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The evolving diagnosis of noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP)
The publication of the noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) study by Nikiforov and colleagues in 2016 [1] was a significant achievement for patients with thyroid neoplasms. The NIFTP diagnosis, which was included in the fourth edition of the WHO Tumors of Endocrine Organs [2], is having a major impact on thyroid cytology and surgical pathology as well as on surgical and medical practice in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid neoplasms. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - January 15, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Ricardo V. Lloyd, Sylvia L. Asa, Virginia A. LiVolsi, Peter M. Sadow, Arthur S. Tischler, Ronald A. Ghossein, R. Michael Tuttle, Yuri E. Nikiforov Source Type: research

The absence of class III β-tubulin is predictive of a favorable response to nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine in patients with unresectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
The combined administration of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine (nab-P + Gem) is a standard chemotherapy for unresectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (UR-PDAC); thus, a predictive biomarker to identify patients best suited for nab-P + Gem therapy would be useful. Class III β-tubulin (TUBB3) has been reported to be a predictive marker for taxane resistance in various tumors. However, the correlation between TUBB3 expression and the response to nab-P + Gem in patients with UR-PDAC has not been evaluated. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - January 12, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Akihisa Kato, Aya Naiki-Ito, Itaru Naitoh, Kazuki Hayashi, Takahiro Nakazawa, Shuya Shimizu, Yuji Nishi, Fumihiro Okumura, Inoue Tadahisa, Hiroki Takada, Hiromu Kondo, Michihiro Yoshida, Satoru Takahashi, Takashi Joh Source Type: research

Primary diffuse leptomeningeal atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor diagnosed by cerebrospinal fluid cytology: Case report with molecular genetic analysis
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are rare malignant neoplasms that mainly affect infants and young children, and are typically located in the cerebellar hemispheres. These tumors are histologically characterized by varying proportions of rhabdoid cells, and nuclear INI1 immunonegativity. Here, we report a case of a 15-year-old male with primary diffuse leptomeningeal AT/RT. The patient had symptoms similar to those of meningitis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed leptomeningeal thickening. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - January 12, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Ran Tomomasa, Satoshi Nakata, Sumihito Nobusawa, Keishi Horiguchi, Nozomi Matsumura, Hayato Ikota, Junko Hirato, Yuhei Yoshimoto, Hideaki Yokoo Source Type: research

Trends in Reporting Histological Subtyping of Renal Cell Carcinoma: Association with Cancer Center Type
Histological classification of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has become increasingly important for clinical management. We identified 295,483 RCC diagnosed from 1998-2014 in the National Cancer Database (NCDB) to examine temporal trends in proportions of RCC with unspecified histology and several specific histologies from the 1998 and 2004 World Health Organization classifications of RCC. Further, multivariable log binomial analysis of 101,062 RCC diagnosed from 2010-2014 was used to determine whether the association of diagnosing/treating facility type and the proportion of unspecified RCC is independent of patient demograph...
Source: Human Pathology - January 12, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Ted Gansler, Stacey Fedewa, Mahul B. Amin, Chun Chieh Lin, Ahmedin Jemal Source Type: research

PRIMARY THYMIC ADENOCARCINOMAS: A clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical study of 16 cases with emphasis on the morphological spectrum of differentiation
Sixteen cases of primary thymic adenocarcinoma are presented. The patients are 9 men and 7 women between the ages of 22 and 68 years (average: 45 years) who presented with non-specific symptoms including cough, chest pain, and dyspnea. Diagnostic imaging revealed the presence of an anterior mediastinal mass, which was surgically removed in all of the patients. Histologically, none of the tumors was encapsulated and showed different growth patterns including mucinous, non-mucinous, and papillary features. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - January 12, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Neda Kalhor, Cesar A. Moran Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma: A Review of Clinicopathologic Features, Pathogenesis and Prognostic Factors
Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL) is a rare and clinically aggressive type of T-cell lymphoma that arises most often in adolescents and young adults. Patients with HSTCL commonly present with B-symptoms and cytopenias which may suggest a diagnosis of acute leukemia initially. Patients present with extranodal disease involving the spleen, liver and bone marrow; lymphadenopathy is usually absent. The lymphoma cells can show a spectrum of cell sizes and are of T-cell lineage, often negative for CD4 and CD8 and positive for T-cell receptor γδ or, less often, αβ. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - January 11, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Mariko Yabe, Roberto N. Miranda, L. Jeffrey Medeiros Tags: Progress in pathology Source Type: research

Prognostic significance of S100A16 sub-cellular localization in lung adenocarcinoma
To discover novel tumor markers for lung adenocarcinoma (AC), we performed proteomics analysis and reported a correlation between S100A16 membranous expression in AC tissues and a poor prognosis. However, some patients with a good prognosis also showed S100A16 membranous staining. We re-evaluated immunohistochemically stained tissues, and found membrane-positive and nucleus- negative expressions to be significantly higher in the presence of the following: male, smoker, positive nodal metastasis, higher p-TNM stage, larger tumor, poorer differentiation, positive for lymphatic invasion, positive for vascular invasion, and po...
Source: Human Pathology - January 7, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Makoto Kobayashi, Ryo Nagashio, Keita Saito, Clemente Aguilar-Bonavides, Shinichiro Ryuge, Ken Katono, Satoshi Igawa, Benio Tsuchiya, Shi-Xu Jiang, Masaaki Ichinoe, Yoshiki Murakumo, Makoto Saegusa, Yukitoshi Satoh, Yuichi Sato Source Type: research

The Many Faces of Intestinal Tract Gastric Heterotopia; A Series of Four Cases Highlighting Clinical and Pathological Heterogeneity
We present a series of four cases, two male and two female patients with age range of 31-82 year, found in the duodenum, jejunum, and transverse colon. The most common and rather unusual clinical presentation was iron deficiency anemia, seen in three cases, while one patient presented with abdominal pain. Endoscopically two cases were visualized as pedunculated polyps and two as sessile/plaques like lesions. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - January 7, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Aqsa Nasir, Stuart K. Amateau, Sabina Khan, Ross W. Simpson, Dale C. Snover, Khalid Amin Source Type: research

The value of detection of S100A8 and ASAH1 in predicting the chemotherapy response for breast cancer patients
This study aims to investigate the value of detection of S100A8 and ASAH1 in predicting the chemotherapy response. Miller and Payne grades were used to assess the chemotherapy response in breast cancers. The expression of S100A8 and ASAH1, as well as ER, PR, HER-2 and Ki-67 were assessed by immunohistochemical staining in 120 cases of non-special type invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC-NOS). (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - January 7, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Yu-hong Li, Hai-ting Liu, Jing Xu, Ai-yan Xing, Jie Zhang, Ya-wen Wang, Gang Yin, Peng Gao Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Characteristics of cribriform morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in post-Chernobyl affected region
The aim is to study the characteristics of cribriform morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (CMV-PTC) in patients living in radiation-affected area of Belarus. The clinical and pathological features of 35 patients with CMV-PTC from Belarus were studied and compared with those of conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma diagnosed in the same period. The patients with CMV-PTC were all females and were younger at presentation (mean age = 24) than those with conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - January 7, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Alfred King-yin Lam, Mikhail Fridman Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Atypical multivacuolated lipoblasts and atypical mitoses are not compatible with the diagnosis of spindle cell/pleomorphic lipoma —reply
We thank Dr Creytens et al for their comments on our articles [1,2]. We would like to make some additional comments in response to their letter. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - January 7, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Michael Michal, Dmitry V. Kazakov, Kvetoslava Michalova, Michal Michal Source Type: research

Uterine Rhabdomyosarcoma in Adults
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is an aggressive mesenchymal tumor most commonly diagnosed in the pediatric population, and when occurring in adults, tends to develop in the deep soft tissue of the limbs. Primary uterine RMS comprises an even more restricted subset, with little known or reported when compared to most other gynecologic sarcomas. Our goal with this study was to retrospectively evaluate cases from two academic institutions and describe the main histopathologic findings of this rare gynecologic malignancy. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - January 7, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Andre Pinto, Ryan M. Kahn, Andrew E. Rosenberg, Brian Slomovitz, Charles Matthew Quick, Michella K. Whisman, Marilyn Huang Source Type: research

Downregulated SASH1 Expression Indicates Poor Clinical Prognosis in Gastric Cancer
In this study, 8 paired fresh-frozen GC tissues and corresponding gastric mucosal tissues were examined by Western blot to analyze the protein expression of SASH1. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - January 7, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Nan Zhou, Can Liu, Xudong Wang, Qinsheng Mao, Qin Jin, Peng Li Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

C-Cbl and Cbl-b expression in skull base chordomas is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis
Chordomas are rare, locally aggressive malignancies that are often difficult to eradicate. Surgery and radiotherapy are the first-line treatments, but the probability of local recurrence is high. According to our previous research, c-Cbl and Cbl-b have been linked to tumor progression and poor prognosis of glioma. However, their role in skull base chordomas is unclear. To clarify this issue, in the present study we analyzed the expression of c-Cbl and Cbl-b in relation to the clinicopathological features and clinical outcome of skull base chordomas patients (n=70). (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - January 6, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Peng Luo, Xin Wang, Jinpeng Zhou, Long Li, Zhitao Jing Tags: Original contribution Source Type: research

Differentiating Breast Carcinoma with Signet-Ring Features from Gastrointestinal Signet-Ring Carcinoma: Assessment of Immunohistochemical Markers
Signet-ring morphology is recognized throughout the gastrointestinal tract. However, this pattern may be observed in other primary sites giving rise to diagnostic challenges in the work-up of metastases. Relatively newer immunohistochemical markers have not been evaluated in this context. We assessed expression patterns of several common immunohistochemical markers in tumors with signet-ring morphology to delineate a pragmatic approach to this differential diagnosis. Primary breast and gastrointestinal carcinomas showing signet-ring features were reviewed. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - January 6, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Yiang Hui, Yihong Wang, Gahie Nam, Jacqueline Fanion, Ashlee Sturtevant, Kara A. Lombardo, Murray B. Resnick Tags: Original contribution Source Type: research

Atypical multivacuolated lipoblasts and atypical mitoses are not compatible with the diagnosis of spindle cell/pleomorphic lipoma
We have read with great interest the recent papers of Michal et al [1,2], describing lipoblasts (including multivacuolated lipoblasts in some cases) and (atypical) mitotic figures in pleomorphic lipomas. We agree with the authors that lipoblasts can be observed in spindle cell/pleomorphic lipomas. In the spindle cell/pleomorphic lipoma chapter of the recent WHO Classification of Tumours of Soft Tissue and Bone, fourth edition, it is stated that “although fat cells typically lack atypia, some spindle cell/pleomorphic lipomas contain atypical adipocytes and lipoblasts, showing morphologically overlap with atypical lipo...
Source: Human Pathology - January 6, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: David Creytens, Thomas Mentzel, Liesbeth Ferdinande, Joost van Gorp, Jo Van Dorpe, Uta Flucke Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Decreased Expression of Megalin and Cubilin and Altered Mitochondrial Activity in Tenofovir Nephrotoxicity
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a commonly used antiretroviral drug for HIV, rarely causing Fanconi syndrome and acute kidney injury. We retrospectively analyzed the clinico-pathological presentation of 20 cases of tenofovir-induced tubulopathy, and investigated the renal expression of the megalin and cubilin proteins, as well as the mitochondrial respiratory chain activity. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) before TDF exposure was 92 ml/min/1,73m2, decreasing to 27.5 ml/min/1,73m2 at the time of biopsy, with 30% of patients requiring renal replacement therapy. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - January 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Alexandre Cez, Isabelle Brocheriou, Fran çois-Xavier Lescure, Clovis Adam, Pierre-Marie Girard, Gilles Pialoux, Søren K. Moestrup, Soraya Fellahi, Jean-Philippe Bastard, Pierre Ronco, Emmanuelle Plaisier Source Type: research

Solitary fibrous tumor with neuroendocrine and squamous dedifferentiation: a potential diagnostic pitfall
Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a ubiquitous mesenchymal neoplasm of deep soft tissue with variable and often unpredictable biological behavior. The lineage is presumed to be fibroblastic and histological features range from benign to overtly malignant with rare tumors showing “dedifferentiation” or transformation to undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma. Dedifferentiation in mesenchymal neoplasms is a phenomenon of histologic progression of a well-differentiated neoplasm to a high-grade sarcoma which can differentiate along divergent lines. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - January 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Chuanyong Lu, Deepu Alex, Ryma Benayed, Marc K. Rosenblum, Meera R. Hameed Tags: Case study Source Type: research

Genomic heterogeneity in primary colorectal carcinomas and their metastases: born bad or brought up a villain?
Progression of solid cancers, colorectal carcinomas among them, from their primaries to metastatic lesions traditionally is thought to proceed by a step-wise acquisition of and selection for genomic aberrations. To test if patterns of genomic aberrations would be consistent with this model, we studied ten colorectal carcinoma primary-metastasis pairs, nine with one liver metastasis each, and one with two metastases. Next generation targeted sequencing (50 gene panel) with samples obtained from different regions of the primaries and their metastases demonstrated 1 –11 gene mutations per lesion. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - January 4, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Maja H ühns, Saskia Krohn, Hugo Murua Escobar, Friedrich Prall Tags: Original contribution Source Type: research

Classic Hodgkin lymphoma with osseous involvement mimicking Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a child
We report the rare case of a young patient with cranial bone classic HL, presumably originating from the skull without any involvement of lymph nodes. As the main clinical manifestation was only tumor mass in the skull without osteoscopic pain, the tentative diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis was histologically confirmed by an excisional biopsy. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - January 4, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Kazuhiko Kuwahara, Ko Kudo, Akiko Yashima-Abo, Kosuke Katayama, Keiko Kojima, Kiyoshi Tone, Etsuro Ito, Atsuko Nakazawa, Hideto Iwafuchi, Akira Kurose Source Type: research

Effective use of Twitter and Facebook in pathology practice
Social networking has become a part of daily life for most people. In the era of globalization, it has become indispensable for effective communication between friends and peers across the world. Today, social media use is not only restricted to our personal lives; it is becoming increasingly incorporated into our professional lives, as well. Social media platforms are rapidly becoming a necessary tool for medical professionals. Apt use of social media platforms can revolutionize scientific communication and collaboration. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - January 4, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Pembe Oltulu, Abul Ala Syed Rifat Mannan, Jerad M. Gardner Tags: Original contribution Source Type: research

MVP Immunohistochemistry is a Useful Adjunct in Distinguishing Leiomyosarcoma from Leiomyoma and Leiomyoma with Bizarre Nuclei
Morphologically, distinguishing between leiomyoma (LM) and leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is not always straightforward, especially with benign variants such as bizarre leiomyoma (BLM). To identify potential markers of malignancy in uterine smooth muscle tumors, proteomic studies were performed followed by assessment of protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from tumors (n=23) diagnosed as LM, BLM and LMS (using published criteria) were selected for the study. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - January 4, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Nicholas J. Lintel, Stephen A. Luebker, Subodh M. Lele, Scott A. Koepsell Tags: Original contribution Source Type: research

Tumor budding as a novel predictor of occult metastasis in cT2N0 tongue squamous cell carcinoma
Occult neck metastasis is an important prognostic factor in patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) who are deemed clinically negative for neck metastasis. The purpose of this study was to identify predictive factors for occult neck metastasis arising from TSCC and to determine patient prognosis. Ninety-seven patients with cT2N0 TSCC who underwent surgical resection of their primary lesion as initial therapy were enrolled in this retrospective study. Cutoff values for depth of invasion ( ≥3.3 mm) and the tumor budding score (≥4) were determined using receiver operator characteristic analyses. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - January 4, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Junki Sakata, Keisuke Yamana, Ryoji Yoshida, Yuichiro Matsuoka, Kenta Kawahara, Hidetaka Arita, Hikaru Nakashima, Masashi Nagata, Akiyuki Hirosue, Sho Kawaguchi, Shunsuke Gohara, Yuka Nagao, Akimitsu Hiraki, Masanori Shinohara, Ryo Toya, Ryuji Murakami, H Tags: Original contribution Source Type: research

Prognostic Role of Tumoral PDL1 Expression and Peritumoral FoxP3+ Lymphocytes in Vulvar Melanomas
Prognostic role of PDL1 expression, CD8+ and FoxP3+ lymphocytes in vulvar melanomas has not been studied. We correlated PDL1 expression, and CD8+ and FoxP3+ immune infiltrates with clinicopathologic variables and patient outcomes in a series of 75 vulvar melanomas. Tumoral PDL1 expression (>5%) was seen in 23% of cases. By Fisher ’s Exact test, PDL1 expression and peritumoral FoxP3+ lymphocytes significantly correlated with less disease-specific death. By linear regression analysis, correlations between tumoral PDL1 expression with the density of tumoral CD8+ and peritumoral CD8+ lymphocytes; tumoral FoxP3+ with t...
Source: Human Pathology - January 4, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Agata Ch łopik, M. Angelica Selim, Yan Peng, Cheng-Lin Wu, Gemma Tell-Marti, Kristen M. Paral, Sara C. Shalin, Stefan Kraft, Chao-Kai Hsu, Christopher R. Shea, Susana Puig, Maria-Teresa Fernandez-Figueras, Wojciech Biernat, Janusz Ryś, Andrzej Marszalek Tags: Original contribution Source Type: research

Histologic and immunohistochemical differences between hereditary and sporadic diffuse gastric carcinoma
We aimed to identify histopathologic features unique in hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) by comparing with its sporadic counterpart (SDGC). 11 patients with confirmed CDH1 mutation who were found to have HDGC in a prophylactic total gastrectomy were collected. Median age of HDGC patients was 39 years (range 24-57). All HDGC cases had intramucosal signet ring cell carcinoma. Twenty-three invasive tumor foci from 7 patients with HDGC were available for ancillary studies, and we evaluated each focus separately. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - January 4, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Hee Eun Lee, Thomas C. Smyrk, Lizhi Zhang Source Type: research

Dedifferentiated liposarcoma composed predominantly of rhabdoid/epithelioid cells: a frequently misdiagnosed highly aggressive variant
Dedifferentiated liposarcoma is one of the most common sarcoma types in adults with a predilection for the retroperitoneum. We have recently encountered 6 cases of DDL composed predominantly of rounded, rhabdoid or epithelioid cells mimicking rhabdoid melanoma, epithelioid rhabdomyosarcoma or undifferentiated carcinoma. Patients were 5 males and one female aged 64 to 81 years (median, 68). Tumors originated in the retroperitoneum (n=5; 3 in the psoas muscle) and deep soft tissue of the thigh (n=1). (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - January 4, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Abbas Agaimy, Michael Michal, Ladislav Hadravsky, Michal Michal Tags: Original contribution Source Type: research

Masthead
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Source: Human Pathology - December 27, 2017 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - December 27, 2017 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - December 27, 2017 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

In this Issue
(Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - December 27, 2017 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Intraepithelial CD8 (+) Lymphocytes as a Predictive Diagnostic Biomarker for the Remission of Oral Lichen Planus
In this study, we quantitatively examined CD8 (+) lymphocyte infiltration by immunohistochemistry, which is the principal effector of cytotoxic immune reaction in 123 cases of OLP specimens. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - December 27, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Ai Enomoto, Eiichi Sato, Takashi Yasuda, Tatsuya Isomura, Toshitaka Nagao, Daichi Chikazu Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma: A Review of Pathologic Characteristics
This study seeks to further define clinicopathological characteristics of MANEC to aid in accurate diagnosis and properly direct clinical management. Thirty-four confirmed MANECs were identified in our twenty-five year retrospective review of cases arising in the gastrointestinal tract. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - December 27, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Shayna A. Brathwaite, Stephen M. Smith, Lai Wai, Wendy Frankel, John Hays, Martha M. Yearsley, Sherif Abdel-Misih Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Salivary gland epithelial neoplasms in pediatric population: a single-institute experience with a focus on the histologic spectrum and clinical outcome
To the Editor, (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - December 27, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Simon Andreasen, Elizabeth Stevens, Kristine Bj ørndal, Preben Homøe Source Type: research

Salivary gland epithelial neoplasms in pediatric population: a single-institute experience with a focus on the histologic spectrum and clinical outcome —reply
We thank the authors for their interests in our article [1]. As the authors pointed out, parotid gland is the most common site of epithelial salivary gland neoplasms in adult and pediatric populations, which has been confirmed by the results of our study where we found 36 of 57 tumors (63%) to be located in the parotid gland. Unlike the reported data from tumor registries, the histology of all tumors included in the current study was reviewed and classified by three specialized head and neck pathologists, using the most up-to-date classification and diagnostic criteria. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - December 27, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Bin Xu, Nora Katabi Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Global quality assessment of liver allograft C4d staining during acute antibody mediated rejection in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue
Discussion of liver antibody mediated rejection during the 2011, 2013 and 2015 Banff liver sessions raised concerns over reliability of complement fragment 4d (C4d) staining, precipitating a global survey followed by a tissue microarray staining quality assessment study among centers on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Tissue microarray sections containing tissue plugs of resected native and allograft (with acute antibody mediated rejection) liver, heart and kidney (n=33 total cores) were sent to 31 centers for C4d staining using local method (s) and pathologist scoring. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - December 26, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Neil Dah, Bellamy Co, M Smith, H Haga, Y Zen, M Sebagh, K Ruppert, J Lunz, SG H übscher, AJ Demetris Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Tumor-Associated Macrophages and the Tumor Immune Microenvironment of Primary and Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC)
Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are associated with better prognosis in newly diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), but clinical trials of immunotherapies in patients with heavily-treated disease reveal limited activity. Understanding the tumor microenvironment (TME) of primary and recurrent EOC should guide future trials. Here, we evaluated the TME of paired primary and recurrent tumors (n=17), and non-paired primary (n=20) and recurrent (n=15) tumors, for CD8+ T cells, FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), CD68+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ...
Source: Human Pathology - December 26, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Laureen S. Ojalvo, Elizabeth D. Thompson, Tian-Li Wang, Alan K. Meeker, Ie-Ming Shih, Amanda N. Fader, Ashley M. Cimino-Mathews, Leisha A. Emens Source Type: research

Immunoglobulin G4-related Chronic Rhinosinusitis: A Pitfall in the Differential Diagnosis of Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis, Rosai-Dorfman Disease and Fungal Rhinosinusitis
Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has recently been proposed to be a new clinical entity of nasal disease, with no consensually agreed criteria for diagnosis. Moreover, the pathological features if IgG4-related CRS often overlap with other sinonasal inflammatory and autoimmune diseases such as Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA), Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) and Fungal Rhinosinusitis (FRS). We aimed to explore the specific similarities and differences in clinicopathologic features between IgG4-related CRS, and GPA, RDD and FRS, in order that these conditions can be diagnosed more accurately. (...
Source: Human Pathology - December 26, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Yingshi Piao, Yuan Zhang, Changli Yue, Chengshuo Wang, Luo Zhang Source Type: research

Overexpression of ARID4B predicts poor survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma
In this study, we used data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) to analyze ARID4B expression in HCC. We subjected 15 pairs of fresh-frozen tissue samples to quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting analyses to investigate ARID4B expression. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - December 26, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Rongchang Wang, Zheng Yu, Fan Chen, Chunlian Liao, Qian Wang, Xiaohui Huang Source Type: research

BRG1 is correlated with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer
Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1), a component of the chromatin-remodeling complex, regulates transcription by remodeling the chromatin structure. The present study aimed to elucidate the clinicopathological significance and prognostic role of BRG1 in colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated the correlation between BRG1 expression and clinicopathological parameters, including prognosis, using immunohistochemistry on 266 archival paraffin-embedded CRC tissues. In addition, to confirm the prognostic role of BRG1 in malignant tumors, we performed a meta-analysis of nine eligible studies and the current study. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - December 26, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Jung-Soo Pyo, Byoung Kwan Son, Dongwook Oh, Eun Kyung Kim Source Type: research

STAT3 Mutation and Its Clinical and Histopathologic Correlation in T-Cell Large Granular Lymphocytic Leukemia
In this study, STAT3 mutations were identified in 18 of 36 patients with T-LGLL (50%), including Y640F (12/18, 66.7%), N647I (3/18, 16.7%), E638Q (1/18, 5.6%), I659L (1/18, 5.6%), and K657R (1/1 8, 5.6%). (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - December 26, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Min Shi, Rong He, Andrew L. Feldman, David S. Viswanatha, Dragan Jevremovic, Dong Chen, William G. Morice Source Type: research

Paip1 affects breast cancer cell growth and represents a novel prognostic biomarker
This study explored the role of Paip1 in breast cancer progression and evaluated its prognostic value. The cellular location of Paip1 protein was determined using immunofluorescence (IF). Then, Paip1 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining in 119 breast cancers and 40 normal breast tissues. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - December 16, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Junjie Piao, Liyan Chen, Tiefeng Jin, Ming Xu, Chunji Quan, Zhenhua Lin Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Whole exome sequencing demonstrates recurrent somatic copy number alterations and sporadic mutations in specialized stromal tumors the prostate
In this study, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to explore somatic mutations in 1 low-grade stromal sarcoma, 1 high-grade stromal sarcoma, and 12 STUMPs including 5 cases of degenerative atypia type, 1 myxoid type, 1 phyllodes type, and 5 cases of recently described round cell type. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - December 16, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Chin-Chen Pan, Toyonori Tsuzuki, Eiichi Morii, Hiroaki Fushimi, Paul Chih-Hsueh Chen, Jonathan I. Epstein Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

The selected biomarker analysis in five types of uterine smooth muscle tumors
In this study we reviewed 119 USMT with a diagnosis of LMS, STUMP (smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential), ALM/LM-BN (atypical leiomyomas/leiomyoma with bizarre nuclei) and CLM (cellular leiomyoma) as well as 46 ULM and 60 myometrial controls. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - December 16, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Qing Zhang, Margaux Jenna Kanis, Julianne Ubago, Dachao Liu, Denise M. Scholtens, Anna E. Strohl, John R. Lurain, Shohreh Shahabi, Beihua Kong, Jian-Jun Wei Source Type: research

Identification of T-cell receptor expression in EBV-positive neoplastic cells in extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type and comparison with T-cell receptor gene rearrangement by BIOMED-2 assay
The cellular lineage of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type (ENKTL) is determined by expression of T-cell receptor (TR) or TR gene rearrangement. In ENKTL, from TR immunohistochemistry it may often be difficult to decide whether TR-positive cells are tumor cells or not, especially when TR is expressed in a subset of tumor cells. To analyze TR expression pattern and TR rearrangement in T-lineage ENKTL, we performed double immunofluorescence staining for Epstein –Barr virus-encoded small RNAs (EBER) /T-cell receptor (TCR) βF1 and CD56/TCR βF1 in 12 cases of ENKTL that showed TCR βF1 expression in i...
Source: Human Pathology - December 16, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Takuya Takayama, Sohyun Shin, SoYoung Kang, Suk Jin Kim, Won Seog Kim, Young Hyeh Ko Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Specificity of research antibodies: “trust is good, validation is better”
We are writing you in regard to the article “Overexpression of phosphoprotein phosphatase 2A predicts worse prognosis in patients with breast cancer: a 15-year follow-up” by Chen et al., published 16 August 2017 in Human Pathology [1]. The authors used immunohistochemistry to analyze the expression of several signal transduction markers i n tissues samples from 672 breast cancer patients and concluded that elevated levels of phosphorylated protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) catalytic subunit correlate with a shorter 15-year overall survival rate. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - December 13, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Egon Ogris, Estelle Sontag, Brian Wadzinski, Goutham Narla Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Aberrant Pax-8 expression in well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma and malignant mesothelioma of the peritoneum: a clinicopathologic study
Serous ovarian neoplasms can overlap morphologically with peritoneal mesothelial proliferations, with common features including well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma (WDPM) and malignant epithelioid mesothelioma (MM). Accurate histologic classification of these neoplasms is important for clinical management. The Pax-8 protein is commonly used for differentiating peritoneal MM from serous carcinoma, but the diagnostic value of Pax-8 for distinguishing WDPM from borderline or low-grade serous tumors is unknown. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - December 11, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Deyin Xing, Natalie Banet, Rajni Sharma, Russell Vang, Brigitte M. Ronnett, Peter B. Illei Source Type: research

Vasitis Nodosa and Related Lesions: A Modern Immunohistochemical Staining Profile with Special Emphasis on Novel Diagnostic Dilemmas
Vasitis nodosa is a benign proliferation of vas deferens epithelium, thought to be a response to trauma or obstruction, usually vasectomy. Although histologic features mimic malignancy, diagnosis is usually straightforward due to the clinical context. We analyzed 21 specimens with vasitis or epididymitis nodosa with antibodies to PAX8, CD10, p63, alpha-methyl-acyl-coA-racemase (AMACR), GATA3, prostein, NKX3.1, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Two diagnostically problematic cases included 1) florid bladder muscle involvement after prostatectomy and 2) involvement of the ampulla and ejaculatory duct in a radical prostate...
Source: Human Pathology - December 11, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Brie E Kezlarian, Liang Cheng, Nilesh S. Gupta, Sean R Williamson Tags: Original contribution Source Type: research

Expression of autophagy-related markers at the surgical margin of oral squamous cell carcinoma correlates with poor prognosis and tumor recurrence
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, and is associated with poor prognosis. Autophagy is a programmed cell survival mechanism involved in physiologic processes and various diseases including cancer. However, the relationship between autophagy and cancer is controversial. Several studies have claimed that the expression of autophagy-related proteins, namely microtubule-associated protein light chain3 (LC3) and p62/SQSTM1 (p62), is associated with poor prognosis in OSCC. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - December 11, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Takehito Terabe, Fumihiko Uchida, Hiroki Nagai, Shoei Omori, Naomi Ishibashi-Kanno, Shogo Hasegawa, Kenji Yamagata, Masahiko Gosho, Toru Yanagawa, Hiroki Bukawa Source Type: research

Diagnostic utility of histone H3.3G34 W, G34R, and G34 V mutant-specific antibodies for giant cell tumors of bone
Giant cell tumors of bone (GCTBs) are characterized by mononuclear stromal cells and osteoclast-like giant cells; up to 95% have H3F3A gene mutation. The RANKL inhibitor denosumab, when used for the treatment of GCTB, leads to histological changes such as new bone formation and giant cell depletion. Here we assessed the diagnostic utility of immunohistochemical staining with the antibodies against histone H3.3G34 W, G34R and G34 V mutant proteins for GCTB and other histologically similar bone and joint lesions. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - December 11, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Hidetaka Yamamoto, Takeshi Iwasaki, Yuichi Yamada, Yoshihiro Matsumoto, Hiroshi Otsuka, Masato Yoshimoto, Kenichi Kohashi, Kenichi Taguchi, Ryohei Yokoyama, Yasuharu Nakashima, Yoshinao Oda Tags: Original contribution Source Type: research

BRAF and KRAS mutations in tubular apocrine adenoma and papillary eccrine adenoma of the skin
Tubular apocrine adenoma (TAA) and papillary eccrine adenoma (PEA) are benign sweat gland tumors. Their names imply that they exhibit apocrine and eccrine differentiation, respectively. However, morphologically they are very similar and are often indistinguishable. The molecular pathogenesis of either tumor is poorly understood at present. On the basis of an index case of nipple adenoma that was morphologically reminiscent of cutaneous TAA/PEA and harbored a BRAFV600E mutation, we investigated whether a similar genetic change is also present in TAA/PEA. (Source: Human Pathology)
Source: Human Pathology - December 11, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Jau-Yu Liau, Jia-Huei Tsai, Wen-Chang Huang, Jui Lan, Jin-Bon Hong, Chang-Tsu Yuan Tags: Original contribution Source Type: research