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Chapter Ten Contribution of Urocortin to the Development of Excessive Drinking
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 136 Author(s): Andrey E. Ryabinin, William J. Giardino The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system plays a role in alcohol consumption, and its dysregulation can contribute to alcohol use disorder. This system includes four peptide ligands: CRF, urocortin (Ucn)1, Ucn2, and Ucn3. Historically, attention focused on CRF, however, Ucn1 also plays a critical role in excessive alcohol use. This review covers evidence for this contribution and contrasts the role of Ucn1 with CRF. While CRF can promote binge consumption, this regulation occurs through ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 20, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Nine Oxytocin, Tolerance, and the Dark Side of Addiction
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 136 Author(s): Cort A. Pedersen Substance use disorders blight the lives of millions of people and inflict a heavy financial burden on society. There is a compelling need for new pharmacological treatments as current drugs have limited efficacy and other major drawbacks. A substantial number of animal and recent clinical studies indicate that the neuropeptide, oxytocin, is a particularly promising therapeutic agent for human addictions, especially alcohol use disorders. In preliminary trials, we found that oxytocin administered by the intranasal ro...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 20, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Eight Orexin/Hypocretin System: Role in Food and Drug Overconsumption
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 136 Author(s): Jessica R. Barson, Sarah F. Leibowitz The neuropeptide orexin/hypocretin (OX), while largely transcribed within the hypothalamus, is released throughout the brain to affect complex behaviors. Primarily through the hypothalamus itself, OX homeostatically regulates adaptive behaviors needed for survival, including food intake, sleep–wake regulation, mating, and maternal behavior. However, through extrahypothalamic limbic brain regions, OX promotes seeking and intake of rewarding substances of abuse, like palatable food, alcohol, ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 20, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Seven The Role of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in Alcohol and Drug Abuse Disorders
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 136 Author(s): Stacey L. Robinson, Todd E. Thiele Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a neuromodulator that is widely expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and which is cosecreted with classic neurotransmitters including GABA and glutamate. There is a long history of research implicating a role for NPY in modulating neurobiological responses to alcohol (ethanol) as well as other drugs of abuse. Both ethanol exposure and withdrawal from chronic ethanol have been shown to produce changes in NPY and NPY receptor protein levels and mRNA expression ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 20, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Six Substance P and the Neurokinin-1 Receptor: The New CRF
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 136 Author(s): Jesse R. Schank, Markus Heilig Substance P (SP) is an 11-amino acid neuropeptide of the tachykinin family that preferentially activates the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R). First isolated 85 years ago and sequenced 40 years later, SP has been extensively studied. Early studies identified a role for SP and the NK1R in contraction of intestinal smooth muscle, central pain processing, and neurogenic inflammation. An FDA-approved NK1R antagonist, aprepitant, is used clinically for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea, as the NK1R in...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 20, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Five The Role of the Melanocortin System in Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 136 Author(s): Montserrat Navarro The melanocortin (MC) system is composed of different peptides centrally produced by proopiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (N.Arc) and the medulla. These peptides act through five subtypes of melanocortin receptors (MCRs) that belong to the family of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors that are coupled through Gαs signaling pathways. MC3R and MC4R are the predominant MCR subtypes in the brain, and they are widely expressed in brain regions thought to modulate drug ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 20, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Four The Role of the Ghrelin System in Drug Addiction
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 136 Author(s): Lia J. Zallar, Mehdi Farokhnia, Brendan J. Tunstall, Leandro F. Vendruscolo, Lorenzo Leggio In the past years, a significant volume of research has implicated the appetitive hormone ghrelin in the mechanisms underlying drug use and addiction. From a neuroscientific standpoint, ghrelin modulates both reward and stress pathways, two key drivers of substance use behaviors. Previous investigations support a connection between the ghrelin system and alcohol, stimulants, and tobacco use in both animals and humans, while the research on opi...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 20, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Three Dynorphin/Kappa Opioid Receptor Signaling in Preclinical Models of Alcohol, Drug, and Food Addiction
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 136 Author(s): Anushree Karkhanis, Katherine M. Holleran, Sara R. Jones The dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system is implicated in the “dark side” of addiction, in which stress exacerbates maladaptive responses to drug and alcohol exposure. For example, acute stress and acute ethanol exposure result in an elevation in dynorphin, the KOR endogenous ligand. Activation of KORs results in modulation of several neurotransmitters; however, this chapter will focus on its regulatory effects on dopamine in mesolimbic areas. Specifically, ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 20, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Two Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (CRF) and Addictive Behaviors
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 136 Author(s): Marisa Roberto, Samantha R. Spierling, Dean Kirson, Eric P. Zorrilla Drug addiction is a complex disorder that is characterized by compulsivity to seek and take the drug, loss of control in limiting intake of the drug, and emergence of a withdrawal syndrome in the absence of the drug. The transition from casual drug use to dependence is mediated by changes in reward and brain stress functions and has been linked to a shift from positive reinforcement to negative reinforcement. The recruitment of brain stress systems mediates the nega...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 20, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter One Neuropeptides and Addiction: An Introduction
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 136 Author(s): Todd E. Thiele Neuropeptides are short sequences of amino acids that are coexpressed with neurotransmitters and which are widely expressed throughout the central nervous system. There is a large database of data pointing to critical roles for neuropeptides in modulating neurobiological responses to alcohol and drugs of abuse. Continued alcohol and drug use promote allostatic alterations in neuropeptide systems, and these changes contribute to excessive and uncontrolled intake that emerges with dependence. The neuropeptides that are r...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 20, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Impact of Inflammation on the Blood –Neural Barrier and Blood–Nerve Interface: From Review to Therapeutic Preview
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology Author(s): Stephen D. Skaper A number of nervous system disorders are characterized by a state of inflammation (neuroinflammation) in which members of the innate immune system, most notably mast cells and microglia—acting as single entities and in unison—produce inflammatory molecules that play major roles. A neuroinflammatory environment can weaken not only blood–nerve and blood–brain barrier (BBB) integrity but also that of the blood–spinal cord barrier. Mast cells, with their distribution in peri...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 17, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Current Strategies for the Delivery of Therapeutic Proteins and Enzymes to Treat Brain Disorders
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology Author(s): Jason T. Duskey, Daniela Belletti, Francesca Pederzoli, Maria Angela Vandelli, Flavio Forni, Barbara Ruozi, Giovanni Tosi Brain diseases and injuries are growing to be one of the most deadly and costly medical conditions in the world. Unfortunately, current treatments are incapable of ameliorating the symptoms let alone curing the diseases. Many brain diseases have been linked to a loss of function in a protein or enzyme, increasing research for improving their delivery. This is no easy task due to the delicate nature...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 17, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Oxytocin, Tolerance, and the Dark Side of Addiction
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology Author(s): Cort A. Pedersen Substance use disorders blight the lives of millions of people and inflict a heavy financial burden on society. There is a compelling need for new pharmacological treatments as current drugs have limited efficacy and other major drawbacks. A substantial number of animal and recent clinical studies indicate that the neuropeptide, oxytocin, is a particularly promising therapeutic agent for human addictions, especially alcohol use disorders. In preliminary trials, we found that oxytocin administered by t...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Role of the Ghrelin System in Drug Addiction
Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology Author(s): Lia J. Zallar, Mehdi Farokhnia, Brendan J. Tunstall, Leandro F. Vendruscolo, Lorenzo Leggio In the past years, a significant volume of research has implicated the appetitive hormone ghrelin in the mechanisms underlying drug use and addiction. From a neuroscientific standpoint, ghrelin modulates both reward and stress pathways, two key drivers of substance use behaviors. Previous investigations support a connection between the ghrelin system and alcohol, stimulants, and tobacco use in both animals and humans, while t...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - September 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dynorphin/Kappa Opioid Receptor Signaling in Preclinical Models of Alcohol, Drug, and Food Addiction
Publication date: Available online 12 September 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology Author(s): Anushree Karkhanis, Katherine M. Holleran, Sara R. Jones The dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system is implicated in the “dark side” of addiction, in which stress exacerbates maladaptive responses to drug and alcohol exposure. For example, acute stress and acute ethanol exposure result in an elevation in dynorphin, the KOR endogenous ligand. Activation of KORs results in modulation of several neurotransmitters; however, this chapter will focus on its regulatory effects on dopamine in mesolimbic are...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - September 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Substance P and the Neurokinin-1 Receptor: The New CRF
Publication date: Available online 18 August 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology Author(s): Jesse R. Schank, Markus Heilig Substance P (SP) is an 11-amino acid neuropeptide of the tachykinin family that preferentially activates the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R). First isolated 85 years ago and sequenced 40 years later, SP has been extensively studied. Early studies identified a role for SP and the NK1R in contraction of intestinal smooth muscle, central pain processing, and neurogenic inflammation. An FDA-approved NK1R antagonist, aprepitant, is used clinically for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea,...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Role of the Melanocortin System in Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Publication date: Available online 14 August 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology Author(s): Montserrat Navarro The melanocortin (MC) system is composed of different peptides centrally produced by proopiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (N.Arc) and the medulla. These peptides act through five subtypes of melanocortin receptors (MCRs) that belong to the family of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors that are coupled through Gαs signaling pathways. MC3R and MC4R are the predominant MCR subtypes in the brain, and they are widely expressed in brain regions thought to...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 17, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Thirteen Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Male Infertility
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 135 Author(s): Dan Jiang, Alberto Coscione, Lily Li, Bai-Yun Zeng Male infertility normally refers a male's inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female partner after 1 year of unprotected intercourse. Male infertility in recent years has been attracting increasing interest from public due to the evidence in decline in semen quality. There are many factors contributing to the male infertility including abnormal spermatogenesis; reproductive tract anomalies or obstruction; inadequate sexual and ejaculatory functions; and impaired sperm motility,...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Twelve Chinese Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Drug Addiction
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 135 Author(s): Weili Zhu, Yinan Zhang, Yingjie Huang, Lin Lu This chapter summarizes recent developments in preclinical and clinical research on Chinese herbal medicines and their neurochemical mechanism of action for the treatment of drug addiction. We searched Chinese and English scientific literature and selected several kinds of Chinese herbal medicines that have beneficial effects on drug addiction. Ginseng (Renshen) may be clinically useful for the prevention of opioid abuse and dependence. Rhizoma Corydalis (Yanhusuo) may be used to prevent ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Eleven Phytochemical Modulation of Apoptosis and Autophagy: Strategies to Overcome Chemoresistance in Leukemic Stem Cells in the Bone Marrow Microenvironment
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 135 Author(s): Helen C. Owen, Sandra Appiah, Noor Hasan, Lucy Ghali, Ghada Elayat, Celia Bell Advances in scientific research and targeted treatment regimes have improved survival rates for many cancers over the past few decades. However, for some types of leukemia, including acute lymphoblastic and acute myeloid leukemia, mortality rates have continued to rise, with chemoresistance in leukemic stem cells (LSCs) being a major contributing factor. Most cancer drug therapies act by inducing apoptosis in dividing cells but are ineffective in targeting...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Ten Treatment of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Female Infertility
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 135 Author(s): Dan Jiang, Lily Li, Bai-Yun Zeng Female infertility is when a woman of reproductive age and sexual active, without contraception, cannot get pregnant after a year and more or keeps having miscarriages. Although conventional treatments for infertility such as hormone therapy, in vitro fertilization and many more, helped many female patients with infertility get pregnant during past a few decades, it is far from satisfactory with prolonging treatment time frames and emotional and financial burden. In recent years, more patients with in...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Nine Herb –Drug Interactions of Commonly Used Chinese Medicinal Herbs
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 135 Author(s): Amrinder Singh, Kaicun Zhao With more and more popular use of traditional herbal medicines, in particular Chinese herbal medicines, herb–drug interactions have become a more and more important safety issue in the clinical applications of the conventional drugs. Researches in this area are increasing very rapidly. Herb–drug interactions are complicated due to the fact that multiple chemical components are involved, and these compounds may possess diverse pharmacological activities. Interactions can be in both pharmacokinet...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Eight Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Molecular Imaging of Neurological Disorders
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 135 Author(s): Yao Yao, Ting Chen, Jing Huang, Hong Zhang, Mei Tian Chinese herbal medicine has been used to treat a wide variety of neurological disorders including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. However, its mechanism behind the effectiveness remains unclear. Recently, molecular imaging technology has been applied for this purpose, since it can assess the cellular or molecular function in a living subject by using specific imaging probes and/or radioactive tracers, which enable efficient analysis and monitoring the therapeu...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Seven Antiinflammatory and Hepatoprotective Medicinal Herbs as Potential Substitutes for Bear Bile
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 135 Author(s): Sandra Appiah, Mike Revitt, Huw Jones, Milan Vu, Monique Simmonds, Celia Bell Practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) commonly prescribe medicinal formulations relying on the purported synergism of a combination of plant species, sometimes incorporating animal parts and minerals. Bear bile, obtained from either wild or farmed bears, is a commonly used constituent of traditional medicine formulations. With several bear species now listed under Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Six Metabolic Factors and Adult Neurogenesis: Impacts of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Brain Repair in Neurological Diseases
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 135 Author(s): Chong Gao, Jiangang Shen Adult neurogenesis plays the important roles in animal cognitive and emotional behaviors. Abnormal proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) usually associate with the neural dysfunctions induced by different brain disorders. Therefore, targeting neurogenic factors could be a promoting strategy for neural regeneration and brain repair. Importantly, epidemiological studies suggest metabolism disorders like diabetes and obesity significantly increase the risk of neurological and psychiatric ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Five Treatment of Insomnia With Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 135 Author(s): Amrinder Singh, Kaicun Zhao Insomnia is a condition with sleep problems and many people suffered from it. Chronic insomnia can last for long time and it will severely affect people's health and the quality of life. In conventional medicine, the most commonly used the medicine is benzodiazepine. It is effective but also has significant side effects. Patients try to use some kinds of alternative medicines. Chinese medicinal herbs and formulas have been used in the treatment of insomnia for more than 2000 years in China. In recent decad...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Four Neurobiology of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Major Depressive Disorder
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 135 Author(s): Gang Chen, Xiaoyan Guo Major depressive disorder, or depression, becomes a serious public health problem globally. As current mainstream conventional antidepressants have limitations in unsatisfied response and remission rate, late onset of efficacy and side effects, increasing attention has been drawn to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in which mixture of herbs is commonly prescribed after the clinicians make pattern identification for diagnosis. Here, the principle of herbal formulation for TCM (Chinese herbal medicine, CHM) on...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Three Effect and Mechanism of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 135 Author(s): Bai-Yun Zeng Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Although both genetic and environmental factors are implicated in the development of Parkinson's disease, the cause of the disease is still unclear. So far conventional treatments to Parkinson's are symptomatic relief and focused mainly on motor symptoms. Chinese herbal medicine has been used to treat many conditions in China, Korea, Japan, and many Southeast Asian countries for 1000 years. During past a few decades, Chinese herbal medicine has gained wider...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Two Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Alzheimer's Disease
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 135 Author(s): Melanie-Jayne R. Howes, Rui Fang, Peter J. Houghton Alzheimer's disease (AD) is reaching epidemic proportions yet treatment strategies are limited and are restricted to providing symptomatic relief for the cognitive and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been a valuable source of medicines for centuries and research has burgeoned in recent years to understand the scientific basis for their use. Some plants have been used in CHM for AD symptoms (e.g., Polygala tenuifolia), while...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter One Effects of Lycium barbarum on the Visual System
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 135 Author(s): Abby L. Manthey, Kin Chiu, Kwok-Fai So Lycium barbarum (wolfberry, gogi berry, gouqizi, 枸杞) is one of the most widely used Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) and is also one of the most scientifically studied. Indeed, the polysaccharide component of this berry (LBP) has been shown to have antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antiexcitotoxic, and antiapoptotic properties. These properties make it a particularly useful treatment option for the ocular environment. Although there are a handful of studies investigating the use of LBP to treat ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Fifty-One Nonmotor Symptoms in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Systematic Review
Conclusions: Many of the current studies of nonmotor symptoms in ALS have small sample sizes, requiring more evidence to increase precision in prevalence estimates. Further research is needed to assess the efficacy of current treatments and to find new therapies. Symptom relief or treatment of these nonmotor symptoms should therefore be considered during the clinical management of ALS. (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Fifty Nonmotor Symptoms in Huntington Disease
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 134 Author(s): Francisco Cardoso Huntington disease (HD) is characterized by the triad of motor abnormalities, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral changes. The aim of this chapter is to describe the frequency, clinical features, and management of behavioral and cognitive dysfunction in HD. Depression, suicidal ideation, apathy, irritability, aggressiveness, obsessions, and compulsions are the most common behavioral abnormalities in HD. All HD patients develop cognitive decline. Recent data suggest that these nonmotor changes are found in premanif...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Forty-Nine Nonmotor Symptoms in Essential Tremor and Other Tremor Disorders
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 134 Author(s): Alessandro F. Fois, Hugo M. Briceño, Victor S.C. Fung Tremor, like dystonia, is a term used at the phenomenological, syndromic, and aetiopathological level. Parkinsonian, essential, and dystonic tremor are the three most common tremor diagnoses encountered in clinical practice. Investigation of nonmotor symptoms in essential tremor and dystonic tremor syndromes is significantly hampered by the lack of clear clinical diagnostic criteria for these groups at a syndromic level, and the absence of biomarkers which allow definitive ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Forty-Eight Nonmotor Symptoms in Dystonia
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 134 Author(s): Julie Ann Kristy L. Torres, Raymond L. Rosales With the emergence of quality of life measures as an indicator for the impact of medical and surgical interventions in dystonia, focus has shifted toward unraveling the pathophysiology and neuroanatomical basis of the “nonmotor symptoms” (NMS). To date, the NMS are now recognized as the greater determinant of quality of life in dystonia, going above and beyond the motor symptomatology. This chapter highlights what is currently known in available literature on the NMS among pa...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Forty-Seven Nonmotor Symptoms in Vascular and Other Secondary Parkinsonism
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 134 Author(s): Oleg S. Levin, Achcha Sh. Chimagomedova, Natalia A. Skripkina, Elena A. Lyashenko, Olga V. Babkina Vascular parkinsonism (VP) is a relatively frequent variant of secondary parkinsonism caused by ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions of basal ganglia, midbrain, or their links with frontal cortex. According to different investigations, various forms of cerebrovascular disease cause 1%–15% of parkinsonism cases. Nonmotor symptoms are frequently found in VP and may negatively influence on quality of life. However, nonmotor symptoms such ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Forty-Six Nonmotor Features in Atypical Parkinsonism
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 134 Author(s): Kailash P. Bhatia, Maria Stamelou Atypical parkinsonism (AP) comprises mainly multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD), which are distinct pathological entities, presenting with a wide phenotypic spectrum. The classic syndromes are now called MSA-parkinsonism (MSA-P), MSA-cerebellar type (MSA-C), Richardson's syndrome, and corticobasal syndrome. Nonmotor features in AP have been recognized almost since the initial description of these disorders; however, research has bee...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Forty-Five Personalized Medicine and Nonmotor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 134 Author(s): Nataliya Titova, K. Ray Chaudhuri Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multineurotransmitter dysfunction related disorder resulting in a range of motor and nonmotor symptoms. Phenotypic heterogeneity is pronounced in PD and nonmotor symptoms dominant subtypes have been described. These endophenotypes may be underpinned by considerable nondopaminergic dysfunction; however, conventional treatment of PD continues to be mostly reliant on dopamine replacement strategy or manipulation of brain dopaminergic pathways. Consequently, treatment of man...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Forty-Four Palliative Care and Nonmotor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease and Parkinsonism
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 134 Author(s): Nataliya Titova, K. Ray Chaudhuri The term palliative care (PC) is defined as a collection of interventions and strategies that helps to improve and sustain the quality of life of patients and caregivers in situations and scenarios associated with life-threatening illness. This is usually implemented by means of early identification and treatment of relevant motor and nonmotor issues such as pain, sleep, and autonomic dysfunction, dementia, and depression. In addition, a holistic PC program also includes delivery of physical, psychos...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Forty-Three Swallowing Dysfunctions in Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 134 Author(s): Janine A. Simons Dysphagia is a very frequent and highly relevant symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD) for quality of life, morbidity, and remaining lifetime, which is unfortunately widely underdiagnosed and underestimated regarding patients' centered care. Especially in early stages, the causal association between disease and swallowing disabilities remains unnoticed, which may be accounted for by the inability of caregivers and physicians to detect subtle swallowing problems and by the low self-awareness among PD patients. In order ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Forty-Two Speech, Voice, and Communication
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 134 Author(s): Julia A. Johnson Communication changes are an important feature of Parkinson's and include both motor and nonmotor features. This chapter will cover briefly the motor features affecting speech production and voice function before focusing on the nonmotor aspects. A description of the difficulties experienced by people with Parkinson's when trying to communicate effectively is presented along with some of the assessment tools and therapists’ treatment options. The idea of clinical heterogeneity of PD and subtyping patients with ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Forty-One Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Exercise in Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 134 Author(s): Indu Subramanian The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapy in nonmotor symptoms (NMS) for Parkinson disease (PD) is growing worldwide. Well-performed, systematic evidence-based research is largely lacking in this area and many studies include various forms of CAM with small patient numbers and a lack of standardization of the approaches studied. Taichi, Qigong, dance, yoga, mindfulness, acupuncture, and other CAM therapies are reviewed and there is some evidence for the following: Taichi in sleep and PDQ39; danc...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Forty Nutrition and Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 134 Author(s): Laurie K. Mischley To date, no guidelines exist for the screening, evaluation, and management of nutritional status in PD. Dozens of studies demonstrate an association between diet in adulthood with subsequent risk of developing PD. Individuals with PD are at increased risk of malnutrition due to the increased metabolic demands and disease pathophysiology. Risk of malnutrition is further complicated by anosmia, swallowing difficulties, constipation, and drug–nutrient interactions. An emerging body of evidence suggests that the ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Thirty-Nine Botulinum Toxin Therapy for Nonmotor Aspects of Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 134 Author(s): Jarosław Sławek, Mariusz Madaliński The medical treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) is symptomatic both in terms of motor and nonmotor aspects. The nonmotor symptoms therapy should be taken into account as many of them negatively influence the quality of life and are treatable. Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) offers effective treatment for drooling and bladder dysfunctions and alternative treatment for constipation and pain related to parkinsonism. BoNT for drooling is probably the best-documented therapy for nonmotor symptoms by cl...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Thirty-Eight Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and Implications for Nonmotor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 134 Author(s): Irena Rektorová, Ľubomíra Anderková Transcranial noninvasive brain stimulation includes both repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). TMS uses a rapidly changing magnetic field to induce currents and action potentials in underlying brain tissue, whereas tDCS involves the application of weak electrical currents to modulate neuronal membrane potential. In this chapter, we provide a literature review with a focus on the therapeutic potential of both tec...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Thirty-Seven Deep Brain Stimulation and Nonmotor Symptoms
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 134 Author(s): Elliot Hogg, Jeffrey Wertheimer, Sarah Graner, Michele Tagliati Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is currently the treatment of choice for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Several brain targets, including the subthalamic nucleus and the globus pallidus internus, have been successfully employed, with excellent motor outcomes. Despite less established knowledge, DBS may be a powerful tool for managing a wide variety of nonmotor symptoms (NMS) in PD patients, either directly or indirectly due to motor benefit or reduction of dopaminergic d...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Thirty-Six Infusional Therapies, Continuous Dopaminergic Stimulation, and Nonmotor Symptoms
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 134 Author(s): Ulrika Mundt-Petersen, Per Odin Pump-based Parkinson (PD) therapies, including subcutaneous apomorphine infusion (CSA) and levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG), presently constitute the most effective pharmacological treatments available for advanced PD. These therapies are based on a more constant delivery of the dopaminergic drug resulting in a more continuous dopaminergic stimulation and a more stable treatment effect. This can be detected as reduction of time in off, reduction of dyskinesia frequency and severity, as well as ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Thirty-Five Nonmotor Effects of Conventional and Transdermal Dopaminergic Therapies in Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 134 Author(s): Ryul Kim, Beomseok Jeon Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) are an integral component of Parkinson's disease (PD). Because the burden and range of NMS are key determinants of quality of life for patients and caregivers, their management is a crucial issue in clinical practice. Although a range of NMS have a dopaminergic pathophysiological basis, this fact is underrecognized, and thus, they are often regarded as dopamine unresponsive symptoms. However, substantial evidence indicates that many NMS respond to oral and transdermal dopaminergic thera...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Thirty-Four Acute Presentation of Nonmotor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 134 Author(s): Kimberly Kwei, Steven Frucht There are a few syndromes involving the nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders that can quickly lead to severe morbidity and mortality, and, as such, need rapid identification and management. Among these are neuroleptic malignant syndrome, serotonin syndrome, dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome, and dystonic storm. It is important to maintain a high index of suspicion for these disorders as lack of identification can lead to death. Many of these acutely occurring nonmotor s...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Thirty-Three Nonmotor Fluctuations in Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 134 Author(s): Christiana Franke, Alexander Storch The advanced stage of Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by motor complications such as motor fluctuations and dyskinesias induced by long-term levodopa treatment. Recent clinical research provides growing evidence that various nonmotor symptoms such as neuropsychiatric, autonomic, and sensory symptoms (particularly pain) also show fluctuations in patients with motor fluctuations (called nonmotor fluctuations or NMF). However, NMF have not yet been adequately considered in routine care of ad...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Thirty-Two Visual Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2017 Source:International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 134 Author(s): Richard A. Armstrong This chapter describes the visual problems likely to be encountered in Parkinson's disease (PD) and whether such signs are useful in differentiating the parkinsonian syndromes. Visual dysfunction in PD may involve visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color discrimination, pupil reactivity, saccadic and pursuit eye movements, motion perception, visual fields, and visual processing speeds. In addition, disturbance of visuospatial orientation, facial recognition problems, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior diso...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research