A male adult skeleton from the Han Dynasty in Shaanxi, China (202 BC–220 AD) with bone changes that possibly represent spinal tuberculosis
Publication date: December 2019Source: International Journal of Paleopathology, Volume 27Author(s): Mocen Li, Charlotte A. Roberts, Liang Chen, Dongyue ZhaoAbstractBioarchaeological data for tuberculosis (TB) have been published very sporadically in China or the rest of East Asia. To explore the history of TB in this area, 85 skeletons excavated from the Liuwei Cemetery in Shaanxi, China (202 BC–220 AD) were macroscopically examined to record TB related bone changes. These skeletons represented inhabitants of Maolingyi, an urban area that had a high population density during the Han Dynasty (202 BC–220 CE). Sev...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - September 7, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Advances in paleopathology in context: A focus on soft tissue paleopathology
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2019Source: International Journal of PaleopathologyAuthor(s): Kenneth C. NystromAbstractSkeletal and mummified remains from South America have had a significant impact on the progress of paleopathological research. In 1997, John Verano synthesized the state of paleopathological research, identifying trends and highlighting future potentials. The goal of this contribution is to consider Verano’s observations on advances in soft tissue paleopathology within the context of the development of the field of mummy studies. As his article was published near the midpoint between ...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - September 2, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Osteoarthritis, entheses, and long bone cross-sectional geometry in the Andes: Usage, history, and future directions
This article also discusses global clinical and osteological research on ways scholars are currently trying to establish industry-wide methods to evaluate osteoarthritis, entheses, and long bone cross-sectional geometry. Recent studies have focused on rigorous evaluation of methodological techniques, recording protocols, and inter- and intra-observer error problems. Additionally, scholars have focused on physical intensity of movement using biomechanics, evaluated burials of known occupation, and used complex statistical methods to help interpret skeletal changes associated with these conditions. This article also narrows ...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - August 30, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Archival, paleopathological and aDNA-based techniques in leprosy research and the case of Father Petrus Donders at the Leprosarium ‘Batavia’, Suriname
ConclusionWe found no evidence that Donders contracted leprosy despite years of intense leprosy contact, but we successfully isolated an archaeological M. leprae aDNA sample from a control skeleton from South America.SignificanceWe successfully genotyped recovered aDNA to a M. leprae strain that likely originated in West Africa. The detected human mitochondrial haplogroup L3 is also associated with this geographical region. This suggests that slave trade contributed to leprosy in Suriname.LimitationsA limited number of skeletons was examined.Suggestions for further researchBroader review of skeletal collections is advised ...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - August 18, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: September 2019Source: International Journal of Paleopathology, Volume 26Author(s): (Source: International Journal of Paleopathology)
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - August 17, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Two cases of skeletal dysplasia from New Kingdom (c. 1400–1050 BCE) Tombos, Sudan
ConclusionsA differential diagnosis of Léri–Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) is suggested for the adult female individual (U36.Sh2.B10). The second case (U36.Sh2.B5) is an approximately three to five-year-old individual and is difficult to diagnose given the young age; however, LWD remains the most likely diagnosis.SignificanceThere are few cases of LWD in the paleopathological literature, and fewer still of juveniles. The cases described are useful examples in expanding research demonstrating the variability in the expression of skeletal dysplasias in juveniles and adults.LimitationsTaphonomic alterations and fr...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - August 2, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Metabolic diseases in Andean paleopathology: Retrospect and prospect
Publication date: Available online 31 July 2019Source: International Journal of PaleopathologyAuthor(s): Haagen D. KlausAbstractJohn Verano’s 1997 synthesis of Andean paleopathology guided two decades of research and was instrumental in establishing modern Andean paleopathology. This paper reviews the current state and new directions in the study of skeletal metabolic disorders in the Central Andean archaeological record. Key historical, ecological, methodological, and contextual issues intersect with the study of metabolic bone diseases in Andean paleopathology. This paper further examines known temporal and spatial...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - August 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Spatial paleopathology: A geographic approach to the etiology of cribrotic lesions in the prehistoric Andes
ConclusionWhile cribra orbitalia has long been tied to coastal proximity, these results suggest environmental constraints such as the need for water storage could have promoted malnutrition and pathogenic infection more than mere coastal proximity.Limitations of this studyThis analysis is limited by the paucity of data from highland sites and by the assumption that burials are local to the excavation site.Suggestions for future researchFuture studies will integrate isotopic and remotely-sensed data into models to explore links between water security, nutrition, and disease. (Source: International Journal of Paleopathology)
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - August 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

How to CT scan human mummies: Theoretical considerations and examples of use
ConclusionsDownsizing the field of view to the region of interest as done in the clinical radiological routine represents one major tool to improve image quality.SignificanceThe provided recommendations should improve CT image quality in mummy studies as well as the handling of image data for reconstructions and storage.LimitationsThe recommendations for CT scanning parameters and image reconstructions were written with relatively new generation CT scanners in mind. Only a few examples of use were chosen and image quality assessment was performed subjectively and not by quantitative measurements. (Source: International Jou...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - July 28, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Developmental anomalies and South American paleopathology: A comparison of block vertebrae and co-occurring axial anomalies among three skeletal samples from the El Brujo archaeological complex of northern coastal Peru
Publication date: Available online 25 July 2019Source: International Journal of PaleopathologyAuthor(s): Anne R. TitelbaumAbstractThough developmental anomalies have been noted for over a century in South American paleopathology, they have received less attention than other pathological conditions. When anomalies are reported, they tend to be unusual case studies or incidental findings. Paleopathological research should also consider anomalies from a population perspective, to broaden our understanding about the frequency of specific anomalies, and potentially offer insight into genetic relationships, cultural behavior, or...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - July 26, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Modern guanaco (Lama guanicoe, Camelidae) bezoars: An approach towards identification in the fossil record
ConclusionsMorphometry, along with external and internal features and mineral composition, are useful tools for the identification and interpretation of bezoars in the fossil record.SignificanceThis study offers new information on the etiology, mechanisms of formation, and means of interpreting the presence of bezoars, a common pathology in South American camelids, in the fossil record.LimitationsThe features of fossil bezoars do not provide accurate identification of the animal that produced them.Suggestions for Further ResearchFurther analyses on modern bezoars belonging to other species of mammals are needed in order to...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - July 25, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

What’s that big thing on your head? Diagnosis of a large frontoparietal lesion on an Eastern Zhou skull from Henan, China
Publication date: September 2019Source: International Journal of Paleopathology, Volume 26Author(s): Kate Pechenkina, Wenquan Fan, Xiaodong LuoAbstractWe carried out a differential diagnosis of a large frontoparietal lesion on a human skull from a Late Bronze Age archaeological site located on the Central Plain of China, dating to between 771 and 476 BC. The head of this individual was covered in cinnabar, a mercury-based pigment that later was used for medicinal purposes in China. The lesion was well-circumscribed and involved the outer and inner tables of the skull, slight diploë thickening, and coarsening of bone t...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - July 25, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Qafzeh 9 mandible (ca 90–100 kyrs BP, Israel) revisited: μ-CT and 3D reveal new pathological conditions
ConclusionTo our knowledge, Qafzeh 9 offers the earliest evidence of associated mandibular and dental pathological conditions (i.e. non-ossifying fibroma of the mandible, pre-eruptive intracoronal resorption and osteochondritis dissecans of the temporomandibular joint) among early anatomically modern humans, and more generally among Middle Palaeolithic hominins in Southwestern Asia. The diagnoses can be added to other growth-related disorders of skulls previously documented from the Qafzeh site (Tillier, 1999; Tillier et al., 2001), suggesting a quite high and exceptional incidence of these conditions compared to those of ...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - July 25, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The paleoepidemiology of Sacral Spina Bifida Occulta in population samples from the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt
ConclusionsData support that SSBO can be considered as a morphogenetic variant. Dakhleh data fall within the prevalence range for most populations, however inter-population comparisons are complicated by methodological inconsistencies.SignificanceSSBO can be used in paleogenetic research.LimitationsMethodological differences in scoring SSBO prevent effective comparative study.Suggested future researchFuture studies require more rigorous and standardized scoring methods. aDNA may be used to corroborate the morphogenetic value of SSBO and determine its clinical significance. (Source: International Journal of Paleopathology)
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - July 25, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Intestinal parasites in six Islamic medieval period latrines from 10th–11th century Córdoba (Spain) and 12th–13th century Mértola (Portugal)
ConclusionDifferences were noted between parasite species found in Mediterranean Europe and northern Europe, where a range of zoonotic parasites were endemic alongside sanitation-related parasites. We suggest that the scarcity of zoonotic parasites in southern Europe in the medieval period may reflect contrasts in climate between northern and southern Europe.SignificanceThe repeated identification of roundworm eggs suggests that al-Andalus was less hygienic than historically depicted. We did not note a difference between parasites found in Muslim and Christian regions of Iberia, and the predominance of parasites spread by ...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - July 22, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Cranial modification and the shapes of heads across the Andes
Publication date: Available online 19 July 2019Source: International Journal of PaleopathologyAuthor(s): Christina Torres-RouffAbstractThis broad literature review considers advances in the study of cranial vault modification with an emphasis on investigations of Andean skeletal remains over the last two decades. I delimit three broad categories of research, building on Verano’s synthesis of the state of Andean paleopathology in 1997. These are associations with skeletal pathological conditions, classification and morphology, and social identity. Progress is noted in each of these areas with a particular emphasis on ...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - July 20, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Cases of endocranial lesions on juvenile skeletons from Longshan cultural sites in Henan Province, China
Publication date: September 2019Source: International Journal of Paleopathology, Volume 26Author(s): Lei Sun, Kate Pechenkina, Yanpeng Cao, Hai Zhang, Xueyi QiAbstractEndocranial lesions were recognized on eight out of the 31 juveniles (25.8%) that were recovered from three Neolithic archaeological sites in Henan province. The remains of juveniles were recovered from urn burials at the Jiazhuang site (2200–2030 BCE) and graves at the Pingliangtai (2300–2100 BCE) and Haojiatai sites (2448–1700 BCE). The presence of endocranial lesions on all eight of these juvenile skulls was associated with a range of les...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - June 25, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: June 2019Source: International Journal of Paleopathology, Volume 25Author(s): (Source: International Journal of Paleopathology)
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - June 25, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Evidence of Skeletal Fluorosis at the Ray Site, Illinois, USA: a pathological assessment and discussion of environmental factors
Conclusions: The osteosclerotic changes along with the naturally high fluoride content of west central Illinois soil and water suggests the presence of skeletal fluorosis.Significance: This is the first report of skeletal fluorosis from archaeologically recovered human remains from North America.Limitations: The ambiguous nature of the skeletal changes associated with fluorosis, especially in the less severe stages of the disease, renders determination of the etiology difficult.Suggestions for Further Research: The continuation of paleopathological investigations of fluoride toxicity within archaeological communities recov...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - June 21, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Revisiting the tuberculosis and leprosy cross-immunity hypothesis: Expanding the dialogue between immunology and paleopathology
ConclusionsWe recommend that bioarchaeological reconstructions of past disease experience take into consideration models that include variation in immune function based on past environments and social contexts. This provides a unique opportunity to conduct comprehensive analyses on complex immunological processes.SignificanceExtrapolating results from experimental immunology to larger populations elucidates complexities of disease cross-immunity and highlights the importance of synthesizing archaeological, social, paleopathological and biological data as a means of understanding disease in the past.LimitationsAll extrapola...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - June 10, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Histomorphological study on hypocellularity in mastoid processes from archaeological human skeletons
ConclusionsUsing histomorphology, in vivo processes resulting in different types of mastoid hypocellularity can be assessed, even in bones that have undergone some degree of diagenesis.SignificanceThe study provides methods to evaluate the etiology of histomorphological changes of the mastoid process, which potentially provides insight into the presence of infection and inflammation in past populations.LimitationsDiagenetic modifications of archaeological bone can hinder assessment of histomorphological change, requiring careful evaluation during analysis.Suggestions for further researchIncluding histomorphology in future ...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - June 9, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

An innovative method to visualise mastoiditis using a hand-held X-ray system
ConclusionsThis method was found to be an effective, convenient, and versatile non-destructive alternative to sectioning and traditional radiographic imaging.SignificanceThis is the first project to adapt a hand-held X-ray system for imaging and diagnosis of mastoiditis and this approach encourages future analyses of this infection.LimitationsThe cost of the imaging system is limiting and there are few comparative images taken in the same plane.Suggestions for further researchFurther research should create a larger catalogue of comparative radiographs and assess the diagnostic potential of imaging the mastoid process to ra...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - June 6, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Palaeopathological analysis of a Chilean gomphothere (Proboscidea: Gomphotheriidae)
ConclusionsThe original diagnosis of traumatic lesions on this specimen is unsupported. The re-evaluation identified the presence of developmental defects, degenerative joint disease, possible neoplastic lesions, and spondyloartropathy.SignificanceThe present analysis adds data to the sparse paleopathological record of South American gomphotheres.LimitationsTaphonomic alteration of some skeletal elements, as well as the presence of an incomplete individual, limits the ability to determine the etiology of some of the lesions identified.Suggestions for further researchResearchers are encouraged to re-examine specimens curate...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - May 31, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

A case of hydrocephalus in a child from early modern period Žumberak, Croatia
ConclusionA diagnosis of the communicating form of hydrocephalus is suggested.SignificanceThis is the first published case of the communicating form of hydrocephalus.LimitationsIt is difficult to determine the specific etiology of this condition based on skeletal remains. (Source: International Journal of Paleopathology)
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - May 29, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

A probable case of infantile cortical hyperostosis in 2nd–4th centuries AD Romania
ConclusionsThe perinatal age of the individual, along with lesion morphology and location, suggests a diagnosis of infantile cortical hyperostosis.LimitationsThe analysis would benefit from further stable isotope and mitochondrial genome analyses, which was limited due to the absence of comparative human and faunal remains from the site.Suggestions for further researchFurther multidisciplinary research on human archaeological remains from Romania would provide a clearer image of past disease and life histories in this geographic area. (Source: International Journal of Paleopathology)
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - May 29, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Multiple osteomata from medieval Tuscany, Italy (ca. 10th–12th AD)
ConclusionsCone Beam Computed Tomography confirmed that the lesions were composed of compact bone. Macroscopic and radiological features suggest the presence of nonsyndromic multiple osteomata.SignificanceSingle cranial osteomata are commonly observed in osteoarchaeological remains, but multiple osteomata are rare and might assist in our understanding of neoplastic conditions in the past.LimitationsThe lack of soft tissues prevents the diagnosis of complex disorders, such as the Gardner syndrome, which is characterised by multiple osteomata and polyposis of the colon.Suggestions for further researchCareful investigation an...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - May 7, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

An isotopic case study of individuals with syphilis from the pathological-anatomical reference collection of the national museum in Prague (Czech Republic, 19th century A.D.)
ConclusionsEither diets prescribed by physicians to syphilitic patients or nutritional stress caused by cyclic appetite disturbance due to the disease itself or the administered medical treatment appeared to be possible explanations of the observed isotopic pattern. Overall, the response of the two isotopic proxies could argue for relatively limited nutritional restrictions.SignificanceThis is the first study examining bone collagen isotopic response to syphilis based on clinically documented human skeletal materials.LimitationsThe sample sizes are relatively small and cautiousness must be taken regarding the interpretatio...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - May 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy in an adult Macaque
ConclusionA careful differential diagnosis of the lesions and comparison with previously published cases of Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy among humans and non-humans is suggestive of a case of Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy.SignificancePreviously there have only been three reported cases of HOA among non-human primates, and all were apes. This short communication thus serves as the first reported case of HOA among non-hominoid simians, providing a detailed description of the skeletal lesions of HOA among a non-human primates which can aid future analysis.LimitationsThe small sample size and lack of context limits discussion...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - April 29, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Foreword
Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019Source: International Journal of PaleopathologyAuthor(s): Jane Buikstra, Anne L. Grauer (Source: International Journal of Paleopathology)
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - April 19, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

A comparison of ancient parasites as seen from archeological contexts and early medical texts in China
Publication date: June 2019Source: International Journal of Paleopathology, Volume 25Author(s): Hui-Yuan Yeh, Xiaoya Zhan, Wuyun QiAbstractThis paper integrates our knowledge from traditional Chinese medical texts and archeological findings to discuss parasitic loads in early China. Many studies have documented that several different species of eukaryotic endoparasites were present in early human populations throughout China. Nevertheless, comprehensive paleoparasitological records from China are patchy, largely due to taphonomic and environmental factors. An examination of early Chinese medical texts allows us to fill in ...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - April 13, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

A health crisis during the Japanese Medieval Period: A new paleodemographic perspective
ConclusionsEMP early age-at-death was the result of poor community health, violent death, and frequent large-scale natural catastrophes. The LMP and Edo Period samples have an older age-at-death pattern and higher frequency of stress markers, argued to be a consequence of a colder climate.SignificanceThis study is the first to synthesize paleodemographic and paleopathological data on a large scale to assess the possible effects of the Little Ice Age in Japan.LimitationsVarying skeletal preservation and focus on adult skeletons reduces the ability to evaluate health throughout the life span.Suggestions for further researchA...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - March 31, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

A bioarchaeological and biocultural investigation of Chinese footbinding at the Xuecun archaeological site, Henan Province, China
Publication date: June 2019Source: International Journal of Paleopathology, Volume 25Author(s): Christine LeeAbstractFrom 2005–2006 the Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Henan Province, excavated the Xuecun cemetery as part of a salvage archaeology project associated with the South to North Water Diversion Project. This gave a unique opportunity to examine burials from the Ming-Qing Dynasties (1360–1911). Burials from this period are seldom excavated as the Chinese, do not want to disturb their direct ancestors. This is one of the first studies to examine the paleopathological consequences for footb...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - March 29, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

A case of erosive polyarthropathy from Medieval northern Italy (12th–13th centuries)
ConclusionsA careful differential diagnosis of the lesions and their macroscopic and radiological appearance are suggestive of a case of rheumatoid arthritis-like polyarthropathy.SignificanceThis case contributes to the debate regarding the antiquity of erosive polyarthropathies, providing additional evidence for the existence of these diseases in the Old World prior to the discovery of the Americas.LimitationsSmall sample size limits discussion of the scope of the disease in antiquity.Suggestions for further researchThis case highlights the need for further macroscopic, radiographic, and biomolecular studies of pre-modern...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - March 29, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Multi-analytic study of a probable case of fibrous dysplasia (FD) from certosa monumental cemetery (Bologna, Italy)
ConclusionsThe multi-analytical method employed suggests a diagnosis of monostotic form of FD. The diagnostic design incorporates multiple lines of evidence, including macroscopic, histopathological, and genetic analyses.SignificanceThrough the use of a multi-analytic approach, robust diagnoses can be offered. This case serves as one of the oldest examples of FD from an historical context. The genetic mutation detected, associated with FD, has not been previously reported in historical/ancient samples. (Source: International Journal of Paleopathology)
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - March 24, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Use of Computed Tomography scanning in a ‘virtual’ bioarchaeology of care analysis of a Central Coast Peruvian mummy bundle
Conclusion‘Virtual’ examination of FA 54 achieved an advanced stage of bioarchaeology of care analysis, but building on this would require physical examination of bundle elements. Further investigation of CT imaging potential for bioarchaeology of care research in mummy studies is recommended. (Source: International Journal of Paleopathology)
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - February 22, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: March 2019Source: International Journal of Paleopathology, Volume 24Author(s): (Source: International Journal of Paleopathology)
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - February 16, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

New world origin of canine distemper: Interdisciplinary insights
ConclusionsThe measles epidemics that decimated indigenous South American populations in the 1500–1700 s likely facilitated the establishment of CDV as a canine pathogen, which eventually spread to Europe and beyond.SignificanceUnderstanding the historical and environmental conditions that have driven morbilliviral evolution provides important insights into potential future threats of animal/human cross-species infections.LimitationsInterpreting historical disease descriptions is difficult and the archaeological specimens are limited. Molecular sequence data and codon usage analyses rely on modern viruses.Sugg...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - February 9, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Care or Neglect?: Evidence of Animal Disease in Archaeology, L. Bartosiewicz, E. Gál (Eds.). Oxbow Books Limited, Oxford (2018), 300 pp
Publication date: March 2019Source: International Journal of Paleopathology, Volume 24Author(s): Robin Bendrey (Source: International Journal of Paleopathology)
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - February 5, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Brucellosis in an adult female from Fate Bell Rock Shelter, Lower Pecos, Texas (4000–1300 BP)
ConclusionsAside from this study, only one other case of brucellosis has been recognized in prehistoric North American hunter-gatherer skeletal remains.SignificanceThis individual represents the first case of brucellosis in a hunter-gatherer from prehistoric North America diagnosed using both macroscopic skeletal analysis and computed tomography (CT).LimitationsPoor preservation of vertebrae make cross comparison of remains and differential diagnosis difficult.Suggestions for further researchFurther review and paleopathological research is needed regarding Coxiella burnetti (Q-fever) infection as a possible contributing fa...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - February 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

A singular case of advanced caries sicca in a pre-Columbian skull from East Tennessee
ConclusionsBurial G unequivocally exhibits the pathognomonic reactive changes of caries sicca, radial scarring, and cavitating lesions.SignificanceThe Early Woodland date in combination with the advanced degree of pathognomonic reactive change is exceptional, and to date, without parallel in the pre-Columbian archaeological record of North America. Any case approaching the severity displayed here is invariably late prehistoric.LimitationsThe absence of postcrania does not permit assessment of frailty or synergism of secondary conditions.Suggestions for further researchMore comprehensive documentation of pre-Columbian trepo...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - January 24, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The association between skeletal lesions and tuberculosis diagnosis using a probabilistic approach
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2019Source: International Journal of PaleopathologyAuthor(s): Dorthe Dangvard Pedersen, George R. Milner, Hans Jørn Kolmos, Jesper Lier BoldsenAbstractSensitivity and specificity estimates for 18 skeletal lesions were generated from modern skeletons for future paleoepidemiological analyses of tuberculosis prevalence in archaeological samples. A case-control study was conducted using 480 skeletons from 20th century American skeletal collections. One-half of the skeletons were documented tuberculosis cases (Terry Collection). The remaining age and sex-matched skeletons wer...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - January 18, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

A paleopathological approach to early human adaptation for wet-rice agriculture: The first case of Neolithic spinal tuberculosis at the Yangtze River Delta of China
Publication date: March 2019Source: International Journal of Paleopathology, Volume 24Author(s): Kenji Okazaki, Hirofumi Takamuku, Shiori Yonemoto, Yu Itahashi, Takashi Gakuhari, Minoru Yoneda, Jie ChenAbstractThe earliest evidence of human tuberculosis can be traced to at least the early dynastic periods, when full-scaled wet-rice agriculture began or entered its early developmental stages, in circum-China countries (Japan, Korea, and Thailand). Early studies indicated that the initial spread of tuberculosis coincided with the development of wet-rice agriculture. It has been proposed that the adaptation to agriculture cha...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - January 18, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The antiquity of the spondyloarthritides: Presentation of one of the oldest Neolithic cases in Western Europe
We report a paleopathological case of European origin, dated from the late Neolithic (3621-3023 cal BC), consisting of an isolated vertebral block combining erosion, ossification and severe anterior and posterior ankylosis. The lesional presentation is very suggestive of a severe form of axial spondyloarthritis. This specimen and some other rare cases from the same period found in Western Europe suggest that these diseases appeared, in this geographical region, in evolving groups of humans as part of the demographic and epidemiological transition that constituted the Neolithic period. The emergence of infectious age...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - December 30, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The ice age with little effect? Exploring stress in the Danish Black Friars cemetery before and after the turn of the 14th century
This study focuses on the Black Friars population (13th-17th centuries) to explore changes in stress in Denmark at the onset of the Little Ice Age. This study specifically explores the periods before and after the turn of the 14th century. Forty-five adult individuals were analyzed for cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, and enamel hypoplastic lesions. Results showed no statistically significant differences between the prevalence of these stress indicators between either time period; however, reduced age at death and increased lesion frequency was more prevalent post-1300. It was expected that increased stress would be...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - December 29, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Paradise lost: Evidence for a devastating metabolic bone disease in an insular Pleistocene deer
ConclusionsThe deer of Mavromouri caves were affected by severe metabolic bone disease, likely nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism. We hypothesize a multifactorial cause, including overgrazing, flora senescence, soil mineral deficiencies, and a prolonged period of climate extremes, degrading the Cretan deer habitat.ValueThis is the first evidence of a metabolic bone disease causing this level of destructive pathology in an insular fossil deer.LimitationsThe lack of absolute chronometric dates for the site limits potential linking with the prevailing environmental conditions.Suggestions for further researchInvestigati...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - December 19, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The Viking Age: A Time of Many Faces, Caroline Ahlstrom Arcini, Oxbow Books, Oxford & Philadelphia, PA (2018). 120 pp.
Publication date: March 2019Source: International Journal of Paleopathology, Volume 24Author(s): Larissa Collier (Source: International Journal of Paleopathology)
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - December 19, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: December 2018Source: International Journal of Paleopathology, Volume 23Author(s): (Source: International Journal of Paleopathology)
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - December 18, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Multiple myeloma in paleopathology: A critical review
Publication date: March 2019Source: International Journal of Paleopathology, Volume 24Author(s): Giulia Riccomi, Gino Fornaciari, Valentina GiuffraAbstractThis paper provides a critical literature review concerning paleopathological evidence of multiple myeloma discovered both in the Old and in the New World. A critical assessment of the bioarchaeological and paleopathological documentary sources permitted to identify a total of 25 ascertained cases of multiple myeloma from different geographical areas in the world ranging from Prehistoric times up to the Contemporary age. The distribution of multiple myeloma findings in p...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - December 8, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Tuberculosis in medieval and early modern Denmark: A paleoepidemiological perspective
Publication date: Available online 3 December 2018Source: International Journal of PaleopathologyAuthor(s): Dorthe Dangvard Pedersen, George R. Milner, Hans Jørn Kolmos, Jesper Lier BoldsenAbstractMillions of people worldwide have sickened and died from tuberculosis in recent centuries. Yet for most of human existence, the impact of tuberculosis on society is largely unknown. It is, indeed, unknowable without methods suitable for estimating disease prevalence in skeletal samples. Here such a procedure is applied to medieval and early modern Danish skeletons, and it shows how disease prevalence varied with difference...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - December 4, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Healed impact trauma to a Neolithic cattle frontal bone: A posthuman perspective
We report such evidence from a healed blunt-force impact trauma to the frontal bone of a domestic cattle skull from Beckhampton Road Neolithic long barrow, Wiltshire. The injury suggests a failed attempt at slaughter. To our knowledge, this is the first such report for domestic cattle from the British Neolithic. We contextualise this discovery, drawing on research into the role and meaning of faunal remains from Neolithic long barrows in Wiltshire. This work has been undertaken from a posthuman perspective. Thus, we demonstrate the opportunities for paleopathologists to inform and engage within posthumanist interpretative ...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - December 4, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research