Molecular Imaging of Addictive Behavior in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: Available online 13 August 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Christine Ghadery, Mikaeel Valli, Alexander Mihaescu, Rebecca Strafella, Irene Navalpotro, Jinhee Kim, Antonio P. StrafellaAbstractParkinson's disease (PD) is commonly associated with motor symptoms, however cognitive and neurobehavioral complications are increasingly recognized and contribute to long-term disability. Dopamine replacement therapy is effective for motor symptoms, but can also lead to motor side-effects and addictive behavior such as impulse control disorders. Molecular imaging is advancing our knowledge o...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Molecular Imaging of Opioid System in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: Available online 13 August 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): S. Thobois, C. Brefel-Courbon, D. Le Bars, V. SgambatoAbstractOpioid receptors are localized throughout peripheral and central nervous system and interact with endogenous opioid peptides and drugs including heroin, synthetic opioids, and pain relievers (codeine, morphine). If several opioid PET tracers exist for preclinical studies, only a few have been used in human. Some tracers are selective for one subtype of opioid receptors (e.g., [11C]CAF (carfentanil) for μ receptor) while others are not ([11C]DPN (diprenorphi...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Role of Patient–Practitioner Relationships in Placebo and Nocebo Phenomena
Conclusion: A patient-centered approach rooted in demonstrating care and empathy can positively enhance a patient's experience within the clinical environment and activate psychosociobiological adaptations associated with the placebo phenomenon. Pain patients could particularly benefit from non-invasive approaches for improving treatment effectiveness and quality-of-life. (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Modulation of the Motor System by Placebo and Nocebo Effects
Publication date: Available online 7 August 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Mirta FiorioAbstractThere is strong behavioral evidence that placebo and nocebo effects can influence aspects of motor performance like speed, force, and resistance to fatigue in athletes and non-athletes alike. These behavioral studies were essential for extending experimental investigation of the placebo and nocebo effects from the pain to the motor domain and to reveal how verbal suggestions and experiential learning are involved in shaping modulatory systems and related behavioral responses. However, the neural underp...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Ethics of Placebo Effects in Clinical Practice and Research
Publication date: Available online 7 August 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Marco AnnoniAbstractThis chapter provides a synthetic overview of the contemporary debate over the ethics of placebos and placebo effects in both clinical and research contexts. Section 1 briefly reconstructs how ethical attitudes toward the use of placebos have changed during the last century following the emergence of autonomy in medical ethics. Next, Sections 2–4 chart the main ethical issues concerning the use of placebos in clinical settings, examining: the ethics of deceptive placebos; the ethics of placebos w...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Clinical Use of Placebo Effects in Patients With Pain Disorders
Publication date: Available online 6 August 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): R. Klinger, J. Stuhlreyer, M. Schwartz, J. Schmitz, L. CollocaAbstractThe analgesic placebo effect is well documented by numerous studies. Many important influencing factors, however, are yet to be discovered. In the arena of placebo effects and clinical implications, expectancies play a central role. Expectancies are shaped by processes of classical and social learning as well as verbal instructions and are strongly related to emotional factors. Expectancies trigger a cascade of endogenous opioids and non-opioids, which ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Therapeutic Value of the Relationship for Placebo Effects and Other Healing Practices
Publication date: Available online 6 August 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Bruce E. WampoldAbstractResponse to placebos has been documented experimentally for many medical disorders and had been verified in laboratory studies. However, the mechanisms that produce the response to placebos are not well identified, although it appears that the relationship between the medical practitioner and the patient plays an important role. Humans and other eusocial animals evolved to heal in a social context, so it is not surprising that the healing relationship is an important factor in the delivery of healt...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Are Blue Pills Better Than Green? How Treatment Features Modulate Placebo Effects
Publication date: Available online 6 August 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Karin Meissner, Klaus LindeAbstractTreatment-related expectations are important predictors for placebo effects in various medical conditions. They are formed by verbal and nonverbal cues during the administration of treatments, such as verbal suggestions, conscious and unconscious associations with previous treatments, characteristics of patients and health-care providers as well as perceptual characteristics of the treatment. This review provides an overview of studies that aimed to elucidate the impact of treatment char...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Choose Your Words Wisely: The Impact of Message Framing on Patients' Responses to Treatment Advice
Publication date: Available online 6 August 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Paul Glare, Ilona Fridman, Claire E. Ashton-JamesAbstractOther people's words can have a powerful influence on how we interpret our environment, what we expect and experience, what we value, how we feel, what we choose, and how we behave. Placebo (and nocebo) effects are a dramatic example of this. The way in which healthcare professionals discuss, describe, and inform patients about the characteristic effects of a given disease and it prevention, diagnosis and treatment influence patients' feelings and expectations which...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Placebo and Active Treatment Additivity in Placebo Analgesia: Research to Date and Future Directions
This article reviews the assumption of additivity in placebo analgesia by examining studies employing factorial designs manipulating both the receipt of an active analgesic and instructions about the treatment being delivered. In reviewing the literature, we identified seven studies that allowed a test of additivity. Of these, four found evidence against additivity, while the remaining three studies found results consistent with additivity. While the limited available data are somewhat mixed, the evidence suggests that at least under some conditions the assumption of additivity does not hold in placebo analgesia. The conco...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Optimizing Placebo and Minimizing Nocebo to Reduce Pain, Catastrophizing, and Opioid Use: A Review of the Science and an Evidence-Informed Clinical Toolkit
Publication date: Available online 6 August 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Beth D. Darnall, Luana CollocaAbstractPain, a noxious psychosensory experience, motivates escape behavior to assure protection and survival. Psychological factors alter the experience and trajectory of pain, as well as behavior and treatment response. In the context of pain, the placebo effect (expectation for pain relief) releases endogenous opioids and facilitates analgesia from exogenously administered opioids. Nocebo hyperalgesia (expectation for persistent or worsening pain) opposes endogenous opioid analgesia and pa...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Power of Labeling in Nocebo Effects
Publication date: Available online 6 August 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Kate Faasse, Leslie R. MartinAbstractNocebo effects comprise two broad types: primary nocebo effects, in which overall treatment efficacy is reduced; and nocebo side effects, which result in the increased experience of unpleasant secondary side effects. An important factor in generating nocebo effects of both types is the patient's expectations of how well a treatment will work, and how likely it is to cause side effects. One source of negative expectations is the presence of generic—as opposed to brand name—l...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Social Influences on Nicotine-Related Behaviors
Publication date: Available online 6 August 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Jose A. Piña, Mark D. Namba, Jonna M. Leyrer-Jackson, Gabriella Cabrera-Brown, Cassandra D. GipsonAbstractCigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. The number of new smokers, specifically among adolescents, has risen rapidly in recent years. Thus, understanding the role of social influences on patterns of nicotine and tobacco use is important. Clinical studies have addressed the impact social relationships such as family members and peers have on smoking acquisition and susce...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Placebo Effect: Theory, Mechanisms and Teleological Roots
Publication date: Available online 6 August 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Javeria Ali HashmiAbstractWhy pain can be relieved with placebos is heavily debated. The term “placebo effect,” implies that the placebo treatment induces pain relief which is imprecise because it is the mental cueing to the context of treatment and not the placebo itself that can reduce pain. This essay reverts to fundamentals of perception that have been used to explain how context generates predictions that can in turn effect the process of processing, organizing and interpreting of sensory inputs received ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Knowledge Gaps in Placebo Research: With Special Reference to Neurobiology
This article addresses different ways to identify knowledge gaps in placebo research. Following a short description of the history of placebo research and our contributions, we describe the creation of the Journal of Interdisciplinary Placebo Studies (JIPS) literature database and compare its content (on a meta-level) with two other approaches to survey the current state of the art of placebo research: a bibliometric analysis of a (limited) selection of placebo papers, and the analysis of the content of all abstracts submitted to a 2017 placebo conference. We summarize this discussion with a critical assessment of these ap...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Nocebo Responses in Brain Diseases: A Systematic Review of the Current Literature
Publication date: Available online 2 August 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Panagiotis Zis, Dimos-Dimitrios MitsikostasAbstractPlacebo is an intervention with no therapeutic effect that is used as a control in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Placebo effects and responses can produce a beneficial effect that cannot be attributed to the properties of the intervention itself, since it is usually inactive, and should, therefore, be due to the patient's expectations about treatment (placebo effects), or confounding factors such as natural history, co-interventions, biases, among other co-factors ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Lumping and Splitting: Toward a Taxonomy of Placebo and Related Effects
Publication date: Available online 2 August 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): John M. KelleyAbstractThe placebo effect is closely related to many other constructs, including most prominently, conditioning and expectancy, but also natural history, regression to the mean, priming, mindset, context effects, the meaning response, specific and non-specific clinical effects, placebo-related effects, the patient–clinician relationship, and the common factors in psychotherapy. How are these various terms related to one another? To what degree do they overlap, and to what degree do they diverge? To fo...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Placebo Effects: Historical and Modern Evaluation
Publication date: Available online 2 August 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Damien G. FinnissAbstractThe history of the placebo phenomenon is both interesting and informative. The placebo effect is a core component of health care, and if one considers a contemporary view of placebo effects, this has likely been the case for as long as records exist. An exploration of placebos and placebo effects across several centuries demonstrates many interesting facts, ranging from very early writings and experiments to the modern investigation of placebo mechanisms. A longitudinal review reveals the many cha...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Role of Sleep in Learning Placebo Effects
Publication date: Available online 31 July 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Florian Chouchou, Thien Thanh Dang-Vu, Pierre Rainville, Gilles LavigneAbstractThe placebo effect is a psychobiological phenomenon producing clinical benefits attributed to a wide range of neurobiological mechanisms. Independently from placebo effects, these mechanisms may also be under the influence of processes that can take place during sleep. The relationship between sleep and placebo effects has received very little attention. Three experimental studies, conducted on healthy subjects, have examined sleep changes follo...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Social Influences in Animal Models of Opiate Addiction
Publication date: Available online 30 July 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Seven E. Tomek, M. Foster OliveAbstractOpiate addiction has reached an epidemic prevalence in recent years, yet social influences on the use and abuse of opiates has been widely understudied. In particular, the neurobiological substrates of opiate addiction and their modulation by social influences are largely unknown, perhaps due to the lack of widespread incorporation of social variables into animal models of opiate addiction. As reviewed here, animal models such as oral and intravenous drug self-administration, conditio...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 31, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Assessing Social Alcohol Drinking in Rodent Models: Are We There Yet?
Publication date: Available online 30 July 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Andrey E. Ryabinin, Andre T. WalcottAbstractPathological and social consequences associated with excessive alcohol consumption and dependence constitute a serious concern for human well-being. The success of preventative and therapeutic strategies for alcohol use disorder depends on the development of appropriate animal models of alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption in humans typically occurs in social settings. In contrast, the vast majority of animal models investigate alcohol drinking in socially isolated animals. A...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 31, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Social Factors in Ethanol Sensitization
Publication date: Available online 30 July 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Rosana Camarini, Priscila Marianno, Mariana RaeAbstractBehavioral sensitization is a neuroadaptive process characterized by an increase in a particular behavior after repeated exposure to drugs or other stimuli, such as stress. Sensitization can also be extended to neurochemical and neuroendocrine sensitization. Several factors can influence sensitization to the effects of ethanol. For instance, stress is an important component in addiction that can strengthen ethanol-induced behaviors. In animal models, stressful situatio...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 31, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Social Defeat Stress, Sex, and Addiction-Like Behaviors
Publication date: Available online 30 July 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Akiko ShimamotoAbstractSocial confrontation is a form of social interaction in animals where two conspecific individuals confront each other in dispute over territory, during the formation of hierarchies, and during breeding seasons. Typically, a social confrontation involves a prevailing individual and a yielding individual. The prevailing individual often exhibits aggressive postures and launches attacks, whereas the yielding individual often adopts postures of defeat. The yielding or defeated animals experience a phenom...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 31, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Series Page
Publication date: 2017Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 137Author(s): (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Contributors
Publication date: 2017Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 137Author(s): (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Preface
Publication date: 2017Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 137Author(s): Hari S. Sharma, Aruna Sharma (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Acknowledgments
Publication date: 2017Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 137Author(s): Hari S. Sharma, Aruna Sharma (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter One - Current Strategies for the Delivery of Therapeutic Proteins and Enzymes to Treat Brain Disorders
Publication date: 2017Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 137Author(s): Jason T. Duskey, Daniela Belletti, Francesca Pederzoli, Maria Angela Vandelli, Flavio Forni, Barbara Ruozi, Giovanni TosiAbstractBrain diseases and injuries are growing to be one of the most deadly and costly medical conditions in the world. Unfortunately, current treatments are incapable of ameliorating the symptoms let alone curing the diseases. Many brain diseases have been linked to a loss of function in a protein or enzyme, increasing research for improving their delivery. This is no easy task due to the delicate nature of protein...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Two - Impact of Inflammation on the Blood–Neural Barrier and Blood–Nerve Interface: From Review to Therapeutic Preview
Publication date: 2017Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 137Author(s): Stephen D. SkaperAbstractA number of nervous system disorders are characterized by a state of inflammation (neuroinflammation) in which members of the innate immune system, most notably mast cells and microglia—acting as single entities and in unison—produce inflammatory molecules that play major roles. A neuroinflammatory environment can weaken not only blood–nerve and blood–brain barrier (BBB) integrity but also that of the blood–spinal cord barrier. Mast cells, with their distribution in peripheral nerv...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Three - Intravenous Administration of Functionalized Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Does Not Induce CNS Injury in the Rat: Influence of Spinal Cord Trauma and Cerebrolysin Treatment
Publication date: 2017Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 137Author(s): Preeti K. Menon, Aruna Sharma, José V. Lafuente, Dafin F. Muresanu, Zoraida P. Aguilar, Y. Anderw Wang, Ranjana Patnaik, Herbert Mössler, Hari S. SharmaAbstractInfluence of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (IOMNPs, 10 nm in diameter, 0.25 or 0.50 mg/mL in 100 μL, i.v.) on the blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability, edema formation, and neuronal or glial changes within 4–24 h after administration was examined in normal rats and after a focal spinal cord injury (SCI). Furthermore, effect of...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Four - Histaminergic Receptors Modulate Spinal Cord Injury-Induced Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Upregulation and Cord Pathology: New Roles of Nanowired Drug Delivery for Neuroprotection
Publication date: 2017Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 137Author(s): Hari S. Sharma, Ranjana Patnaik, Dafin F. Muresanu, José V. Lafuente, Asya Ozkizilcik, Z. Ryan Tian, Ala Nozari, Aruna SharmaAbstractThe possibility that histamine influences the spinal cord pathophysiology following trauma through specific receptor-mediated upregulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was examined in a rat model. A focal spinal cord injury (SCI) was inflicted by a longitudinal incision into the right dorsal horn of the T10–11 segments. The animals were allowed to survive 5 h. The SCI signifi...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Five - Nanoformulation: A Useful Therapeutic Strategy for Improving Neuroprotection and the Neurorestorative Potential in Experimental Models of Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2017Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 137Author(s): Jose V. Lafuente, Catalina Requejo, Alejandro Carrasco, Harkaitz BengoetxeaAbstractParkinson's disease (PD) is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder, but current therapies are only symptomatic. Experimental models are necessary to go deeper in the comprehension of pathophysiological mechanism and to assess new therapeutic strategies. The unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion either in medial forebrain bundle (MFB) or into the striatum in rats affords to study various stages of PD depending on the evolution time lap...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Six - Novel Treatment Strategies Using TiO2-Nanowired Delivery of Histaminergic Drugs and Antibodies to Tau With Cerebrolysin for Superior Neuroprotection in the Pathophysiology of Alzheimer's Disease
Publication date: 2017Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 137Author(s): Aruna Sharma, Preeti K. Menon, Ranjana Patnaik, Dafin F. Muresanu, José V. Lafuente, Z. Ryan Tian, Asya Ozkizilcik, Rudy J. Castellani, Herbert Mössler, Hari S. SharmaAbstractMore than 5.5 million Americans of all ages are suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) till today for which no suitable therapy has been developed so far. Thus, there is an urgent need to explore novel therapeutic measures to contain brain pathology in AD. The hallmark of AD includes amyloid-beta peptide (AβP) deposition and phosphorylation of ta...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Series Page
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 138Author(s): (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Contributors
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 138Author(s): (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Preface: The Fascinating Mechanisms and Implications of the Placebo Effect
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 138Author(s): Luana Colloca (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter One - Placebo Analgesia in Rodents: Current and Future Research
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 138Author(s): Asaf Keller, Titilola Akintola, Luana CollocaAbstractThe investigation of placebo effects in animal pain models has received less attention than human research. This may be related to a number of difficulties, including the fact that animals lack the ability to use language and establish expectancies verbally, that animals cannot report and rate the extent to which they experience pain, and the inadequacy of current models of pain. Here, we describe the relatively small number of studies that have been published, communicating the oppo...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Two - Expectancy Modulation of Opioid Neurotransmission
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 138Author(s): Marta Pecina, Jon-Kar ZubietaAbstractExpectancies are powerful modulators of cognitive and emotional experiences, as well as the neurobiological responses linked to these processes. In medicine, placebo effects are a clear example of how expectancies activate opioid neurotransmission in a treatment context, leading to the experience of analgesia and the improvement of emotional states, among other symptoms. Molecular neuroimaging techniques using positron emission tomography (PET) and the selective μ-opioid receptor tracer [11C]carf...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Three - Placebo Effects in the Immune System
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 138Author(s): Martin Hadamitzky, Wiebke Sondermann, Sven Benson, Manfred SchedlowskiAbstractEven though knowledge and systematic application of placebo responses in the immune system are sparse, this topic is of particular importance since it may aim at drug-dose reduction while maintaining therapeutic efficacy of treatment in clinical settings. Placebo responses in the immune system are inducible by associated learning paradigms, such as behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression. One established learning paradigm in both rats and humans is conditi...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Four - Human Pharmacological Conditioning of the Immune and Endocrine System: Challenges and Opportunities
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 138Author(s): Judith Tekampe, Henriët van Middendorp, Fred C.G.J. Sweep, Sean H.P.P. Roerink, Ad R.M.M. Hermus, Andrea W.M. EversAbstractIn this chapter, we review recent studies on conditioned pharmacological effects on immune and endocrine responses in humans, and discuss challenges and opportunities for bringing these effects into clinical practice. By altering physiological mechanisms in part independent of pharmacological agents, pharmacological conditioning has high clinical relevance, as illustrated in some patient studies. Methodologica...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Five - Response Expectancy and the Placebo Effect
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 138Author(s): Irving KirschAbstractIn this chapter, I review basic tenets of response expectancy theory (Kirsch, 1985), beginning with the important distinction between response expectancies and stimulus expectancies. Although both can affect experience, the effects of response expectancies are stronger and more resistant to extinction than those of stimulus expectancies. Further, response expectancies are especially important to understanding placebo effects. The response expectancy framework is consistent with and has been amplified by the Bayesia...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Six - A Functional-Cognitive Perspective on the Relation Between Conditioning and Placebo Research
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 138Author(s): Jan De HouwerAbstractFrom a functional-cognitive perspective, conditioning is relevant for placebo research because it (a) highlights stimulus pairings (e.g., taking a pill that contains an active pharmacological substance causing a drop in blood pressure) as a potential environmental cause of creating or boosting placebo effects (e.g., reduction in blood pressure after taking a similar pill that no longer contains the active substance) and (b) orients researchers to potential mental mechanisms that might underlie those effects (e.g., ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Seven - The Application of Persuasion Theory to Placebo Effects
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 138Author(s): Andrew L. Geers, Pablo Briñol, Erin A. Vogel, Olivia Aspiras, Fawn C. Caplandies, Richard E. PettyAbstractPlacebo effects, or positive outcomes resulting from expectations about a treatment, are powerful components of modern medical care. In this chapter, we suggest that our understanding of placebo effects may benefit from more explicitly connecting this phenomenon to the existing empirical psychological literature on persuasion. Persuasion typically involves an attempt to bring about a change in beliefs or attitudes as a resul...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Eight - Mindsets Matter: A New Framework for Harnessing the Placebo Effect in Modern Medicine
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 138Author(s): Sean R. Zion, Alia J. CrumAbstractThe clinical utility of the placebo effect has long hinged on physicians deceptively administering an objective placebo treatment to their patients. However, the power of the placebo does not reside in the sham treatment itself; rather, it comes from the psychosocial forces that surround the patient and the treatment. To this end, we propose a new framework for understanding and leveraging the placebo effect in clinical care. In outlining this framework, we first present the placebo effect as a neurobi...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Nine - The Role of Social and Interpersonal Factors in Placebo Analgesia
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 138Author(s): Elizabeth A. Necka, Lauren Y. AtlasAbstractPlacebo effects are beneficial clinical outcomes that emerge as a result of nonspecific contextual factors, transmitted primarily by the treating physician and the social, physical, and behavioral cues he or she displays. The patient–provider therapeutic alliance is critical for determining placebo effects and health outcomes. In this chapter, we review the recent literature, suggesting that provider social characteristics modulate placebo and clinical outcomes. We highlight the importan...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Ten - What Is Minimally Required to Elicit Placebo Effects?
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 138Author(s): Karin B. JensenAbstractPlacebo effects have often been attributed to cognitive processes described as “learning” and/or “expectancy,” yet the role of conscious awareness is unclear. Furthermore, little is known about the placebo effects in patients with limited cognitive abilities, such as intellectual disability. Here, recent data on placebo mechanisms in patients with impaired cognitive function will be discussed, as well as experimental studies investigating how implicit cognitive processes may shape placebo ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Eleven - Critical Life Functions: Can Placebo Replace Oxygen?
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 138Author(s): Fabrizio Benedetti, Diletta Barbiani, Eleonora CameroneAbstractA crucial question in placebo research is related to which conditions and physiological functions are affected by placebos. Here we present evidence that critical life functions, like ventilation, oxygenation, circulation, and perfusion, can be sensitive to placebo treatments in some circumstances. Indeed, we have investigated the role of placebo effects at an altitude of 3500 m, where oxygen pressure is 64% compared to the sea level. In these extreme conditions, hypox...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Twelve - Placebos Without Deception: Outcomes, Mechanisms, and Ethics
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 138Author(s): Luana Colloca, Jeremy HowickAbstractScientific research indicates that open-label and dose-extending placebos (that patients know are placebos) can elicit behavioral, biological, and clinical outcome changes. In this chapter, we present the state-of-the-art evidence and ethical considerations about open-label and dose-extending placebos, discussing the perspective of giving placebos with a rational, as dose extension of active drugs, or expectancy boosters. Previous comprehensive reviews of placebo use have considered how to harness pl...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Thirteen - Placebo and Psychotherapy: Differences, Similarities, and Implications
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 138Author(s): Jens Gaab, Cosima Locher, Charlotte BleaseAbstractThe placebo and psychotherapy are both effective psychological interventions. Next to being characterized by their own and specific controversies and debates, there is a persistent—and least for psychotherapy—looming notion that these two interventions share more than just the first letter. Based on Grünbaum's influential conceptualization of placebo, this chapter critically reviews both the time-honored claim that psychotherapy is a placebo as well as the argument that...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Fourteen - Expectation-Focused Psychotherapy to Improve Clinical Outcomes
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 138Author(s): Bettina K. Doering, Julia A. Glombiewski, Winfried RiefAbstractPlacebo research has shown that patients’ expectations are among the strongest predictors of treatment outcome regarding various medical conditions. Therefore, interventions focusing on the change of such expectations might be most effective. This could be of relevance not only for outcome expectations but also for disease-specific, problem-specific, and treatment-specific expectations.A theoretical model is introduced to illustrate the conditions for expectation chan...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research