSTQK). In this study, the function of the RuBisCO-mediated pathway for GL-based PHA synthesis was evaluated using Escherichia coli JW2946 with the deletion of glycolate oxidase gene (ΔglcD) as the model system. The genes encoding RuBisCO, phosphoribulokinase and 2PG phosphatase (PGPase) from several photosynthetic bacteria were introduced into E. coli, and the cells were grown on xylose as a sole carbon ...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - April 14, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Expansion and differentiation of human iPS cells in a three-dimensional culture using hollow fibers and separation of the specific population by magnetic-activated cell sorting
In conclusion, the HF culture method has potential for achieving the large-scale culturing and spontaneous differentiation of human iPS cells. (Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering)
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - April 13, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Enzymatic and molecular characterization of an endoglucanase E from Clostridium cellulovorans 743B
Publication date: Available online 10 April 2019Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Ryo Kozaki, Hideo MiyakeEndoglucanase E (EngE) is a cellulosomal enzyme of the glycoside hydrolase family 5 generated by the cellulosome-producing bacterium Clostridium cellulovorans 743B. Although its basic activities and properties have been characterized, its substrate specificity, product range, and steady-state kinetics remain unclear. The current study prepared recombinant EngE (rEngE) and analyzed its substrate specificity and product range using thin layer chromatography. When carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or ...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - April 11, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Time-resolved analysis of short term metabolic adaptation at dark transition in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803
In this study, a time-resolved metabolome analysis of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (PCC6803) was conducted to investigate a metabolic adaptation at 0–15 min after a sudden shift from light to dark conditions. Rapid accumulation of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate, ribulose 5-phosphate, xylulose 5-phosphate, and 6-phosphogluconate suggested that the central metabolism of PCC6803 was regulated by inactivation of phosphoribulokinase and activation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) probably via the redox regulation. The culture and metabolic profile of the Δzwf strain lacking G6PDH showed that the role of G6...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - April 10, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Estimating effects of yeast extract compositions on Escherichia coli growth by a metabolomics approach
Publication date: Available online 9 April 2019Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Seiga Tachibana, Kazuki Watanabe, Masaaki KonishiBioprocess stability depends on the variety of yeast extract, which varies from lot-to-lots and between brands, thereby leading to variable bacterial growth and productivity in manufacturing processes. As a model experiment for good stability of bioprocesses, Escherichia coli growth in media containing different brands of yeast extract was evaluated and predicted using component-profiling and multivariate data analysis (metabolomics approach). The components of yeast ext...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - April 10, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Cellulase productivity of Trichoderma reesei mutants developed in Japan varies with varying pH conditions
Publication date: Available online 9 April 2019Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Hiroki Hirasawa, Koki Shioya, Kazuki Mori, Kosuke Tashiro, Sachiyo Aburatani, Yosuke Shida, Satoru Kuhara, Wataru OgasawaraThe ascomycete Trichoderma reesei is known to produce a variety of cellulases and hemicellulases and the hyper-cellulolytic mutants of this fungus are useful as industrial cellulase producers. In Japan, PC-3-7, derived from the early mutant QM9414, is well-known as a cellulase hyperproducing mutant. In addition to the productivity of enzymes, the composition of secreted enzymes greatly influences b...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - April 10, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Establishment of a transient CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing system in Candida glycerinogenes for co-production of ethanol and xylonic acid
We described here the implementation of a transient CRISPR-Cas9 system for efficient genome editing in C. glycerinogenes. By targeting the counterselectable marker genes (TRP1, URA3), single and double gene knock-outs were achieved and the auxotroph obtained can be used as a background for targeting other gene (HOG1) at a mutation efficiency of 80%. Further, a xylonic acid producing C. glycerinogenes strain was constructed by knock-in of the xylose dehydrogenase gene, which produced up to 28 g/L ethanol and 9 g/L xylonic acid simultaneously from simulated lignocellulosic hydrolysate (contained 70 g...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - April 8, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Evaluation of synthetic gene encoding α-galactosidase through metagenomic sequencing of paddy soil
In this study, metagenome sequencing of paddy soil was performed with 55.68 Gb sequences and 1,787,113 putative open reading frames (ORFs). The functional profiles and metabolic pathway of soil metagenomes were examined using Gene Ontology, Metagenomics RAST, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. To verify the protein function and assembly of ORFs, a putative gene encoding α-galactosidase, namely GalR, which shares 65% identity with an unpublished glycoside hydrolase (GH) 27 family protein, was synthesized using its optimal codon for overexpression in Escherichia coli. GalR was successfully obtained and c...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - April 7, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research