Design a protein gripper to capture a hydrophobic cargo
In recent years, the employment of nano-robots in intelligent transferring of nano-cargos and medical treatments has been in the spotlight of researchers. The first step is to present appropriate environmental nano-parts with the potential ability to transform into nano-robots. prefoldin, which is a molecular chaperone, is introduced as a new protein nano-actuator being capable of capturing nano-cargos with different charges and various sizes, which can also be used in medical applications. By the aid of mutation, in this work authors have designed a new prefoldin nano-actuator in order to capture hydrophobic nano-cargo, m...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 21, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Effect of green synthesised silver nanoparticles on morphogenic and biochemical variations in callus cultures of kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata L.)
This study provides the first evidence of green synthesised AgNPs on callus culture developments and further quantification of biochemical profiling in C. reticula. (Source: IET Nanobiotechnology)
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 21, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

PEGylated zinc oxide nanoparticles induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells through reactive oxygen species
In this study, the authors have successfully prepared the polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZNPs) and studied its effect in pancreatic cancer cells. The authors have observed a nanosized particle with spherical shape. In this study, the authors have demonstrated the cytotoxic effect of ZNP and PZNP in PANC1 cells. To be specific, PZNP was more cytotoxic compared to that of ZNP in PANC1 cancer cells. The authors have further showed that apoptosis is the main mode of cytotoxic activity. It is worth noting that PEGylation of ZNP did not decrease the cell killing activity of zinc particles, whereas it ...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 21, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticle by cauliflower extract: characterisation and antibacterial activity against storage
Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was accomplished using different volumes of cauliflower extract and 0.001 M silver nitrate solution at 80°C for 15 min. A brownish-red solution of AgNPs formed was tested by ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs appeared at 416 nm. Also, the kinetic of AgNPs formation was studied and follows a sigmoidal pattern. Storing time was studied for the freshly prepared AgNPs after 60 days. FTIR analysis shows the adsorption of a...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 21, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Effect of negative functionalisation of gold nanorods on conformation and activity of human serum albumin
The theranostic applications of gold nanorods (AuNRs) are limited due to the presence of cytotoxic cetrimonium bromide (CTAB) stabiliser, leading to the instigation of alternate stabilisers like negatively charged polystyrene sulphonate (PSS). Despite previous reports suggesting the impact of PSS-AuNRs on cells, their effect on the most abundant protein in plasma, i.e. human serum albumin (HSA), has not been studied before. Hence, the impact of PSS-AuNRs on HSA was thoroughly examined using varied spectroscopic techniques. The absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopic findings suggested the extent of ground-state complexat...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 21, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Nephron ultrastructural alterations induced by zinc oxide nanoparticles: an electron microscopic study
Due to their unique properties, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are invested in many industries, commercial products, and nanomedicine with potential risk for human health and the environment. The present study aims to focus on alterations that might be induced by ZnO NPs in the nephron ultrastructure. Male Wister Albino rats were subjected to ZnO NPs at a daily dose of 2 mg/kg for 21 days. Kidney biopsies were processed to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultrastructural pathology examinations. Exposure to ZnO NPs-induced ultrastructural alterations in the proximal convoluted tubules (PCTs) and to lesser ex...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 21, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Process optimisation for green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and evaluation of its antimacrofouling activity
This study aims to optimise the biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) mediated by coconut water using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of the individual variables (concentration of coconut water, temperature and time) and their interactions during the biosynthesis of ZnO-NPs were determined by RSM employing Box–Behnken design. The variables selected were tested by a 17-run experiment and quadratic model was used for the analysis of the results. The accuracy of the model was confirmed by the coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.9968. The significance of the regression model was foun...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 21, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Polypyrrole-modified magnetic nanoparticles and high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of glibenclamide from biological fluids
In this research, the successful application of polypyrrole (PPy)-modified magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) is described as an efficient adsorbent for the extraction and the preconcentration of glibenclamide (GB). To measure it in biological fluids samples, HPLC-UV detection was used. First, iron oxide NPs were prepared by coprecipitation procedure and then their surface was modified by PPy monomers. Characteristics of Fe3O4@PPy NPs were investigated by FTIR technique and NP size studied with scanning electron microscopy. The vibrating sample magnetometer was used to characterise the magnetic properties of the prepared modifie...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 21, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Azadirachta indica leaves: characterisation and impact on Staphylococcus aureus growth and glutathione-S-transferase activity
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are toxic to various microbes, but the mechanism of action is not fully understood. The present report explores Azadirachta indica leaf extract as a reducing agent for the rapid biosynthesis of AgNPs. The effects of AgNPs on the growth, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, and total protein concentration in Staphylococcus aureus were investigated, as was its antibacterial activity against seven other bacterial strains. Nanoparticle synthesis was confirmed by the UV-Vis spectrum and colour change of the solution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dy...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 21, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Synthesis of biopolymeric particles loaded with phosphorus and potassium: characterisation and release tests
The authors synthesised nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with P and K from KH2PO4 using gelatin type-A and type-B, and sodium alginate as carriers. Using type-A and type-B gelatin, quasi-spherical particles were obtained, with average sizes of 682 and 856 nm, respectively; with sodium alginate, the resulting NPs exhibited spherical shapes and 600 nm particle average size. The authors found an interaction between KH2PO4 and alginate via the hydrogen bonds existent among the carboxylic groups of the carbohydrate and the OH-groups of the H2PO4-; interactions among gelatin types with the OH-groups and the H2PO4-ion were also obs...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 21, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Electronic transport properties of electrically doped cytosine-based optical molecular switch with single-wall carbon nanotube electrodes
This study represents an empirical model of cytosine-based optical molecular switch. This possible biomolecular switch has been designed using the first principle approach which is based on density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function. The quantum-ballistic transport property and current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of cytosine-based optomolecular switch have been investigated at 25 THz operating frequency. The influence of highest occupied molecular orbital–lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO–LUMO) gaps on the electronic transmission and I–V characteristics has been...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 21, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Formulation and characterisation of a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system of amphotericin B for the treatment of leishmaniasis
This study was aimed to develop a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) for amphotericin B (AmB) potential use in leishmaniasis through topical and oral routes. Two formulations, formulation A and formulation B (FA and FB) of AmB loaded SNEDDS were developed by mixing their excipients through vortex and sonication. The SNEDDS formulation FA and FB displayed a mean droplet size of 27.70 ± 0.5 and 30.17 ± 0.7 nm and zeta potential −11.4 ± 3.25 and −13.6 ± 2.75 mV, respectively. The mucus permeation study showed th...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 21, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Bio-green synthesis ZnO-NPs in Brassica napus pollen extract: biosynthesis, antioxidant, cytotoxicity and pro-apoptotic properties
The bio-green methods of synthesis nanoparticles (NPs) have advantages over chemo-physical procedures due to cost-effective and ecofriendly products. The goal of current investigation is biosynthesis of zinc oxide NPs (ZnO-NPs) and evaluation of their biological assessment. Water extract of Brassica napus pollen [rapeseed (RP)] prepared and used for the synthesis of ZnO-NPs and synthesised ZnO-NP characterised using ultraviolet–visible, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Antioxidant properties of ZnO-NPs, cytoto...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 21, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Evolving nanotechnological trends in the management of mycotic keratitis
The alarming increase in global burden of various corneal diseases in general and mycotic keratitis in particular has raised up a major concern for its treatment. Mycotic keratitis is one of the most serious infections among the various ocular diseases. The proper diagnosis and effective treatment strategies remain a great challenge for ophthalmologists. The inefficacy and failure of conventional treatments have generated need to develop alternative approaches for the treatment of mycotic keratitis. Considering the promising applications of nanotechnology in biomedical area, it is believed that various nanomaterials can be...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 21, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

siRNA nanotherapeutics: a promising strategy for anti-HBV therapy
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is the most common cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver cirrhosis worldwide. In spite of the numerous advances in the treatment of CHB, drugs and vaccines have failed because of many factors like complexity, resistance, toxicity, and heavy cost. New RNA interference (RNAi)-based technologies have developed innovative strategies to target Achilles' heel of the several hazardous diseases involving cancer, some genetic disease, autoimmune illnesses, and viral disorders particularly hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. Naked siRNA delivery has serious challenges including failure to cross ...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 21, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Evaluation of antibacterial property of hydroxyapatite and zirconium oxide-modificated magnetic nanoparticles against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli
In the first section of this research, superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) (Fe3O4) modified with hydroxyapatite (HAP) and zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and thereby Fe3O4/HAP and Fe3O4/ZrO2 NPs were synthesised through co-precipitation method. Then Fe3O4/HAP and Fe3O4/ZrO2 NPs characterised with various techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, Fourier transform infrared, and vibrating sample magnetometer. Observed results confirmed the successful synthesis of desired NPs. In the second section, the a...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 11, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Improving adaptive receivers performance in molecular communication via diffusion
Forthcoming applications for molecular communications (MC) such as drug-delivery and health monitoring will require robust receiver capabilities to mitigate channel memory and inter symbol interference caused by previous transmitted symbols. Here, the authors introduce an adaptive weighted algorithm to reduce the influence of these factors. This novel signal detection is deployed on to a concentration-based MC system with absorbing receiver which is based on the so-called first passage time concept. The proposed detector has low complexity and does not require explicit channel knowledge. To evaluate authors’ proposed...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 11, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Synergistic evaluation of AgO2 nanoparticles with ceftriaxone against CTXM and blaSHV genes positive ESBL producing clinical strains of Uro-pathogenic E. coli
This study also described the effect of AgO2-NPs having synergistic activity with β lactam antibiotic i.e. ceftriaxone against ESBL generating Escherichia coli (E. coli). Among isolated strains of E. coli, 60.0% were found to be ESBL producer. The synergistic activities of AgO2-NPs with ceftriaxone suggest that these combinations are effective against MDR-ESBL E. coli strains as evident by increase in zone sizes. The present study observed rise in MDR-ESBL E. coli with polymorphism of blaCTXM and blaSHV causing UTI infections in Pakistani population. The antibiotic and AgO2-NPs synergistic effect can be used as an eff...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 11, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

HER-2 aptamer-targeted Ecoflex® nanoparticles loaded with docetaxel promote breast cancer cells apoptosis and anti-metastatic effect
Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality. Regarding the advantages of polymeric nanoparticles as drug delivery systems with targeting potential, in this study the antitumor mechanism of targeted docetaxel polymeric nanoparticles of Ecoflex® was exploited. Since the overexpression of HER-2 receptor in breast cancer cases is associated with poor prognosis and more aggressive disease, the proposed nanoparticles were conjugated to HER-2 specific aptamer molecules. In vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay. Flow-cytometry analysis was performed to evaluate the cellular uptake of nanoparticles loaded with a ...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 11, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Surfactant-mediated synthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) nanoparticles for sustained drug delivery
In this study, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) nanoparticles were synthesised following nanoprecipitation method having different solvents and surfactant (Tween 80) concentrations. In this study, PHB nanoparticles were encapsulated with curcumin and subjected for sustained curcumin delivery. Both the curcumin loaded and unloaded PHB nanoparticles were characterised using FTIR, SEM, and AFM. Sizes of the particles were found to be between 60 and 300 nm. The drug encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release of the nanoparticles were analysed. Antibacterial activity and anticancer activity were also evaluated. The LC50 valu...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 11, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Green synthesis of magnetically recoverable Fe3O4/HZSM-5 and its Ag nanocomposite using Juglans regia L. leaf extract and their evaluation as catalysts for reduction of organic pollutants
In this work, an Fe3O4/HZSM-5 nanocomposite was synthesised in the presence of Juglans regia L. leaf extract. Then, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were immobilised on the surface of prepared magnetically recoverable HZSM-5 using selected extract for reduction of Ag+ ions to Ag NPs and their stabilisation on the surface of the nanocomposite. The reduction of Ag+ ions occurs at room temperature within a few minutes. Characterisation of the prepared catalysts has been carried out using fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy, Bru...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 11, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Synthesis and characterisation of iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody as MRI contrast agent for cancer detection
The aim of this study is to synthesise superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody (ANTI-EGFR-SPION) and investigate its physicochemical characterisation and biocompatibility as a targeted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent for the EGFR-specific detection in EGFR expressing tumour cells. These particles employed biocompatible polymers, poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and polyethylene glycol aldehyde (PEG-aldehyde), to increase the half-life of particles in circulation and reduce their side effects. The Fe3O4-loaded PLGA-PEG-aldehyde...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 11, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Production of a new platform based on fumed and mesoporous silica nanoparticles for enhanced solubility and oral bioavailability of raloxifene HCl
The purpose of the present study was to compare mesoporous and fumed silica nanoparticles (NPs) to enhance the aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability of raloxifene hydrochloride (RH). Mesoporous silica NPs (MSNs) and fumed silica NPs were used by freeze-drying or spray-drying methods. MSNs were obtained with different ratios of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Saturation solubility of the NPs was compared with the pure drug. The optimised formulation was characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry. The pharmacokinetic studies were done by oral admin...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 11, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots-chlorin e6 shows potential as a treatment for chondrosarcoma: an in vitro study
In this study, a novel combination approach is used that allows photodynamic therapy to be activated by X-rays. The synthesis of Mn-doped zinc sulphide (ZnS) quantum dots was carried out and chlorin e6 photosensitiser attached by covalent and non-covalent methods and their application as an intracellular light source for photodynamic activation was investigated. The toxicity of each nanoparticles was evaluated on chondrosarcoma cancer cells (SW1353) before and after radiation. Also, the effect nanoparticle-photosensitiser conjugated type was investigated in the therapeutic efficacy. The characterisation test (SEM, TEM, EDS...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 11, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Simple, green approach for the synthesis of solid support-embedded PdNPs for ligand exchange
Green approaches have the potential to significantly reduce the costs and environmental impact of chemical syntheses. Here, the authors used green tea (GT) leaf extract to synthesise and anchor palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) to silica. The synthesised PdNPs in GT extract were characterised by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. PdNPs primarily formed as capped NPs dispersed in GT extract before reduction completed after 24 h. This capped phytochemical solution was employed as a green precursor solution to synthesise PdN...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 11, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities of Bi subnitrate and BiNPs produced by Delftia sp. SFG against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis
In the present study Delftia sp. Shakibaie, Forootanfar, and Ghazanfari (SFG), was applied for preparation of biogenic Bi nanoparticles (BiNPs) and antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of the purified BiNPs were investigated by microdilution and disc diffusion methods. Transmission electron micrographs showed that the produced nanostructures were spherical with a size range of 40–120 nm. The measured minimum inhibitory concentration of both the Bi subnitrate and BiNPs against three biofilms producing bacterial pathogens of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis were found to be ab...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 11, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Plasma treated fabrics coated with naturally derived Ag-NPs for biomedical application
Ethnic value of many known plants are underexploited for medicinal application besides their proven traditional qualities. One such plant known for wound healing is Tridax procumbens. This plant has wound healing property and is commercially unexploited. Silver nanoparticle (Ag-NP) were synthesized using this plant extracts using different solvents (methanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous), which exhibit resonance at 426, 424 and 418 nm, respectively. This plant-mediated Ag-NPs have strong anti-bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pn...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 11, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Biogenic synthesis and thermo-magnetic study of highly porous carbon nanotubes
In this study, the authors report the synthesis of porous carbon nanotubes using high-temperature decomposition technique facilitated by cobalt salt using chicken fats, a poultry waste as a precursor. Since chicken fats contain fatty acids which can decompose into short hydrocarbon chains and cobalt can act as the catalyst. The formation of carbon nanotubes was confirmed by Raman spectra, peaks at 1580 and 1350.46 cm−1 confirmed the graphite mode G-band and structural imperfections defect mode D-band, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy showed the formation of tube-like structures. Nitrogen adsorption&ndas...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 11, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Brain targeted delivery of anticancer drugs: prospective approach using solid lipid nanoparticles
A brain tumour is amongst most devastating and challenging condition to overcome with suitable treatment as the drug has to cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB) with several physiological barriers like opsonisation by the reticuloendothelial system. Presently various techniques such as surgical, chemotherapeutic agents, and radiotherapy techniques have performed to extend the lifespan of patients diagnosed with glioblastoma, which did not maximise the overall survival of patients with a tumour. Nanotechnology is relied upon to diminish the requirement for intrusive methods for conveyance of therapeutics to the central...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 11, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Nanoparticles: biosynthesis, translocation and role in plant metabolism
Nanotechnology is an emerging field of science that applies particles between 1 and 100 nm in size for a range of practical uses. Nano-technological discoveries have opened novel applications in biotechnology and agriculture. Many reactions involving nanoparticles (NPs) are more efficient compared to those of their respective bulk materials. NPs obtained from plant material, denoted as biogenic or phytosynthesised NPs, are preferred over chemically synthesised NPs due to their low toxicity, rapid reactions and cost-effective production. NPs impart both positive and negative impacts on plant growth and development. NPs ex...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - June 11, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Efficacy of mycosynthesised AgNPs from Earliella scabrosa as an in vitro antibacterial and wound healing agent
The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with their unique chemical and physical properties are proving as a new therapeutical agent. In the present study, the AgNPs synthesised from an aqueous extract of a macrofungus, Earliella scabrosa, were characterised by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and further evaluate for its in vitro antibacterial and wound healing efficacy. The mycosynthesised AgNPs exhibited the surface plasmon resonance peak at 410 n...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 10, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Electrochemical assessment of the interaction of microbial living cells and carbon nanomaterials
This work considers the effects of various carbon nanomaterials and fibres on bioelectrocatalytic and respiratory activity of bacterial cells during the oxidation of ethanol in the presence of an electron transport mediator. Gluconobacter oxydans sbsp. industrius VKM B-1280 cells were immobilised on the surfaces of graphite electrodes and had an adsorption contact with a nanomaterial (multi-walled carbon nanotubes, thermally expanded graphite, highly oriented pyrolytic graphite, graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide). The electrochemical parameters of the electrodes (the polarisation curves, the value of generated current...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 10, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the toxicities of silver and silver sulfide nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria
In this study, the endogenous lipid signalling molecules, N-myristoylethanolamine, were explored as a capping agent to synthesise stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and Ag sulphide NPs (Ag2S NPs). Sulphidation of the AgNPs abolishes the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) maximum of AgNPs at 415 nm with concomitant changes in the SPR, indicating the formation of Ag2S NPs. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the AgNPs and Ag2S NPs are spherical in shape with a size of 5–30 and 8–30 nm, respectively. AgNPs and Ag2S NPs exhibit antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Th...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 10, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Determination of the potency of hexyl-ciprofloxacin molecules that interact with gold nanoparticles in a reversible manner
This work determined the potency of hexyl-ciprofloxacin molecules that reversibly interact with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) passivated with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) on Escherichia coli cells. For this, partition of modified antibiotic between different compartments of the gold colloid was determined using analytical techniques. First, concentration of hexyl-ciprofloxacin was determined in the continuous phase of the colloid. Subsequently, the colloid was exposed to a volume of organic immiscible solvent and concentration of the transferred molecules was determined in the organic phase. Comparison of the amount of he...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 10, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Antibacterial activity of carbon nanoparticles isolated from chimney soot
Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) are isolated from chimney soot and characterised by various tools such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction studies confirm the presence of C60 nanoparticles in the isolated sample. The thermal properties of the prepared CNPs are recorded using thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis. The analysis of the antibacterial activity of the synthesised CNPs against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains is also investigated. The systematic study conf...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 10, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Green synthesis of colloidal gold nanoparticles using latex from Hevea brasiliensis and evaluation of their in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity
Latex extracted from Hevea brasiliensis tree has been used as a green alternative for preparing gold nanoparticles (Au NPs); however, no study evaluating the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of Au NPs synthesised using H. brasiliensis has been published. The present study aimed to synthesise and characterise colloidal Au NPs using latex from H. brasiliensis and to evaluate their in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Ideal conditions for the green synthesis of Au NPs were studied. In vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Au NPs in CHO-K1 cells was also evaluated. Our findings indicated that the ideal synthesis condition...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 10, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

In vitro evaluation of biodegradable nHAP-Chitosan-Gelatin-based scaffold for tissue engineering application
The present study focuses on fabrication and characterisation of porous composite scaffold containing hydroxyapatite (HAP), chitosan, and gelatin with an average pore size of 250–1010 nm for improving wound repair and regeneration by Electrospinning method. From the results of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) study, the peaks correspond to crystallographic structure of HAP powder. The presence of functional group bonds of HAP powder, Chitosan and scaffold was studied using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The surface morphology of the scaffold was observed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The Bioacti...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 10, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Enhancing data rate of molecular communication system using Brownian motion
In this study, the effect of these interferences on the data rate of MC systems is investigated to design an efficient MC system. To this end, the authors propose an analytical model for a diffusion-based MC system comprised of two nanomachines when they exploit On/Off keying modulation. They model the Brownian motion of molecules in a one-dimensional environment as a wiener process and the life expectancy of diffused molecules as an exponential process. First, they consider the inter-symbol interference to derive the data rate of the MC system as a function of the receiver decision threshold and the symbol time duration. ...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 10, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Synthesis, characterisation and anti-tumour activity of biopolymer based platinum nanoparticles and 5-fluorouracil loaded platinum nanoparticles
A facile and green synthesis of platinum nanoparticles [gum kondagogu platinum nanoparticles (GKPtNP)] using biopolymer- gum kondagogu was developed. The formation of GKPtNP was confirmed by ultraviolet (UV)–visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The formed GKPtNP are well dispersed, homogeneous with a size of 2–4 ± 0.50 nm, having a negative zeta potential (−46.1 mV) indicating good s...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 10, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Hollow selenium nanoparticles from potato extract and investigation of its biological properties and developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos
A facile synthesis of hollow selenium nanoparticles (hSeNPs) was prepared using potato starch as a reducing and capping agent. The morphological and structural characters of the hSeNPs were characterised by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and zeta potential analyser. The optical characteristics of hSeNPs were confirmed by UV. The presence of various functional groups in the hSeNPs suspension was confirmed by FTIR. The SEM results suggested that the synthe...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 10, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Rubia tinctorum extract and evaluation the anti-cancer properties in vitro
In this study, AgNPs were synthesised using Rubia tinctorum L. extract (Ru-AgNPs). Then, cytotoxicity effects of the Ru-AgNPs against MDA-MB-231 carcinoma cell line and human dermal fibroblast as normal cell line were performed. Furthermore, anti-apoptotic effects of Ru-AgNPs on these cancer and normal cell lines were compared using acridine orange/propidium iodide staining, flow cytometry analysis and real-time qPCR in apoptosis gene markers. Results of UV-vis spectroscopy showed that Ru-AgNPs have a peak at 430 nm, which indicated synthesis of AgNPs. Ru-AgNPs had spherical shape and average size of 12 nm. Ru-AgNPs ha...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 10, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Autoclave-assisted synthesis of AgNPs in Z. officinale extract and assessment of their cytotoxicity, antibacterial and antioxidant activities
In this study, the authors synthesised silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using autoclave as a simple, unique and eco-friendly approach. The effect of Zingiber officinale extract was evaluated as a reducing and stabiliser agent. According to transmission electron microscopy results, the AgNPs were in the spherical shape with a particle size of ∼17 nm. The biomedical properties of AgNPs as antibacterial agents and free radical scavenging activity were estimated. Synthesised AgNPs showed significant 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical scavenging. Strong bactericidal activity was shown by the AgNPs on Gram-positive an...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 10, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Simple preparation of photothermal nanomaterial GNR@SiO2 with enhanced drug loading content
In this study, GNRs assisted mesoporous silica nanoparticles (GNR@SiO2 NPs) are fabricated by a simple method. The mesoporous SiO2 can not only prevent the aggregation of GNRs but also provide large hollow mesoporous structure to enhance drug loading capacity. Moreover, GNRs absorb near-infrared (NIR) light and convert it into heat. The temperature of the GNR@SiO2 solution was increased to ∼60 (2 W) and 90°C (3 W) after NIR radiation. The photothermal conversion efficiency was 32.60% of GNR@SiO2 under NIR light irradiation at 2 W, while 39.01% under NIR light irradiation at 3 W. The drug loading content of ...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 10, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Green synthesis and evaluation of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial and biochemical profiling in Kinnow (Citrus reticulata L.) to enhance fruit quality and productivity under biotic stress
Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by utilising plant extract is an emerging class of nanotechnology. It revolutionizes all the field of biological sciences by synthesizing chemical free AgNPs. In the present study, AgNPs were synthesised by utilising Moringa oleifera leaves as the main reducing and stabilising agent and characterised through UV–visible spectroscopy, zeta analyser, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The different concentrations of biosynthesised AgNPs (10, 20, 30, and 40 ppm) were exogenously applied on the alrea...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 10, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Investigating the prospects of bacterial biosurfactants for metal nanoparticle synthesis – a comprehensive review
Establishing biological synthesis of nanoparticles is increasing nowadays in the field of nanotechnology. The search for an optimal source with durability, stability, capacity to withstand higher environmental conditions with excellent characteristics is yet to meet. Consequently, there is need to create an eco-friendly strategy for metal nanoparticle synthesis. One approach investigated in this review is the use of biosurfactants to enhance the synthesis biologically. In comparison with the other technologies, biosurfactants are less toxic and exhibit higher properties. This method is different from the conventional pract...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 10, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

First principle study of the self-switching characteristics of the guanine based single optical molecular switch using carbon nanotube electrodes
The switching property of an optical single molecular switch based on a single DNA molecule guanine with a single walled carbon nanotube electrode has been investigated using density functional theory along with non-equilibrium Green's function based first principle approach. The semi-empirical model of this single bio-molecular switch has been operated at an ultra-high 25 THz frequency in mid-UV range. This single bio-molecule comprises switching activity upon UV photo-excitation. The influence of the highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gap and the quantum ballistic transmission into...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 7, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Assessment of AgNPs exposure on physiological and biochemical changes and antioxidative defence system in wheat (Triticum aestivum L) under heat stress
The present study was designed to check the role of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on physiological, biochemical parameters and antioxidants of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under heat stress. Plant extract of Moringa oleifera was used for AgNPs synthesis followed by characterization through UV-Vis spectroscopy, SEM, XRD and Zeta analyser. Heat stress was applied in range of 35-40°C for 3 hrs/ day for 3 days to wheat plants at trifoliate stage. Heat stress decreased the RWC (13.2%), MSI (16.3%), chl a (5.2%), chl b (4.1%) and TCCs (9.9%). Wheat plants treated with AgNPs showed significant increase in RWC (12.2%), MSI (26....
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 7, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

In vitro biological evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of organic–inorganic hybrid gold nanoparticles
Diabetes mellitus has been considered as a heterogeneous metabolic disorder characterised by complete or relative impairment in the production of insulin by pancreatic β-cells or insulin resistance. In the present study, propanoic acid, an active biocomponent isolated from Cassia auriculata is employed for the synthesis of propanoic acid functionalised gold nanoparticles (Pa@AuNPs) and its anti-diabetic activity has been demonstrated in vitro. In vitro cytotoxicity of synthesised Pa@AuNPs was performed in L6 myotubes. The mode of action of Pa@AuNPs exhibiting anti-diabetic potential was validated by glucose uptake ass...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 7, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Green preparation of seaweed-based silver nano-liquid for cotton pathogenic fungi management
Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesised using the crude ethyl acetate extracts of Ulva lactuca and evaluated their bioefficacy against two crop-damaging pathogens. The sets of lattice planes in the XRD spectrum for the Ag NPs were indexed to the 111, 200, 220 and 311 orientations and support the crystalline nature of the Ag NPs. The 3414 and 2968 cm-1 peaks were observed in crude algal thallus extract and they were characteristic of terpenoids. Further, a peak at 1389 cm-1 was observed as fatty acids. The marine macroalgae terpenoids and palmitic acid acted as reducing agent and stabiliser, respectively. The size (3...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 7, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

Biosynthesis of Selenium Nanoparticles using yeast Nematospora coryli and examination of their anti-candida and anti-oxidant activities
Selenium (Se) is a rare and essential element for the human body and other living organisms because of its role in the structure of several proteins and having anti-oxidant properties to reduce oxidative stress at cells. Some microorganisms can absorb Se oxyanions and convert them into zero-valent Se (Se0) in the nanoscale dimensions, which can be used for producing Se nanoparticles (SeNPs). In the present study, SeNPs were intracellularly biosynthesised by yeast Nematospora coryli, which is an inexpensive method and does not involve using materials hazardous for human and environment. The produced NPs were refined by a tw...
Source: IET Nanobiotechnology - May 7, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research