Structural and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Dementia With Lewy Bodies
Publication date: Available online 28 November 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Zuzana Balážová, Marie Nováková, Alžběta Minsterová, Irena RektorováAbstractDementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common cause of neurodegenerative dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although diagnosis may be challenging, there is increasing evidence that the use of biomarkers according to 2017 revised criteria for diagnosis and management of dementia with Lewy bodies can increase diagnostic accuracy. Apart from nuclear medicine techniques, various magneti...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Network Imaging in Parkinsonian and Other Movement Disorders: Network Dysfunction and Clinical Correlates
Publication date: Available online 28 November 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Martin Niethammer, David EidelbergAbstractParkinson's disease (PD) is classically defined as a disease of progressive dopaminergic dysfunction, thus explaining many of the levodopa-responsive motor features. However, even early in the disease, non-motor symptoms can appear, affecting sleep, cognition, and behavior. This implies the involvement of more widespread circuitry beyond the basal ganglia. In addition, the varied clinical presentation and the clinical overlap between PD and other diseases of dopamine degenerati...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Molecular Imaging of Dementia With Lewy Bodies
Publication date: Available online 28 November 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Oliver Cousins, Tayyabah Yousaf, Heather Wilson, Gennaro Pagano, Marios PolitisAbstractDementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common cause of neurodegenerative dementia. The core clinical features of DLB include fluctuating cognition, visual hallucinations, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and parkinsonism. Molecular imaging is a powerful tool to assess the brain function in vivo. In this chapter, we reviewed the positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, and [123I]...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Four - Neuroimaging Applications in Chronic Ataxias
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 143Author(s): Mario Mascalchi, Alessandra VellaAbstractMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are the main instruments for neuroimaging investigation of patients with chronic ataxia. MRI has a predominant diagnostic role in the single patient, based on the visual detection of three patterns of atrophy, namely, spinal atrophy, cortical cerebellar atrophy and olivopontocerebellar atrophy, which correlate with the aetiologies of inherited or sporadic ataxia. In fact sp...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Five - Neuroimaging Applications in Functional Movement Disorders
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 143Author(s): Luis Pedro Faria de Abreu, Tiago Teodoro, Mark J. EdwardsAbstractFunctional (psychogenic) movement disorders are a subtype of functional neurological disorder, a common and disabling cause of neurological symptoms. Abnormal movement in people with functional movement disorders has specific characteristics (e.g., distractibility, variability, incongruence with deficits caused by neurological disease), allowing positive diagnosis and differentiation from other causes of movement disorder. Attempts to understand the pathophysiology of thi...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Seven - Imaging Transplantation in Movement Disorders
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 143Author(s): Edoardo Rosario de Natale, Heather Wilson, Gennaro Pagano, Marios PolitisAbstractCell replacement therapy with graft transplantation has been tested as a disease-modifying treatment in neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the damage of a predominant cell type, such as substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) or striatal medium spiny projection neurons in Huntington's disease (HD). The results of these trials are mixed with success in preclinical and pilot open-label trials, which were not consistently re...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Six - Transcranial B-Mode Sonography in Movement Disorders
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 143Author(s): Rezzak Yilmaz, Daniela BergAbstractApplying a 2–4 MHz probe at the temporal bone window transcranial B-mode sonography (TCS) enables the depiction of the brain parenchyma through the intact skull. Meanwhile it has been applied for the diagnosis and the differential diagnosis of movement disorders for decades. In the first part of this chapter, we summarize the technical requirements and describe the ultrasound method for optimal TCS examination. Imaging planes and the relevant structures are explained in detail. In the secon...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Series Page
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 143Author(s): (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Contributors
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 143Author(s): (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Preface
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 143Author(s): Marios Politis (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Acknowledgments
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 143Author(s): (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter One - Neuroimaging Applications in Dystonia
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 143Author(s): Kristina SimonyanAbstractDystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary, repetitive movements. Although the precise mechanisms of dystonia development remain unknown, the diversity of its clinical phenotypes is thought to be associated with multifactorial pathophysiology, which is linked not only to alterations of brain organization, but also environmental stressors and gene mutations. This chapter will present an overview of the pathophysiology of isolated dystonia through the lens of applications of major neuroimagi...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Two - Neuroimaging Applications in Restless Legs Syndrome
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 143Author(s): Giovanni Rizzo, Giuseppe PlazziAbstractNeuroimaging studies provide information useful to understand the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome. Molecular PET and SPECT imaging findings mainly supported dysfunction of dopaminergic pathways involving not only the nigrostriatal but also mesolimbic pathways. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have used different techniques. Studies using iron-sensitive sequences supported the presence of a regionally variable low brain iron content, mainly at the level of substantia nigra and tha...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Three - Neuroimaging Applications in Tourette's Syndrome
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 143Author(s): Davide Martino, Christos Ganos, Yulia WorbeAbstractTics are neurodevelopmental hyperkinetic symptoms typically associated with unpleasant sensory experiences called premonitory urges. Tourette syndrome (TS) is the primary chronic tic disorder for which medical surveillance is most frequently required, and is associated with a complex phenotypical spectrum encompassing different types of abnormal behaviors. Animal models of tics support their link to phasic activity changes throughout the sensorimotor loop of the cortico-basal ganglia-t...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroimaging Applications in Functional Movement Disorders
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Luis Pedro Faria de Abreu, Tiago Teodoro, Mark J. EdwardsAbstractFunctional (psychogenic) movement disorders are a subtype of functional neurological disorder, a common and disabling cause of neurological symptoms. Abnormal movement in people with functional movement disorders has specific characteristics (e.g., distractibility, variability, incongruence with deficits caused by neurological disease), allowing positive diagnosis and differentiation from other causes of movement disorder. Attempts to understand the patho...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Transcranial B-Mode Sonography in Movement Disorders
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Rezzak Yilmaz, Daniela BergAbstractApplying a 2–4 MHz probe at the temporal bone window transcranial B-mode sonography (TCS) enables the depiction of the brain parenchyma through the intact skull. Meanwhile it has been applied for the diagnosis and the differential diagnosis of movement disorders for decades. In the first part of this chapter, we summarize the technical requirements and describe the ultrasound method for optimal TCS examination. Imaging planes and the relevant structures are explained in det...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Hybrid PET-MRI Applications in Movement Disorders
Publication date: Available online 8 November 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Giacomo Tondo, Marcello Esposito, George Dervenoulas, Heather Wilson, Marios Politis, Gennaro PaganoAbstractEven before the success of combined positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT), the neuroimaging community was conceiving the idea to integrate the positron emission tomography (PET), with very high molecular quantitative data but low spatial resolution, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with high spatial resolution. Several technical limitations have delayed the use of a hybrid scanner in n...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroimaging of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder
Publication date: Available online 8 November 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Pierre-Alexandre Bourgouin, Shady Rahayel, Malo Gaubert, Dario Arnaldi, Michele Hu, Anna Heidbreder, David Rémillard-Pelchat, Michele Terzaghi, Jean-François GagnonAbstractIdiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is a parasomnia characterized by the loss of muscle atonia and the presence of undesirable motor manifestations during rapid eye movement sleep. Research findings have shown that iRBD is a prodromal stage of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodi...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Four - Functional MRI in Atypical Parkinsonisms
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 142Author(s): Federica Agosta, Elisabetta Sarasso, Massimo FilippiAbstractThe present chapter reports the current knowledge on the use of functional MRI (fMRI) in patients with atypical parkinsonisms, including Multiple System Atrophy, Corticobasal Syndrome and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy syndrome. Both resting state functional connectivity and task-based brain activity abnormalities are reported in atypical parkinsonisms relative to healthy controls and Parkinson's disease patients. Functional alterations were observed earlier than structural da...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Five - PET Molecular Imaging in Familial Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 142Author(s): Michele Matarazzo, Daryl Wile, Melissa Mackenzie, A. Jon StoesslAbstractMost cases of Parkinson's disease (PD) are idiopathic, but some characteristics, such as early onset or a positive family history, raise suspicions of an inherited form of the disease. In the last decades several genes have been linked to parkinsonism, with different patterns of inheritance and different clinical phenotypes. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has helped to characterize genetic-linked parkinsonism, thanks to the availability of dopaminergic ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Six - SPECT Molecular Imaging in Familial Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 142Author(s): Andrea Varrone, Maria Teresa PellecchiaAbstractDopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a diagnostic tool to study the integrity of the dopaminergic system in patients with parkinsonism and uncertain diagnosis. DAT SPECT enables to detect the presence of nigrostriatal deficit even in the early or pre-symptomatic stages of the disease and to quantify the DAT loss with the progression of nigrostriatal degeneration. For these reasons, DAT SPECT has been also used as a tool to study gene...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Seven - Structural and Functional MRI in Familial Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 142Author(s): Avner ThalerAbstractBetween 10 and 15% of Parkinson disease (PD) cases can be traced to a genetically identified causative mutation which currently number over 40. This enables the study of both “at risk” populations for future development of PD and a unique sub-group of genetically determined patient population.Structural and functional magnetic imaging has the potential of assisting diagnosis, early detection and disease progression as it is relatively cheap and easy to implement. However, the large variety of imaging opt...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Eight - Molecular Imaging in Huntington's Disease
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 142Author(s): Heather Wilson, Marios PolitisAbstractHuntington's disease (HD) is a rare monogenic neurodegenerative disorder caused by a trinucleotide CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene resulting in the formation of intranuclear inclusions of mutated huntingtin. The accumulation of mutated huntingtin leads to loss of GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs); subsequently resulting in the development of chorea, cognitive dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms. Premanifest HD gene expansion carriers, provide a unique cohort to examine very early m...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Ten - Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Huntington's Disease
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 142Author(s): Sarah Gregory, Rachael I. ScahillAbstractHuntington's disease is an inherited neurodegenerative condition characterized by motor dysfunction, cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric disturbance. The effects of the underlying pathology on brain morphology are relatively well understood. Numerous structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies have demonstrated macrostructural change with widespread striatal and cortical atrophy and microstructural white matter loss in premanifest and manifest HD gene carriers. However, disease eff...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Nine - Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Huntington's Disease
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 142Author(s): Heather Wilson, George Dervenoulas, Marios PolitisAbstractHuntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, caused by expansion of the CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene. HD is characterized clinically by progressive motor, cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms. There are currently no disease modifying treatments available for HD, and there is a great need for biomarkers to monitor disease progression and identify new targets for therapeutic intervention. Neuroimaging techniques provide a powerful tool for...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Series Page
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 142Author(s): (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Contributors
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 142Author(s): (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Preface
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 142Author(s): Marios Politis (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Acknowledgments
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 142Author(s): (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter One - PET Molecular Imaging in Atypical Parkinsonism
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 142Author(s): Zheyu Xu, Javier Arbizu, Nicola PaveseAbstractMultiple System Atrophy, Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, and Corticobasal Degeneration are three neurodegenerative disorders characterized by parkinsonism along with involvement of other brain cortical and subcortical regions. The ante mortem diagnosis of these disorders is extremely challenging with up to a quarter of these patients being misdiagnosed, particularly in the early stages of disease.While highly specific and sensitive imaging biomarkers of individual atypical parkinsonisms hav...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Two - SPECT Molecular Imaging in Atypical Parkinsonism
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 142Author(s): Joachim Brumberg, Ioannis U. IsaiasAbstractAtypical parkinsonism is the second most common diagnosis for patients with hypokinetic movement disorders. Beside common parkinsonian symptoms (i.e. bradykinesia and muscular rigidity) patients may also present a variety of additional motor and non-motor symptoms, such as oculomotor abnormalities, postural instability, ataxia, limb apraxia, autonomic dysfunctions, etc. Clinical heterogeneity and gradual manifestation during the disease course often hamper the diagnosis and adequate treatment....
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Three - Structural Imaging in Atypical Parkinsonism
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 142Author(s): Beatrice Heim, Florian Krismer, Klaus SeppiAbstractQualitative and quantitative structural magnetic resonance imaging offer objective measures of the underlying neurodegeneration in atypical parkinsonism. Regional changes in tissue volume, signal changes and increased deposition of iron as assessed with different structural MRI techniques are surrogate markers of underlying neurodegeneration and may reflect cell loss, microglial proliferation and astroglial activation. Structural MRI has been explored as a tool to enhance diagnostic ac...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Imaging Transplantation in Movement Disorders
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Edoardo Rosario de Natale, Heather Wilson, Gennaro Pagano, Marios PolitisAbstractCell replacement therapy with graft transplantation has been tested as a disease-modifying treatment in neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the damage of a predominant cell type, such as substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) or striatal medium spiny projection neurons in Huntington's disease (HD). The results of these trials are mixed with success in preclinical and pilot open-label trials, which were not...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

SPECT Molecular Imaging in Familial Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: Available online 30 October 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Andrea Varrone, Maria Teresa PellecchiaAbstractDopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a diagnostic tool to study the integrity of the dopaminergic system in patients with parkinsonism and uncertain diagnosis. DAT SPECT enables to detect the presence of nigrostriatal deficit even in the early or pre-symptomatic stages of the disease and to quantify the DAT loss with the progression of nigrostriatal degeneration. For these reasons, DAT SPECT has been also used as a to...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 31, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroimaging Applications in Chronic Ataxias
Publication date: Available online 29 October 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Mario Mascalchi, Alessandra VellaAbstractMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are the main instruments for neuroimaging investigation of patients with chronic ataxia. MRI has a predominant diagnostic role in the single patient, based on the visual detection of three patterns of atrophy, namely, spinal atrophy, cortical cerebellar atrophy and olivopontocerebellar atrophy, which correlate with the aetiologies of inherited or sporadic at...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Huntington's Disease
Publication date: Available online 29 October 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Sarah Gregory, Rachael I. ScahillAbstractHuntington's disease is an inherited neurodegenerative condition characterized by motor dysfunction, cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric disturbance. The effects of the underlying pathology on brain morphology are relatively well understood. Numerous structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies have demonstrated macrostructural change with widespread striatal and cortical atrophy and microstructural white matter loss in premanifest and manifest HD gene carriers. Howe...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Functional MRI in Atypical Parkinsonisms
Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Federica Agosta, Elisabetta Sarasso, Massimo FilippiAbstractThe present chapter reports the current knowledge on the use of functional MRI (fMRI) in patients with atypical parkinsonisms, including Multiple System Atrophy, Corticobasal Syndrome and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy syndrome. Both resting state functional connectivity and task-based brain activity abnormalities are reported in atypical parkinsonisms relative to healthy controls and Parkinson's disease patients. Functional alterations were observed earlier th...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroimaging Applications in Dystonia
Publication date: Available online 23 October 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Kristina SimonyanAbstractDystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary, repetitive movements. Although the precise mechanisms of dystonia development remain unknown, the diversity of its clinical phenotypes is thought to be associated with multifactorial pathophysiology, which is linked not only to alterations of brain organization, but also environmental stressors and gene mutations. This chapter will present an overview of the pathophysiology of isolated dystonia through the lens of applications of ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroimaging Applications in Restless Legs Syndrome
Publication date: Available online 22 October 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Giovanni Rizzo, Giuseppe PlazziAbstractNeuroimaging studies provide information useful to understand the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome. Molecular PET and SPECT imaging findings mainly supported dysfunction of dopaminergic pathways involving not only the nigrostriatal but also mesolimbic pathways. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have used different techniques. Studies using iron-sensitive sequences supported the presence of a regionally variable low brain iron content, mainly at the level of substant...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural Correlates of Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease: A Review of Structural MRI Findings
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Julie M. Hall, Simon J.G. LewisAbstractCognitive impairment is one of the most salient non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Cognitive decline poses a significant burden on the patient as well as the caregiver and a better understanding of the underlying pathological processes will aid in directing disease-specific treatment. In recent years, significant progress in the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of cognition in PD has been made using neuroimaging modalities. In this review, we will discuss the...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Functional MRI in Parkinson's Disease Cognitive Impairment
Publication date: Available online 17 October 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Hugo C. Baggio, Carme JunquéAbstractFunctional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to study the neural bases of cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease for several years. Traditionally, task-based fMRI has been applied to study specific cognitive functions, providing information on disease-related alterations and regarding the physiological bases of normal cognition, the dopaminergic system, and the frontostriatal circuits. More recently, functional connectivity techniques using resting-state fMRI d...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

PET Molecular Imaging in Familial Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Michele Matarazzo, Daryl Wile, Melissa Mackenzie, A. Jon StoesslAbstractMost cases of Parkinson's disease (PD) are idiopathic, but some characteristics, such as early onset for a positive family history, raise suspicions of an inherited form of the disease. In the last decades several genes have been linked to parkinsonism, with different patterns of inheritance and different clinical phenotypes. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has helped to characterize genetic-linked parkinsonism, thanks to the availability...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroimaging Applications in Tourette's Syndrome
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Davide Martino, Christos Ganos, Yulia WorbeAbstractTics are neurodevelopmental hyperkinetic symptoms typically associated with unpleasant sensory experiences called premonitory urges. Tourette syndrome (TS) is the primary chronic tic disorder for which medical surveillance is most frequently required, and is associated with a complex phenotypical spectrum encompassing different types of abnormal behaviors. Animal models of tics support their link to phasic activity changes throughout the sensorimotor loop of the cortico...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Nine - Molecular Imaging of Opioid System in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 141Author(s): Stephane Thobois, Christine Brefel-Courbon, Didier Le Bars, Véronique Sgambato-FaureAbstractOpioid receptors are localized throughout peripheral and central nervous system and interact with endogenous opioid peptides and drugs including heroin, synthetic opioids, and pain relievers (codeine, morphine). If several opioid PET tracers exist for preclinical studies, only a few have been used in human. Some tracers are selective for one subtype of opioid receptors (e.g., [11C]CAF (carfentanil) for μ receptor) while others are not ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Ten - Molecular Imaging of the Cannabinoid System in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 141Author(s): Roberto CiliaAbstractThe endocannabinoid system is a modulator of neurotransmitter release and is involved in several physiological functions. Hence, it has been increasingly studied as a potential pharmacologic target of Parkinson's disease. Several preclinical and clinical studies evidenced a substantial rearrangement of the endocannabinoid system in the basal ganglia circuit following dopamine depletion. The endocannabinoid system has been additionally implicated in the regulation of neuroinflammation and neuroprotection through the...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Eleven - Molecular Imaging of Neuroinflammation in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 141Author(s): Andreas-Antonios Roussakis, Paola PicciniAbstractNeuroinflammation is an important aspect of Parkinson's disease. The study of Parkinson's disease neuroinflammation is quite challenging and is accompanied by controversy. To date, molecular imaging studies have been targeting microglia and more recently astrocytes. In this review article, we discuss the findings from key PET studies with tracers specific for the translocator protein (microglia-specific) and novel evidence from the development of astrocyte-specific PET tracers. We also d...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Twelve - Molecular Imaging of Addictive Behavior in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 141Author(s): Christine Ghadery, Mikaeel Valli, Alexander Mihaescu, Rebecca Strafella, Irene Navalpotro, Jinhee Kim, Antonio P. StrafellaAbstractParkinson's disease (PD) is commonly associated with motor symptoms, however cognitive and neurobehavioral complications are increasingly recognized and contribute to long-term disability. Dopamine replacement therapy is effective for motor symptoms, but can also lead to motor side-effects and addictive behavior such as impulse control disorders. Molecular imaging is advancing our knowledge of the mechanism...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Fourteen - Functional MRI in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 141Author(s): Massimo Filippi, Sarasso Elisabetta, Noemi Piramide, Federica AgostaAbstractFunctional MRI (fMRI) has been widely used to study abnormal patterns of brain connectivity at rest and activation during a variety of tasks in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). fMRI studies in PD have led to a better understanding of many aspects of the disease including both motor and non-motor symptoms. Although its translation into clinical practice is still at an early stage, fMRI measures hold promise for multiple clinical applications in...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Thirteen - Structural MRI in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 141Author(s): Rosa De Micco, Antonio Russo, Alessandro TessitoreAbstractAmong modern neuroimaging modalities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely available, non-invasive, and cost-effective method to detect structural and functional abnormalities related to neurodegenerative disorders. In the last decades, MRI have been widely implemented to support PD diagnosis as well as to provide further insights into motor and non-motor symptoms pathophysiology, complications and treatment-related effects. Different aspects of the brain morphology and ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Series Page
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 141Author(s): (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research