Cutaneous botryomycosis of the foot: A case report and review of literature
Kevin John, Karthik Gunasekaran, Thomas Alex Kodiatte, Ramya IyyaduraiIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2018 36(3):447-449Botryomycosis is a chronic bacterial infection that manifests clinically as tumours or plaques that are often ulcerated and have discharging sinuses draining small white-coloured granules. Therefore, they closely mimic mycetoma or other fungal infections. It is most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. It can present as cutaneous or visceral disease. The cutaneous form can invade deep tissue leading to extensive destruction and disfigurement. A 31-year-old female presented with progressive swe...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kevin John Karthik Gunasekaran Thomas Alex Kodiatte Ramya Iyyadurai Source Type: research

Fatal aspergillosis of the renal vasculature in a combined liver-kidney transplant recipient
We report a case of 12-year-old female with primary hyperoxaluria with regular haemodialysis for the end-stage renal disease. She underwent a combined liver and renal transplantation which got infected by aspergillosis. In this case study, it is speculated that the most likely source of Aspergillus was contaminated preservative solution (perfusate), resulting in infection within the donor kidney and subsequent systemic infection in the recipient. This case study calls for critical analysis and needs for the routine culture of the preservative solution before transplantation, to detect any fungal contamination and manage it...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vasant Nagvekar Chandrasekar H Pranatharthi Ram Gopalakrishnan Ramamurthy Anand Vidya Devarajan Mandayam Thirunarayan Anil Tarigopula Source Type: research

Herpes simplex virus type 2 and cytomegalovirus perigenital ulcer in an HIV infected woman
We report a case of mucocutaneous Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)-2 and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in a 39-year-old female with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, who presented with a perigenital ulcer. The patient was receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) for 3 months before presentation. Scraping from the perigenital ulcer was positive for HSV-2 and Treponema pallidum using polymerase chain reactions (PCR). The extent and duration of the lesions led us to consider the possibility of coinfection with CMV. The patient also tested positive for CMV by PCR. On subsequent follow-up after 8 weeks, the genital lesions had he...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jyoti Rawre Mamta Rai Divya Namdeo Rojaleen Das Neena Khanna Lalit Dar Benu Dhawan Source Type: research

Fatal Cryptococcus gattii meningitis with negative cryptococcal antigen test in a HIV-non-infected patient
We report a case of rapidly fatal meningitis by C. gattii in an HIV–non-infected man with CD4 lymphopenia who tested negative for cryptococcal antigen. This case may serve as an alert to its wider occurrence and less explored risk factors. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vandana Kalwaje Eshwara Rahul Garg G Siddaramappa Chandrashekhar Tushar Shaw Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay Source Type: research

Bioassay and molecular study for detection of insecticide resistance dengue causing mosquito vectors
Monika Soni, Chandrakanta Bhattacharya, Jitendra Sharma, Prafulla DuttaIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2018 36(3):435-438Nowadays, dengue infection creates a major problem across the country. The vector species carrying dengue infection has progressively started to developed resistance against most of the currently used insecticides. Hence, a study was carried out in dengue-endemic areas of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh to find the current situation of insecticide susceptibility status of dengue vectors. Based on the previous history of dengue incidence, Aedes mosquitoes were collected from Dibrugarh, Kamrup, Sivasaga...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Monika Soni Chandrakanta Bhattacharya Jitendra Sharma Prafulla Dutta Source Type: research

Clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with toxocariasis encountered at a tertiary care centre in North India
This study aims to analyse the clinical and laboratory characteristics of Toxocara-infected patients and assessment of response to standard treatment with review of literature. The clinical details of patients with Toxocara serology positive for IgG antibodies by ELISA in 5 years (2013–2017) were retrospectively analysed. A total of 29 patients with clinical features and serology suggestive of Toxocara infection were evaluated. A complete history of 14 patients was available for the analysis. Majority (13/14; 96.5%) of cases were children <15 years, males (79%) and belonged to lower socioeconomic status (...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jutang Babat Ain Tiewsoh Sumeeta Khurana Abhishek Mewara Rakesh Sehgal Ankita Singh Source Type: research

Serotyping of dengue viruses circulating during 2014 & #8211;2015 in Assam, India
This study aimed to identify the dengue serotypes circulating in Assam. Clinically suspected dengue fever cases were included in the study. Viral RNA was extracted using QIAamp Viral RNA Mini Kit (Qiagen). Nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was done for serotyping. The frequency of dengue was 25.23% with a peak during the period from September (22.56%) to October (26.22%). Two serotypes were detected, DEN-1 (72.7%) and DEN-2 (12.1%) and dual infection in 15.1%. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Muksedur Rahman Ajanta Sharma Saurav Patgiri Ezaz Hussain Amrit Kumar Borah Lahari Saikia Source Type: research

The prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection among the blood donors in a tertiary care hospital, Puducherry
This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of OBI using total anti-HBc by ELISA and DNA detection by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The samples included were negative for HBs Ag by ELISA. Out of 1102 samples tested, 156 were positive for total anti-hepatitis B core antigen and 52/156 by real-time PCR. Overall, the prevalence was found to be 4.71% (52/1102). The results indicate that nucleic acid-based testing should be an essential part of screening procedure to prevent missing of OBI. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: KP Athira K Vanathy Rajendra Kulkarni Rahul Dhodapkar Source Type: research

Use of eschar for the molecular diagnosis and genotypic characterisation of Orientia tsutsugamushi causing scrub typhus
Manisha Biswal, Kamran Zaman, Vikas Suri, Harshith Rao, Abhay Kumar, Gaurav Kapur, Navneet Sharma, Ashish Bhalla, M JayashreeIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2018 36(3):422-425Scrub typhus caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi presents as an acute febrile illness with a varied presentation from mild illness to fatal disease in the absence of appropriate antibiotic treatment. Performing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on eschar sample acts a rapid diagnostic tool in the early stage of scrub typhus when blood is negative. A total of eight patients from whom both whole blood and eschar samples were collected and tested by ne...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Manisha Biswal Kamran Zaman Vikas Suri Harshith Rao Abhay Kumar Gaurav Kapur Navneet Sharma Ashish Bhalla M Jayashree Source Type: research

Changes in hepatitis C virus genotype distribution in chronic hepatitis C infection patients
Conclusions: Events that cause social changes such as war and immigration and intense commercial and touristic activities affect and alter the HCV genotype distribution in HCV-infected patients. For this reason, further multicentre studies are required reflecting all the regions in order to determine the genotype distribution in HCV-infected patients at regular intervals. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mehmet Burak Selek Orhan Baylan Ergenekon Karag & #246;z Mustafa & #214;zyurt Source Type: research

Comparing the profile of respiratory fungal pathogens amongst immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, their susceptibility pattern and correlation of various opportunistic respiratory fungal infections and their progression in relation to the CD4 & #43;T-cell counts
Conclusion: Patterns of invasive fungal infections are changing in many ways. In the midst of these evolving trends, IFI of the respiratory tractcontinue to remain important causes of morbidity and mortality. Diagnostic tools can be adequately used only if the treating physician is aware of the propensity of patients to acquire a fungal infection. Thus, continuous awareness and education is crucial for successful management of patients. Judicious use of antifungal medications as prophylactic measures must be employed, particularly in the critically ill and patients of HIV. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Asma Husein Roohani Nazish Fatima Mohammad Shameem Haris Manzoor Khan Parvez Anwar Khan Anees Akhtar Source Type: research

Microbiological and chest X-ray studies on influenza B virus-associated pneumonia
Conclusions: High clinical suspicion is required to detect pneumonia in influenza B virus patients. Based on the CXR findings, the study also suggests that patients with pleural effusion and positive bacterial culture need more attention for the severity of clinical outcome. Moreover, critical care should be given to paediatric patients having higher WBC count, higher CRP level and lower Hgb. These parameters would be helpful to differentiate primary pneumonia from non-pneumonic influenza. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xiaoyun Wang Yan Tian Source Type: research

Evaluation of immune response to hepatitis B vaccine in healthcare workers at a tertiary care hospital
Conclusion: Post-HBsAg vaccination immunity to hepatitis B was 96.5% in HCW and was similar to that of global rates. Increasing age, time period, smoking habit, and overweight were associated with decreased immunity. Many studies are needed in developing newer HBV vaccines with very high immunogenicity. Giving highly immunogenic vaccine to HCWs will ensure safety at work by reducing nosocomial transmission which is very much desired in a resource-limited country. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Praveena Basireddy Surekha Avileli Nagajyothi Beldono Swarna Latha Gundela Source Type: research

Expanded diagnostic approach to hepatitis E virus detection in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure: A pilot study
Conclusion: This study shows that alcohol is a major contributing factor for both underlying CLD and ACLF while HEV is the most common infectious cause for ACLF, suggesting a need for a vaccination in such patients, whenever made available. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Runal John Steve Fletcher John Gnanadurai Raghavendran Anantharam Visalakshi Jeyaseelan Uday George Zachariah Ashish Goel Eapen Eapen Chundamannil Priya Abraham Source Type: research

Evaluation of an in-house LipL32 polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of leptospirosis and its correlation with various serological diagnostic techniques
Conclusions: Mysore can be considered endemic for leptospirosis. The in-house PCR based on LipL32 gene proved to be useful in the early diagnosis of leptospirosis. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Linda Rose Jose Sumana Neelambike Mahadeviah V Balamurugan K Ramachandra Kini Source Type: research

Incidence, epidemiology and control of Clostridium difficile infection in a tertiary care private hospital in India
Conclusions: CDI is an emerging HAI in India. All hospitals need to set up policies for surveillance, testing, treatment and prevention of CDI based on recent international guidelines and local infrastructure/logistics. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tanu Singhal Sweta Shah Reshma Tejam Pooja Thakkar Source Type: research

Hepatitis C virus and its genotypes in chronic liver disease patients from Meghalaya, Northeast India
Conclusions: The presence of HCV in newly diagnosed CLD cases from Meghalaya was considerable. The genotype distribution of HCV was distinct from the other regions of India. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bhupen Barman Kaustubh Bora Kryshanlang G Lynrah W Valarie Lyngdoh Mohammad Jamil Source Type: research

Rapid detection of the commonly encountered carbapenemases (New Delhi metallo- & #946;-lactamase, OXA-48/181) directly from various clinical samples using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay
Conclusions: Rapid detection of these carbapenemases would be assist in better patient management, in terms of accurate antimicrobial treatment, help in cohorting infected from uninfected patient to prevent spread. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mubin Kazi Rukhsar Khot Anjali Shetty Camilla Rodrigues Source Type: research

Changing virulence factors among vaginal non-albicans Candida species
Conclusions: This study highlighted that there is a change in the virulence factors among the non-albicans Candida species, especially C. glabrata strains which were haemolytic and produce strong proteinase activity and esterase activity. It may be one of the explanation of the most common causative agent of VVC in our study. Multicentric studies from this area might be required to get a more generalised conclusion. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Krishnapriya Kalaiarasan Rakesh Singh Latha Chaturvedula Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF assay in extrapulmonary tuberculosis
Conclusion: The present study establishes Xpert MTB/RIF assay as a promising tool in the rapid diagnosis of EPTB and detection of RIF resistance. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sheetal Bankar Reena Set Disha Sharma Daksha Shah Jayanthi Shastri Source Type: research

Hepatitis C virus infection in a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai, India: Identification of a mixed and novel genotype
Conclusion: The major HCV genotype observed was 3 which is difficult to treat with direct-acting antivirals, owing to the more rapid progression of liver disease, increased rates of steatosis (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease), a higher risk for cancer (HCC). We believe this study is the first one to address the prevalence of mixed genotypes and untypeable genotype from India. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Priya Madan Yabaji Aruna Shankarkumar Akash Shukla Shobna Bhatia Source Type: research

Dominance of international high-risk clones in carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Multicentric molecular epidemiology report from India
Conclusion: This is the first large study from India to report the baseline data on the molecular resistance mechanisms and its association with genetic relatedness of CP P. aeruginosa circulating in Indian hospitals. blaVIM- and blaNDM-producing P. aeruginosa is the most prevalent carbapenemase seen in India. Majority of the isolates belongs to the high-risk international clones ST235, ST357 and ST664 which is a concern. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Agila Kumari Pragasam Balaji Veeraraghavan Shalini Anandan Vignesh Narasiman Sujatha Sistla Arti Kapil Purva Mathur Pallab Ray Chand Wattal Sanjay Bhattacharya Vijayashri Deotale K Subramani JV Peter TD Hariharan I Ramya S Iniyan Kamini Walia VC Ohri Source Type: research

Newer & #946;-Lactam/ & #946;-Lactamase inhibitor for multidrug-resistant gram-negative infections: Challenges, implications and surveillance strategy for India
Balaji Veeraraghavan, Agila Kumari Pragasam, Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Shalini Anandan, V Ramasubramanian, Subramanian Swaminathan, Ram Gopalakrishnan, Rajeev Soman, OC Abraham, Vinod C Ohri, Kamini WaliaIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2018 36(3):334-343Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major public health concern across the globe, and it is increasing at an alarming rate. Multiple classes of antimicrobials have been used for the treatment of infectious diseases. Rise in the AMR limits its use and hence the prerequisite for the newer agents to combat drug resistance. Among the infections caused by Gram-negative...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Balaji Veeraraghavan Agila Kumari Pragasam Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam Shalini Anandan V Ramasubramanian Subramanian Swaminathan Ram Gopalakrishnan Rajeev Soman OC Abraham Vinod C Ohri Kamini Walia Source Type: research

Legionella and Legionnaires & #39; disease: Time to explore in India
This article also summarises the progress of research related to Legionella in this country, identifying the research gaps and discussing priorities to explore this unexplored pathogen in India. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rama Chaudhry K Sreenath Sonu Kumari Agrawal Arvind Valavane Source Type: research

Hepatitis E virus infection: An old virus with a new story!
Ekta Gupta, Pragya AgarwalaIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2018 36(3):317-323Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an important public health problem. HEV infection has been identified as a major cause of enterically transmitted acute sporadic hepatitis in India especially in adult age group. India is hyperendemic for HEV, with the disease presenting both as outbreaks and as cases of acute sporadic viral hepatitis. Most of these outbreaks can be traced to contamination of drinking water supplies with human fecal matter. The last decade has witnessed tremendous change in our understanding of the virus in its epidemiol...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ekta Gupta Pragya Agarwala Source Type: research

An update on antimicrobial resistance and the role of newer antimicrobial agents for Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Agila Kumari Pragasam, Balaji Veeraraghavan, E Nalini, Shalini Anandan, Keith S KayeIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2018 36(3):303-316Infections due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major health concern, especially hospital-acquired infections, in critically ill individuals. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) increases the morbidity and mortality rates associated with pseudomonal infections. In this review, we aim to address two major aspects of P. aeruginosa. The first part of the review will focus on the burden of AMR and its prevailing mechanisms seen in India, while the second part will focus on the challenges and app...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Agila Kumari Pragasam Balaji Veeraraghavan E Nalini Shalini Anandan Keith S Kaye Source Type: research

Pseudomonas aeruginosa - Difficult to outmanoeuvre
Payal K Patel, Twisha S Patel, Keith S KayeIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2018 36(3):301-302 (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Payal K Patel Twisha S Patel Keith S Kaye Source Type: research

The continuing scourge of congenital syphilis in the face of declining seropositivity: A challenge to control efforts
Srujana Mohanty, Tapas Som, Ashok Kumar PraharajIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2018 36(2):295-297 (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Srujana Mohanty Tapas Som Ashok Kumar Praharaj Source Type: research

High prevalence of varicella seronegativity in nurses at a tertiary care private hospital in Mumbai, India
Sweta Shah, Tanu Singhal, Reshma Naik, Pooja ThakkarIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2018 36(2):294-295 (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sweta Shah Tanu Singhal Reshma Naik Pooja Thakkar Source Type: research

Oral administration of Klebsiella pneumoniae-specific bacteriophage eradicates the bacteria in albino mice
Ashutosh Chaturvedi, Gopal NathIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2018 36(2):293-294 (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ashutosh Chaturvedi Gopal Nath Source Type: research

Clinical spectrum, susceptibility profile, treatment and outcome of culture-confirmed brucellosis from South India
This study was conducted to determine the clinical manifestations, antibiotic susceptibility pattern, treatment and outcome of culture confirmed brucellosis. Adult patients with culture confirmed brucellosis who presented to a large teaching hospital in South India between 2009 and 2015 were included. A diagnosis of brucellosis was confirmed on automated culture. Clinical profile, laboratory parameters, drug susceptibility, treatment and outcome were documented by reviewing the medical records. The cohort comprised of 22 patients with mean ± SD age of 42 ± 13 years. Twenty one (95.5%) was male. Thirteen (59&#...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Selvin Sundar Raj Mani Karthik Gunasekaran Ramya Iyyadurai John Antony Jude Prakash Balaji Veeraraghavan Ajay Kumar Mishra Kirti Sabnis Punitha John Victor Sherry Martin Vignesh Kumar Chandiraseharan Samuel George Hansdak George M Varghese Source Type: research

Alarming resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a tertiary care hospital of North India
Conclusion: Alarming increase in the resistance to commonly used antimicrobials for gonorrhoea in our study, especially of fluoroquinolones, is a clarion call for the urgent need for prudence in prescribing them. Observing the rampant resistance exhibited by N. gonorrhoeae, it is clear that the day is not far when it will acquire a superbug status and become intractable to treatment by the available antibiotics. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mohit Sharma Meher Rizvi Richa Gupta Mohd Azam Haris M Khan Anjum Parvez Indu Shukla Source Type: research

Twenty-one episodes of peritonitis in a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patient: What is the root cause ?
Victorine B Nzana, Anusha Rohit, Deepu George, Madhusudan Vijayan, Milly Mathew, Sundar Sankaran, Palaniappan Nagarajan, Georgi AbrahamIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2018 36(2):282-284A 51-year-old female, with non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease with a clipped cerebral aneurysm and chronic kidney disease stage 5 was on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) for 6.5 years elsewhere. She came for opinion on continuation of CAPD as she had 21 episodes of peritonitis in 76 months. Her blood pressure was 80/50 mmHg. She was...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Victorine B Nzana Anusha Rohit Deepu George Madhusudan Vijayan Milly Mathew Sundar Sankaran Palaniappan Nagarajan Georgi Abraham Source Type: research

Intraventricular haemorrhage as the first manifestation of congenital Cytomegalovirus infection
Malgorzata Sobolewska-Pilarczyk, Katarzyna Pawlak-Osinska, Sylwia Drewa, Beata Smok, Małgorzata PawlowskaIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2018 36(2):279-281Congenital Cytomegalovirus infection (CCMV) is the most common intrauterine infection. Early diagnosis of CCMV is hindered by three factors: There is no screening programme for CMV infection in pregnant women; a high percentage of infections in neonates are asymptomatic; the clinical signs of CCMV infection are uncharacteristic. The aim of this article is to analyse the clinical picture and course of CCMV treatment in a 3-week-old newborn, analyse adverse eve...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Malgorzata Sobolewska-Pilarczyk Katarzyna Pawlak-Osinska Sylwia Drewa Beata Smok Ma & #322;gorzata Pawlowska Source Type: research

Identification of prevalent dengue serotypes by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and correlation with severity of dengue as per the recent World Health Organization classification (2009)
Conclusions: DENV-3 and DENV-2 serotypes are prevalent in the region and are associated with a more serious clinical profile than other serotypes. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tanmay K Mehta Parul D Shah Source Type: research

Antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori: A mutational analysis from a tertiary care hospital in Kashmir, India
Conclusions: Tetracycline and quinolones could be the antibiotics of choice in the eradication of H. pylori in this region, while recurrence of the infection with H. pylori could be expected among patients receiving either metronidazole or clarithromycin, for eradication therapy. DST should be done on a routine basis utilising both phenotypic and genotypic methods to prevent further emergence of resistance in this region. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fayaz Ahmad Wani Gulnaz Bashir Mushtaq Ahmad Khan Showkat Ali Zargar Zubaida Rasool Qurteeba Qadri Source Type: research

Molecular investigation of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec types and genotypic relations of methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from before and after hospital exposed students
Conclusion: Most of the isolates obtained after hospital training showed clonal similarity and seven had multiple SCCmec elements require further investigation for the possible mechanism. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bora Ekinci Tuba Gokdogan Edgunlu Gulcin Bayramoglu Gulsen Ulucam Atay Source Type: research

Assessment of microbiological status after successful completion of intermittent revised national tuberculosis control programme directly observed treatment, short course regimen for microbiologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis cases: While new daily regimen going to be implemented in India
Conclusion: Till date, RNTCP does not follow up the patients for any period of time after successful completion of treatment. Through the present study, we could find relapse cases in 10% of the previously treated non-symptomatic patients. These unnoticed relapse cases have potential to spread TB and increase disease burden of country. Thus, we can conclude that RNTCP has to follow up the patients after successful treatment to determine whether they relapse. It is needed for the success of programme and control of the disease in the country. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Roumi Ghosh Sudipta Roy Md. Khalid Rashid Source Type: research

Intestinal cryptosporidiosis in renal transplant recipients: Prevalence, species detection and comparative evaluation of SSU rRNA and Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein genes
Conclusions: Cryptosporidiosis is common amongst RT recipients, particularly those with diarrhoea. C. hominis is the most common species in the studied population. SSU rRNA PCR was more sensitive molecular method for the differentiation of Cryptosporidium species. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ujjala Ghoshal Prabhat Ranjan Asmita Dey Uday Chand Ghoshal Source Type: research

Performance of an in-house real-time PCR assay for detecting Cytomegalovirus infection among transplant patients from a tertiary care centre
Conclusion: The in-house viral load assay had a better correlation with clinical findings compared to the commercial assay. Quality assessment of these assays was done by the United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Scheme (UKNEQAS), an external proficiency testing programme, and by the National Institute for Biological Standard and Control (NIBSC) standard. For UKNEQAS and NIBSC standards, the bias between the assays was 0.73 log10and 0.85 log10, respectively. This difference is well within the acceptable range already reported in the literature. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Santhosh Kumar Duraisamy Shoba Mammen Sasi Kumar Reddy Lakshminarayan Susan Verghese Mahesh Moorthy Biju George Rajesh Kannangai Santosh Varghese Alok Srivastava Asha Mary Abraham Source Type: research

Co-circulation of four dengue serotypes at South Eastern Andhra Pradesh, India: A prospective study
Conclusion: This study reports the all four dengue serotypes' co-circulation. This is the first report from South Eastern Andhra Pradesh. Amongst four, DENV-2 was predominant followed by DENV-4. The information of predominant serotypes can guide in forecasting dengue outbreaks and improving control measures of vectors thus may be helpful in the prevention of outbreaks. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rishi Gowtham Racherla Madhavi Latha Pamireddy Alladi Mohan Nagaraja Mudhigeti Padmalatha Anjaneyulu Mahalakshmi Umapathi Nallapireddy Usha Kalawat Source Type: research

Detection of anti-hepatitis C virus and hepatitis C virus RNA in dried blood spot specimens using Whatman No. 1 filter paper
Conclusions: DBS using Whatman No. 1 filter paper is quite reliable as serum for detection of anti-HCV. It can be useful in effective surveillance. However, it is not suitable for confirmation of chronic HCV infection. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ritapa Ghosh Naba Kumar Hazarika Source Type: research

The effectiveness of sofosbuvir and daclatasvir in the treatment of hepatitis C in thalassaemia major patients and their effect on haematological factors
Conclusion: Combination of SOF and DAC is an effective and tolerable treatment regimen without affect on the amount of anaemia in patients and did not differentiate the need for blood transfusions. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Farhad Zamani Hossein Ajdarkosh Fahimeh Safarnezhad-Tameshkel Azita Azarkeivan Hossein Keyvani Farshad Naserifar Jamshid Vafaeimanesh Source Type: research

Lamivudine plus tenofovir versus lamivudine plus adefovir for the treatment of hepatitis B virus in HIV-coinfected patients, starting antiretroviral therapy
Conclusions: Adefovir plus lamivudine is an effective alternative of tenofovir plus lamivudine in long-term HBV treatment outcome in HIV/HBV coinfected patients. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jayeeta Sarkar Debraj Saha Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay Bibhuti Saha Runu Chakravarty Subhasish Kamal Guha Source Type: research

Rapid detection of ethambutol-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical specimens by real-time polymerase chain reaction hybridisation probe method
Conclusions: Our real-time PCR hybridisation probe method promises for rapid detection of EMB-resistant MTB directly from clinical specimens. However, future studies and modifications of method by incorporating other potential loci along with targeted mutation (emb306) are still required to increase the sensitivity of method. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: DS Chauhan R Sharma D Parashar R Das P Sharma AV Singh PK Singh K Katoch VM Katoch Source Type: research

Polymorphisms in cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen 4 gene does not affect scytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen 4 levels in human papillomavirus-infected women with or without cervical cancer
Conclusion: The present study suggests sCTLA-4 levels are not affected by a polymorphism at + 49 A>G CTLA-4. Hence, levels of CTLA-4 are similar in both CaCx cases and control group. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Priyanka Wagh Priyanka Kulkarni Shilpa Kerkar Himangi Warke Hemangi Chaudhari Kedar Deodhar Bharat Rekhi Hemant Tongaonkar Jayanti Mania-Pramanik Source Type: research

Prothrombotic state in HIV: A study on protein C, protein S, homocysteine and correlation with CD4 counts
Swati Khare, Rashmi Kushwaha, Ashutosh Kumar, Vimala Venkatesh, Himanshu D Reddy, Mili Jain, Mohd Yusuf, Uma Shankar SinghIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2018 36(2):201-206Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may result in variable haematological manifestations. Thrombotic events are more common among HIV-infected persons than the general population, possibly due to the increased inflammatory/hypercoagulable state and presence of concurrent comorbidities. Aims and Objectives: (1) Screen for coagulation abnormalities in HIV-infected patients. (2) Detect certain prothrombotic factors such as deficiency of ...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Swati Khare Rashmi Kushwaha Ashutosh Kumar Vimala Venkatesh Himanshu D Reddy Mili Jain Mohd Yusuf Uma Shankar Singh Source Type: research

Identification of Raoultella spp.: Comparison of three methods
Conclusion: It was established that MALDI-TOF MS method is reliable in identifying genus Raoultella. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Alicja Sekowska Agnieszka Mikucka Eugenia Gospodarek-Komkowska Source Type: research

Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in Istanbul, Turkey
Conclusion: The majority of patients with HCV infection had genotype 1 (82.5%), followed by genotype 3, 2 and 4. Monitoring the change in HCV genotype distribution is critical for the development of effective strategies for HCV elimination. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nuran Karabulut Sema Alacam Ayfer Yolcu Mustafa Onel Ali Agacfidan Source Type: research

Trends in antimicrobial resistance patterns of Group A streptococci, molecular basis and implications
Conclusion: The erythromycin and tetracycline resistance in GAS continues to exist at high levels and may be attributed to the over-prescription and use of these antibiotics. Our findings indicate that the use of these antibiotics especially macrolides as empiric therapy in penicillin-allergic patients may not be appropriate. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tintu Abraham Sujatha Sistla Source Type: research