Sialic acid-conjugated PLGA nanoparticles enhance the protective effect of lycopene in chemotherapeutic drug-induced kidney injury
Lycopene (LYC) is known to protect cells from oxidative damage caused by free radicals in human tissues. In the present study, the authors designed a LYC-loaded sialic acid (SA)-conjugated poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticle (LYC-NP) to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of LYC in acute kidney injury. The characteristics of the LYC-NPs were defined according to particle size, morphology, and in vitro drug release. The LYC-NPs exhibited a controlled release of LYC over 48 h. Confocal laser scanning microscopy clearly highlighted the targeting potential of SA. Enhanced green fluorescence was observed for the L...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 29, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Analytical study of biosynthesised silver nanoparticles against multi-drug resistant biofilm-forming pathogens
The emergence of the huge number of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria requires an alternative to the drugs. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are a strong candidate for this due to their bactericidal properties, which can be better concluded by understanding their morphology and chemistry. The study hypothesised that AgNPs synthesised using leaves of Syzygium cumini can be used to treat locally emerging MDRs forming biofilms on indwelling medical devices. Synthesised particles were characterised by methods like UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microsc...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 29, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Biosynthesis of Ag nanoparticles and two-dimensional element distribution in Arabidopsis
In conclusion, this is the first report of the AgNP synthesis in Arabidopsis living plants and its 2D distribution of important elements, which provide a new clue for further research. (Source: IET Nanobiotechnology)
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 29, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Assessment of in-vivo biocompatibility evaluation of phytogenic gold nanoparticles on Wistar albino male rats
This study is to prepare phytosynthesis AuNPs from ten different Cassia sp. Among them, the aqueous leaf extract of C. roxburghii produced greater efficient and stable AuNPs. The AuNPs were optimised for different physicochemical conditions. Highly stable AuNPs were synthesised at pH 7.0, 37°C, 1.0 ml of C. roxburghii leaf extract and 1.0 mM concentration of HAuCl4 with the particle size of ∼50 nm and these AuNPs were stable up to 12 months. To determine the safety profile of AuNPs in-vivo, the nanoparticles were injected intravenously into male Wistar albino rats in varying dosages. The authors noticed no si...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 29, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Studies on binding of single-stranded DNA with reduced graphene oxide–silver nanocomposites
The binding reaction of reduced graphene oxide–silver nanocomposites (rGO–AgNCs) with calf thymus single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) was studied by ultraviolet–visible absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD), using berberine hemisulphate (BR) dye as a fluorescence probe. The absorbance of ssDNA increases, but the fluorescence intensity is quenched with the addition of rGO–AgNCs. The binding of rGO–AgNCs with ssDNA was able to increase the quenching effects of BR and ssDNA, and induce the changes in CD spectra. All of the evidence indicated that there was a relatively strong ...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 29, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Synthesis and characterisation of LiB3O5 nanophosphor as a TL dosimeter
In this work, lithium triborate (LiB3O5) nanophosphor was synthesised by precipitation assisted high-temperature solid-state method followed by heating at different sintering temperatures. Then, its crystal structure and morphology were fully characterised. LiB3O5 was doped with different concentrations of different dopants. To determine the thermoluminescence (TL) properties and structural specifications of doped lithium triborate, the sample was irradiated by photons and then, its TL glow curve was obtained using a TL dosimeter-reader system. To study the effect of heating rate (HR) on TL characterisation of this nanopho...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 29, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Amalgamation and application of nano chitosan cross-linked with fish scales based activated carbon as an adsorbent for the removal of reactive dye (RB9)
The extensive discomfort in the expulsion of toxic pollutants even at mild concentrations has demanded the need for prompt methods for the evacuation of dyes and heavy metals. The effective method for depuration of dye from the effluent is by sorption. Chitosan is a bio-polymer which is gaining an increasing interest as one of the sorbents. It was obtained from the crab shells by undergoing several chemical processes and used as an adsorbent for dye, metal removal and also for pharmaceutical purposes. Cross linking it with other co polymers will increase the capacity of adsorption to a maximum level. Fish scales are consid...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 29, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Unique morphology and mechanical property of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) fish skin
Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) fish skin is an excellent natural material with remarkable mechanical properties owing to the unique structures of the helical stacking fibres. In this work, the authors studied the potential role of the sturgeon fish skin in the protective function through testing and analysed the structural features and mechanical properties of the stratum compactum in the fish skin. Scanning electron microscopy images of the sturgeon fish skin revealed that the skin was primarily composed of the stratum compactum. The stratum compactum was characterised by the helically arranged fibre structures and...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 29, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Rapid removal of lead(II) ions from water using iron oxide–tea waste nanocomposite – a kinetic study
In this study, facile synthesis of magnetic iron oxide–tea waste nanocomposite is reported for adsorptive removal of lead ions from aqueous solutions and easy magnetic separation of the adsorbent afterwards. The samples were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Braunner–Emmet–Teller nitrogen adsorption study. Adsorptive removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution was followed by ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectrophotometry. About 95% Pb(II) ion removal is achieved with the magnetic tea waste within 10 min. A coeffic...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 29, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Development of tamoxifen-loaded surface-modified nanostructured lipid carrier using experimental design: in vitro and ex vivo characterisation
The present study aimed to develop a surface-modified biocompatible nanostructured lipid carrier (NLCs) system using polyoxyethylene (40) stearate (POE-40-S) to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble Biopharmaceutics Classification System class-II drug like tamoxifen (TMX). Also aimed to screen the most influential factors affecting the particle size (PS) using Taguchi (L12 (211)) orthogonal array design (TgL12OA). Then, to optimize the TMX loaded POE-40-S (P) surface-modified NLCs (TMX-loaded-PEG-40-S coated NLC (PNLCs) or PNLCs) by central composite design (CCD) using a four-factor, five-level model. Th...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 29, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Promising opportunities and potential risk of nanoparticle on the society
The ever-promising opportunities and the uses of NP in our life are increasing but their present and future potential risks on the animals, plants and microorganisms are not well discussed elsewhere. In this review, the authors have systematically discussed the toxic effect of the uses of NP on animals, plants and microorganisms including human health. They have also discussed about the bioaccumulation of these NP in the food chain. Finally, they have provided some possible suggestions for the uses of NP to reduce the detrimental effect on the environment. (Source: IET Nanobiotechnology)
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 29, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Bacteriocin-capped silver nanoparticles for enhanced antimicrobial efficacy against food pathogens
This study, therefore, recommends the use of bacteriocin-capped nanoparticles as food preservatives to control the growth of food spoiling bacteria. (Source: IET Nanobiotechnology)
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 1, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Method for enhancing bioavailability of myricetin based on self-assembly of casein–myricetin nanomicelles
In order to expand the application in the medical field and enhance pharmacological effects, casein–myricetin nanomicelles were prepared by the self-assembly method and characterised by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The parameters in self-assembly were optimised according to the factors of particle size, encapsulation yield, and drug loading. The result showed a pH of 5.5, a casein concentration of 2 mg/ml, a mass ratio of casein to myricetin of 8:1, ultrasonic power of 300 W, ultrasonic time of 5 min and ethanol volume of 7 ml were the optimal conditions....
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 1, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Unveiling the cytotoxicity of phytosynthesised silver nanoparticles using Tinospora cordifolia leaves against human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line
Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using plant extract is a cheap, easily accessible and natural process in which the phyto-constituents of the plants act as capping, stabilising and reducing agent. The present study explored the biosynthesis of AgNPs using aqueous leaf extract of Tinospora cordifolia and characterised via various techniques such as Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis and X-ray diffraction. Here, TEM confirmed the spherical morphology with 25–50 nm size of synthesised AgNPs. Further, anticancer ...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 1, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Facile synthesis of anisotropic gold nanoparticles and its synergistic effect on breast cancer cell lines
This study reports a green methodology developed for the synthesis of anisotropic AuNPs. The aqueous extracts of Alternanthera sessilis (PGK), Portulaca oleracea (PAK) and Sterculia foetida (SF) with gold ions produced violet, purple and pink coloured AuNPs, respectively, under sonication and room temperature methods revealing the formation of different shapes of AuNPs. The results of TEM analysis of AuNPs confirmed the formation of triangular plate AuNPs of the size 35 nm for PAK extract. Spherical-shaped AuNPs (10–20 nm) were obtained using an extract of PGK. SF extract produced rod, hexagon, pentagon-shaped Au...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 1, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Targeting microbial biofilms: by Arctium lappa l. synthesised biocompatible CeO2-NPs encapsulated in nano-chitosan
This study is planned to synthesise new biocompatible, nano antimicrobial formulation against biofilm producing strains. Aqueous root extract of Arctium lappa l. was used to synthesise ceria nanoparticles (CeO2-NPs). The synthesised nanoparticles were encapsulated with nano-chitosan by sol–gel method and characterised using standard techniques. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer of Arctium lappa l. revealed the presence of ethanol, acetone, 1- propanol, 2-methylethane, 1,1-di-ethoxy, 1-Butanol, and oleic acid acted as reducing and surface stabilising agents for tailoring morphology of CeO2-NPs. Erythrocyte integrit...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 1, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

In silico and in vitro approaches to evaluate the bioactivity of Cassia auriculata L extracts
The present study is an attempt to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory and in silico anticancer potentials of the plant Cassia auriculata (CA). The aerial parts of CA were subjected to solvent extraction, and the extracts were fractionised by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis for its phytochemical content. The antiinflammatory activity of the extracts were confirmed by the IC50 value of 125.02 µg/ml for red blood cell membrane stabilisation and 195.7 µg/ml for inhibition of protein denaturation activity. The interaction of bioactive compounds of CA ethanol extract with target protein was...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 1, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Ferulic acid-loaded collagen hydrolysate and polycaprolactone nanofibres for tissue engineering applications
There is a great need for the progress of composite biomaterials, which are effective for tissue engineering applications. In this work, the development of composite electrospun nanofibres based on polycaprolactone (PCL) and collagen hydrolysate (CH) loaded with ferulic acid (FA) for the treatment of chronic wounds. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been applied to nanofibres factor manufacturing assisted by electrospinning. For wound healing applications, the authors have created the efficacy of CH, and PCL membranes can act as a stable, protective cover for wound, enabling continuous FA release. The findings of the ...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 1, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Comprehensive analysis of retroreflection in Papilio crino Fabricius, 1792 wings
Multilayer thin-film structures in the wings of a butterfly; Papilio crino produce a colourful iridescence from reflected light. In this investigation, scanning electron microscope images show both the concave cover scales and pigmented air-chamber ground scales. The microstructures with the concavities retroreflect incident light, thus causing the double reflection. This gives rise to both the colour mixing and polarisation conversion clearly depicted in the optical images. The result of the numerical and theoretical analysis via the CIELAB, and optical reflection and transmission of light through the multilayer stacks wi...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 1, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Preparation and characterisation of silica-based nanoparticles for cisplatin release on cancer brain cells
In the present work, the preparation, characterisation, and efficiency of two different silica nanostructures as release vehicles of Cisplatin are reported. The 1-hexadeciltrimethyl-ammonium bromide templating agent was used to obtain mesoporous silica nanoparticles which were later loaded with Cisplatin. While sol–gel silica was very fast prepared using an excess of acetic acid during the hydrolysis–condensation reactions of tetraethylorthosilicate and at the same time the Cisplatin was added. Several physicochemical techniques including spectroscopies, electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption&n...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 1, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

RNA secondary structured logic gates for profiling the microRNA cancer biomarkers
In this study, the authors proposed the multi-input liver cancer biosensor with the RNA secondary structure motifs as the computational module and two approaches are suggested. (Source: IET Nanobiotechnology)
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 1, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Induction of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis in cervical cancer cells by Momordica dioica mediated gold nanoparticles
Bio-fabrication of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has several advantages like biocompatibility, less toxicity, and eco-friendly in nature over their chemical and physical methods. Currently, the authors fabricated AuNPs using aqueous root extract of Momordica dioica (M. dioica) and explored their anticancer application with mechanistic approaches. Different biophysical techniques such as UV–visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and dynamic light scattering were employed for AuNPs characterisation. The synthesised AuNPs we...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - April 10, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Facile nano-free electrochemiluminescence biosensor for detection of sulphamethoxazole via tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) and N-methyl pyrrolidone recognition
(Source: IET Nanobiotechnology)
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - April 10, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Silver nanorods induced oxidative stress and chromosomal aberrations in the Allium cepa model
The production of different size and shape silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has increased considerably in recent years due to several commercial and biological applications. Here, rod-shaped AgNPs (SNRs) were prepared using the microwave-assisted method and characterised by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analysis. The present study aims to investigate the cyto–genotoxic effect of various concentrations (5, 10, and 15 µM) of SNRs using Allium cepa model. As a result, concentration-dependent cyto–genotoxic effect of SNRs was observed through a decrease in the mito...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - April 10, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Antibacterial activity of SPIONs versus ferrous and ferric ions under aerobic and anaerobic conditions: a preliminary mechanism study
In this study, the authors evaluated the antibacterial activity of magnetic NPs in comparison with ferrous and ferric ions. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the treated Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria were directly measured by fluorometric detection. The results showed that iron ions and SPIONs had significant dependent antimicrobial activities. SPIONs showed greater inhibitory effects than ferrous and ferric ions against the growth of treated bacterial strains under anaerobic conditions, while in aerobic conditions, ferrous showed the strongest antibacterial activity. In anaerobic conditio...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - April 10, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

In-vitro and in-vivo evaluation of chitosan-based thermosensitive gel containing lorazepam NLCs for the treatment of status epilepticus
The objective of this study was to develop an in-situ gel containing lorazepam (LZM) loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for direct nose-to-brain delivery in order to increase drug therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of epilepsy. Accordingly, LZM loaded NLCs were formulated using emulsification solvent diffusion and evaporation method; then the effects of the formulation variables on different physicochemical characteristics of NLCs were investigated. Thermosensitive in-situ gels containing LZM-NLCs were prepared using a combination of chitosan and β-glycerol phosphate (β-GP). The anticonvulsant efficac...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - April 10, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Preparing a novel magnesium-doped hyaluronan/polyethyleneimine nanoparticle to improve endothelial functionalisation
Nowadays, tissue engineering vascularisation has become an important means of organ repair and treatment of major traumatic diseases. Vascular endothelial layer regeneration and endothelial functionalisation are prerequisites and important components of tissue engineering vascularisation. The present researches of endothelial functionalisation mainly focus on tissue engineering scaffold preparation and implant surface modification. Few studies have reported the interaction of endothelial functionalisation and scaled materials, especially the nanomaterials. Magnesium (Mg), as an essential cytotropic active element in the hu...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - April 10, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Superparamagnetic hematite nanoparticle: Cytogenetic impact on onion roots and seed germination response of major crop plants
Augmented escape of nanostructures to the ecosystem has necessitated the comprehensive study of their impact, especially on plants. In the current study, hematite nanoparticles were prepared by employing garlic extract and checked for their cytogenetic effect on onion roots and germination characteristics of five agricultural crops (Vigna radiata, Triticum aestivum, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Cicer arietinum and Vicia faba) in the concentration range of 20–100 mg/L. Onion roots exhibited an increased mitotic index till 60 mg/L dosage, beyond which trend decreased marginally. Percentage of aberrant chromosomes rep...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - April 10, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

High-performance immunosensor for urine albumin using hybrid architectures of ZnO nanowire/carbon nanotube
In this work, the authors reported the hybrid architecture of carbon nanotube (CNT)–zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire as a multi-functional probe in amperometric immunosensor for the detection of urine albumin. Low-cost substrate such as glass is possible because of novel low-temperature growth process of CNT/ZnO nanowires as a multi-function electrode in this sensor. Based on Schottky like behaviour this structure exhibit excellent high current density to achieve higher performance. Measurement of urine albumin is a new way for early detection of diabetic and also low concentration of it in culture media is also considered ...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - April 10, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Electrochemical strategy with zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 and ordered mesoporous carbon for detection of xanthine
An accurate, safe, environmentally friendly, fast and sensitive electrochemical biosensors were developed to detect xanthine in serum. The metal-organic framework ZIF-8 was synthesised and elemental gold was supported on the surface of ZIF-8 by reduction method to synthesise Ag-ZIF-8. The mesoporous carbon material and the synthesised Ag-ZIF-8 were, respectively, applied to a glassy carbon electrode to construct biosensors. The constructed biosensor has a good linear relation in the range of 1–280 μmol l−1 of xanthine and the detection limit is 0.167 μmol l−1. The relative standard deviation...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - April 10, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Current trends in nano-technological interventions on plant growth and development: a review
Nanomaterials, recently have found burgeoning attention in the field of agriculture, owing to the positive correlation between nanoparticle (NP) application and the enhanced nutritional status of the applied plants. A wide range of NPs, namely carbon-based NPs, titanium dioxide NPs, silica NPs etc. has been found to influence plants in a positive way by increasing their nutrient uptake ratio, nutrient usage efficiency, among others. All these attributes have paved the way for possible improvement in plant growth, development, vigour etc. through the use of these NPs, mainly as nanofertiliser. In view of all these, it can a...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - April 10, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Improvement of efficacy and decrement cytotoxicity of oxaliplatin anticancer drug using bovine serum albumin nanoparticles: synthesis, characterisation and release behaviour
To sustained release of an anticancer drug, oxaliplatin (OX), a non-toxic and biocompatible nanocarrier based on bovine serum albumin (BSA) were synthesised by desolvation method and characterised using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic light scattering. The results showed that the BSA nanoparticles (BSANPs) with a mean magnitude of 187.9 ± 1.2 nm have spherical morphology with a smooth surface and a uniform distribution. Furthermore, OX was loaded onto the BSANPs and the loading was confirmed...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - January 17, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Serum analysis method combining cellulose acetate membrane purification with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive HBV screening
A highly sensitive, non-invasive, and rapid HBV (Hepatitis B virus) screening method combining membrane protein purification with silver nanoparticle-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy was developed in this study. Reproducible serum protein SERS spectra were obtained from cellulose acetate membrane-purified human serum from 94 HBV patients and 89 normal groups. Tentative assignments of serum protein SERS spectra showed that the HBV patients primarily led to specific biomedical changes of serum protein. Principal components analysis and linear discriminate analysis were introduced to analyse the obt...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - January 17, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Synthesis and characterisation of magnetite nanoparticles using gelatin and starch as capping agents
Nanoparticles of magnetite passivated with gelatin and starch were synthesised using a co-precipitation technique. The nanoparticles were characterised using ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Zeta potential, transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The UV–vis spectra showed characteristic surface plasmon resonance of magnetite nanoparticles. The DLS results showed the nanoparticles to have average hydrodynamic diameters of 138 ± 2 and 283 ± 21 nm for particles ...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - January 17, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Synthesis, physicochemical characterisation and biological activity of anandamide/ɛ-polycaprolactone nanoparticles obtained by electrospraying
In this study, the authors’ work aimed to highlight the use of electrospraying techniques for the development of carrier Nps of anandamide (AEA), an endocannabinoid with attractive pharmacological effects but underestimated due to its unfavourable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties added to its undesirable effects at the level of the central nervous system. The authors characterised physicochemically and evaluated in vitro biological activity of anandamide/ɛ-polycaprolactone nanoparticles (Nps-AEA/PCL) obtained by electrospraying in epithelial cells of the human proximal tubule (HK2), to prove the utilit...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - January 17, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Enhancement of secondary metabolites in Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell plants treated with copper-based nanoparticles in vivo
The study aims to document the effect of starch-stabilised copper-based nanoparticles (CuNPs) on the biosynthesis of pharmaceutically valuable secondary metabolites, especially saponins, of the reputed nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell. CuNPs were synthesised chemically by the reduction of cupric sulphate pentahydrate with ascorbic acid using starch as the capping agent. They were characterised by UV–visible spectrophotometry, Fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and zeta potential. The nanoparticles consisted of cuprous oxide and meta...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - January 17, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Efficient co-cultivation of human fibroblast cells (HFCs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSs) on gelatin/PLCL nanofiber
In this study, we investigated whether the nanofibers produced by natural-synthetic polymers can probably promote the proliferation of co-cultured adipose-derived stem cells/human fibroblast cells (ADSs/HFCs) and synthesis of collagen. Nanofiber was fabricated by blending gelatin and poly (L-lactide co-ɛ-caprolactone) (PLCL) polymer nanofiber (Gel/PLCL). Cell morphology and the interaction between cells and Gel/PLCL nanofiber were evaluated by FESEM and fluorescent microscopy. MTS assay and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were applied to assess the proliferation of co-cultured ADSs/HFCs and the collagen t...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - January 17, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

High-efficiency Ni2+-NTA/PAA magnetic beads with specific separation on His-tagged protein
This study would widen the application of PAA in constructing multifunctional nanocomposites for biomedical fields. (Source: IET Nanobiotechnology)
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - January 17, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Biosynthesis of eco-friendly and recyclable Pd/LDHs catalyst using the withered leaves extract for Suzuki coupling reaction
The hydrotalcite-supported palladium (Pd) catalyst is prepared with a green and environmentally friendly route, introducing the extract of withered leaves as a dispersant and reducing agent (Pd/LDHs-B). Compared with the as-prepared catalyst (Pd/LDHs-P with the average diameter of 4.3 nm) using a chemical synthesis method with polyvinylpyrrolidone as a dispersant and ascorbic acid (Vc) as a reductant, the results indicate that the size of Pd nanoparticles in Pd/LDHs-B is smaller (ca. 3.6 nm). The Pd-LHDs-B (0.5 mmol‰) exhibits higher activity (98.66%) than Pd/LDHs-P (98.19%) in the Suzuki reaction of 4-bromoto...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - January 17, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Wing-kinematics measurement and flight modelling of the bamboo weevil C. buqueti
This study integrates high-speed photogrammetry and three-dimensional (3D) force measurement system to explore the kinematics of Cyrtotrachelus buqueti during the wing-flapping flight. The tracking point at the wing tip of the hind wing was recorded using high-speed videography. The lift-thrust force characteristic of wing-flapping motion was obtained by the 3D force sensor. Quantitative measurements of wing kinematics show that the wing-flapping pattern of the hind wing of C. buqueti was revealed as a double figure-eight trajectory. The kinematic modelling of the wing-flapping pattern was then established by converting th...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - January 17, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Facile hydrothermal bio-synthesis of cellulose acetate templated CuS nanorods like fibres: antibacterial, cytotoxicity effects and DNA cleavage properties against A549 lung cancer cells
In this research, the hydrothermal method was used for synthesising cellulose acetate (CA) templated nanorods like CuS fibres using vegetable extract (Brassica oleracea var. italica). These extracts act as a reducing agent in the presence of CA. Surprisingly, when the same reaction was carried out in the absence of CA and broccoli extract, structural morphology disappeared and was found as agglomerated. In the presence of cellulose templated extract mediated CuS has revealed as nanorods like fibres and was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope analysis. Their crystallinity property of CuS nanoparticles (...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - January 17, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Catalytic hydrolysis of cellobiose using different acid-functionalised Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles
The present study demonstrated the preparation of three different acid-functionalised magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and evaluation for their catalytic efficacy in hydrolysis of cellobiose. Initially, iron oxide (Fe3O4)MNPs were synthesised, which further modified by applying silica coating (Fe3O4-MNPs@Si) and functionalised with alkylsulfonic acid (Fe3O4-MNPs@Si@AS), butylcarboxylic acid (Fe3O4-MNPs@Si@BCOOH) and sulphonic acid (Fe3O4-MNPs@Si@SO3H) groups. The Fourier transform infrared analysis confirmed the presence of above-mentioned acid functional groups on MNPs. Similarly, X-ray diffraction pattern and energy dispers...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - January 17, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Co-encapsulating CoFe2O4 and MTX for hyperthermia
This study aims to synthesise and characterise magnetically responsive polymer colloids (MRPCs). Healthy tissue damage done by chemotherapy session could be minimised by MRPCs. For the colloidal formulation of MRPCs, the oil in water emulsion technique was employed with the aid of sonication and stirring. The organic phase of emulsion contained methotrexate (MTX) drug, Eudragit E100 and CoFe2O4 (synthesised by co-precipitation) in ethanol, and the aqueous phase contained tween 80 in deionised water. The emulsion was optimised by studying/adjusting two different parameters, i.e. the concentration of constituents and sonicat...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - January 17, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Effects of saponin capped triangular silver nanocrystals on the germination of Pisum sativum, Cicer arietinum, Vigna radiata seeds & their subsequent growth study
In this study, saponin capped triangular silver nanocrystals have been synthesised using fenugreek seed extract, where the extract acts both as a reducing and capping agent. X-ray diffraction study confirms the purity and crystalline nature of the prepared nanocrystals and transmission electron microscopic study shows the triangular morphology with the average edge length of 72 nm, along with the atomic force microscopy study for the height or the width of the triangular nanocrystals. These nanocrystals have been investigated against a few pulses (seeds) such as Pisum sativum, Cicer arietinum and Vigna radiata for their ...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - January 17, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Colorimetric-based detection of Ureaplasma urealyticum using gold nanoparticles
Ureaplasma urealyticum (uu) is one of the most common agents of urogenital infections and is associated with complications such as infertility, spontaneous abortion and other sexually transmitted diseases. Here, a DNA sensor based on oligonucleotide target-specific gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was developed, in which the dispersed and aggregated states of oligonucleotide-functionalised AuNPs were optimised for the colorimetric detection of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicon of U. urealyticum DNA. A non-cross-linking approach utilising a single Au-nanoprobe specific of the urease gene was utilised and the effect of a ...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - January 17, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Studies on antimicrobial and wound healing applications of gauze coated with CHX–Ag hybrid NPs
In this study, chlorhexidine (CHX)–silver (Ag) hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) coated gauze was developed, and their bactericidal effect and in vivo wound healing capacities were tested. A new method was developed to synthesise the NPs, wherein Ag nitrate mixed with sodium (Na) metaphosphate and reduced using Na borohydride. Finally, CHX digluconate was added to form the hybrid NPs. To study the antibacterial efficacy of particles, the minimal inhibition concentration and biofilm degradation capacity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was studied using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The results ...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - January 17, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles: a review study
Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) use has exponentially increased in various applications (such as industrial catalyst, gas sensors, electronic materials, biomedicines, environmental remediation) due to their flexible properties, i.e. large surface area to volume ratio. These broad applications, however, have increased human exposure and thus the potential risk related to their short- and long-term toxicity. Their release in environment has drawn considerable attention which has become an eminent area of research and development. To understand the toxicological impact of CuO NPs, this review summarises the in-vitro and ...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - January 17, 2020 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis of mast cell degranulation induced by low-intensity laser
In this study, silver-nanoparticles-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was used to investigate the spectral characteristics of degranulation of MCs activated by low-intensity laser. The significant spectral changes, such as Raman peak intensities, suggested the concentration variation of some degranulated substances. The Raman intensity ratio of 799–554 cm−1 could be used as a potential internal indicator for the degranulation degree of MCs. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to reduce the high dimension of spectra into a few principal components (PCs) while retaining the most diagn...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - December 3, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Poly(glycerol sebacate) nanoparticles for ocular delivery of sunitinib: physicochemical, cytotoxic and allergic studies
Poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) is a new biodegradable polymer with good biocompatibility used in many fields of biomedicine and drug delivery. Sunitinib-loaded PGS/gelatine nanoparticles were prepared by the de-solvation method for retinal delivery and treatment of diabetic retinopathy. The nanoparticles were characterised by Fourier-transform infrared and differential scanning calorimetry. The effects of different formulation variables including drug-to-carrier ratio, gelatine-to-PGS ratio, and glycerine-to-sebacate ratio were assessed on the encapsulation efficiency (EE%), particle size, release efficiency (RE), and zeta ...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - December 3, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesised by using microbial biosurfactant produced by a newly isolated Bacillus vallismortis MDU6 strain
In this study, an effort was made for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) having antimicrobial and non-cytotoxic activities with the help of microbial biosurfactant extracted from a novel Bacillus vallismortis strain MDU6 (Genbank accession no. MH382951) from petroleum oil logged soil sample in Dibrugarh, Assam. The isolate shows excellent potential for the production of biosurfactant by reducing the surface tension of diesel supplemented medium up to 56.57% only within 5 days. FTIR spectra of the crude biosurfactant show the presence of ʋCH2 (asymmetric stretching), ʋCH2 (symmetric stretching), ʋC=C (stretc...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - December 3, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research