Stress and cortisol in Parkinson's disease
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Daniel J. van Wamelen, Yi-Min Wan, K. Ray Chaudhuri, Peter JennerAbstractStress is ubiquitous with many factors contributing to its effects, including psychological responses and associated biological factors, including cortisol related physiological responses, and inflammation. Also in Parkinson's disease there is growing evidence for the role of stress in some key symptoms, even stretching to the prodromal stage. Here we discuss the possible contributions of the range and nature of stress in PD and we aim to summariz...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - February 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Stress, the brain, and trauma spectrum disorders
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): J. Douglas Bremner, Matthew T. WittbrodtAbstractThis chapter reviews the relationship between stress and brain function in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, with an emphasis on disorders that have most clearly been linked to traumatic stress exposure. These disorders, which have been described as trauma spectrum disorders, include posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a subgroup of major depression, borderline personality disorder (BPD) and dissociative disorders; they share in common a neurobiological footprin...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - February 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The effects of stress on cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer's disease: Physical exercise as a counteract measure
Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Gema Sanchis-Soler, Juan Tortosa-Martínez, Carmen Manchado-Lopez, Juan Manuel Cortell-TormoAbstractAD is a complicated multi-systemic neurological disorder that involves different biological pathways. Several risk factors have been identified, including chronic stress. Chronic stress produces an alteration in the activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) system, and the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which over time increase the risk of AD and also the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and ris...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - January 29, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Environment and early life: Decisive factors for stress-resilience and vulnerability
Publication date: Available online 27 January 2020Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Akshaya Hegde, Rupshi MitraAbstractEarly life is a critical and sensitive period whereby environmental imprints on later life are generated. These environmental influences from early life have long-lasting consequences on for mental health. Both human and animal work suggests that maternal presence constitutes an important part of the early experience. Maternal separation causes a sustained increase in stress responsiveness later in life, along with facilitated anxiety-like behaviors. On the contrary, providing a comple...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - January 28, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Stress, cortisol and suicide risk
This article presents an overview of studies that demonstrate that stress and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as measured by cortisol levels, are important additional risk factors for suicide. Evidence for other putative stress-related suicide risk factors including childhood trauma, impaired executive function, impulsivity and disrupted sleep are considered together with the impact of family history of suicide, perinatal and epigenetic influences on suicide risk. (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - January 28, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Is there neuroinflammation in depression? Understanding the link between the brain and the peripheral immune system in depression
We describe the concept of microglial activation as a marker of neuroinflammation and the potential use of anti-inflammatory treatments in depression. The paper concludes by highlighting the unresolved questions and challenges for future studies. (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - January 28, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Salivary cortisol as a non-invasive window on the brain
Publication date: Available online 10 January 2020Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Angela Clow, Nina SmythAbstractThe validation of accurate and meaningful assessment of cortisol in saliva samples has proved revolutionary in stress research. Its many advantages have expanded the scope of investigation from traditional laboratory and clinical settings to include multidisciplinary and community-based research. These developments have given rise to a wealth insight into the links between stress and health. Here we highlight the potential of salivary cortisol as both a product and mediator of brain functi...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - January 11, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The impact of childhood poverty on brain health: Emerging evidence from neuroimaging across the lifespan
Publication date: Available online 18 December 2019Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Alexander J. Dufford, Pilyoung Kim, Gary W. EvansAbstractExperiencing poverty in childhood has been associated with increased risk for physical and mental health difficulties later in life. An emerging body of evidence suggests that brain development may be one mediator of this relation. In this chapter, we discuss evidence for an association between childhood poverty and brain structure/function. First, we examine the association from a lifespan perspective discussing studies at multiple developmental stages from the ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - December 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of stress on the structure and function of the medial prefrontal cortex: Insights from animal models
Publication date: Available online 14 December 2019Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Cara L. Wellman, Justin L. Bollinger, Kelly M. MoenchAbstractStress alters both cognitive and emotional function, and increases risk for a variety of psychological disorders, such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. The prefrontal cortex is critical for executive function and emotion regulation, is a target for stress hormones, and is implicated in many stress-influenced psychological disorders. Therefore, understanding how stress-induced changes in the structure and function of the prefrontal cortex are r...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - December 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prenatal stress: Effects on fetal and child brain development
Publication date: Available online 14 December 2019Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Alexandra Lautarescu, Michael C. Craig, Vivette GloverAbstractThe impact of stress on brain health begins in the womb. Both animal and human studies have found that prenatal maternal stress affects the brain and behavior of the offspring. Stressful life events, exposure to a natural disaster, and symptoms of maternal anxiety and depression increase the risk for the child having a range of emotional, behavioral and/or cognitive problems in later life. These include depression, anxiety, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Di...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - December 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chronic stress, structural exposures and neurobiological mechanisms: A stimulation, discrepancy and deprivation model of psychosis
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2019Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Teresa Vargas, Rachel E. Conley, Vijay A. MittalAbstractChronic stress exposure has been established as a key vulnerability factor for developing psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia. A structural, or systems level perspective, has often been lacking in conceptualizations of chronic stress for psychotic disorders. The current review thus identified three subtypes of structural exposures. Stimulation exposures included urban environments, population density and crime exposure, with intermediary mechanisms of lack...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - December 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Social prescribing for stress related disorders and brain health
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2019Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Alison Fixsen, Marie PolleyAbstractSocial prescribing allows health professionals to refer at risk patients toward health and wellbeing interventions and activities in the local community. It is a key part of NHS (National Health Service) England health care policy, and schemes based on the social prescribing model have been developed in countries including Canada, New Zealand, the Netherlands and Singapore. In this chapter, we consider the role that social prescribing can play in reducing stress related problems and su...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - December 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The development of stress reactivity and regulation during human development
Publication date: Available online 29 November 2019Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Melissa L. Engel, Megan R. GunnarAbstractAdverse experiences during childhood can have long-lasting impacts on physical and mental health. At the heart of most theories of how these effects are transduced into health impacts is the activity of stress-mediating systems, most notably the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. Here we review the anatomy and physiology of the axis, models of stress and development, the development of the axis prenatally through adolescence, the role of experience and sensitive p...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Preface
Publication date: 2019Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 149Author(s): (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

International Review of Neurobiology
Publication date: 2019Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 149Author(s): (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Front Matter
Publication date: 2019Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 149Author(s): (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Copyright
Publication date: 2019Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 149Author(s): (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Contributors
Publication date: 2019Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 149Author(s): (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Fifteen - Secondary parkinsonism due to drugs, vascular lesions, tumors, trauma, and other insults
Publication date: 2019Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 149Author(s): Matthias HöllerhageAbstractIn addition to neurodegenerative disorders, there are many secondary forms of parkinsonism. The most common cause for secondary parkinsonism is the intake of distinct drugs. Neuroleptics and calcium channel blockers have been mainly described to induce parkinsonism, but also other drugs were suspected to cause or worsen parkinsonism. Another common cause for secondary parkinsonism are vascular lesions (i.e. vascular parkinsonism). Furthermore, also brain tumors have been described as rare causes for park...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter One - How to approach a patient with parkinsonism – red flags for atypical parkinsonism
Publication date: 2019Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 149Author(s): Eoin Mulroy, Maria Stamelou, Kailash P. BhatiaAbstractParkinsonism is a clinical syndrome defined by bradykinesia plus rigidity or tremor. Though most commonly encountered in the setting of idiopathic Parkinson's disease, a number of neurodegenerative, structural, metabolic and toxic neurological disorders can result in parkinsonism. Accurately diagnosing the underlying cause of parkinsonism is of both therapeutic and prognostic relevance, especially as we enter the era of disease-modifying treatment trials for neurodegenerative disord...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Two - Classification of atypical parkinsonism per pathology versus phenotype
Publication date: 2019Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 149Author(s): Gesine Respondek, Maria Stamelou, Günter U. HöglingerAbstractThe umbrella term “atypical parkinsonism” refers to a clinical presentation with various causes, emphasizing the clinical commonality of diseases in which atypical parkinsonism can present. This term is useful for describing the phenomenology of a movement disorder and to classify patients according to their clinical presentation. In contrast to this classification per phenotype, a classification per pathology is needed when it comes to understandin...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Three - Progressive supranuclear palsy
Publication date: 2019Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 149Author(s): Nikolaos Giagkou, Günter U. Höglinger, Maria StamelouAbstractProgressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized pathologically by 4 repeat tau deposition in various cell types and anatomical regions. Richardson’s syndrome (RS) is the initially described and one of the clinical phenotypes associated with PSP pathology, characterized by vertical supranuclear gaze paly in particular downwards, postural instability with early falls and subcortical frontal dementia. PSP can manifest as sev...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Four - Corticobasal degeneration
Publication date: 2019Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 149Author(s): Gerard M. Saranza, Jennifer L. Whitwell, Gabor G. Kovacs, Anthony E. LangAbstractCorticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a rare neurodegenerative disease characterized by the predominance of pathological 4 repeat tau deposition in various cell types and anatomical regions. Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is one of the clinical phenotypes associated with CBD pathology, manifesting as a progressive asymmetric akinetic-rigid, poorly levodopa-responsive parkinsonism, with cerebral cortical dysfunction. CBD can manifest as several clinical phenotype...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Five - Multiple system atrophy
Publication date: 2019Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 149Author(s): Alessandra Fanciulli, Iva Stankovic, Florian Krismer, Klaus Seppi, Johannes Levin, Gregor K. WenningAbstractMultiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic, adult-onset, relentlessly progressive neurodegenerative disorder, clinically characterized by various combinations of autonomic failure, parkinsonism and ataxia. The neuropathological hallmark of MSA are glial cytoplasmic inclusions consisting of misfolded α-synuclein. Selective atrophy and neuronal loss in striatonigral and olivopontocerebellar systems underlie the division into...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Six - ‘Atypical’ Parkinson's disease – sporadic
Publication date: 2019Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 149Author(s): Kirsten E. Zeuner, Daniela BergAbstractParkinson's disease still is a clinical diagnosis. Also, the MDS Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for Parkinson's disease published in 2015 are based on clinical characteristics and were designed codifying the diagnostic process of an expert. The purpose was to support less experienced neurologists to achieve the diagnostic procedure up to the level of an expert. The criteria include both negative and positive properties. However, some features exclude patients with typical Parkinson's disease mainly ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Seven - ‘Atypical’ Parkinson's disease – genetic
Publication date: 2019Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 149Author(s): Anne Weissbach, Christina Wittke, Meike Kasten, Christine KleinAbstractGenetic atypical Parkinson's disease (PD) describes monogenic forms of PD that resemble idiopathic PD but feature prominent atypical clinical signs and symptoms and can be sub-grouped into i) atypical monogenic forms caused by mutations in the ATP13A2, DNAJC6, FBXO7, SYNJ1, VPS13C, and DCTN genes; ii) monogenic PD more closely resembling idiopathic PD, but associated with atypical features in at least a subset of cases (SNCA-, LRRK2-, VPS35-, Parkin-, PINK1-, and DJ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Eight - Parkinsonism in genetic and sporadic Alzheimer's disease
Publication date: 2019Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 149Author(s): Johannes LevinAbstractAlzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by deposition of pathologically aggregated amyloid-β in the extracellular space and pathologically aggregated tau protein in the intracellular space. Mainly affected brain areas are the temporal and the parietal lobe, which cause the classical AD phenotype consisting of increasing forgetfulness and difficulties to orientate. However, AD pathology is not restricted to these brain areas and spreads through the brain as the disease progresses, w...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Nine - Parkinsonism in frontotemporal dementias
Publication date: 2019Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 149Author(s): James B. RoweAbstractFrontotemporal dementia is a clinically and pathologically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders, with progressive impairment of behavior and language. They can be closely related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, clinically and through shared genetics and similar pathology. Approximately 40% of people with frontotemporal dementia report a family history of dementia, motor neuron disease or parkinsonism, and half of these familial cases are attributed to mutations in three genes (C9orf72, MAPT and PGRN...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Ten - Parkinsonism in neurodegenerative diseases predominantly presenting with ataxia
Publication date: 2019Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 149Author(s): Matthis SynofzikAbstractThe number of molecularly defined degenerative ataxia diseases is rapidly increasing, many of them involving complex multisystemic presentations including parkinsonism. The increasing number of novel ataxia genes –with most of them being ultra-rare – often makes it difficult for clinicians and scientists to identify the molecular diagnosis underlying these ataxia-parkinsonism syndromes. Here we aim to provide an overview on the most frequent diseases and molecular causes underlying ataxia-parkinsonis...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Eleven - Parkinsonism in Huntington's disease
Publication date: 2019Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 149Author(s): Ralf ReilmannAbstractHuntington's disease (HD) is usually characterized by involuntary hyperkinetic movements, called chorea. The intensity of chorea exhibits a peak in middle stages of HD and then decreases as HD progresses. In contrast, Pakinsonian signs of HD are often less appreciated. They typically progress in a fairly linear pattern over time. In fact, bradykinesia is detectable early on in premanifest gene carriers up to two decades prior to the clinical manifestation of HD symptoms using quantitative motor (Q-Motor) assessment...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Twelve - Parkinsonism in diseases predominantly presenting with dystonia
Publication date: 2019Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 149Author(s): Alessio Di Fonzo, Giulia Franco, Paolo Barone, Roberto ErroAbstractIf the presence of dystonia is a well-recognized phenomenon in disorders predominantly presenting with parkinsonism, including sporadic Parkinson Disease, the term dystonia-parkinsonism usually refers to rare conditions, often genetic, in which the severity of dystonia usually equates that of parkinsonism. At variance with parkinsonian syndromes with additional dystonia, the conditions reviewed in this chapter have usually their onset in childhood and their diagnostic w...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Thirteen - Genetic mimics of the non-genetic atypical parkinsonian disorders – the ‘atypical’ atypical
Publication date: 2019Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 149Author(s): Nikolaos Giagkou, Kailash P. Bhatia, Günter U. Höglinger, Maria StamelouAbstractWith the advent in genetics, many genetic parkinsonian conditions have been described that, in some cases, share features that resemble the widely recognized Richardson's syndrome (the commonest described phenotype of progressive supranuclear palsy pathology), corticobasal syndrome and multiple system atrophy syndromes. A positive family history, an earlier age at onset, and clinical features that are unusual for or characteristic of a certai...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Fourteen - Parkinsonism in neurometabolic diseases
Publication date: 2019Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 149Author(s): Miryam CarecchioAbstractNeurometabolic disease are a wide and variegate group of genetic disorders, mostly recessively inherited, causing an alteration of specific biochemical pathways within cells. In most cases, they are characterized by a multi-organ involvement, but some diseases specifically affect the brain resulting in progressive neurodegenerative conditions. Though rare or ultra-rare, these disorders must be considered in the differential of adult-onset parkinsonism in the presence of atypical additional elements, such as hepa...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Sixteen - Parkinsonism in autoimmune diseases
Publication date: 2019Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 149Author(s): Chrysanthi Barba, Haris AlexopoulosAbstractParkinsonism can be manifested and complicate either systemic or organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Even though it is a rare co-morbidity, it merits attention from clinicians as it affects the quality of life of patients. In systemic autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome and Sjogren's syndrome reported cases of parkinsonism are attributed to the underlying disease and its mechanisms, whether this is brain vasculitis or immune complexes. Regarding ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Classification of atypical parkinsonism per pathology versus phenotype
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2019Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Gesine Respondek, Maria Stamelou, Günter U. HöglingerAbstractThe umbrella term “atypical parkinsonism” refers to a clinical presentation with various causes, emphasizing the clinical commonality of diseases in which atypical parkinsonism can present. This term is useful for describing the phenomenology of a movement disorder and to classify patients according to their clinical presentation. In contrast to this classification per phenotype, a classification per pathology is needed when it comes to ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Parkinsonism in neurodegenerative diseases predominantly presenting with ataxia
Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Matthis SynofzikAbstractThe number of molecularly defined degenerative ataxia diseases is rapidly increasing, many of them involving complex multisystemic presentations including parkinsonism. The increasing number of novel ataxia genes –with most of them being ultra-rare – often makes it difficult for clinicians and scientists to identify the molecular diagnosis underlying these ataxia-parkinsonism syndromes. Here we aim to provide an overview on the most frequent diseases and molecular causes underlying a...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Multiple system atrophy
Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Alessandra Fanciulli, Iva Stankovic, Florian Krismer, Klaus Seppi, Johannes Levin, Gregor K. WenningAbstractMultiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic, adult-onset, relentlessly progressive neurodegenerative disorder, clinically characterized by various combinations of autonomic failure, parkinsonism and ataxia. The neuropathological hallmark of MSA are glial cytoplasmic inclusions consisting of misfolded α-synuclein. Selective atrophy and neuronal loss in striatonigral and olivopontocerebellar systems underlie ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Parkinsonism in Huntington's disease
Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Ralf ReilmannAbstractHuntington's disease (HD) is usually characterized by involuntary hyperkinetic movements, called chorea. The intensity of chorea exhibits a peak in middle stages of HD and then decreases as HD progresses. In contrast, Pakinsonian signs of HD are often less appreciated. They typically progress in a fairly linear pattern over time. In fact, bradykinesia is detectable early on in premanifest gene carriers up to two decades prior to the clinical manifestation of HD symptoms using quantitative motor (Q-...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

‘Atypical’ Parkinson's disease – sporadic
Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Kirsten E. Zeuner, Daniela BergAbstractParkinson's disease still is a clinical diagnosis. Also, the MDS Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for Parkinson's disease published in 2015 are based on clinical characteristics and were designed codifying the diagnostic process of an expert. The purpose was to support less experienced neurologists to achieve the diagnostic procedure up to the level of an expert. The criteria include both negative and positive properties. However, some features exclude patients with typical Parkinson'...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

How to approach a patient with parkinsonism – red flags for atypical parkinsonism
Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Eoin Mulroy, Maria Stamelou, Kailash P. BhatiaAbstractParkinsonism is a clinical syndrome defined by bradykinesia plus rigidity or tremor. Though most commonly encountered in the setting of idiopathic Parkinson's disease, a number of neurodegenerative, structural, metabolic and toxic neurological disorders can result in parkinsonism. Accurately diagnosing the underlying cause of parkinsonism is of both therapeutic and prognostic relevance, especially as we enter the era of disease-modifying treatment trials for neurode...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Parkinsonism in frontotemporal dementias
Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): James B. RoweAbstractFrontotemporal dementia is a clinically and pathologically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders, with progressive impairment of behavior and language. They can be closely related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, clinically and through shared genetics and similar pathology. Approximately 40% of people with frontotemporal dementia report a family history of dementia, motor neuron disease or parkinsonism, and half of these familial cases are attributed to mutations in three genes (C9orf...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Secondary parkinsonism due to drugs, vascular lesions, tumors, trauma, and other insults
Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Matthias HöllerhageAbstractIn addition to neurodegenerative disorders, there are many secondary forms of parkinsonism. The most common cause for secondary parkinsonism is the intake of distinct drugs. Neuroleptics and calcium channel blockers have been mainly described to induce parkinsonism, but also other drugs were suspected to cause or worsen parkinsonism. Another common cause for secondary parkinsonism are vascular lesions (i.e. vascular parkinsonism). Furthermore, also brain tumors have been described as rar...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Genetic mimics of the non-genetic atypical parkinsonian disorders – the ‘atypical’ atypical
Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Nikolaos Giagkou, Kailash P. Bhatia, Günter U. Höglinger, Maria StamelouAbstractWith the advent in genetics, many genetic parkinsonian conditions have been described that, in some cases, share features that resemble the widely recognized Richardson's syndrome (the commonest described phenotype of progressive supranuclear palsy pathology), corticobasal syndrome and multiple system atrophy syndromes. A positive family history, an earlier age at onset, and clinical features that are unusual for or characteristic...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Parkinsonism in neurometabolic diseases
Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Miryam CarecchioAbstractNeurometabolic disease are a wide and variegate group of genetic disorders, mostly recessively inherited, causing an alteration of specific biochemical pathways within cells. In most cases, they are characterized by a multi-organ involvement, but some diseases specifically affect the brain resulting in progressive neurodegenerative conditions. Though rare or ultra-rare, these disorders must be considered in the differential of adult-onset parkinsonism in the presence of atypical additional eleme...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Progressive supranuclear palsy
Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Nikolaos Giagkou, Günter U. Höglinger, Maria StamelouAbstractProgressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized pathologically by 4 repeat tau deposition in various cell types and anatomical regions. Richardson’s syndrome (RS) is the initially described and one of the clinical phenotypes associated with PSP pathology, characterized by vertical supranuclear gaze paly in particular downwards, postural instability with early falls and subcortical frontal dementia. PSP can man...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Corticobasal degeneration
Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Gerard M. Saranza, Jennifer L. Whitwell, Gabor G. Kovacs, Anthony E. LangAbstractCorticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a rare neurodegenerative disease characterized by the predominance of pathological 4 repeat tau deposition in various cell types and anatomical regions. Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is one of the clinical phenotypes associated with CBD pathology, manifesting as a progressive asymmetric akinetic-rigid, poorly levodopa-responsive parkinsonism, with cerebral cortical dysfunction. CBD can manifest as several c...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Parkinsonism in genetic and sporadic Alzheimer's disease
Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Johannes LevinAbstractAlzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by deposition of pathologically aggregated amyloid-β in the extracellular space and pathologically aggregated tau protein in the intracellular space. Mainly affected brain areas are the temporal and the parietal lobe, which cause the classical AD phenotype consisting of increasing forgetfulness and difficulties to orientate. However, AD pathology is not restricted to these brain areas and spreads through the brain as the dise...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Parkinsonism in autoimmune diseases
Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Chrysanthi Barba, Haris AlexopoulosAbstractParkinsonism can be manifested and complicate either systemic or organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Even though it is a rare co-morbidity, it merits attention from clinicians as it affects the quality of life of patients. In systemic autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome and Sjogren's syndrome reported cases of parkinsonism are attributed to the underlying disease and its mechanisms, whether this is brain vasculitis or immune comp...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Parkinsonism in diseases predominantly presenting with dystonia
Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Alessio Di Fonzo, Giulia Franco, Paolo Barone, Roberto ErroAbstractIf the presence of dystonia is a well-recognized phenomenon in disorders predominantly presenting with parkinsonism, including sporadic Parkinson Disease, the term dystonia-parkinsonism usually refers to rare conditions, often genetic, in which the severity of dystonia usually equates that of parkinsonism. At variance with parkinsonian syndromes with additional dystonia, the conditions reviewed in this chapter have usually their onset in childhood and t...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - November 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research