Molecular characterisation of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates at a tertiary care hospital in South India
Arindam Chakraborty, Prabha Adhikari, Shalini Shenoy, Vishwas SaralayaIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(2):305-310Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) express a multitude of virulence factors (VFs) to break the inertia of the mucosal barrier of the urinary tract. The aim of the present study was undertaken to characterised the UPEC strains and to correlate carriage of specific virulence markers with different phylogroups and also to correlate these findings with clinical outcome of patients. A total of 156 non-repeated, clinically significant UPEC isolates were studied. Virulent genes were determined by two s...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Arindam Chakraborty Prabha Adhikari Shalini Shenoy Vishwas Saralaya Source Type: research

Development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with au-nanoprobe assay for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
We present a novel strategy for the detection of LAMP amplicons derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the use of Au-nanoprobes. When applied to a total of 93 clinical specimens, the LAMP assay demonstrated sensitivity and specificity higher than that of polymerase chain reaction and culture. The Au-nanoprobe augmented LAMP test platform with its advantages of robust reagents and a simple colorimetric detection method can be adapted easily for the rapid detection of other infectious disease agents at a low cost. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Thongchai Kaewphinit Jutturong Ckumdee Kosum Chansiri Somchai Santiwatanakul Source Type: research

Exploring the prescribing behaviours and the mind of antibiotic prescribers is critical for a successful antibiotic stewardship programme: Results of a survey from Eastern India
Nikhila Ravi, Anirban Laha, Lalawmpuia Hmar, Suddhasatwya Chatterjee, Jyotsna Goswami, Gaurav Goel, Kingshuk Dhar, Tanushree Ghosh, Soumyadip Chatterjee, Soumitra Shankar Datta, Sanjay BhattacharyaIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(2):299-301Quantitative and qualitative analysis were used to ascertain practices, perceptions and barriers about antibiotic stewardship program (ASP) in an oncology hospital in eastern India. In 2014 and 2017, 62% and 69.1% of the patients audited were found to be on anti infective medications respectively. Nearly 47% of patients in the study group (2014) who were on ther...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nikhila Ravi Anirban Laha Lalawmpuia Hmar Suddhasatwya Chatterjee Jyotsna Goswami Gaurav Goel Kingshuk Dhar Tanushree Ghosh Soumyadip Chatterjee Soumitra Shankar Datta Sanjay Bhattacharya Source Type: research

Prevalence of transfusion-transmitted viral pathogens among health-care workers and risk mitigation programme in a paediatric tertiary care hospital
Charu Nayyar, Rushika Saksena, Vikas ManchandaIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(2):296-298The health-care workers (HCWs) are at an occupational risk of exposure to blood-borne pathogens, mainly, HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus. HBV is currently the only blood-borne virus for which a vaccine is available. All health-care institutions must encourage the HCWs to undergo screening for blood-borne pathogens. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Charu Nayyar Rushika Saksena Vikas Manchanda Source Type: research

Co-circulation of all four dengue virus serotypes: First report from Odisha
Baijayantimala Mishra, Jyotirmayee Turuk, Subhra Jyoti Sahu, Atul Khajuria, Subrat Kumar, Anupam Dey, Ashok Kumar PraharajIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(2):293-295The present report describes the detection of co-circulation of all the four dengue serotypes along with rarely detected dengue viruses (DENVs)-4 for the first time in Odisha. One hundred and forty-eight blood samples were tested for dengue NS1 antigen ELISA and IgM antibody (Ab), and twenty early samples were subjected for type-specific multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Twenty-three samples found positive for den...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Baijayantimala Mishra Jyotirmayee Turuk Subhra Jyoti Sahu Atul Khajuria Subrat Kumar Anupam Dey Ashok Kumar Praharaj Source Type: research

Levels of circulating immune complexes containing Mycobacterium Tuberculosis-specific antigens in pulmonary tuberculosis and sarcoidosis patients
B Goyal, JA Sheikh, R Agarwal, I VermaIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(2):290-292The present study was conducted to understand the aetiological link between tuberculosis (TB) and sarcoidosis. Sera from smear-positive TB subjects (n = 24), smear-negative TB subjects (n = 24), sarcoidosis patients (n = 24) and healthy controls (n = 24) were collected and circulating immune complexes were isolated. Sandwich ELISA was performed for detecting four highly specific mycobacterial regions of difference (RD) proteins (early secretory antigenic target 6 [ESAT6], 10 KDa culture filtrate protein [CFP10], 2...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: B Goyal JA Sheikh R Agarwal I Verma Source Type: research

Comparative analysis of syndromic case management and polymerase chain reaction based diagnostic assays for treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas in patients of genitourinary discharge
Nazneen Arif, Sujeesh Sebastian, Neena Khanna, Seema Sood, Benu DhawanIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(2):286-289To respond to the situation of high prevalence and need for effective treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in low-resource settings, syndromic diagnostic approach was recommended by the World Health Organization and was adopted by National AIDS Control Organization at the primary health centre level. A retrospective study was undertaken in symptomatic patients attending an STI clinic to validate the syndromic approach for genitourinary discharge syndrome. For aetiological diagnosis,...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nazneen Arif Sujeesh Sebastian Neena Khanna Seema Sood Benu Dhawan Source Type: research

Emergence of rmtC and rmtF 16S rRNA methyltransferase in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Lavanya Mohanam, Thangam MenonIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(2):282-285Occurrence of aminoglycoside (AG) resistance in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is investigated in this study. Antimicrobial susceptibility test and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for amikacin and gentamicin were performed followed by polymerase chain reaction amplifications of AG modifying enzyme genes (aac(6´)-I, aac(6´)-II, aac(3)-II/VI, ant(2´´)-I, aph(3´)-VI) and 16S methylases (rmtA-D, rmtF and armA). MIC50and MIC90were 64, 128 and > 256, >256 for amikacin and gentamicin, respect...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lavanya Mohanam Thangam Menon Source Type: research

Risk factors and frequency of tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome among HIV/Tuberculosis co-infected patients in Southern India
Ramachandran Vignesh, Chinnambedu R Swathirajan, Sunil S Solomon, Esaki Muthu Shankar, Kailapuri G MurugavelIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(2):279-281Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) continues to be a complication in HIV/tuberculosis (TB) co-infected patients initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with developing IRIS to identify a possible biomarker to predict or diagnose IRIS in patients initiating HAART. A total of 175 HIV/TB co-infected patients initiating HAART were followed up longitudinally during Sep...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ramachandran Vignesh Chinnambedu R Swathirajan Sunil S Solomon Esaki Muthu Shankar Kailapuri G Murugavel Source Type: research

Changing epidemiology of coagulase-negative staphylococci in normal flora of skin
Vikas Gautam, Nandini Sethuraman, Ramanpreet Kaur, Suchet Sachdev, Neelam Marwaha, Pallab RayIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(2):277-278Coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) have recently emerged as important pathogens causing nosocomial blood stream infections. To evaluate the prevalence of CoNS in cutaneous normal flora, skin swabs were collected from voluntary blood donors and processed for culture and identification using matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF). CoNS were isolated from 96% of blood donors, most commonly Staphylococcus hominis (86%), followed by Sta...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vikas Gautam Nandini Sethuraman Ramanpreet Kaur Suchet Sachdev Neelam Marwaha Pallab Ray Source Type: research

Genome sequence of an invasive strain of Streptococcus gordonii
We report the genome sequence of IE35, a strain of Streptococcus gordonii isolated from the blood of a patient with prosthetic valve endocarditis. Whole-genome sequencing of S. gordonii IE35 strain by the combination of Illumina HiSeq2000 paired-end, Ion Torrent single-end sequencing and gap closing by Illumina NextSeq yielded a single, circular chromosome of 2,190,105 bp. It had 2106 predicted coding sequences, of which 2014 genes encoded proteins involved in various cellular processes and 66 genes coded for RNA. The predicted RNA genes were annotated up to pathway level and genes responsible for various metabolic process...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Thangam Menon V Naveen Kumar Source Type: research

Molecular identification and phenotypic characterisation of Sporothrix globosa from clinical cases of Eastern Assam, North-east India
Reema Nath, Pinky Lahon, Longmindar TimungIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(2):269-273Sporotrichosis is known to be endemic in the state of Assam, North-east India, which is situated in the Sub-Himalayan region. This disease is an acute or chronic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii species complex which currently includes several species of clinical relevance such as Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto, Sporothrix albicans, Sporothrix mexicana, Sporothrix pallida and Sporothrix luriei. S. globosa is the prevalent species in India. Eight culture-positive patient...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Reema Nath Pinky Lahon Longmindar Timung Source Type: research

The evaluation of interferon lambda 4 rs368234815 as a predictor factor in treated patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1a infection
Conclusions: The results of these findings emphasise that factors such as age, cholesterol, baseline viral load and IFNL4 rs368234815 are better predictive factors and should be evaluated before CHC treatment. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shahram Jalilian Seyed Mahmoud Latifi Manoochehr Makvandi Ali Teimoori Azarakhsh Azaran Mehdi Parsanahad Gholamabas Kayedani Source Type: research

Clinical and laboratory profile of dengue viral infections in and around Mangalore, India
Conclusion: Early detection of DEN can be achieved effectively using NS1 ELISA and IgM capture ELISA. Circulating DENV serotypes should be closely monitored for prevention of fatal outcomes in secondary infections. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tina Damodar Meena Dias Reeta Mani KA Shilpa Ashwini Manoor Anand V Ravi Jutang Tiewsoh Source Type: research

Identification of the paradoxical effect of caspofungin and micafungin on Candida albicans growth in vitro using a growth curve methodology
Conclusion: The growth curve methodology is more accurate for evaluating the occurrence of the paradoxical effect in comparison with the microbial sensitivity test. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Huang Zhouying Li Chen Wang Ruiqi Liao Kang Zeng Ji Source Type: research

Resurgence of diphtheria in rural areas of North Karnataka, India
Conclusion and Discussion: Our study identified an upsurge in cases of diphtheria in North Karnataka, particularly in Vijayapura District, and to the best of our knowledge, reports the emergence of penicillin resistance for the first time in India. The study calls for enhanced surveillance for the disease, making antidiphtheritic serum available in key hospitals in the region and serves to provide a baseline for future assessment of the impact of the recently launched 'Mission Indradhanush' programme in strengthening Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP). (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mahantesh V Parande Subarna Roy BG Mantur Aisha M Parande Rupali S Shinde Source Type: research

Is there a need to revise the antibiotic concentration in Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-Recommended Oxacillin Screen Agar ?
Conclusion: Similar findings on a larger and more heterogeneous collection of isolates may indicate the need to revise the concentration of OSA to 2 μg/ml for the detection of MRSA. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Niveditha Nagasundaram Sujatha Sistla Source Type: research

Evaluation of serum galactomannan enzyme immunoassay at two different cut-offs for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in patients with febrile neutropenia
Conclusion: ODI of 1.0 should be considered as positive while in patients with OD between 0.5 and 1.0, repeat sampling from the patient is recommended. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ritin Mohindra Malini R Capoor Shikha Puri Hitesh Raheja Dinesh K Gupta B Gupta Ranadip Chowdhury Source Type: research

Increasing incidence of penicillin- and cefotaxime-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae causing meningitis in India: Time for revision of treatment guidelines ?
Conclusions: The present study reports increasing penicillin resistance and cefotaxime non-susceptibility to pneumococcal meningitis in our setting. This highlights the need for empiric therapy with third-generation cephalosporins and vancomycin for all patients with meningitis while awaiting results of culture and susceptibility testing. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Valsan Philip Verghese Balaji Veeraraghavan Ranjith Jayaraman Rosemol Varghese Ayyanraj Neeravi Yuvaraj Jayaraman Kurien Thomas Sanjay M Mehendale Source Type: research

Molecular characterisation and clinical correlates of rotavirus in children and adults in a tertiary care centre, Chennai, South India
Conclusions: The rate of positivity of rotavirus in children under 5 years was 41.11%. G1P[8] is the most common strain circulating across all age groups. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sribal Selvarajan Sudhabharathi Reju Premalatha Pushpanathan Rajesh Arumugam Ramachandran Padmanabhan Sudhakar Muthiah Kothandaramanujam Padma Srikanth Gagandeep Kang Source Type: research

An outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex in the paediatric unit of a tertiary care hospital
Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of identification and molecular characterization of Bcc to establish its role in infection and outbreak. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Swapna Mali Lona Dash Vikas Gautam Jayanthi Shastri Sunil Kumar Source Type: research

Genotypic characterisation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from tuberculous meningitis patients at a tertiary neurocare centre in Southern India
Conclusions: We conclude that there is no apparent association between genotypes of MTB and propensity to infect CNS tissue. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Akepati Chandramuki Neelam Khanna Elena Shashkina Natalia Kurepina Barun Mathema Barry N Kreiswirth Manjunatha M Venkataswamy Source Type: research

Spectrum of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli in paediatric population suffering from diarrhoea and as commensals in healthy children
Conclusion: Multiplex PCR is a rapid method for the simultaneous detection of 11 virulent genes of DEC at a time and it will provide a platform in understanding the diarrheal diseases in a more improved manner. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Taru Singh Shukla Das VG Ramachandran Sajad Ahmad Dar K Snehaa Rumpa Saha Dheeraj Shah Source Type: research

Departing from PowerPoint default mode: Applying Mayer & #39;s multimedia principles for enhanced learning of parasitology
Conclusions: It is time to depart from default PPT™ and adopt multimedia principles to enhance comprehension and improve short and long term knowledge retention. Further, medical educators may be trained and encouraged to apply multimedia principles for designing and delivering effective lectures. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jyoti Mahantesh Nagmoti Source Type: research

Biomedical waste management guidelines 2016: What & #39;s done and what needs to be done
Lipika Singhal, Arpandeep Kaur Tuli, Vikas GautamIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(2):194-198The latest biomedical waste (BMW) management guidelines which have been introduced in 2016 are simplified and made easier so that they can be easily followed by various health agencies. The categories of BMW have been reduced from ten (in 1998) to four in the latest (2016) guidelines. Many changes have been made in these latest guidelines, which have been summarised in the article below. The segregation of hospital waste plays a very important role, so the waste has to be sorted out at the source of generation accordin...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lipika Singhal Arpandeep Kaur Tuli Vikas Gautam Source Type: research

Statistical analysis of microbiological diagnostic tests
CP Baveja, Prabhav AggarwalIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(2):184-193No study in medical science is complete without application of the statistical principles. Incorrect application of statistical tests causes incorrect interpretation of the study results obtained through hard work. Yet statistics remains one of the most neglected and loathed areas, probably due to the lack of understanding of the basic principles. In microbiology, rapid progress is being made in the field of diagnostic test, and a huge number of studies being conducted are related to the evaluation of these tests. Therefore, a good knowledg...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: CP Baveja Prabhav Aggarwal Source Type: research

Molecular biology of Group A Streptococcus and its implications in vaccine strategies
NK BrahmadathanIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(2):176-183Infections due to Streptococcus pyogenes and their complications are a problem of major concern in many countries, including India. Primary prophylaxis with benzathine penicillin is the key to control and prevent sequelae such as acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease (RF/RHD) or post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN). Non-compliance to prophylaxis due to fear of injection and anaphylaxis is major issues in RF/RHD control in India and leads to continued high prevalence of infection and post-streptococcal sequelae. Differing reports on ...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: NK Brahmadathan Source Type: research

Globally emerging hantaviruses: An overview
Sara Chandy, Dilip MathaiIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(2):165-175Hantaviruses are known to cause haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Eurasia and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. They are globally emerging pathogens as newer serotypes are routinely being reported. This review discusses hantavirus biology, clinical features and pathogenesis of hantavirus disease, its diagnostics, distribution and mammalian hosts. Hantavirus research in India is also summarised. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sara Chandy Dilip Mathai Source Type: research

Current perspectives on biomedical waste management: Rules, conventions and treatment technologies
This article reviews the current perspectives on BMWM and rules, conventions and the treatment technologies used worldwide. BMWM should ideally be the subject of a national strategy with dedicated infrastructure, cradle-to-grave legislation, competent regulatory authority and trained personnel. Improving the management of biomedical waste begins with waste minimisation. These standards, norms and rules on BMWM in a country regulate the disposal of various categories of BMW to ensure the safety of the health-care workers, patients, public and environment. Furthermore, developing models for the monitoring of hospital health-...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Malini R Capoor Kumar Tapas Bhowmik Source Type: research

Molecular monitoring of antimalarial drug resistance in India
Susanta Kumar GhoshIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(2):155-156 (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Susanta Kumar Ghosh Source Type: research

Reviewers,2016
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(1):150-151 (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Clinico-epidemiological profile of dengue cases prevalent in lakhimpur district of Assam
Jitendra SharmaIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(1):148-149 (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jitendra Sharma Source Type: research

Prevalence of bi-component pore-forming toxin genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus causing skin and soft tissue infections
Nagaraj Perumal, Betsy Sowndarya Dass, Stalin Mani, Padma KrishnanIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(1):146-147 (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nagaraj Perumal Betsy Sowndarya Dass Stalin Mani Padma Krishnan Source Type: research

Emergence of ST39 and ST656 extensively drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in Wenzhou, China
Haiyang Liu, Jonathan Wilksch, Bin Li, Jia Du, Jianming Cao, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Tieli ZhouIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(1):145-146 (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Haiyang Liu Jonathan Wilksch Bin Li Jia Du Jianming Cao Xiaoxiao Zhang Tieli Zhou Source Type: research

Introducing rubella vaccine into the national immunisation schedule
Valsan Philip VergheseIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(1):143-145 (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Valsan Philip Verghese Source Type: research

Prevalence of multiple drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases in Northeast India
Jitendra Sharma, Siraj Ahmed Khan, Monika Soni, Prafulla DuttaIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(1):140-142 Two numbers of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Gossingpara, Runikhata area in Chirang district of Assam had shown multiple mutations in Pfcrt-dhfr-dhps gene (up to seven mutations: One mutation in Pfcrt gene, three mutations in Pfdhfr gene and three mutations in Pfdhps gene). Similarly, two cases in Bat camp, Miao area under Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh had shown a total of eight mutations, of which one mutation in Pfcrt gene, three mutations in Pfdhfr gene, three mutations in Pfdhps...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jitendra Sharma Siraj Ahmed Khan Monika Soni Prafulla Dutta Source Type: research

Carbapenem nonsusceptibility with modified OprD in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from India
This study was undertaken to investigate OprD porin-mediated carbapenem nonsusceptibility in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a tertiary referral hospital of Northeast India. A total of 267 nonduplicate, consecutive clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were obtained. Mutation and expression levels of OprD gene were determined in carbapenem-nonsusceptible carbapenemase-nonproducing isolates. Among 19 carbapenem-nonsusceptible carbapenemase-nonproducing isolates, 11 of them demonstrated variable band pattern while performing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis with amplified products of OprD gene. Sequencin...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Debarati Choudhury Anupam Das Talukdar Manabendra Dutta Choudhury Anand Prakash Maurya Debadatta Dhar Chanda Atanu Chakravorty Amitabha Bhattacharjee Source Type: research

Trends of respiratory syncytial virus sub-types in children hospitalised at a tertiary care centre in Jaipur during 2012 & #8211;2014
M Anjaneya Swamy, Bharti Malhotra, P V. Janardhan Reddy, Jitendra Kumar Tiwari, Neeraj Kumar, Manohar Lal GuptaIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(1):134-136 Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes high mortality and morbidity in infants. The study was planned to determine the trends of RSV sub-types in hospitalised children. Nasopharyngeal aspirate and throat swabs were collected from the hospitalised children up to 5 years of age. Viral nucleic acid was extracted using easyMAG automated extraction system, and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed. Total positivity for RSV wa...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: M Anjaneya Swamy Bharti Malhotra P V. Janardhan Reddy Jitendra Kumar Tiwari Neeraj Kumar Manohar Lal Gupta Source Type: research

Trends in spoligotype patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in central India
This study aims to understand trends in spoligotype patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in Central India. Elucidation of these trends may provide baseline information to understand the transmission dynamics of strains of MTB in the region. Spoligotyping was carried out on 340 MTB strains isolated from clinical samples received from 2007 to 2011. The prevalence of ST26/CAS1_Del, ST11/EAI3_IND, ST288/CAS2, ST25/CAS1_Del and Beijing lineages showed waxing and waning trends. ST26/CAS1_Del and ST11/EAI3_IND lineages were consistently present and were predominant. Well-established lineages showed a consistent presence i...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Prabha Desikan Devendra S Chauhan Nikita Panwalkar Pragya Sharma Priyanka Yadav Source Type: research

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Leptospira spp. isolated from environmental, human and animal sources in Malaysia
Douadi Benacer, Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain, Peck Toung Ooi, Kwai Lin ThongIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(1):124-128 Leptospirosis is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of isolates obtained from different hosts. A total of 65 Leptospira isolates from humans (n = 1), zoonoses (rat, n = 60; dog, n = 1; swine, n = 1) and environment (n = 2) were tested against six antibiotics. All the isolates were resistant to trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole and had high MIC toward chlora...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Douadi Benacer Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain Peck Toung Ooi Kwai Lin Thong Source Type: research

Coagulase-negative staphylococci: Emerging pathogen in central nervous system shunt infection
Preeti Lata Bhatia, Sunil Lilani, Ritesh Shirpurkar, Chhaya Chande, Shrikant Joshi, Abhay ChowdharyIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(1):120-123 Central nervous system (CNS) shunts are commonly used to treat patients with hydrocephalus. Its placement is associated with increased risk of infection. The study was intended to evaluate infection rate associated with CNS shunt surgeries and identify risk factors for shunt infection. The frequency and characterisation of aetiological agents along with their antibiotic resistance pattern were also studied. A prospective study of 86 patients who underwent 97 surgeries...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Preeti Lata Bhatia Sunil Lilani Ritesh Shirpurkar Chhaya Chande Shrikant Joshi Abhay Chowdhary Source Type: research

Strengths and limitations of various screening methods for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae including new method recommended by clinical and laboratory standards institute, 2017: A tertiary care experience
Agila Kumari Pragasam, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Radha Gopi, Raziya Fathima AslamIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(1):116-119 Carbapenemase-mediated carbapenem resistance is a major concern across the world. Rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing organisms is of great importance in clinical settings. However, it is essential to have a test with good sensitivity and specificity. The aim of the study was to compare the performance of RAPIDEC® CARBA NP and modified carbapenem inactivation method (mCIM) recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline 2017. A ...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Agila Kumari Pragasam Balaji Veeraraghavan Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam Radha Gopi Raziya Fathima Aslam Source Type: research

Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the detection of high-risk-human papillomavirus types in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical tissues
This study aimed to develop a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for identification of HPV types 16 and 18 along with the beta globin gene in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cervical biopsy specimens. A total of 59 samples from patients with cervical abnormalities were tested. HPV 16 positivity was 50% in cervical cancers and 52.9% in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Our multiplex PCR protocol can be used as a simple and cost-effective tool for high-risk-HPV detection in cervical cancer screening programmes. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mini P Singh Nalini Gupta T Deepak Archit Kumar Radha Kanta Ratho Source Type: research

Mutation pattern in the genome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and its association with multidrug-resistant isolates from Delhi, India
Divya Sachdev, Indu Kumari, Manju Bala, Vineet Kumar, Daman SalujaIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2017 35(1):109-112 Mutations in PenA, PorB, MtrE and MtrR genes responsible for antimicrobial resistance were checked in 27 drug-resistant clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG). Phenotype PIB (88.88%) and mutation at G120 and A121 positions of porB were recurrent. N122K, a novel mutation, was observed in PorB in three resistant isolates. Substitution H105Y in MtrR was widespread (37% of clinical isolates). The presence of a novel mutation (L33V), along with G45D mutation in MtrR, was associated with l...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Divya Sachdev Indu Kumari Manju Bala Vineet Kumar Daman Saluja Source Type: research

Characterisation of the human oral microbiome in patients with coronary artery disease using next-generation sequencing of 16SrRNA amplicons
Conclusion: A comparison of the oral microbiome in patients with CAD and DC shows a similarity in the composition of the oral microbiota with variations in the proportion of a few genera. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Thangam Menon Sathya Narayanan Gopalakrishnan Rayvathy Balasubramanian Stalin Roy Justin Source Type: research

Prevalence of pneumococcal serotypes in adults & #8805;50 years of age
Conclusions: Our study shows different antibiotic susceptibility patterns of S. pneumoniae as compared to other neighbouring regions in Asia. The modest coverage of S. pneumoniae serotypes by PPV23 vaccine and prevalence of diverse NVTs in adult population make it a challenging task to recommend further changes in the future vaccine. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chand Wattal Neeraj Goel SP Byotra Source Type: research

Evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis
Conclusion: PCR and LAMP assays targeting 18S rDNA gene were found particularly suitable for a rapid and accurate diagnosis of AK. LAMP assay takes 2–3 h lesser than PCR, and thus offers a rapid, highly sensitive and specific, simple and affordable diagnostic modality for patients suspected of AK, especially in resource limited settings (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Abhishek Mewara Sumeeta Khurana Shakila Yoonus Kirti Megha Parveen Tanwar Amit Gupta Rakesh Sehgal Source Type: research

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry rapid detection of carbapenamase activity in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates
Conclusion: MALDI TOF is a promising tool in the field of diagnostic microbiology that has the ability to transfer identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing time from days to hours. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Noha Abouseada May Raouf Eman El-Attar Pacinte Moez Source Type: research

Bacterial and fungal biofilm formation on contact lenses and their susceptibility to lens care solutions
Conclusion: This study showed the importance of selecting the appropriate lens cleaning solution to prevent biofilm production on contact lenses. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Siddharth Kackar Ethel Suman M Shashidhar Kotian Source Type: research

Human papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in gyneco-obstetric outpatients from a mexican hospital
Conclusions: More than 25% of the population was infected with either agent. We successfully used in-house molecular methodologies for diagnosis and typing, showing HPV and C. trachomatis prevalence consistent to previous reports. Concomitant infections were found, HPV high-risk types were involved in half of these cases, representing a higher risk. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Laura Conde-Ferr & #225;ez Jorge Ramiro Carrillo Mart & #237;ez Guadalupe Ayora-Talavera Mar & #237;a del Refugio Gonz & #225;lez Losa Source Type: research