Neuroimaging Applications in Restless Legs Syndrome
Publication date: Available online 22 October 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Giovanni Rizzo, Giuseppe PlazziAbstractNeuroimaging studies provide information useful to understand the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome. Molecular PET and SPECT imaging findings mainly supported dysfunction of dopaminergic pathways involving not only the nigrostriatal but also mesolimbic pathways. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have used different techniques. Studies using iron-sensitive sequences supported the presence of a regionally variable low brain iron content, mainly at the level of substant...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural Correlates of Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease: A Review of Structural MRI Findings
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Julie M. Hall, Simon J.G. LewisAbstractCognitive impairment is one of the most salient non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Cognitive decline poses a significant burden on the patient as well as the caregiver and a better understanding of the underlying pathological processes will aid in directing disease-specific treatment. In recent years, significant progress in the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of cognition in PD has been made using neuroimaging modalities. In this review, we will discuss the...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Functional MRI in Parkinson's Disease Cognitive Impairment
Publication date: Available online 17 October 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Hugo C. Baggio, Carme JunquéAbstractFunctional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to study the neural bases of cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease for several years. Traditionally, task-based fMRI has been applied to study specific cognitive functions, providing information on disease-related alterations and regarding the physiological bases of normal cognition, the dopaminergic system, and the frontostriatal circuits. More recently, functional connectivity techniques using resting-state fMRI d...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

PET Molecular Imaging in Familial Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Michele Matarazzo, Daryl Wile, Melissa Mackenzie, A. Jon StoesslAbstractMost cases of Parkinson's disease (PD) are idiopathic, but some characteristics, such as early onset for a positive family history, raise suspicions of an inherited form of the disease. In the last decades several genes have been linked to parkinsonism, with different patterns of inheritance and different clinical phenotypes. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has helped to characterize genetic-linked parkinsonism, thanks to the availability...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroimaging Applications in Tourette's Syndrome
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Davide Martino, Christos Ganos, Yulia WorbeAbstractTics are neurodevelopmental hyperkinetic symptoms typically associated with unpleasant sensory experiences called premonitory urges. Tourette syndrome (TS) is the primary chronic tic disorder for which medical surveillance is most frequently required, and is associated with a complex phenotypical spectrum encompassing different types of abnormal behaviors. Animal models of tics support their link to phasic activity changes throughout the sensorimotor loop of the cortico...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Nine - Molecular Imaging of Opioid System in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 141Author(s): Stephane Thobois, Christine Brefel-Courbon, Didier Le Bars, Véronique Sgambato-FaureAbstractOpioid receptors are localized throughout peripheral and central nervous system and interact with endogenous opioid peptides and drugs including heroin, synthetic opioids, and pain relievers (codeine, morphine). If several opioid PET tracers exist for preclinical studies, only a few have been used in human. Some tracers are selective for one subtype of opioid receptors (e.g., [11C]CAF (carfentanil) for μ receptor) while others are not ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Ten - Molecular Imaging of the Cannabinoid System in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 141Author(s): Roberto CiliaAbstractThe endocannabinoid system is a modulator of neurotransmitter release and is involved in several physiological functions. Hence, it has been increasingly studied as a potential pharmacologic target of Parkinson's disease. Several preclinical and clinical studies evidenced a substantial rearrangement of the endocannabinoid system in the basal ganglia circuit following dopamine depletion. The endocannabinoid system has been additionally implicated in the regulation of neuroinflammation and neuroprotection through the...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Eleven - Molecular Imaging of Neuroinflammation in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 141Author(s): Andreas-Antonios Roussakis, Paola PicciniAbstractNeuroinflammation is an important aspect of Parkinson's disease. The study of Parkinson's disease neuroinflammation is quite challenging and is accompanied by controversy. To date, molecular imaging studies have been targeting microglia and more recently astrocytes. In this review article, we discuss the findings from key PET studies with tracers specific for the translocator protein (microglia-specific) and novel evidence from the development of astrocyte-specific PET tracers. We also d...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Twelve - Molecular Imaging of Addictive Behavior in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 141Author(s): Christine Ghadery, Mikaeel Valli, Alexander Mihaescu, Rebecca Strafella, Irene Navalpotro, Jinhee Kim, Antonio P. StrafellaAbstractParkinson's disease (PD) is commonly associated with motor symptoms, however cognitive and neurobehavioral complications are increasingly recognized and contribute to long-term disability. Dopamine replacement therapy is effective for motor symptoms, but can also lead to motor side-effects and addictive behavior such as impulse control disorders. Molecular imaging is advancing our knowledge of the mechanism...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Fourteen - Functional MRI in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 141Author(s): Massimo Filippi, Sarasso Elisabetta, Noemi Piramide, Federica AgostaAbstractFunctional MRI (fMRI) has been widely used to study abnormal patterns of brain connectivity at rest and activation during a variety of tasks in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). fMRI studies in PD have led to a better understanding of many aspects of the disease including both motor and non-motor symptoms. Although its translation into clinical practice is still at an early stage, fMRI measures hold promise for multiple clinical applications in...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Thirteen - Structural MRI in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 141Author(s): Rosa De Micco, Antonio Russo, Alessandro TessitoreAbstractAmong modern neuroimaging modalities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely available, non-invasive, and cost-effective method to detect structural and functional abnormalities related to neurodegenerative disorders. In the last decades, MRI have been widely implemented to support PD diagnosis as well as to provide further insights into motor and non-motor symptoms pathophysiology, complications and treatment-related effects. Different aspects of the brain morphology and ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Series Page
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 141Author(s): (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Contributors
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 141Author(s): (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Preface
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 141Author(s): Marios Politis (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Acknowledgement
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 141Author(s): (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter One - Advances in PET Methodology
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 141Author(s): Vesna SossiAbstractRecent advances in disease understanding, instrumentation technology, and computationally demanding image analysis approaches are opening new frontiers in the investigation of movement disorders and brain disease in general. A key aspect is the recognition of the need to determine molecular correlates to early functional and metabolic connectivity alterations, which are increasingly recognized as useful signatures of specific clinical disease phenotypes. Such multi-modal approaches are highly likely to provide new in...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Two - Advances in MRI Methodology
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 141Author(s): Tayyabah Yousaf, George Dervenoulas, Marios PolitisAbstractMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive technique which can provide comprehensive, multi-parametric information on brain anatomy, function and metabolism. This chapter will give a brief introduction to the basic principles of MR and cover the evolution of image acquisition. Given the versatility of MR, a vast range of MR applications will be discussed, including structural, diffusion tensor, functional, perfusion and neuromelanin-sensitive imaging, as well as quantit...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Three - Advances in SPECT Methodology
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 141Author(s): Alberto Cuocolo, Sabina Pappatà, Emilia Zampella, Roberta AssanteAbstractThe emerging role of molecular imaging has made possible to evaluate and quantify biochemical changes of molecular targets in specific neurochemical systems involved in movement disorders, providing neurochemical information of clinical changes before the pathological features occurred. In detail, radionuclides imaging techniques are frequently used for the in vivo study of neurotransmitter and receptor function, alterations in cerebral blood flow and metab...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Four - Hybrid PET/MRI Methodology
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 141Author(s): Marco Aiello, Carlo Cavaliere, Rocco Marchitelli, Antonio d'Albore, Enrico De Vita, Marco SalvatoreAbstractThe hybrid PET/MR scanner represents the first implementation of the effective integration of two modalities allowing truly synchronous/simultaneous acquisition of their imaging signals. This integration, resulting from the innovation and development of specific hardware components has paved the way for new approaches in the study of neurodegenerative diseases. This chapter will describe the hardware development that has led to th...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Five - Molecular Imaging of the Dopaminergic System in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 141Author(s): Edoardo R. de Natale, Flavia Niccolini, Heather Wilson, Marios PolitisAbstractParkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal connections which is recognized as the major pathophysiological event underlying the onset of motor symptoms. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging allow the study of these connections in vivo at a molecular level. Several radiotracers have been developed targeting the synthesis and...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Six - Molecular Imaging of the Serotonergic System in Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 141Author(s): Gennaro Pagano, Marios PolitisAbstractIn the last decades, the main focus of molecular imaging of Parkinson's disease has been on non-dopaminergic systems involved in the disease alongside the pathognomonic dopaminergic changes. Molecular imaging can detect, in vivo, both presynaptic and postsynaptic serotonergic changes in the brain and has played a key role in elucidating the pathophysiology of the serotonergic system in Parkinson's disease. Alterations in the serotonergic system may happen very early in the course of the disease and...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Seven - Molecular Imaging of the Cholinergic System in Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 141Author(s): Nicolaas I. Bohnen, Prabesh Kanel, Martijn L.T.M. MüllerAbstractOne of the first identified neurotransmitters in the brain, acetylcholine, is an important modulator that drives changes in neuronal and glial activity. For more than two decades, the main focus of molecular imaging of the cholinergic system in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been on cognitive changes. Imaging studies have confirmed that degeneration of the cholinergic system is a major determinant of dementia in PD. Within the last decade, the focus is expanding to stud...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Eight - Molecular Imaging of the Noradrenergic System in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 141Author(s): Adjmal Nahimi, Martin B. Kinnerup, Michael Sommerauer, Albert Gjedde, Per BorghammerAbstractNoradrenergic neurons in both the peripheral nervous system and in the central nervous system (CNS) undergo severe degeneration in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This loss of noradrenaline may play essential roles in the occurrence of a wide range of prevalent non-motor symptoms and can further complicate the lives of PD patients. In vivo molecular imaging of noradrenaline may provide insights into to the extent of degeneration of norad...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Structural and Functional MRI in Familial Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Avner ThalerAbstractBetween 10 and 15% of Parkinson disease (PD) cases can be traced to a genetically identified causative mutation which currently number over 40. This enables the study of both “at risk” populations for future development of PD and a unique sub-group of genetically determined patient population.Structural and functional magnetic imaging has the potential of assisting diagnosis, early detection and disease progression as it is relatively cheap and easy to implement. However, the large variety...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

PET Molecular Imaging in Atypical Parkinsonism
Publication date: Available online 8 October 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Zheyu Xu, Javier Arbizu, Nicola PaveseAbstractMultiple System Atrophy, Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, and Corticobasal Degeneration are three neurodegenerative disorders characterized by parkinsonism along with involvement of other brain cortical and subcortical regions. The ante mortem diagnosis of these disorders is extremely challenging with up to a quarter of these patients being misdiagnosed, particularly in the early stages of disease.While highly specific and sensitive imaging biomarkers of individual atypical pa...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Huntington's Disease
Publication date: Available online 8 October 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Heather Wilson, George Dervenoulas, Marios PolitisAbstractHuntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, caused by expansion of the CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene. HD is characterized clinically by progressive motor, cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms. There are currently no disease modifying treatments available for HD, and there is a great need for biomarkers to monitor disease progression and identify new targets for therapeutic intervention. Neuroimaging techniques provide a po...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Structural Imaging in Atypical Parkinsonism
Publication date: Available online 24 September 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Beatrice Heim, Florian Krismer, Klaus SeppiAbstractQualitative and quantitative structural magnetic resonance imaging offer objective measures of the underlying neurodegeneration in atypical parkinsonism. Regional changes in tissue volume, signal changes and increased deposition of iron as assessed with different structural MRI techniques are surrogate markers of underlying neurodegeneration and may reflect cell loss, microglial proliferation and astroglial activation. Structural MRI has been explored as a tool to enh...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - October 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Molecular Imaging of the Cholinergic System in Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: Available online 20 September 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Nicolaas I. Bohnen, Prabesh Kanel, Martijn L.T.M. MüllerAbstractOne of the first identified neurotransmitters in the brain, acetylcholine, is an important modulator that drives changes in neuronal and glial activity. For more than two decades, the main focus of molecular imaging of the cholinergic system in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been on cognitive changes. Imaging studies have confirmed that degeneration of the cholinergic system is a major determinant of dementia in PD. Within the last decade, the focus is...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - September 21, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Structural MRI in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Rosa De Micco, Antonio Russo, Alessandro TessitoreAbstractAmong modern neuroimaging modalities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely available, non-invasive, and cost-effective method to detect structural and functional abnormalities related to neurodegenerative disorders. In the last decades, MRI have been widely implemented to support PD diagnosis as well as to provide further insights into motor and non-motor symptoms pathophysiology, complications and treatment-related effects. Different aspects of the bra...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - September 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Advances in MRI Methodology
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Tayyabah Yousaf, George Dervenoulas, Marios PolitisAbstractMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive technique which can provide comprehensive, multi-parametric information on brain anatomy, function and metabolism. This chapter will give a brief introduction to the basic principles of MR and cover the evolution of image acquisition. Given the versatility of MR, a vast range of MR applications will be discussed, including structural, diffusion tensor, functional, perfusion and neuromelanin-sensitive imaging, ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - September 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Molecular Imaging of Neuroinflammation in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Andreas-Antonios Roussakis, Paola PicciniAbstractNeuroinflammation is an important aspect of Parkinson's disease. The study of Parkinson's disease neuroinflammation is quite challenging and is accompanied by controversy. To date, molecular imaging studies have been targeting microglia and more recently astrocytes. In this review article, we discuss the findings from key PET studies with tracers specific for the translocator protein (microglia-specific) and novel evidence from the development of astrocyte-specific PET ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - September 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Molecular Imaging of the Cannabinoid System in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Roberto CiliaAbstractThe endocannabinoid system is a modulator of neurotransmitter release and is involved in several physiological functions. Hence, it has been increasingly studied as a potential pharmacologic target of Parkinson's disease. Several preclinical and clinical studies evidenced a substantial rearrangement of the endocannabinoid system in the basal ganglia circuit following dopamine depletion. The endocannabinoid system has been additionally implicated in the regulation of neuroinflammation and neuroprote...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - September 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Advances in SPECT Methodology
Publication date: Available online 6 September 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Alberto Cuocolo, Sabina Pappatà, Emilia Zampella, Roberta AssanteAbstractThe emerging role of molecular imaging has made possible to evaluate and quantify biochemical changes of molecular targets in specific neurochemical systems involved in movement disorders, providing neurochemical information of clinical changes before the pathological features occurred. In detail, radionuclides imaging techniques are frequently used for the in vivo study of neurotransmitter and receptor function, alterations in cerebral blo...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - September 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Molecular Imaging of the Serotonergic System in Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: Available online 6 September 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Gennaro Pagano, Marios PolitisAbstractIn the last decades, the main focus of molecular imaging of Parkinson's disease has been on non-dopaminergic systems involved in the disease alongside the pathognomonic dopaminergic changes. Molecular imaging can detect, in vivo, both presynaptic and postsynaptic serotonergic changes in the brain and has played a key role in elucidating the pathophysiology of the serotonergic system in Parkinson's disease. Alterations in the serotonergic system may happen very early in the course o...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - September 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Molecular Imaging of the Dopaminergic System in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease
Publication date: Available online 6 September 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Edoardo R. de Natale, Flavia Niccolini, Heather Wilson, Marios PolitisAbstractParkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal connections which is recognized as the major pathophysiological event underlying the onset of motor symptoms. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging allow the study of these connections in vivo at a molecular level. Several radiotracers have been developed targeting ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - September 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Three - Social Factors in Ethanol Sensitization
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 140Author(s): Rosana Camarini, Priscila Marianno, Mariana RaeAbstractBehavioral sensitization is a neuroadaptive process characterized by an increase in a particular behavior after repeated exposure to drugs or other stimuli, such as stress. Sensitization can also be extended to neurochemical and neuroendocrine sensitization. Several factors can influence sensitization to the effects of ethanol. For instance, stress is an important component in addiction that can strengthen ethanol-induced behaviors. In animal models, stressful situations can be ind...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - September 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Four - Social Influences in Animal Models of Opiate Addiction
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 140Author(s): Seven E. Tomek, M. Foster OliveAbstractOpiate addiction has reached an epidemic prevalence in recent years, yet social influences on the use and abuse of opiates has been widely understudied. In particular, the neurobiological substrates of opiate addiction and their modulation by social influences are largely unknown, perhaps due to the lack of widespread incorporation of social variables into animal models of opiate addiction. As reviewed here, animal models such as oral and intravenous drug self-administration, conditioned place pre...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - September 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Five - Social Modification of Amphetamine Reward
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 140Author(s): Shigeru WatanabeAbstractSocial modification of drug reward in general and amphetamine reward in particular is reviewed here. The simplest explanation for the social facilitation of drug reward in the conditioned place preference paradigm is the summation of drug and social reinforcing effects. However, experimental reports have shown that sharing a common pharmacological experience, simultaneously or successively, plays a crucial role in the social facilitation of methamphetamine reward. Therefore, social facilitation cannot be the sim...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - September 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Six - Animal Models of the Impact of Social Stress on Cocaine Use Disorders
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 140Author(s): Annika Vannan, Gregory L. Powell, Samantha N. Scott, Broc A. Pagni, Janet L. NeisewanderAbstractCocaine use disorders are strongly influenced by the social conditions prior, during, and after exposure to cocaine. In this chapter, we discuss how social factors such as early life stress, social rank stress, and environmental stress impact vulnerability and resilience to cocaine. The discussion of each animal model begins with a brief review of examples from the human literature, which provide the psychosocial background these models atte...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - September 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Seven - Social Factors and Animal Models of Cannabis Use
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 140Author(s): Lauren HoodAbstractCannabis, or the dried leaves, stems, and seeds of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa, is the most widely used illicit drug in America. Typically smoked, vaporized or ingested orally, cannabis is used primarily for recreational purposes, though a few synthetic cannabinoids have been approved for medicinal treatments. Psychoactive cannabinoids, or the pharmacologically active compounds within cannabis, are responsible for producing the infamous “high” sensation, characterized by feelings of euphoria and relaxa...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - September 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Eight - Oxytocin and Rodent Models of Addiction
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 140Author(s): Kah-Chung Leong, Stewart Cox, Courtney King, Howard Becker, Carmela M. ReichelAbstractInterest for the use of oxytocin as a treatment for addiction began over 40 years ago. Better known for its roles in parturition, lactation and pair bonding, oxytocin also has anxiolytic properties, reduces immune and inflammatory responses, and has a role in learning and memory. In this chapter, oxytocin effects on addiction processes are described by highlighting research findings that have used oxytocin within current preclinical animal models...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - September 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Ten - Social Defeat Stress, Sex, and Addiction-Like Behaviors
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 140Author(s): Akiko ShimamotoAbstractSocial confrontation is a form of social interaction in animals where two conspecific individuals confront each other in dispute over territory, during the formation of hierarchies, and during breeding seasons. Typically, a social confrontation involves a prevailing individual and a yielding individual. The prevailing individual often exhibits aggressive postures and launches attacks, whereas the yielding individual often adopts postures of defeat. The yielding or defeated animals experience a phenomenon known as...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - September 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Nine - Effects of Sexual Experience on Psychostimulant- and Opiate-Induced Behavior and Neural Plasticity in the Mesocorticolimbic Pathway
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 140Author(s): Lauren N. Beloate, Lique M. CoolenAbstractMany factors, including social elements, influence drug addiction in humans and can be modeled in laboratory rodents. In general, the presence of social reward is protective against drug abuse and the absence or removal of social reward in both humans and rodents increases vulnerability to drug addiction. The current review chapter is focused on studies from our lab that have examined the effects of sociosexual behavior in male rats on drug-induced behaviors, including changes in both psychosti...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - September 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Series Page
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 140Author(s): (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - September 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Contributors
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 140Author(s): (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - September 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Preface
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 140Author(s): Seven E. Tomek, M. Foster Olive (Source: International Review of Neurobiology)
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - September 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter One - Social Influences on Nicotine-Related Behaviors
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 140Author(s): Jose A. Piña, Mark D. Namba, Jonna M. Leyrer-Jackson, Gabriella Cabrera-Brown, Cassandra D. GipsonAbstractCigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. The number of new smokers, specifically among adolescents, has risen rapidly in recent years. Thus, understanding the role of social influences on patterns of nicotine and tobacco use is important. Clinical studies have addressed the impact social relationships such as family members and peers have on smoking acquisition and susceptibility. As ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - September 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chapter Two - Assessing Social Alcohol Drinking in Rodent Models: Are We There Yet?
Publication date: 2018Source: International Review of Neurobiology, Volume 140Author(s): Andrey E. Ryabinin, Andre T. WalcottAbstractPathological and social consequences associated with excessive alcohol consumption and dependence constitute a serious concern for human well-being. The success of preventative and therapeutic strategies for alcohol use disorder depends on the development of appropriate animal models of alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption in humans typically occurs in social settings. In contrast, the vast majority of animal models investigate alcohol drinking in socially isolated animals. A number of ro...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - September 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of Sexual Experience on Psychostimulant- and Opiate-Induced Behavior and Neural Plasticity in the Mesocorticolimbic Pathway
Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Lauren N. Beloate, Lique M. CoolenAbstractMany factors, including social elements, influence drug addiction in humans and can be modeled in laboratory rodents. In general, the presence of social reward is protective against drug abuse and the absence or removal of social reward in both humans and rodents increases vulnerability to drug addiction. The current review chapter is focused on studies from our lab that have examined the effects of sociosexual behavior in male rats on drug-induced behaviors, including changes in...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 31, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Molecular Imaging in Huntington's Disease
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Heather Wilson, Marios PolitisAbstractHuntington's disease (HD) is a rare monogenic neurodegenerative disorder caused by a trinucleotide CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene resulting in the formation of intranuclear inclusions of mutated huntingtin. The accumulation of mutated huntingtin leads to loss of GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs); subsequently resulting in the development of chorea, cognitive dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms. Premanifest HD gene expansion carriers, provide a unique cohort to exami...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - August 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research