Does Xpert Carba R assay detect carbapenemase-producing organism in Gram-negative sepsis in neonates ?
R Usha Devi, Thangaraj Abiramalatha, Ashok Chandrasekaran, Shaik Mohammad Shafi Jan, Prakash Amboiram, Umamaheswari BalakrishnanIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2020 38(3):500-501 (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: R Usha Devi Thangaraj Abiramalatha Ashok Chandrasekaran Shaik Mohammad Shafi Jan Prakash Amboiram Umamaheswari Balakrishnan Source Type: research

Burkholderia vietnamiensis causing a non-lactational breast abscess in a non-cystic fibrosis patient in Tamil Nadu, India
We present here a report of a case of Burkholderia vietnamiensis causing a non-lactational breast abscess in a non-CF patient. The pathogen was identified as B. cepacia using Vitek system and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation–time of flight. This was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using recA genus-specific gene and sequencing of the PCR amplicons. recA-restriction fragment length polymorphism and recA gene sequencing revealed that the isolate is B. vietnamiensis. This is the first description of B. vietnamiensis isolated from a clinical case from India. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Anusha Rohit M Shraddha Rani N Suresh Anand Cynthia Chellappa P Mohanapriya Indrani Karunasagar Iddya Karunasagar Vijaya Kumar Deekshit Source Type: research

Aspergillus mediastinitis in a post-operative immunocompetent child
We describe the case of an immunocompetent 2-month-old child with obstructed supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous circulation (TAPVC) and severe pulmonary artery hypertension, who underwent TAPVC repair through median sternotomy and developed post-operative mediastinitis due to Aspergillus flavus. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Anand Kumar Mishra Vidur Bansal Gradlin Roy Vikram Halder Parakritii Gupta Arunaloke Chakrabarti Source Type: research

First report of Vibrio cholerae O9, novel st520, isolated from a child with bacteraemia-associated sepsis
We describe a case of sepsis in a child with spinal dysraphism caused by a V. cholerae O9 strain belonging to a novel sequence type (ST520). The present case highlights the need of considering V. cholerae non-O1/O139 as one of the pathogens while dealing with sepsis cases, and also, the study expounds the importance of proper characterisation of the pathogen for an effective treatment. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nandita Shashindran Lekshmi Narendrakumar Suhas Udayakumaran Divya Mavanavila Vijayakumar Sabu Thomas Anil Kumar Source Type: research

Adrenal histoplasmosis in immunocompetent individuals a case series from the North-Western part of India, Rajasthan province: An emerging endemic focus
We describe five immunocompetent men with adrenal histoplasmosis presenting with constitutional symptoms. Four patients had bilateral adrenal involvement, whereas one had unilateral adrenal mass. Three patients had adrenal insufficiency at presentation and the other two developed adrenal insufficiencies during follow-up. All the patients received amphotericin B and itraconazole treatment which led to symptomatic improvement but adrenal insufficiency persisted in all patients at the end of the follow-up. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Balram Sharma Hardeva Ram Nehara Vijay Kumar Bhavi Pratibha Maan Sanjay Saran Source Type: research

Streptococcus dysgalactiae septic arthritis of sternoclavicular joint with bacteraemia
Pruthu Narendra Dhekane, Ram Gopalakrishnan, V Lakshmi Sree, V Dedeepiya DevaprasadIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2020 38(3):481-484 Invasive infections due to Streptococcus dysgalactiae are uncommon in the adult population, and sternoclavicular joint septic arthritis (SCSA) is usually caused by other organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We hereby report a case of SCSA caused by this organism. The patient responded well to intravenous antibiotics and recovered fully without any surgical intervention. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pruthu Narendra Dhekane Ram Gopalakrishnan V Lakshmi Sree V Dedeepiya Devaprasad Source Type: research

An unexpected host in a soft-tissue lesion of thigh
We describe the case of a 35-year-old female patient who presented with a slow-growing soft-tissue swelling with ulceration over the thigh. On clinical and radiological examination, a provisional diagnosis of soft-tissue neoplasm was made. After resection, histopathological sections showed a closely packed cyst with innumerable endospores. The present case report documents the rare occurrence of an incidentally detected cutaneous rhinosporidiosis causing diagnostic difficulty. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kavita Jain SM Sarfaraj Moumita Sengupta Chhanda Datta Uttara Chatterjee Source Type: research

A rare case of Colletotrichum truncatum keratitis in a young boy with complete healing after medical treatment
Josephine S Christy, A Balraj, Aditi AgarwalIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2020 38(3):475-477 Colletotrichum is a rare fungal pathogen, which is known to cause anthracnose in plants and keratitis or subcutaneous infections in humans. Among the seven Colletotrichum species reported in eye infections, truncatum species is usually virulent with poor visual prognosis even after surgical treatment. Here we report a case of Colletotrichum truncatum keratitis in a young boy with thorn injury that completely resolved with topical natamycin and voriconazole. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Josephine S Christy A Balraj Aditi Agarwal Source Type: research

Mycotic keratitis due to Cylindrocarpon lichenicola: Successful salvage of the eye
M Suchitra Shenoy, Rajesh R Nayak, Vijay Pai, K Archana BhatIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2020 38(3):472-474 We hereby report a successfully salvaged eye due to mycotic keratitis by Cylindrocarpon lichenicola in a 60-year-old female from Kasaragod (Kerala). The patient came with a history of pain, photophobia and decreased vision of the right eye. The microbiological investigations of the corneal scraping revealed C. lichenicola. C. lichenicola is a soil saprophyte. Since the ulcer worsened paracentesis followed by therapeutic keratoplasty and adjunct therapy with natamycin drops, voriconazole drops and oral keto...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: M Suchitra Shenoy Rajesh R Nayak Vijay Pai K Archana Bhat Source Type: research

False-positive blood cultures: The need for follow-up
Suverna Kirolikar, Ambreen Pandrowala, Sangeeta Joshi, Ruchira Misra, Sujata MushrifIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2020 38(3):469-471 The diagnosis of blood-borne infections in immunocompromised patients is a major challenge for the clinical microbiology laboratory. Isolation of bloodborne pathogens in these patients has profound clinical implications, yet is fraught with technical problems, including the presence of unusual and difficult to isolate pathogens. Coupled with this is the problem of false-positive blood culture signals from automated blood culture systems which further delays the definitive diagnosis....
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Suverna Kirolikar Ambreen Pandrowala Sangeeta Joshi Ruchira Misra Sujata Mushrif Source Type: research

A real-time polymerase chain reaction-based approach for qualitative estimation of viral RNA in organ tissues of coxsackievirus A-16-infected neonatal mice
Sanjaykumar Sidram Tikute, Shailesh Dattatraya Pawar, Samruddhi Satish Kawale, Deepa Kailash Sharma, Varanasi GopalkrishnaIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2020 38(3):464-468 Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a paediatric disease associated with enteroviruses (EVs). Among EVs, coxsackievirus A-16 (CVA-16) strain is currently in circulation and causing outbreaks in India. Neonatal mice (Institute of Cancer Research) strains were infected with CVA-16 strain isolated from HFMD patients to conduct pathological and molecular studies. Infected organs were harvested as per time points. A real-time polymerase chain reac...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sanjaykumar Sidram Tikute Shailesh Dattatraya Pawar Samruddhi Satish Kawale Deepa Kailash Sharma Varanasi Gopalkrishna Source Type: research

Prevalence of COVID-19 antibodies in healthcare workers at the peak of the pandemic in Mumbai, India: A preliminary study
Tanu Singhal, Sweta Shah, Reshma Naik, Amreen Kazi, Pooja ThakkarIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2020 38(3):461-463 Healthcare worker (HCW) infections due to COVID-19 are of serious consequence. Testing for antibodies against COVID-19 in HCWs has been previously recommended. We conducted a serosurvey in HCWs at a private hospital in Mumbai which is treating COVID patients. A total of 244 HCWs were tested. The prevalence of infection in asymptomatic HCWs was 4.3% and in previously symptomatic untested HCWs was 70%. We recommend that HCWs with a previous history of COVID symptoms who were not tested/tested ne...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tanu Singhal Sweta Shah Reshma Naik Amreen Kazi Pooja Thakkar Source Type: research

Arterial blood gas as a prognostic indicator in patients with sepsis
Sayan Mukherjee, Suvrajyoti Das, Sudipta Mukherjee, Pralay Shankar Ghosh, Sanjay BhattacharyaIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2020 38(3):457-460 Abnormal arterial blood gas (ABG) among patients with sepsis is an important prognostic indicator. All-cause mortality was the highest among patients with respiratory acidosis (4/9 = 44.4%), followed by those having metabolic acidosis (3/8 = 37.5%). Median length of hospital and intensive care unit stay was 15.75 days and 6.25 days for those with abnormal ABG and 11 and 3.5 days among those with normal ABG. Median health-care expenditure at the time of disch...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sayan Mukherjee Suvrajyoti Das Sudipta Mukherjee Pralay Shankar Ghosh Sanjay Bhattacharya Source Type: research

Analysis of multi-sample pools in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA for mass screening: An Indian perspective
Sangeeta Deka, Deepjyoti Kalita, Amit Mangla, Ravi ShankarIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2020 38(3):451-456 In the current COVID-19 crisis, many national healthcare systems are confronted with a huge demand for mass testing and an acute shortage of diagnostic resources. Considering group testing as a viable solution, this pilot study was carried out to find the maximum number of samples that can be pooled together to accurately detect one positive sample carrying the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 viral RNA from different pools. We made different pool sizes ranging from 5 to 30 samples. Three posi...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sangeeta Deka Deepjyoti Kalita Amit Mangla Ravi Shankar Source Type: research

E-tutorials to accentuate & #8211; Clinical microbiology learning
Sheetal U HarakuniIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2020 38(3):448-450 Competency-based medical education has challenged the educators to adopt new teaching modalities to instil self-directed learning among children. E-learning in the form of blended learning is studied to facilitate clinical microbiology learning. A class of 200 students was introduced to the process of Google Classroom. Two topics were discussed in online classrooms. The students attempted online tests on the topics, that were later discussed in small groups in offline class. Students found that analytical/interpretive questions accentuated learnin...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sheetal U Harakuni Source Type: research

Staphylococcus aureus colonisation in HIV-infected patients: Incidence, risk factors and subsequent skin- and soft-tissue infections
Aashirwad Panigrahy, Sanjeev Sinha, Bimal Kumar Das, Arti Kapil, Sreenivas Vishnubhatla, Benu DhawanIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2020 38(3):444-447 We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of Staphylococcus aureus colonisation in 300 treatment-naïve HIV patients. Swabs from anterior nares and pharynx were cultured. Eighty-eight patients (29.3%) were colonised with S. aureus (47.7% nasal, 23.8% pharyngeal and 28.5% at both sites), which yielded 112 isolates. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus was detected in 25.9% (29/112) of isolates. Panton–Valentine leucocidin gene was present in...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Aashirwad Panigrahy Sanjeev Sinha Bimal Kumar Das Arti Kapil Sreenivas Vishnubhatla Benu Dhawan Source Type: research

Characterisation of colonisation properties of vaginal lactobacilli from healthy Indian women: Implications for identification of potential probiotic candidates
Arati Mane, Ishrat Khan, Madhuri ThakarIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2020 38(3):440-443 The ability of probiotic bacteria to colonise the target site is considered of utmost importance and used for preliminary screening of potential probiotic candidates. Thirty-eight vaginal Lactobacillus strains isolated from healthy women and characterised by 16S RNA sequencing were assessed for colonisation characteristics including adherence to human vaginal epithelial cells, auto-aggregation and hydrophobicity. No significant difference in adherence (P = 0.384), auto-aggregation (P = 0.282) and hydrophobicity (P =...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Arati Mane Ishrat Khan Madhuri Thakar Source Type: research

Two novel genomic DNA sequences as common diagnostic targets to detect Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum: Development of quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays, and clinical evaluation
Conclusion: Novel target-based qPCR assays can be rapid an efficient tool for simultaneous detection of a C. parvum and C. hominis. These genes could also be utilized for the development of innovative DNA-based Point-of-Care test development. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Arpit Kumar Shrivastava Swagatika Panda Subrat Kumar Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu Source Type: research

Molecular, phylogenetic and antibiotic resistance analysis of enteroaggregative escherichia coli/uropathogenic Escherichia coli hybrid genotypes causing urinary tract infections
Conclusions: Our results indicated a closer relationship among EAEC and UPEC, which suggested that some EAEC strains can be potential uropathogens. Ours is a first study documenting the existence of EAEC pathotypes VGs in UPEC strains of nosocomial origin; further studies are required to understand the diarrhoeagenic potential of these hybrids. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vinay Modgil Harpreet Kaur Balvinder Mohan Neelam Taneja Source Type: research

Characteristics and outcomes of critically ill patients with influenza A (H1N1) in the Western Balkans during the 2019 post-pandemic season
Conclusion: Critically ill patients with confirmed influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 infection in the post-pandemic season were older, required vasoactive drugs more often, and there was a trend of higher survival compared to H1N1 infection patients in the previous pandemic seasons. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pedja Kovacevic Jovan Matijasevic Sasa Dragic Biljana Zlojutro Srdjan Gavrilovic Milka Jandric Ana Andrijevic Tijana Kovacevic Vladimir Carapic Maja Travar Ljubisa Preradovic Danica Momcicevic Source Type: research

Microsporidia infection in patients with autoimmune diseases
Conclusion: There was a significant increase in microsporidia infection in autoimmune disease patients undergoing treatment with TNF-α antagonists, and the duration of treatment is one of the risk factors. The study highlights the importance of microsporidia testing in immunocompromised patients, particularly those undergoing treatment with anti-TNF-α drugs and emphasises the need for awareness among clinicians regarding this opportunistic parasite. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Khadiga Ahmed Ismail Yousry A Hawash Taisir Saber Emad M Eed Amany S Khalifa Khalaf F Alsharif Saleh A Alghamdi Ahmed M Khalifa Osama Mahmoud Khalifa Hatem K Althubiti Gala M Alsofyani Source Type: research

Molecular diversity of dengue virus serotypes 1 & #8211;4 during an outbreak of acute dengue virus infection in Theni, India
Conclusion: Our study documents the molecular characteristics of DENV circulating in our geographical locality. The detection of heterologous DENV serotypes highlights the importance of regular molecular monitoring for the early recognition of any switch in pre-dominant serotype. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Amudhan Murugesan Dhanasezhian Aridoss Swarna Senthilkumar Lallitha Sivathanu Ramalingam Sekar Esaki M Shankar Elanchezhiyan Manickan Source Type: research

Use of fluorescence foldscope as an effective tool for detection of biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Conclusion: Fluorescence foldscopy is an effective and reliable tool for the detection of biofilm formation in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa under different laboratory conditions. Biofilm-forming P. aeruginosa worsens the medical condition and is difficult to eradicate. The present study came up with an effective and reliable tool for the detection of biofilm formation in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chandrayee Deshamukhya Bhaskar Jyoti Das Shiela Chetri Deepjyoti Paul Debadatta Dhar Chanda Tuhina Banerjee Amitabha Bhattacharjee Source Type: research

Detection of various beta-Lactamases in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp.: A study from Tertiary Care Centre of North India
Conclusion: Our finding shows high percentages of ESBL and carbapenemases in E. coli and Klebsiella spp. Among phenotypic methods, CDT seems to be a better choice as prevalence of carbapenemases shows lots of variation in our country. For Class B enzymes, both CDT and mCIM/eCIM can be used in the routine laboratories. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Varsha Gupta Meenakshi Singh Priya Datta Anku Goel Sanjay Singh Kashinath Prasad Jagdish Chander Source Type: research

Comparison of two real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV-2 from combined nasopharyngeal-throat swabs
Conclusions: The results highlight the need for careful evaluation of commercial kits before being deployed for screening of COVID-19 infections. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Oves Siddiqui Vikas Manchanda Abhishek Yadav Tanu Sagar Sanchita Tuteja Nazia Nagi Sonal Saxena Source Type: research

Prevalence of torch infections and its associated poor outcome in high-risk pregnant women of Central India: Time to think for prevention strategies
Conclusion: A high prevalence of IgM seropositivity of TORCH infection was noted in the present study with the increased rate of poor foetal outcome warrants the need of proper prenatal counselling, universal immunisation and nutritional supplements during pregnancy. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: HV Manjunathachar Kavita N Singh Vivek Chouksey Ravindra Kumar Ravendra K Sharma Pradip V Barde Source Type: research

Antimicrobial activity of biosynthesised silver nanoparticles against multidrug-resistant microbes isolated from cancer patients with bacteraemia and candidaemia
Conclusion: The present study revealed a significant distribution of multidrug-resistant microbes, which may increase the burden of healthcare to prevent infections in cancer patients. Biosilver nanoparticles exhibit antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant microbes and could be considered as effective agents against these strains. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gamal Mohamed El-Sherbiny Mohamed Kasem Lila Yousseria Mohamed Shetaia Marwa M F. Elswify Samar Samer Mohamed Source Type: research

The impact of antimicrobial stewardship programme on regulating the policy adherence and antimicrobial usage in selected intensive care units in a tertiary care center - A prospective interventional study
Conclusions: Implementation of continuous monitoring of the AMS programme, therefore, has a definite role in reducing the antimicrobial consumption and improving the compliance to the policy guidelines. A more robust study for a prolonged period is, however, necessary to have a better analysis of the outcome. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sushmita Sana Chowdhury Apurba Sankar Sastry Sathasivam Sureshkumar Anusha Cherian Sujatha Sistla Deepashree Rajashekar Source Type: research

Group B Streptococcus in Indian pregnant women: Its prevalence and risk factors
Conclusion: Due to the low GBS prevalence and no significant association with major risk factors, we recommend to institute universal screening of GBS in pregnant women, instead of risk based screening. Since this was a single centric study with low prevalence of GBS, its applicability may be limited, therefore further larger multi-centric prospective studies are required to understand the true GBS prevalence in Indian society. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Neeraj Goel Chand Wattal Kanwal Gujral Nehal Dhaduk Chandra Mansukhani Pankaj Garg Source Type: research

Epidemiological pattern of Malassezia, its phenotypic identification and antifungal susceptibility profile to azoles by broth microdilution method
Conclusion: AFST is important as it will help the dermatologist to choose the appropriate antifungal agents for the patient and thereby reduce the chronicity of the disease with good patient compliance (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Packia Nancy Romald Anupma Jyoti Kindo V Mahalakshmi U Umadevi Source Type: research

Predominance of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms as cause of surgical site infections at a private tertiary care hospital in Mumbai, India
Conclusions: Although the SSI rate is comparable to established international benchmarks, the predominance of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms is a matter of serious concern. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sweta Shah Tanu Singhal Reshma Naik Pooja Thakkar Source Type: research

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in patients hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia in Southern Jordan
Conclusions: The present findings clearly suggest a role of C. pneumoniae in the aetiology of CAP in Southern Jordan. However, coinfections with other respiratory pathogens should not be excluded. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tahany Saleem Al-Hajaya Wael Ali Al-Zereini Hesham Mahmoud Al-Younes Source Type: research

Genetic sequencing of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 isolates from South India, collected between 2011 and 2015 to detect mutations affecting virulence and resistance to oseltamivir
Conclusion: In this study, although H274Y mutation associated with oseltamivir resistance has not been noted, significant mutations have been noted in both HA and NA genes including D239N, N295S, V106I, Q136K, N248D, V267A. In both HA and NA gene analysis, multiple mutations were found more in 2015 strains when compared to 2012 strains. Hence such accumulation of mutations has to be monitored continuously to determine the efficacy of annual flu vaccines and anti-influenza drugs. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: P Nandhini Sujatha Sistla Source Type: research

Detection of chlamydia trachomatis infection among the pregnant women attending a tertiary care hospital in Kerala - South India by polymerase chain reaction
Conclusion: This suggests there is a prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in our population which is 10%. Hence, it should be noted as a significant public health problem especially among sexually active young women of child bearing age. Timely detection and prompt treatment of Chlamydial infection during pregnancy can eliminate its adverse outcomes. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: A Neena R Deepa Source Type: research

Expected plazomicin susceptibility in India based on the prevailing aminoglycoside resistance mechanisms in Gram-negative organisms derived from whole-genome sequencing
Conclusion: Overall, 53%, 62% and 14% of carbapenemase-producing E. coli, K. pneumoniae and A. baumannii harbours only AMEs, indicating the role of plazomicin use. Plazomicin can be used both for ESBLs as “carbapenem-sparing agent” and carbapenemase producers as “colistin-sparing agent.” For optimal use, it is essential to know the molecular epidemiology of resistance in a given geographical region where plazomicin empirical therapy is considered. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Agila Kumari Pragasam S Lydia Jennifer Dhanalakshmi Solaimalai Dhiviya Prabaa Muthuirulandi Sethuvel Tanya Rachel Divyaa Elangovan Karthick Vasudevan Karthick Gunasekaran Balaji Veeraraghavan Source Type: research

Assessment of antibacterial activity of levonadifloxacin against contemporary gram-positive clinical isolates collected from various Indian hospitals using disk-diffusion assay
Conclusions: The present study showed that levonadifloxacin was highly active against contemporary Gram-positive pathogens and furthermore demonstrated that levonadifloxacin susceptibilities can be reliably determined using the disc-diffusion method. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shrikala Baliga Dhruv K Mamtora Varsha Gupta Priyadarshini Shanmugam Sanjay Biswas DN Mukherjee Suchitra Shenoy Source Type: research

A systematic review and meta-analysis of different diagnostic procedures to detect gonococcus infection in resource-limited scenario
Conclusions: In a resource-limited scenario like India, the syndromic management of STIs are considered to be the norm. A positive diagnosis is only given if the tests are confirmed by Culture, as it is still considered to be the gold standard of diagnosis. However, in many cases, due to suboptimal transportation and lack of proper handling, culture in unable to grow even if the patient is infected. In such cases, Nucleic Acid Tests should be able to detect an infection. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Aromita Mallik Nibedita Das Swati Mukherjee Shibani Datta Source Type: research

Evaluation of matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry in direct identification of bacteriuria from urine samples
Conclusion: MALDI can be utilised to rule out bacteriuria in >93% of sterile urine samples. The combination of significant pyuria and direct MALDI as screening method to diagnose UTI (whether monomicrobial or polymicrobial) was not found to be superior than using direct MALDI on urine samples alone. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Balvinder Mohan Neha Gautam Nandini Sethuraman Harsimran Kaur Neelam Taneja Source Type: research

Utility of a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for combined detection and serotyping of dengue virus in paediatric patients hospitalised with severe dengue: A report from Chennai
Conclusions: Compared to NS1, multiplex real-time PCR is a rapid and accurate diagnostic test for children hospitalised with SD. DEN-2 was the predominant serotype in severe cases. Continued surveillance of serotypes should be carried out year-round in endemic areas. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: S Balasubramanian Sara Chandy Robinson Peter Gothai S Nachiyar Amullya Sudhakar A Sumanth Anand Manoharan Source Type: research

Can quantitative RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 help in better management of patients and control of coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic
Ashok Rattan, Hafiz AhmadIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2020 38(3):284-287 The emergence of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), represents a public health emergency of unprecedented proportion. The global containment efforts have been focused on testing, tracing of contacts and treatment (isolation) of those found COVID-19 positive. Since the whole genome sequences of a number of strains of this novel RNA virus were available in the public domain by early January 2020, a number of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols were designed and used for diagnosis of this...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ashok Rattan Hafiz Ahmad Source Type: research

Role of surveillance cultures in infection control
Manisha Biswal, Archana Angrup, Rimjhim KanaujiaIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2020 38(3):277-283 Hospital-acquired infections are a known menace to the primary disease, for which a patient is admitted. These infections are twenty times more common in developing countries than in the developed ones. Surveillance for colonised patients can be passive or active process. In many hospitals, active surveillance culture for certain sentinel organisms followed by contact precautions for the same is an important part of infection control policy. Specific measures can be taken on early detection of multidrug-resistant orga...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Manisha Biswal Archana Angrup Rimjhim Kanaujia Source Type: research

Effect of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine on COVID-19 virological outcomes: An updated meta-analysis
Rashmi Ranjan Das, Bijayini Behera, Baijayantimala Mishra, Sushree Samiksha NaikIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2020 38(3):265-272 As anti-malarial drugs have been found to inhibit Corona viruses in vitro, studies have evaluated the effect of these drugs inCOVID-19 infection. We conducted an updated meta-analysis of clinical trials and observational studies published till June 2020. Patients with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) infection were included. The drugs used in the intervention group are Chloroquine (CQ)/Hydroxych...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rashmi Ranjan Das Bijayini Behera Baijayantimala Mishra Sushree Samiksha Naik Source Type: research

Paediatric COVID-19 and the GUT
Rohit Gupta, Saman Beg, Alok Jain, Shrish BhatnagarIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2020 38(3):261-264 Although children with novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) typically present with fever and respiratory symptoms, some children have reported gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms including vomiting and diarrhoea during the course of the disease. The continuous positive detection of the viral RNA from faeces in children even after nasopharyngeal swabs turned negative suggests that the GI tract may shed virus and a tentative faecal–oral transmission. The presence of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor and tra...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rohit Gupta Saman Beg Alok Jain Shrish Bhatnagar Source Type: research

Convalescent plasma & #8211; Is it useful for treating SARS Co-V2 infection ?
This article will review the current guidelines for the use of CP and compare the various guidelines of different agencies. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sudha Ranganathan Ranganathan N Iyer Source Type: research

Steps, implementation and importance of quality management in diagnostic laboratories with special emphasis on coronavirus disease-2019
Shailesh D Pawar, Sadhana S Kode, Sachin S Keng, Deeksha S Tare, Priya AbrahamIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2020 38(3):243-251 A well-established and functional quality management system is an integral part of any diagnostic laboratory. It assures the reliability and standards of the laboratory function. A pandemic situation such as that caused by the influenza H1N1 2009 virus or the recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) increases the demands on the public health system, and the need to build, upgrade and expand the number of diagnostic laboratories. The Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shailesh D Pawar Sadhana S Kode Sachin S Keng Deeksha S Tare Priya Abraham Source Type: research

Utility of polymerase chain reaction assays for confirmation of liquid culture test results for Ureaplasma spp.
Swati Khullar, Jyoti Rawre, Neena Khanna, Vishnubhatla Sreenivas, Benu DhawanIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2020 38(2):235-236 (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 28, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Swati Khullar Jyoti Rawre Neena Khanna Vishnubhatla Sreenivas Benu Dhawan Source Type: research

Cryptococcosis in non-human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: A clinical dilemma and diagnostic enigma
Manisha Paul, Mohit Bhatia, Ranjana Rohilla, Udayakumar Sasirekha, Neelam KaisthaIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2020 38(2):229-234 Cryptococcosis is a fungal disease with worldwide distribution and wide array of clinical manifestations, caused by encapsulated basidiomycetous yeasts called Cryptococcus spp. It has traditionally been considered an opportunistic infection known to occur in immunocompromised hosts, particularly those who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus. However, this infection has also been reported in phenotypically 'normal' or otherwise clinically non-immunocompromised patient...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 28, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Manisha Paul Mohit Bhatia Ranjana Rohilla Udayakumar Sasirekha Neelam Kaistha Source Type: research

Catheter-related Brevibacterium casei bloodstream infection in a child with aplastic anaemia
We report a catheter-related bloodstream infection with Brevibacterium casei in a 6-year-old child with aplastic anaemia. Treatment with appropriate antibiotics along with the removal of the catheter resulted in complete cure in our patient. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 28, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sangeeta Joshi Ruchira Misra Suverna Kirolikar Sujata Mushrif Source Type: research

Burkholderia pseudomallei septic arthritis in Type-2 diabetes mellitus patients: Report of two cases
K Baruah Frincy, Borkakoty Biswajyoti, Satyaki Saikia, Manash P Baruah, Utpala DeviIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2020 38(2):222-225 Two cases of Burkholderia pseudomallei septic arthritis are presented with a brief review of the literature. B. pseudomallei septic arthritis most commonly occurs in diabetics and other immunocompromised patients and may prove fatal despite appropriate therapy. Clinical and microbiological suspicion of B. pseudomallei infection may help in providing appropriate empirical therapy. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 28, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: K Baruah Frincy Borkakoty Biswajyoti Satyaki Saikia Manash P Baruah Utpala Devi Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 viral sepsis with meningoencephalitis
Mitkumar Dharsandiya, Kinjal Shah, Ketan Patel, Tushar Patel, Amrish Patel, Atul PatelIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2020 38(2):219-221 SARS-CoV-2 predominantly involves the lungs producing acute lung injury, but it can also give rise to a variety of complications involving the central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, kidney and also viral sepsis. With this case report, we are discussing unusual series of complication from acute lung injury, followed by viral sepsis then encephalitis, followed by progressive macrophage activation syndrome. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 28, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mitkumar Dharsandiya Kinjal Shah Ketan Patel Tushar Patel Amrish Patel Atul Patel Source Type: research