Can Computerized Dynamic Posturography detect measured CVEMP and OVEMP abnormalities?
During the early years of spaceflight it was discovered by NASA researchers that on return to earth astronauts were extremely imbalanced and quite incapacitated. This has been elegantly summarized and discussed by Black et al in 1999 [1]. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 16, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Arthur I. Mallinson, Anouk C.M. Kuijpers, Gusta Van Zwieten, Juzer Kakal, Warren Mullings, Neil S. Longridge Tags: Full length article Source Type: research

Plantarflexor metabolics are sensitive to resting ankle angle and optimal fiber length in computational simulations of gait
Locomotor performance is associated with plantarflexor structure and function in both athletic and patient populations [1 –4]. Longer muscle fascicles allow sprinters to generate more joint power [5], which, in part, explains performance differences between good and great sprinters [6]. Tendon stiffness, a function of both its slack length and material properties, dictates the shortening demands of the plantarflexor muscles and impacts movement efficiency [7–9]. While these muscle-tendon parameters seem to explain functional differences in patient and athletic cohorts, the isolated effects of these structural m...
Source: Gait and Posture - October 16, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Josh R. Baxter, Michael W. Hast Source Type: research

Immediate effects of real-time postural biofeedback on spinal posture, muscle activity, and perceived pain severity in adults with neck pain
Neck pain is a common complaint among office workers who hold a static posture during prolonged computer work [1]. Disability associated with neck pain can reduce work productivity and increase absence from work, leading to substantial economic losses [2]. Neck pain is generally multifactorial in origin, and prolonged static sitting has been identified as a major risk factor for developing neck pain [3,4]. The forward head and trunk flexion postures commonly adopted by computer workers could increase mechanical loading in postural muscles due to the greater gravitational moments from the weight of the head and neck in thes...
Source: Gait and Posture - October 15, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Yi-Liang Kuo, Pei-San Wang, Po-Yen Ko, Kuo-Yuan Huang, Yi-Ju Tsai Tags: Full length article Source Type: research

Kinematic differences between neutral and flat feet with and without symptoms as measured by the Oxford Foot Model
Idiopathic flexible flatfoot may present as symptomatic or asymptomatic in children; however, it is not clear from current understanding why this is the case. Although standing posture is often used to assess these feet, examining foot motion during dynamic activities such as walking that place greater demands on the feet may be more relevant. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 13, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: C.M. Kerr, A.B. Zavatsky, T. Theologis, J. Stebbins Tags: Full length article Source Type: research

Sling-based infant carrying affects lumbar and thoracic spine neuromechanics during standing and walking
Low back pain (LBP) and pelvic girdle pain (PGP) are common problems in women after childbirth with an overall prevalence of 25% [1]. During this time, mothers are required to regularly lift up and carry their infants for longer periods. Previous research indicated that carrying a load in front with the arms caused increased lumbar lordosis [2,3], which has been described as a possible contributing factor in the development of LBP in this population [4]. In addition, anterior load carrying was associated with increased trunk muscle activity [3,5,6], which could be another contributing factor, especially when considering th...
Source: Gait and Posture - October 12, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Stefan Schmid, Mich èle Stauffer, Judit Jäger, Renate List, Silvio Lorenzetti Source Type: research

Identifying methods for quantifying lower limb changes in children with idiopathic toe walking: A systematic review
Toe walking is commonly described as the lack of heel strike at the initial contact phase of the gait cycle. Although toe walking is regarded as a normal variation in gait development in children up to the age of three years [1], the maturation to ankle dorsiflexion at heel strike is usually completed by the age of five years [2,3]. Toe walking may be a consequence of a disease process, trauma or neurogenic influences [4]. Conditions known to cause or be associated with this gait type include cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, autism spectrum disorders, global developmental delays, lower limb injury or tumours. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 10, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Antoni Caserta, Prue Morgan, Cylie Williams Source Type: research

Are accelerometer measures of temporal patterns of static standing associated with lower extremity pain among blue-collar workers?
A considerable proportion of the Western population suffers from pain in the lower extremities [1]. The prevalence rates are 8-32% for knee pain [2 –4], 9-20% for foot/ankle pain [5,6], and 5–11% for hip pain [6,7]. These prevalence rates are higher for workers engaged in physically demanding jobs [3,4,6]. One suggested risk factor is prolonged static standing that may induce muscle discomfort, fatigue, lowered blood flow, and increased ven ous pooling [8–10]. Accordingly, a cross-sectional [6] and a prospective study [11] have observed positive associations between self-reported standing at work and pain...
Source: Gait and Posture - October 10, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Francisco Locks, Nidhi Gupta, Pascal Madeleine, Marie Birk J ørgensen, Ana Beatriz Oliveira, Andreas Holtermann Tags: Full length article Source Type: research

Performance and reliability of the Lower Quarter Y Balance Test in healthy adolescents from grade 6 to 11
In everyday life as well as in sports-related activities, dynamic balance performance (i.e., the ability to maintain postural stability while the body parts are in motion) represents an important determinant to safely manage weekday activities and to specify the risk of sustaining lower limb injuries in youth [1]. Therefore, dynamic balance tests are frequently applied to investigate age- and training-related adaptations in balance during childhood and adolescence [2,3]. A well-established field-based method to investigate dynamic balance performance is the Lower Quarter Y Balance Test (YBT-LQ) [4]. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 10, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Gerrit Schwiertz, Dennis Brueckner, Simon Schedler, Rainer Kiss, Thomas Muehlbauer Tags: Full length article Source Type: research

Assessing lower extremity coordination and coordination variability in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction during walking
The knee is the most prevalently injured joint in adolescent athletes [1], and the foremost cause for sport-related surgeries [2]. An estimated 200,000 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures occur each year in the United States alone, for which surgical reconstruction (ACLR) is the standard treatment to restore joint stability and function. Unfortunately, Ardern et al. [3] reported only 82% of patients who underwent ACLR were capable of resuming their previous activities, and little more than half of those who return to sport regained their pre-injury level of performance. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 10, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Kylie Davis, John L. Williams, Brooke A. Sanford, Audrey Zucker-Levin Tags: Full length article Source Type: research

Smartphone Technology Can Measure Postural Stability and Discriminate Fall Risk in Older Adults
Falls are the leading cause of injury related death in older adults 65 years and older [1]. Falls not only lead to physical injuries, but they also lead to activity curtailment, physiological deconditioning, and reduction in quality of life [1]. The number of annual fall-related injuries in the United States is expected to be 5.7 million by 2030 [2]. In 2015, the estimated medical cost of falls was 50 billion dollars [3]. Given the frequency and severity of falls, there is a need to identify factors that predict and prevent falls. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 9, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Katherine L. Hsieh, Kathleen L. Roach, Douglas A. Wajda, Jacob J. Sosnoff Tags: Full length article Source Type: research

Side does not matter in healthy young and older individuals - Examining the importance of how we match limbs during gait studies
Gait is a basic requirement of daily life, and a major determinant of independence and quality of life [1]. However, gait is frequently impaired by a variety of musculoskeletal and neurological conditions, or surgical intervention (e.g. osteoarthritis, Parkinson ’s, stroke, total knee arthroplasty, etc.). In rehabilitation, gait receives a lot of attention due to its importance on restoring patients’ independence [2]. To understand how gait changes from impairment to rehabilitation, it is often necessary to use healthy individuals as a comparison. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 9, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Erik Kowalski, Danilo S. Catelli, Mario Lamontagne Source Type: research

Time-to-Boundary Analysis of Postural Control following Acute Lateral Ankle Sprain
There is strong evidence that acute lateral ankle sprain (ALAS) impairs postural control that is critical to joint stability and the prevention of falls/recurrent injuries [1,2]. Specifically, postural stability during unipedal (single-leg) stance is affected, not only with the injured limb but also with the uninjured limb [2 –4]. Bilateral deficits following unilateral injury have highlighted centrally mediated changes in postural control that may occur following ALAS. This central mechanism suggests that postural stability during bipedal (double-leg) stance may also be compromised. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 9, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Kyung-Min Kim, Joo-Sung Kim, Jeonghoon Oh, Sae Yong Lee Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Impact of Gait Analysis on Pathology Identification and Surgical Recommendations in Children with Spina Bifida
Spina bifida is a congenital neural tube defect where the spinal column fails to form or close properly in utero, potentially damaging the spinal cord and meninges. Children with the most common and severe forms of spina bifida, myelomeningocele and lipomyelomeningocele, often exhibit complex gait abnormalities due to varying degrees of lower extremity weakness, paralysis, and torsional deformities [1,2]. Accurate identification of gait pathologies and their underlying causes is crucial to managing patients with spina bifida and maintaining their ambulatory and functional abilities [3]. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 8, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Nicole M. Mueske, Sylvia Õunpuu, Deirdre D. Ryan, Bitte S. Healy, Jeffrey Thomson, Paul Choi, Tishya A.L. Wren Tags: Full length article Source Type: research

Spatiotemporal variability underlying skill in curved-path walking
Walking is a highly skilled motor behavior. A motor skill in that adult human walking developed through a process of motor learning and practice. As a result of this process, mature human walking is a smooth translation of the body, with a stepping pattern that is essentially automatic, reproducible and integrated with postures and phases of gait, adaptive to changes in condition and efficient in performance [1 –3]. It is because of this high degree of consistency in the stepping pattern of walking that greater gait variability during usual straight-path walking has been known to be an early indicator of mobility imp...
Source: Gait and Posture - October 8, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: KayLynn Bland, Kristin Lowry, Alex Krajek, Taylor Woods, Jessie VanSwearingen Tags: Full length article Source Type: research

Kinematic adaptation and changes in gait classification in running compared to walking in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy
In patients with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (USCP), four typical walking abnormalities have been classified [1,2,3]. This classification was shown to be relevant for the non-surgical and surgical treatment of the patients [1,2,4,5]. The classification is based on the ankle, the knee and the hip joint of the patient ’s affected limb. Abnormal motion and the resulting abnormal kinematic parameters in three-dimensional motion analysis characterize those pathologies. Winters et al. [1] visually classified the hemiplegic patients into these four groups with an increasing degree of involvement from group I to IV a c...
Source: Gait and Posture - October 3, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Rafael Kr ätschmer, Harald Böhm, Leonhard Döderlein Tags: Full length article Source Type: research

A thorough characterisation of gait impairment in patients with Multiple Sclerosis
This study aimed to identify those characteristics that can reliably discriminate between the gait of patients with mild/moderate (mMS), and severe (sMS) MS and as such play a role as biomarkers of disease progression. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: L. Angelini, W. Hodgkinson, C. Smith, J.M. Dodd, H. Young, A. Radford, S. Kelly, J. Kemp, B. Sharrack, J. Ray, F. Storm, C. Mazz à, D. Paling Source Type: research

Application of confirmatory factor analysis to verify gait models in people with Parkinson's Disease
Introduction: Baropodometric walkways allow to easily measure a large number of spatial-temporal gait variables. In order to easily analyze gait in healthy subjects (HS), reducing the number of gait variables to be handled, models of gait that included from three to five different factors (e.g. “pace”, “rhythm”, “variability”) were validated through exploratory factor analysis [1–4]. Gait is a strong indicator of health, and poor gait is a predictor of risk of falls and mortality [5]. One of the major functional disabilities in people with Parkinson's Disease (PwPD) is gait d isord...
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: I. Arcolin, M. Godi, M. Giardini, A. Nardone, S. Corna Source Type: research

The association between prefrontal cortex activity and turning behaviors in people with and without freezing of gait
Introduction: A hallmark of mobility disability in Parkinson's disease (PD) is the significant conscious attention required to balance and walk, suggesting that the basal ganglia plays an important role in motor automaticity. For example, automatic control of walking while performing a concurrent secondary task (e.g. talking) (dual-task: DT) is impaired in PD. Therefore, PD impairments likely increase demand on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to execute motor tasks via attentional processes. Turning impairments often appear before gait impairments and elicit most Freezing of Gait (FoG) episodes [1]. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: V. Belluscio, S. Stuart, E. Bergamini, G. Vannozzi, M. Mancini Source Type: research

Characterization of Motion Tracker wireless accuracy and analysis of error propagation in the INAIL Shoulder and Elbow Outpatient (ISEO) protocol
Introduction: Over the last decade, thanks to advances in micro-electromechanical sensors and orientation estimation algorithms, the use of inertial sensors in motion capture applications is increasing. However, their diffusion in an outpatient setting requires data accuracy, which depends on the sensors ’ motion characteristics [1]. The purpose of this work is to assess the errors due to the use of the MTw (Motion Tracker wireless, Xsens Technologies, NL) instead of an optoelectronic system (BTS SMART-DX 7000), in the measure of the upper limb kinematics using the protocol ISEO [2]. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: A. Berardi, M. Muraccini, A. Varini, M. Mantovani, A. Cappello Source Type: research

The impact of turning and dual task on freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease
Introduction: Turning is a challenging motor task, requiring bilateral limb coordination, dynamic balance control and anticipatory postural adjustments and it is often impaired in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). In addition turning, particularly for larger angle, is a trigger for Freezing of Gait (FoG) [1]. FoG is an episodic gait disturbance that most frequently occurs during postural transitions. Also, the presence of a concurrent cognitive task while walking (DT) has been found to elicit FoG in those subjects who freeze (FoG+). (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: M. Bertoli, A. Cereatti, U. Della Croce, M. Mancini Source Type: research

Effect of height differences on reference values of postural sway in typically developing children: Should we refer to dimensional or to non-dimensional results?
Introduction: Recent literature highlighted the need of reference values for postural sway in children [1,2]. Only few studies reported numeric values for age categories and a considerable disagreement exists on the (non-)linearity of postural sway development [1]. Inertial sensors have been shown to be effective for evaluating postural sway in elderlies and pathological populations [3]. Given their portability, their use can support the definition of children postural sway reference values, facilitating the assessment and the monitoring of postural control development. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: M.C. Bisi, R. Stagni Source Type: research

Quantitative monitoring of preterm motor development trajectory: A preliminary study
Introduction: Preterm children have an increased risk of motor difficulties, with prevalence three times greater than in the general population [1]. Mild motor deficits are difficult to timely identify and can have long-term consequences, compromising physical function, academic achievement, and other health outcomes [1]. Objective evaluation of each child's motor development progress can play a key role for the identification of deficits/delays, facilitating referral to early intervention programs. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: M.C. Bisi, M. Fabbri, M. Manfredini, R. stagni Source Type: research

Comparison of four devices for spinal immobilization: Quantitative analysis of segmental mobility during immobilization procedure using wearable inertial sensors
Introduction: Spinal immobilization is the safest method to prevent lesions subsequent to trauma [1]. Despite being widely used, the most consolidated methods of spinal immobilization have limits [2] and rigorous scientific evidences for supporting the choice between the different available devices are missing [3]. In clinical practice, different and innovative devices are used for ensuring spinal immobilization, on the cervical tract in particular. However, still no effective way to prove their efficacy in minimizing segmental mobility have been designed; there are only scarce studies with different results [1,3]. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: M.C. Bisi, E. Farabegoli, E. Magnani, R. Stagni Source Type: research

An augmented reality based platform to measure gaze and gait
Introduction: Understanding interactions between gait and gaze is crucial for reducing the risk of falls especially in older adults (OA). Although healthy OA adopt a more conservative motor strategy than young adults when negotiating obstacles, contacts with obstacles while walking are more frequent, increasing the risk of falls [1]. Moreover, OA seem to priorities visual information regarding future obstacles instead of focusing on accurate execution/conclusion of the ongoing stepping actions [2]. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: T. Bonci, A. Cereatti, U. Della Croce Source Type: research

Effective mobility recovery after femoral neck fractures: The necessity of gait analysis in the immediate post-operative aftercare
Introduction: Due to the ageing population, the worldwide incidence of hip fractures will rise from 1.66 million in 1990 to 6.26 million by 2050. Loss of function is common after a hip fracture and patients experience difficulties in their return to society or to their previous habitat. Few studies have focused on functional outcome [1,2], and have only recorded general function [3,4]. We hypothesized that femoral neck fractures results in a characteristic recovery of gait pattern based on kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic variables. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: I. Bortone, N. Caringella, G. Lelli, F. Rifino, A. Di Candia, P. Fiore, B. Moretti Source Type: research

Spectral characterization of tremors using accelerometer and gyroscope inertial sensors
Introduction: Every human body has a tremor. The healthy condition (called basal tremor) is characterized by a low intensity shaking, whereas high intensity tremor might be pathologic or intentionally mimicked to simulate physical disability. The aim of this study is to characterize basal and mimicked tremors, using simultaneously accelerometer and gyroscope signals. Then, a machine learning approach has been applied to discriminate the two types of tremors and a new set of features is proposed. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: H. Briegas, R. Souss é, M. Conti, R. Jauregui, S. Balocco Source Type: research

Reliability of skin-markers based measures of medial longitudinal arch angle
Introduction: The medial longitudinal arch (MLA) is perhaps the single most important feature characterizing foot mechanics and morphology. In podiatry, shape and height of the MLA can be used to discriminate different foot types, whereas in biomechanics MLA deformation is associated to foot stiffness and foot capability to absorb and restore energy during dynamic activities. While stereophotogrammetry based on skin-markers can be used to estimate its static shape and deformation in gait, current definitions of MLA do not always appear consistent with foot anatomy, standard radiological measures (e.g. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: P. Caravaggi, M. Ortolani, A. Matias, U. Taddei, A. Leardini, I. Sacco Source Type: research

Fatigue-induced alterations of gait in Multiple Sclerosis through an instrumented 6-Minute Walk Test: A pilot study
Introduction: Fatigue is a common symptom in people with MS (PwMS), that contributes to reduce walking capacity [1]. Motor related fatigue is usually assessed using the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and measuring the decline in distance walked from minute 1 to 6 [2]. Although widely used, this test does not provide objective information, other than speed, about fatigue-related deterioration of gait. For this purpose, optoelectronic kinematic analysis has been applied with good results [1]. However, inertial measurement units (IMUs) seem a promising alternative to obtain quantitative information directly in clinical settings, w...
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: I. Carpinella, E. Gervasoni, D. Anastasi, M. Ferrarin, D. Cattaneo Source Type: research

A comparative accuracy analysis of five sensor fusion algorithms for orientation estimation using magnetic and inertial sensors
Introduction: Magnetic and Inertial Measurement Units (MIMUs) are extensively used in movement analysis. The absolute orientation of the MIMU can be estimated by fusing the information recorded by a tri-axial accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer. The majority of the sensor fusion algorithms proposed in the literature are either based on Kalman filter or complementary filtering approaches. Despite the number of proposed formulations, no well-established conclusions about the best performing algorithms have been reached yet. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: M. Caruso, T. Bonci, M. Knaflitz, U. Della Croce, A. Cereatti Source Type: research

The single leg drop-landing before and after ACL surgery as biomechanical evaluation in élite athletes
Introduction: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures and damages occur when forces applied to the ligament are greater than the loads it can withstand [1]; in order to be effective, screening methods should be linked to ACL mechanical etiology [2], furthermore, ACL re-injury occurs in 6 –13% of ACL-reconstructed knees [3]. The most likely mechanisms causing ACL injuries have been identified as: excessive knee valgus rotation, knee internal rotation moments and large anterior tibial translation [1,3]. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: F. Cibin, D. Pavan, A. Guiotto, F. Spolaor, M. Cesana, E. Furlan, T. Casagrande, Z. Sawacha Source Type: research

A simple method to quantify physical activity “dose” in Patients with Alzheimer Disease
Introduction: Physical activity favourably affects symptomatology and general health in patients with Alzheimer's disease [1]. Accurate quantification and monitoring of exercise “dose”, as described by oxygen consumption (VO2), is necessary to explore a possible dose-response relationship between exercise and health benefits. However, due to the elevated cost of direct, gold-standard methods, this is rarely done outside research laboratories. A simple “field” method to estimate VO2 in healthy adults and clinical populations was recently proposed based on the existence of a strong relationship betwee...
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: A.L. Colosio, A. Pedrinolla, M. Venturelli, F. Schena, S. Pogliaghi Source Type: research

A Factor Analysis model of the instrumented Timed Up and Go test for physical capability assessment
Introduction: The Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) is widely used in clinical practice as a measure of physical capability. The use of inertial sensors allows the computation of a high number of features, bringing more information than the traditional stopwatch-based measure, but there is the need of reducing the dataset dimension to a set of measures with a clear clinical meaning. The aim of this study is to define an interpretative model of the instrumented TUG (iTUG) test, through a factor analysis approach, for the assessment of physical capability in community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: A. Coni, S. Mellone, M. Colpo, S. Bandinelli, L. Chiari Source Type: research

Motor Adaptation in Response to Audio-Biofeedback in Parkinson's disease
Introduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by the depletion of dopamine in the basal ganglia, leading to deficiencies in movement control. Motor control relies on motor adaptation, i.e. the modification of a movement from trial-to-trial based on error feedback, and motor learning, the formation of a new motor pattern that occurs via long-term practice. Damage of the cerebellum systematically disrupts adaptation, but damage to other brain regions most often does not. Repeated adaptation can lead to a motor learning process as a long-term effect in healthy people [1]. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: M. Corzani, A. Ferrari, P. Ginis, A. Nieuwboer, L. Chiari Source Type: research

Validation study of a protocol for upper limb kinematics: Preliminary data
Introduction: Motion analysis can provide us with an adequate understanding of upper limb (UL) motor control and the way functional movement is carried out. In the literature various protocols of UL kinematics have been proposed to analyze single motor tasks with different functional significance. Kim et al compared hemiplegic patients with healthy controls and observed that hemiplegic patients presented different sagittal kinematics at the shoulder and elbow during the motor task they were asked to perform [1]. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: M. Cosma, G. Vallies, G. Ferraresi, M. Morelli, F. Baldasso, G. Paolini, A. Ravaschio, M. Manca Source Type: research

New model of marker placement to assess sagittal spine and lower limb during sit to stand: Typical kinematic pattern in LOPD
Introduction: Late onset Pompe disease (LOPD) is a neuromuscular disorder due to a mutation of the gene codifying lysosomal enzyme GAA, whose absence or deficiency causes a progressive accumulation of glycogen within lysosome and myofibrils that determines cardiac, respiratory and skeletal muscles alteration. The disease is characterized by primary involvement of trunk and pelvic girdle musculature that results in relevant ambulatory [1]. To the best of our knowledge only two studies assessed walking parameters in LOPD patients, finding similar spatial-temporal but heterogeneous kinematic and kinetic values [2]. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: P. De Blasiis, S. Scarpetta, M. Sansone, M.A.B. Melone, Di Iorio, S. Sampaolo Source Type: research

Continuous 7-days activity tracking in patients with parkinson disease: A 1-year continuative multidisciplinary rehabilitation
Introduction: Parkinson Disease (PD) features a gradual evolution of clinical outcome, characterized by both motor (resting tremor, bradykinesia, rigid muscles, impaired posture), and non-motor symptoms (e.g., dysphagia, dysphonia, cognitive deficits). Multidisciplinary clinical evaluation is necessary for setting-up a rehabilitation treatment and for testing its efficacy [1]. However, some specific symptoms (e.g., tremor, circadian alteration) and global performance cannot be accurately quantified through a traditional clinical examination. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: E. De Giovannini, P. Anzolin, Z. Baccarin, F. Favaron, C. Lain, N. Locallo, P. Pianalto, C. Tomasi, M.Pistacchi, M. Rabuffetti Source Type: research

An innovative microprocessor-based system for Human Activity Recognition: A fast and reliable classification algorithm
Introduction: The aim of this study is to describe the implementation of a microprocessor-based system for Human Activity Recognition (HAR) able to recognize seven activities of daily life (ADLs). The system is based on a body-worn miniature inertial measurement unit (IMU) that is part of a microprocessor system based on a 32-bit CPU (ARM 4 Cortex). A Decision Tree (DT) classifier implemented on the microcontroller performs the classification of the daily activities. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: G. De Leonardis, D. Fortunato, C.M. Gianfreda, S. Rosati, G. Balestra, M. Knaflitz Source Type: research

Stabilometry in patients with Dravet Syndrome to quantitatively assess ataxia: A preliminary study
Introduction: Dravet Syndrome (DS) is a rare disease characterized by recurrent seizures, intellectual and behavioural disability, myoclonus, pyramidal or extrapyramidal signs, and ataxia. However, ataxia has only been clinically observed [1]. The aim of this study was to test the possibility of using the stabilometry as a tool to quantitatively monitor ataxia in subjects with DS at different time-points, and to help the differential diagnosis from other diseases featuring similar signs [2]. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: R. Di Marco, M. Duso, R. Cesaletti, L. Nieves, C. Boniver, F. Darra, F. Ragona, S. Masiero, A. Del Felice Source Type: research

Is it possible to identify an optimal bipolar system positioning to discriminate the activation of scapular stabilizers between correct and poor posture during upper limb exercises?
In this study we investigated if it is possible to identify an optimal positioning of an EMG bipolar system in order to provide information about the correct activation of stabilizer muscles during upper limb exercises. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: F. Dos Anjos, G. Boccia, P.R. Brustio, M. Gazzoni, A. Rainoldi Source Type: research

Myo-Art: An innovative system to monitor muscle activity in Augmented Reality
Introduction: Augmented Reality (AR) is a real-time technology allowing superimposing information coming from the real world and information generated by a computer. It has been proved successful in several applications ranging from balance and mobility rehabilitation in the elderly [1] to Parkinson's disease [2]. This work aims to design and develop an AR system for the visualization of information related to muscle activity, extracted from surface EMG signals (sEMG), superimposed to the detection system over the investigated muscle. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: M. Gazzoni, G.L. Cerone Source Type: research

A new wearable low-cost method to detect Virtual Reality sickness: A preliminary study
Introduction: Virtual reality (VR) settings was proved to be a useful complementary therapy for neurologic and orthopaedical rehabilitation. Patients attending VR rehab sessions can improve their motor function and autonomy in every-day life activities [1]. However, due to the virtual environment exposure, virtual reality sickness (VRS) can be observed: e.g. postural instability, fainting, sweating, disorientation and retching [2]. Mobility self-efficacy, balance confidence, and fear of falling can be evaluated by monitoring task-related biofeedback, which are linked to the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity [3]. (S...
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: G. Gentile, G. Ferriero, R. De Mitri, R. Di Marco, S. Masiero, P. Sale Source Type: research

Effects of a robotic rehabilitation treatment in a patient with traumatic lesion of the right brachial plexus measured by means of motion analysis: A case stud
Introduction: In the last years, the use of robotic devices for upper limb rehabilitation has grown rapidly, especially for patients with brain injury [1]. However, there is insufficient evidence for the use of these devices to recover upper limb motor function in patients with peripheral damage. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: M. Germanotta, A. Cruciani, E. Di Sipio, C. Pecchioli, I. Aprile, L. Padua Source Type: research

Propagation of foot anatomical landmark identification variability on foot regional plantar pressure assessment
Introduction: Clinical assessment of foot joint kinematics and plantar loading can be performed using multisegmental models [1] and a pressure-kinematics integrated approach [2]. While the impact of inter- and intra-operator precision in identifying foot anatomical landmarks has been investigated on joint kinematics [3], the propagation of this variability to the assessment of foot regional pressure has been scarcely described. The present study addresses this issue with respect to the Oxford Foot Model (OFM). (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: C. Giacomozzi, E. Bergamini, V. Camomilla Source Type: research

Pressure insoles for the analysis of the effects of load weight and carrying mode on in-shoe plantar pressure distribution
Introduction: Excessive workload can cause stress, pain, and musculoskeletal disorders in the back and lower limbs [1]. During military training, about 60% of the reported injuries while marching with heavy weights is at the foot region [2]. However, scarce is the literature on the association between weight- carrying and pressure distribution in different plantar regions [3,4]. Aim of this study was to assess how in-shoe plantar load distribution is affected by different load weights and carrying modes. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: A. Giangrande, A. Leardini, R. Bonfiglioli, F.S. Violante, P. Caravaggi Source Type: research

Adaptation to predictable postural perturbations induced by a mobile platform in patients with Parkinson's disease
Introduction: When healthy subjects (HS) stand on a platform continuously and predictably moving in an anterior- posterior direction, balance control relies on a progressive adaptation of the activity of the lower limb muscles [1]. At variance with HS, patients with Parkinson's disease (PwPD) show instability when standing on a predictably moving platform [2]. We hypothesized that, under this condition, instability of PwPD is related to impaired adaptation process. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: M. Giardini, M. Godi, I. Arcolin, M. Schieppati, A. Nardone Source Type: research

Musculoskeletal modeling and gait analysis can improve diabetic foot preventive management
Introduction: Complications of diabetes that affect the lower extremities are common, among them foot ulceration is the most frequently recognized one, and unfortunately also ulcers recurrence is common [1]. Preventive programs aiming at reducing both plantar ulcers occurrence and recurrence is one of the most important topics in the current approach to diabetic foot disease [1]. By considering the wide number of amputations per year due to diabetic foot pathology, early detection of subjects at risk through a good understanding of the factors that predict ulcers and its recurrence is becoming mandatory [1]. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: A. Guiotto, F. Spolaor, F. Bell è, G. Guarneri, A. Avogaro, Z. Sawacha Source Type: research

Long-lasting actigraphic monitoring of the upper and lower limbs movements in acute stroke patients: A COMMAS spin-off study
Introduction: In acute stroke patients detecting modifications of motor deficits could be crucial both for a prompt medical assistance and for a better definition of patient's prognosis. The stroke unit represents the gold standard in the management of the acute stroke with a multiparametric monitoring of vital functions, while no instruments are actually implemented in stroke unit for a continuous monitoring of patients motor performance. In a pilot study [1] we found that a 24hours actigraphic recording is informative of the overall neurological clinical picture as measured by NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS). (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: C. Iacovelli, M. Rabuffetti, G. Reale, M. Ferrarin, C. Simbolotti, L. Padua, P.M. Rossini, P. Caliandro Source Type: research

Efficacy of Robotic-Assisted Gait Training in sub-acute stroke patients: An Italian bi-centre study
Introduction: Over the last years, the introduction of robotic technologies in gait rehabilitation of stroke patients has had a greatest interest. Some studies have been conducted to assess the effects of robot-assisted training compared to gait conventional rehabilitation in sub-acute stroke patients. The main results were obtained in studies that used robotic exoskeletons or treadmill training with partial body weight support and only few papers used end-effector device [1]. To date, there are very few studies that have used gait analysis to show improvements in gait parameters after gait rehabilitation in sub-acute stro...
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: C. Iacovelli, M. Franceschini, A. Cruciani, C. Simbolotti, M. Goffredo, C. Pecchioli, L. Padua, D. Galafate, S. Pournajaf, I. Aprile Source Type: research

On the estimation of knee angle joint with a biomechanical model during indoor rowing: Implications for FES applications
Introduction: Functional electrical stimulation (FES) rowing has been shown to lead to several health benefits in paraplegic subjects. Although the quantification of knee joint angle is crucial for the determination of stimulation in FES Rowing, previous studies computed knee angle (KA) from either inertial sensors or motion capture systems [1,2] limiting the application of FES Rowing because those systems are bulky and expensive. Here we develop and test a biomechanical, subject-specific model to estimate KA during indoor rowing, from anthropometric data and the rowing machine seat position. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: M. Lalli, C. Stocchi, G.L. Cerone, M. Gazzoni, T. Vieira Source Type: research

The use of kinematic robotic indices to predict motor outcome in upper limb treatment of stroke patients
Introduction: Upper limb rehabilitation in stroke patients is currently open to debate. Robotic therapy proved to be effective in ensuring intensive and highly repetitive treatment, but also in providing quantitative assessments that are useful from a clinical point of view. The advantage of robotic measurements consists in recording objectively the characteristics of the movement and using them as indices of progress in motor recovery [1]. Our study aims to verify the predictability of motor outcome using robotic kinesiological indices of upper limb in patients with chronic phase stroke, in order to customize rehabilitati...
Source: Gait and Posture - October 1, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: G. Lamola, M. Barsotti, E. Sotgiu, C. Procopio, A. Frisoli, C. Chisari Source Type: research