Assessing the suitability of sets-based approaches: estimating the discriminative power of risk models for ordinal outcome treatments
Conclusions By conducting Monte Carlo simulations, it was concluded that the measure proposed herein is a better choice for clinical use because of the asymmetry of the predicted probabilities of groups. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - January 16, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Chang, C.-H., Lin, L.-C., Chen, I.-C., Yen, C.-H. Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Joint association of screen time and physical activity on self-rated health and life satisfaction in children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV study
Conclusions Our findings suggest that increasing physical activity is more crucial than emphasizing reducing screen time in improving the well-being of children and adolescents. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - January 16, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Matin, N., Kelishadi, R., Heshmat, R., Motamed-Gorji, N., Djalalinia, S., Motlagh, M. E., Ardalan, G., Arefirad, T., Mohammadi, R., Safiri, S., Qorbani, M. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Dedicated health systems strengthening of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria: an analysis of grants
Conclusions Health worker densities were not correlated with HSS funding, despite the emphasis on health workforce in budgets and performance indicators. Priorities in health systems in line-item budgets differ from the numbers of indicators used. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - January 16, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Fan, V. Y., Tsai, F.-J. J., Shroff, Z. C., Nakahara, B., Vargha, N., Weathers, S. Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Multicenter prospective study on device-associated infection rates and bacterial resistance in intensive care units of Venezuela: International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) findings
Conclusions DA-HAI rates in our ICUs are higher than CDC/NSHN's and similar to or lower than INICC international rates. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - January 16, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Empaire, G. D., Guzman Siritt, M. E., Rosenthal, V. D., Perez, F., Ruiz, Y., Diaz, C., Di Silvestre, G., Salinas, E., Orozco, N. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Does tax-based health financing offer protection from financial catastrophe? Findings from a household economic impact survey of ischaemic heart disease in Malaysia
Conclusions Overall, the economic impact of IHD on patients in Malaysia was considerable and the prospect of economic hardship likely to persist over the years due to the long-standing nature of IHD. The findings highlight the need to evaluate the present health financing system in Malaysia and to expand its safety net coverage for vulnerable patients. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - January 16, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Sukeri, S., Mirzaei, M., Jan, S. Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Child marriage and women's attitude towards wife beating in a nationally representative sample of currently married adolescent and young women in Pakistan
Conclusions Highly prevalent child marriage practice among women can be minimized by promoting education and providing economic opportunities in Pakistan. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - January 16, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Nasrullah, M., Muazzam, S., Khosa, F., Khan, M. M. H. Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Prevalence and correlates of self-reported chronic non-communicable diseases in Botswana: a cross-sectional study
Background The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of self-reported chronic non-communicable diseases and their correlates in Botswana. This is a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of respondents aged 10–64 years using data from the Botswana AIDS Impact Survey IV conducted in 2013. Three self-reported non-communicable diseases, namely, hypertension, diabetes and asthma were used. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify their correlates. Results Out of the 2153 participants, the prevalence rates of hypertension, diabetes an...
Source: International Health - January 16, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Letamo, G., Keetile, M., Navaneetham, K., Phatsimo, M. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Sex disparities in outcomes among adults on long-term antiretroviral treatment in northern Nigeria
Background There are conflicting reports of sex differences in HIV treatment outcomes in Africa. We investigated sex disparities in treatment outcomes for adults on first line antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Nigeria. Methods We compared clinical and immunologic responses to ART between HIV-infected men (n=205) and women (n=140) enrolled in an ART program between June 2004 and December 2007, with follow-up through June 2014. We employed Kaplan-Meier estimates to examine differences in time to immunologic failure and loss to follow-up (LTFU), and generalized estimating equations to assess changes in CD4+ count by sex. Re...
Source: International Health - January 16, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Musa, B. M., Garbati, M. A., Nashabaru, I. M., Yusuf, S. M., Nalado, A. M., Ibrahim, D. A., Simmons, M. N., Aliyu, M. H. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Sustainable development goals and the human resources crisis
Achieving universal health coverage by 2030 requires that lessons from the Millennium Development Goals must be heeded. The most important lesson is that the workforce underpins every function of the health system, and is the rate-limiting step. The three dimensions that continue to limit the success of the development agenda are availability, distribution and performance of health workers – and the Sustainable Development Goals cannot be achieved without addressing all three. Hence, the traditional response of scaling up supply is inadequate: a paradigm shift is required in the design of systems that can properly id...
Source: International Health - January 16, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Freer, J. Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Thank you to our Authors and Reviewers
(Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - November 15, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Tags: REVIEWERS Source Type: research

Changes in the availability and affordability of subsidised artemisinin combination therapy in the private drug retail sector in rural Ghana: before and after the introduction of the AMFm subsidy
Conclusions Initial gains in ACT availability were sustained, but not improved on 2.5 years after AMFm. Widespread availability of unproven herbal medicines is a concern; AMFm had little impact on this. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - November 15, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Ansah, E. K., Whitty, C. J., Bart-Plange, C., Gyapong, M. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Evaluation of the types and frequency of drug-related problems and the association with gender in patients with chronic diseases attending a primary health care center in Jordan
Conclusion Certain types of DRPs are the most common among outpatient settings. Therefore, measures should be taken to specifically tackle these types of DRPs. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - November 15, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Al-Azzam, S. I., Alzoubi, K. H., Alefan, Q., Alzayadeen, R. N. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Employment status and health outcomes among Brazilian adults
Conclusions Employment was associated with better health outcomes among Brazilian adults. Policies should also facilitate access to preventive services and adequate treatment to those inactive or unemployed. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - November 15, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Andrade, F. C. D., Wu, F., An, R., Stellrecht, A. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Who benefits from the Obio Community Health Insurance Scheme in Rivers State, Nigeria? A benefit incidence analysis
Conclusions Although the poor were found to benefit, this BIA revealed a tendency towards pro-rich distributions. Removing co-payments for the poorest, reducing long wait and visit times and using community volunteers to help increase access to health services may improve benefits for the poor. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - November 15, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Vaughan, K., Akwataghibe, N., Fakunle, B., Wolmarans, L. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

An approach to assessment of Keshan disease elimination at the township level
Conclusions The small-scale survey methodology for assessing KD elimination at township level was feasible. KD among the people living in Yuanbao township has not been eliminated. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - November 15, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Li, S., Wang, T., Ye, C., Li, Q., Guo, Z., Wu, H., Liu, H., Gao, X., Zhou, H., Pang, H., Deng, J., Jiang, X., Chen, F. Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Emergency department care for trauma patients in settings of active conflict versus urban violence: all of the same calibre?
Conclusions This study supports for the first time the plausibility of using the same ED package in different settings. Mapping of patient attendance is essential for planning of human resources needs. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - November 15, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Valles, P., Van den Bergh, R., van den Boogaard, W., Tayler-Smith, K., Gayraud, O., Mammozai, B. A., Nasim, M., Cherestal, S., Majuste, A., Charles, J. P., Trelles, M. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Early physical and functional rehabilitation of trauma patients in the Medecins Sans Frontieres trauma centre in Kunduz, Afghanistan: luxury or necessity?
Conclusions The provision of physiotherapy was feasible in this humanitarian setting, and the tailored functional score appeared to be relevant. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - November 15, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Gohy, B., Ali, E., Van den Bergh, R., Schillberg, E., Nasim, M., Naimi, M. M., Cherestal, S., Falipou, P., Weerts, E., Skelton, P., Van Overloop, C., Trelles, M. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Challenges and strategies for implementing mental health measurement for research in low-resource settings
The gap between need and access to mental health care is widest in low-resource settings. Health systems in these contexts devote few resources to expanding mental health care, and it is missing from the agenda of most global health donors. This is partially explained by the paucity of data regarding the nature and extent of the mental health burden in these settings, so accurate and comparable measurement is essential to advocating for, developing, and implementing appropriate policies and services. Inaccurate estimation of mental illness prevalence, and misunderstandings regarding its etiologies and expressions, are asso...
Source: International Health - November 15, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Tennyson, R. L., Kemp, C. G., Rao, D. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Lessons from the frontline: using experiences from conflict zones to improve trauma care and outcomes
Over the years healthcare services during conflict have informed healthcare practice especially in trauma care. Conflict zones have constraints not very different from low-resource settings specifically in dealing with urban violence. Yet, there is limited in-depth study on conflict medicine. This is being slowly recognised in health literature. Two recent papers in International Health have indicated that trauma care packages in conflict settings could be adapted in low-resource settings. There is a need to overview and audit healthcare services in conflict zones further to identify more areas of overlap and possible less...
Source: International Health - November 15, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Hardcastle, T. C., David, S. D. Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

The importance of surveillance: Group W meningococcal disease outbreak response and control in England
Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Recently, use of the quadrivalent MenACWY conjugate vaccines has increased with the emergence of a hypervirulent MenW:cc11 strain in certain parts of the world, especially South America. In England, MenW:cc11 IMD cases increased rapidly after 2009 and was responsible for 24% of all IMD cases in 2014/15 compared to
Source: International Health - November 15, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Campbell, H., Ladhani, S. Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Collaboration and innovation in rural surgery
(Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - November 15, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Massenburg, B. B., Raykar, N. P., Pawaskar, A., Gnanaraj, J., Roy, N. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

The feasibility and acceptability of screening for hypertension in private drug retail outlets: a pilot study in Mwanza region, Tanzania
Conclusions Blood pressure screening was feasible and acceptable to customers of private drug retail outlets. However many who were referred failed to attend at a referral centre and further research is needed in this area. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - September 27, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Michael, D., Kezakubi, D., Juma, A., Todd, J., Reyburn, H., Renju, J. Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Association between metabolic syndrome and 10-year risk of developing cardiovascular disease in a Nigerian population
Conclusions The results showed that complementary use of MetS and CVD risk score is imperative, as there is indication of risk in individuals without MetS. Also a large proportion of the study population requires lifestyle intervention. These findings provide the evidence necessary to tailor public health interventions in this population, especially towards younger age groups. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - September 27, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Oguoma, V. M., Nwose, E. U., Skinner, T. C., Richards, R. S., Digban, K. A., Onyia, I. C. Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Willingness to pay for footwear, and associated factors related to podoconiosis in northern Ethiopia
Conclusions There is substantial willingness to pay for footwear. The expressed willingness to pay indicates demand for footwear in the community, suggesting an opportunity for shoe companies. There are still a substantial proportion of individuals not willing to pay for footwear. This requires intensified public education and social transformation to bring about change in behavior towards footwear use if elimination of podoconiosis within our generation is to be achieved. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - September 27, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Tsegay, G., Tamiru, A., Amberbir, T., Davey, G., Deribe, K. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Not forgetting severe mental disorders in humanitarian emergencies: a descriptive study from the Philippines
Conclusions This study illustrates how actors can play an important role in providing MH care for people with severe mental disorders in the aftermath of a disaster. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - September 27, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Weintraub, A. C. A. d. M., Garcia, M. G., Birri, E., Severy, N., Ferir, M.-C., Ali, E., Tayler-Smith, K., Nadera, D. P., Van Ommeren, M. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Blood transfusion services for patients with sickle cell disease in Nigeria
Conclusion Current efforts of Nigerian public hospitals to provide safe blood and CTT fall short of best practice. Provision of apheresis machines, improvement of voluntary non-remunerated donor drive, screening for red cell antigens and antibodies, and availability of iron chelators would significantly improve SCD care in Nigeria. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - September 27, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Diaku-Akinwumi, I. N., Abubakar, S. B., Adegoke, S. A., Adeleke, S., Adewoye, O., Adeyemo, T., Akinbami, A., Akinola, N. O., Akinsulie, A., Akinyoola, A., Aneke, J., Awwalu, S., Babadoko, A., Brown, B., Ejike, O., Emodi, I., George, I., Girei, A., Hassan, Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Lessons learnt from TB screening in closed immigration centres in Italy
Conclusions TB screening with symptom screening questionnaires of migrants at admission in closed centres is feasible. However, to improve the yield, follow-up of patients with symptoms or signs suggestive for TB needs to be improved. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - September 27, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Crepet, A., Repetto, E., Al Rousan, A., Sane Schepisi, M., Girardi, E., Prestileo, T., Codecasa, L., Garelli, S., Corrao, S., Ippolito, G., Decroo, T., Maccagno, B. Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Time to go global: a consultation on global health competencies for postgraduate doctors
Conclusions Global health can bring important perspectives to postgraduate curricula, enhancing the ability of doctors to provide quality care. These global health competencies require tailoring to meet different trainees' needs and facilitate their incorporation into curricula. Healthcare and global health are ever-changing; therefore, the competencies will need to be regularly reviewed and updated. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - September 27, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Walpole, S. C., Shortall, C., van Schalkwyk, M. C., Merriel, A., Ellis, J., Obolensky, L., Casanova Dias, M., Watson, J., Brown, C. S., Hall, J., Pettigrew, L. M., Allen, S. Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Development of drugs for severe malaria in children
Over 90% of deaths attributable to malaria are in African children under 5 years old. Yet, new treatments are often tested primarily in adult patients and extrapolations have proven to be sometimes invalid, especially in dosing regimens. For studies in severe malaria an additional complication is that the decline in severe malaria in adult patients precludes sufficiently powered trials in adults, before the intervention can be tested in the ultimate target group, paediatric severe malaria. In this paper we propose an alternative pathway to the development of drugs for use in paediatric severe malaria. We argue that followi...
Source: International Health - September 27, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Cheah, P. Y., Parker, M., Dondorp, A. M. Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

How can a Theory of Change framework be applied to short-term international volunteering?
Short-term international volunteering has become enormously popular among individuals from high-income countries who travel to low-income countries to offer support on initiatives often related to health and development. However, their impact on global development is questionable, particularly when volunteer skills are not matched to local needs, or when teams operate outside the local health system. Furthermore, the impact of these volunteer programs is rarely evaluated. Theory of Change is a framework for program design meant to facilitate measurable social change. We propose that a Theory of Change framework, appropriat...
Source: International Health - September 27, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Loiseau, B., Benedict, D., Sibbald, R., Raman, S. A., Loh, L. C., Dimaras, H. Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

People-centred health systems: building more resilient health systems in the wake of the Ebola crisis
The 2014–2016 West African Ebola outbreak demonstrated the extent to which local social and political dynamics shape health system responses to crises such as epidemics. Many post-Ebola health system strengthening programmes are framed around a notion of health system ‘resilience’ that focuses on global rather than local priorities and fails to account for key local social dynamics that shape crisis responses. Post-crisis health system strengthening efforts require a shift towards a more ‘people-centred’ understanding of resilience that attends to the people, relationships and local contexts t...
Source: International Health - September 27, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Martineau, F. P. Tags: Commentaries Source Type: research

Taking local ownership: government and household contribution to indoor residual spraying in Zanzibar and mainland Tanzania
Conclusion Government involvement, particularly through budgetary allocations and increased in-kind contribution, needs to be encouraged for malaria control efforts to be locally owned, managed and sustained. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - July 31, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Alidina, Z., Colaco, R., Ali, A. S., Mcha, J. H., Mwalimu, C. D., Thawer, N. G., Lalji, S., Mutagahywa, J., Ramsan, M. M., Kafuko, J. M., Kaspar, N., Magesa, S. M., Reithinger, R., Ngondi, J. M. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Client satisfaction: correlates and implications for improving HIV/AIDS treatment and care services in southern Ethiopia
This study investigated the level and correlates of client satisfaction with HIV care. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted on 485 people using HIV/AIDS treatment and care services in six health facilities in Wolaita Zone of Ethiopia from November 2014 to March 2015. Results A total of 222 (45.8%) and 263 (54.2%) of the participants attended care at the health centers and hospital, respectively; 192 (39.6%) visited traditional medical practitioners. Seventy-five (15.5%) of the participants suffered probable mild to major mental depression. In total, 342 (70.7%) said that the quality of care w...
Source: International Health - July 31, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Yakob, B., Purity Ncama, B. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding epilepsy in the Kingdom of Bhutan
Objective To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of epilepsy among healthcare workers (HCWs) and people with epilepsy (PWE) living in Bhutan. Methods A survey with similar questions was distributed to HCWs and PWE (2014–2015). Responses were compared between the two groups. A Stigma Scale in Epilepsy Score was tested for an independent association with patient age, sex, years of education and presence of seizure freedom using regression models. Results PWE (n=177), when compared to HCWs (n=75), were more likely to believe that epilepsy is contagious; epilepsy results from karma or past actions; PWE need h...
Source: International Health - July 31, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Brizzi, K., Deki, S., Tshering, L., Clark, S. J., Nirola, D. K., Patenaude, B. N., McKenzie, E. D., McLane, H. C., Cash, S. S., Dorji, C., Mateen, F. J. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Age-targeted HIV treatment and primary prevention as a 'ring fence to efficiently interrupt the age patterns of transmission in generalized epidemic settings in South Africa
Conclusions Age-targeted treatment for HIV prevention is unlikely to eliminate HIV epidemics, but is an efficient strategy for reducing new infections in generalized epidemics settings. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - July 31, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Bershteyn, A., Klein, D. J., Eckhoff, P. A. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Assessment of current practices in management of childhood TB among frontline clinicians in Southern Nigeria
Background Poor competence of clinicians may be a critical factor responsible for the under-diagnosis of childhood TB in high-burden settings. Our objective was to assess the current practices of management of childhood TB among clinicians in Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among clinicians recruited through a three-stage sampling technique from 76 health facilities in Southern Nigeria. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to all participants. Results Of 106 clinicians who completed the survey, 73 (68.9%) were
Source: International Health - July 31, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Chukwu, J. N., Ukwaja, K. N., Ekeke, N., Nwafor, C. C., Meka, A. O., Madichie, N. O., Anyim, M. C., Ogbudebe, C., Adegbesan, J., Ikebudu, J., Oshi, D. C. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Spousal migration and human papillomavirus infection among women in rural western Nepal
Conclusion Older women were found to have a higher prevalence of HPV than younger women. It is possible that a husband's migration for work could be delaying HR-HPV infections in married women until an older age. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - July 31, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Johnson, D. C., Lhaki, P., Bhatta, M. P., Kempf, M.-C., Smith, J. S., Bhattarai, P., Aryal, S., Chamot, E., Regmi, K., Vermund, S. H., Shrestha, S. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Interpretations of education about gene-environment influences on health in rural Ethiopia: the context of a neglected tropical disease
Conclusions Taken together, these improvements support the acceptability, feasibility and potential benefits of implementing gene-environment education in low and middle income countries. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - July 31, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Tora, A., Ayode, D., Tadele, G., Farrell, D., Davey, G., McBride, C. M. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Perspective and investments in health system strengthening of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance: a content analysis of health system strengthening-specific funding
Conclusions Gavi's HSS support emphasized inputs with short-term measurable outcomes. Harmonization of the concept of HSS and collaboration between Gavi and multilateral international agencies, such as World Bank and WHO, are needed. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - July 31, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Tsai, F.-J., Lee, H., Fan, V. Y. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Ethics of emergent information and communication technology applications in humanitarian medical assistance
New applications of information and communication technology (ICT) are shaping the way we understand and provide humanitarian medical assistance in situations of disaster, disease outbreak or conflict. Each new crisis appears to be accompanied by advancements in humanitarian technology, leading to significant improvements in the humanitarian aid sector. However, ICTs raise ethical questions that warrant attention. Focusing on the context of humanitarian medical assistance, we review key domains of ICT innovation. We then discuss ethical challenges and uncertainties associated with the development and application of new ICT...
Source: International Health - July 31, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Hunt, M., Pringle, J., Christen, M., Eckenwiler, L., Schwartz, L., Dave, A. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Antimalarial mass drug administration: ethical considerations
Falciparum malaria is a major cause of death and illness in tropical countries, particularly in childhood. In endemic countries, a significant proportion of the community is infected with malaria asymptomatically. One promising way to eliminate malaria is to give the entire population malaria treatment. This is called mass drug administration (MDA) and it raises a number of ethical issues, as possible long-term benefits are uncertain. The effectiveness of MDA is critically dependent on level of participation, so the promised benefits to the community can be annulled by non-participation of a small number of individuals. Th...
Source: International Health - July 31, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Cheah, P. Y., White, N. J. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Tailoring mass drug administration to context: implementation research is critical in achieving equitable progress in the control and elimination of helminth neglected tropical diseases in sub-Saharan Africa
The concept of a technological quick fix or ‘magic-bullet’ for control and elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) is flawed. NTDs are embedded within complex biological and social systems that are shaped by ecological and political contexts. This commentary emphasises the need for implementation research to address implementation gaps in the control of NTDs. With a specific focus on sub-Saharan Africa and helminth diseases amenable to preventive chemotherapy through mass drug administration, we explore the important role of context, programme partnerships and community in achieving equitable and effe...
Source: International Health - July 31, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Dean, L., Page, S., Hawkins, K., Stothard, R., Thomson, R., Wanji, S., Gyapong, M., Anagbogu, I., Molyneux, D., Theobald, S. Tags: Commentaries Source Type: research

Polio eradication: no time for complacency
(Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - July 31, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Durrheim, D. N., Adams, A. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Social and cultural factors behind community resistance during an Ebola outbreak in a village of the Guinean Forest region, February 2015: a field experience
Conclusions Engaging Ebola virus disease survivors improved community compliance. Understanding the sociocultural context and community perceptions may improve community engagement and prevent Ebola virus transmission. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - May 12, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Carrion Martin, A. I., Derrough, T., Honomou, P., Kolie, N., Diallo, B., Kone, M., Rodier, G., Kpoghomou, C., Jansa, J. M. Tags: SHORT COMMUNICATION Source Type: research

Health knowledge and health practices in Makeni, Sierra Leone: a community-based household survey
Background We characterize health knowledge and practices in urban and rural Makeni, Sierra Leone, drawing comparisons between areas served by community health workers (CHWs) with those that are not. We also inquire about causes of infant and maternal mortality and how they are understood in the local context. Our objective was to provide a baseline understanding of health knowledge and practices in Makeni during the implementation of a CHW program. Methods We conducted 100 household interviews in Makeni City and rural villages in the surrounding area. We compared data between urban and rural areas to identify differences...
Source: International Health - May 12, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Abdelmalak, M. J., Ahmed, B. S., Mehta, K. Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research

Adherence to cancer prevention guidelines in South Africa is associated with health care access
Conclusions In South Africa, better access to health care is associated with better patient adherence to cancer prevention guidelines. Future studies and efforts can focus on improving access to quality health care in this population. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - May 12, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Okwali, M., Greenlee, H., Ginindza, T., Jolly, P., Akinyemiju, T. F. Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research

Prioritization in Somali health system strengthening: a qualitative study
Conclusions The study found that there was widespread agreement among participants that health system strengthening through a coordinated system would improve long-term capacity in Somalia's health sector. Future research should focus on the evaluation of the modalities by which health system strengthening interventions are implemented, on neglected topics such as mental health within the Somali health system, as well as on population-level barriers to accessing health systems. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - May 12, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Warsame, A., Handuleh, J., Patel, P. Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research

Understanding of research, genetics and genetic research in a rapid ethical assessment in north west Cameroon
Conclusion We demonstrated a variable level of understanding of research, genetics and genetic research, with implications for those carrying out genetic research in this and other low resource settings. Our study highlights the utility of rapid ethical assessment prior to complex or sensitive research. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - May 12, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Kengne-Ouafo, J. A., Millard, J. D., Nji, T. M., Tantoh, W. F., Nyoh, D. N., Tendongfor, N., Enyong, P. A., Newport, M. J., Davey, G., Wanji, S. Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research

Ethical challenges in research with orphans and vulnerable children: a qualitative study of researcher experiences
Conclusions A range of caregivers bear responsibility to protect OVC's interests in place of parents in research but are often not prepared to do so. This places greater burden on researchers to assess risks and respond to children's needs. Findings suggest that we should improve support and rethink the roles of guardians, researchers and older children in research participation and protection. (Source: International Health)
Source: International Health - May 12, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Kelley, M. C., Brazg, T., Wilfond, B. S., Lengua, L. J., Rivin, B. E., Martin-Herz, S. P., Diekema, D. S. Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research

Implementation and evaluation of a curriculum to teach reproductive health to adolescents in northern Madagascar
Background In Madagascar, prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unplanned pregnancies are high among adolescents. Limited reproductive health education is available. Methods In northern Madagascar, in 2014, we assessed the baseline knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy regarding STIs/HIV and family planning among 155 adolescents, and designed and implemented a 6-week reproductive health curriculum for adolescents using complementary teaching methods. We evaluated the curriculum through pre- and post-curriculum surveys of adolescents using paired t-tests. Results Pre-test survey revealed a general lack...
Source: International Health - May 12, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Klinger, A., Asgary, R. Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research