Dermatological and immunological conditions due to nerve lesions.
Authors: Bove D, Lupoli A, Caccavale S, Piccolo V, Ruocco E Abstract Some syndromes are of interest to both neurologists and dermatologists, because cutaneous involvement may harbinger symptoms of a neurological disease. The aim of this review is to clarify this aspect. The skin, because of its relationships with the peripheral sensory nervous system, autonomic nervous system and central nervous system, constitutes a neuroimmunoendocrine organ. The skin contains numerous neuropeptides released from sensory nerves. Neuropeptides play a precise role in cutaneous physiology and pathophysiology, and in certain skin dis...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Development of a high-resolution fat and CSF-suppressed optic nerve DTI protocol at 3T: application in multiple sclerosis.
Authors: Samson RS, Kolappan M, Thomas DL, Symms MR, Connick P, Miller DH, Wheeler-Kingshott CA Abstract Clinical trials of neuroprotective interventions in multiple sclerosis require outcome measures that reflect the disease pathology. Measures of neuroaxonal integrity in the anterior visual pathways are of particular interest in this context, however imaging of the optic nerve is technically challenging. We therefore developed a 3T optic nerve diffusion tensor imaging protocol incorporating fat and cerebrospinal fluid suppression and without parallel imaging. The sequence used a scheme with six diffusion-weighted...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Tetrabenazine improves levodopa-induced peak-dose dyskinesias in patients with Parkinson's disease.
Authors: Brusa L, Orlacchio A, Stefani A, Galati S, Pierantozzi M, Iani C, Mercuri NB Abstract Since levodopa-induced peak dyskinesias (LIDs) may reflect, in part, a disproportionate phasic release of dopamine from synaptic vesicles, we examined the ability of the vesicular depletor tetrabenazine (TBZ) to reduce LIDs in 10 dyskinetic advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. After basal evaluation, the patients received, through a slow titration, oral TBZ twice a day for six weeks (up to 50 mg daily) before being re-assessed after a challenge with levodopa. The primary outcome measure was the change in the Unifie...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Non-genetic factors associated with the risk of Parkinson's disease in Iranian patients.
In conclusion, coffee and tea consumption may exert a protective effect against PD, while evening work and stress may be risk factors for the development of the disease. PMID: 24125560 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Depression, pain and quality of life in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a cross-sectional study.
Authors: Pizzimenti A, Aragona M, Onesti E, Inghilleri M Abstract The complications related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) include pain. A higher risk of depression and a negative effect on quality of life (QoL) might be expected in ALS patients with pain. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of pain in ALS patients, to compare measures of depression and QoL in patients with and without pain, and to study the influence of depression scores and pain on the QoL of ALS patients with pain. Forty ALS patients were enrolled, and 36 were included in the analysis. Seventy-two percent of patients r...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease- Cognition (SCOPA-Cog).
Authors: Isella V, Mapelli C, Morielli N, De Gaspari D, Siri C, Pezzoli G, Antonini A, Poletti M, Bonuccelli U, Picchi L, Napolitano A, Vista M, Veglia M, Piamarta F, Grassi F, Appollonio IM Abstract The Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease-Cognition (SCOPA-Cog) has been shown to be a clinimetrically rigorous and valid instrument for a disease-oriented neuropsychological assessment of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. In the present study we evaluated the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the SCOPA-Cog in 121 PD patients. The scale explores memory, attention, and executive and visuospatial fu...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

A rare association of early-onset inclusion body myositis, rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmune thyroiditis: a case report and literature review.
Authors: Clerici AM, Bono G, Delodovici ML, Azan G, Cafasso G, Micieli G Abstract Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is a slowly progressive, red-rimmed vacuolar myopathy leading to muscular atrophy and progressive weakness; it predominantly affects males older than fifty years, and is resistant to immunotherapy. It has been described in association with immuno-mediated thrombocytopenic purpura, multiple sclerosis, connective tissue disorders and, occasionally, rheumatoid arthritis. A 37-year-old man with longstanding rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmune thyroiditis with hypothyroidism was referred to us with s...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Pure akinesia: a kinematic analysis in a case responsive to rotigotine.
Authors: Di Fabio R, Serrao M, Pierelli F, Fragiotta G, Sandrini G Abstract A patient with pure akinesia is described. This rare gait disorder, poorly responsive to therapy, is characterized by gait impairment which may be associated with handwriting and speech difficulties, in the absence of further signs of extrapyramidal involvement. Here, we report the improvement in a patient suffering from pure akinesia after low doses of rotigotine, a non-ergolinic dopamine agonist, detailing the kinematic analysis before and after the treatment. After therapy, an improvement in all of the gait parameters, particularly gait ...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Foreword.
Authors: D'Angelo E PMID: 24139649 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

The XXIV Ottorino Rossi Award. Henry Markram.
Authors: PMID: 24139650 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Seven challenges for neuroscience.
Authors: Markram H Abstract Although twenty-first century neuroscience is a major scientific enterprise, advances in basic research have not yet translated into benefits for society. In this paper, I outline seven fundamental challenges that need to be overcome. First, neuroscience has to become "big science" - we need big teams with the resources and competences to tackle the big problems. Second, we need to create interlinked sets of data providing a complete picture of single areas of the brain at their different levels of organization with "rungs" linking the descriptions for humans and othe...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Realistic modeling of neurons and networks: towards brain simulation.
Authors: D'Angelo E, Solinas S, Garrido J, Casellato C, Pedrocchi A, Mapelli J, Gandolfi D, Prestori F Abstract Realistic modeling is a new advanced methodology for investigating brain functions. Realistic modeling is based on a detailed biophysical description of neurons and synapses, which can be integrated into microcircuits. The latter can, in turn, be further integrated to form large-scale brain networks and eventually to reconstruct complex brain systems. Here we provide a review of the realistic simulation strategy and use the cerebellar network as an example. This network has been carefully investigated at ...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

The connectomics challenge.
Authors: Silvestri L, Sacconi L, Pavone FS Abstract One of the most fascinating challenges in neuroscience is the reconstruction of the connectivity map of the brain. Recent years have seen a rapid expansion in the field of connectomics, whose aim is to trace this map and understand its relationship with neural computation. Many different approaches, ranging from electron and optical microscopy to magnetic resonance imaging, have been proposed to address the connectomics challenge on various spatial scales and in different species. Here, we review the main technological advances in the microscopy techniques applied...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Brain investigation and brain conceptualization.
Authors: Redolfi A, Bosco P, Manset D, Frisoni GB, neuGRID consortium Abstract The brain of a patient with Alzheimer's disease (AD) undergoes changes starting many years before the development of the first clinical symptoms. The recent availability of large prospective datasets makes it possible to create sophisticated brain models of healthy subjects and patients with AD, showing pathophysiological changes occurring over time. However, these models are still inadequate; representations are mainly single-scale and they do not account for the complexity and interdependence of brain changes. Brain changes in AD patie...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

The Human Brain Project and neuromorphic computing.
Authors: Calimera A, Macii E, Poncino M Abstract Understanding how the brain manages billions of processing units connected via kilometers of fibers and trillions of synapses, while consuming a few tens of Watts could provide the key to a completely new category of hardware (neuromorphic computing systems). In order to achieve this, a paradigm shift for computing as a whole is needed, which will see it moving away from current "bit precise" computing models and towards new techniques that exploit the stochastic behavior of simple, reliable, very fast, lowpower computing devices embedded in intensely recur...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Imaging connectivity: MRI and the structural networks of the brain.
Authors: Clayden JD Abstract Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a flexible and widely available neuroimaging technique. Structural MRI and diffusion MRI, in particular, provide information about connectivity between brain regions which may be combined to obtain a picture of entire neural networks, or the so-called connectome. In this review we outline the principles of MR-based connectivity analysis, discuss what relevant information it can provide for clinical and non-clinical neuroscience research, and outline some of the outstanding needs which future work will aim to meet. PMID: 24139656 [PubMed - indexed...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Awake surgery between art and science. Part I: clinical and operative settings.
Authors: Talacchi A, Santini B, Casagrande F, Alessandrini F, Zoccatelli G, Squintani GM Abstract Awake surgery requires coordinated teamwork and communication between the surgeon and the anesthesiologist, as he monitors the patient, the neuroradiologist as he interprets the images for intraoperative confirmation, and the neuropsychologist and neurophysiologist as they evaluate in real-time the patient's responses to commands and questions. To improve comparison across published studies on clinical assessment and operative settings in awake surgery, we reviewed the literature, focusing on methodological differences...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Awake surgery between art and science. Part II: language and cognitive mapping.
Authors: Talacchi A, Santini B, Casartelli M, Monti A, Capasso R, Miceli G Abstract Direct cortical and subcortical stimulation has been claimed to be the gold standard for exploring brain function. In this field, efforts are now being made to move from intraoperative naming-assisted surgical resection towards the use of other language and cognitive tasks. However, before relying on new protocols and new techniques, we need a multi-staged system of evidence (low and high) relating to each step of functional mapping and its clinical validity. In this article we examine the possibilities and limits of brain mapping w...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Functional neurology of a brain system: a 3D olfactory bulb model to process natural odorants.
Authors: Migliore M, Cavarretta F, Hines ML, Shepherd GM Abstract The network of interactions between mitral and granule cells in the olfactory bulb is a critical step in the processing of odor information underlying the neural basis of smell perception. We are building the first computational model in 3 dimensions of this network in order to analyze the rules for connectivity and function within it. The initial results indicate that this network can be modeled to simulate experimental results on the activation of the olfactory bulb by natural odorants, providing a much more powerful approach for 3D simulation of b...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

MRI observation of hippocampal degeneration in Alzheimer's disease: a forgotten case.
Authors: D'Angelo E, Mazzarello P Abstract At the beginning of the 1990s, as part of work being done for a master's degree thesis in physics, an important observation of hippocampal degeneration in Alzheimer's disease was made in Pavia. However this result was never published in a full scientific paper. This case gives an idea of how an isolated observation can, in the right setting, develop into a real scientific achievement. PMID: 24139660 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Requests for electromyography in Rome: a critical evaluation.
Authors: Di Fabio R, Castagnoli C, Madrigale A, Barella M, Serrao M, Pierelli F Abstract To date, there exist no data reporting the level of suitability of requests for electromyography examinations (EMGs) in Rome. The records of 1,220 consecutive patients (age: 57.6±15.0 years; 400 M, 820 F) in two neurophysiology laboratories were collected and analyzed. In total, 1,317 EMGs were requested, mainly by general practitioners (GPs) (57%) and orthopedic specialists (18%). The most common diagnoses were L4-L5 radiculopathy (22%) and carpal tunnel syndrome (21%); 332 examinations (25%) were normal. 68% of request...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Diet transiently improves migraine in two twin sisters: possible role of ketogenesis?
We report the case of a pair of twin sisters, whose high-frequency migraine improved during a ketogenic diet they followed in order to lose weight. The observed time-lock between ketogenesis and migraine improvement provides some insight into how ketones act to improve migraine. PMID: 24300035 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Electrophysiological study of the bulbocavernosus reflex: normative data.
Authors: Granata G, Padua L, Rossi F, De Franco P, Coraci D, Rossi V Abstract In the clinical setting the bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) is elicited by squeezing the glans penis and digitally palpating the contraction of the bulbocavernosus (BC) muscle. In neurophysiology the BCR is obtained by stimulating the dorsal nerve of the penis or clitoris and by recording the response from BC muscle and it should be performed in selected patients with suspected urinary, bowel, or sexual neurogenic dysfunction. The BCR is considered one of the sacral neurophysiological tests of the greatest clinical utility. Previous normativ...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Depression as a predictor of occupational transition in a multiple sclerosis cohort.
In this study, prospective data were used to model the relationship between depressive symptoms and the transition out of employment. In unadjusted analyses, depression increased the risk of transition to non-working status, HR = 1.7 (95%CI 1.3-2.3). Adjustments for ambulation status, physical and mental quality of life composite scores and fatigue impact attenuated or eliminated the association. While depression commonly occurs around the time of occupational transitions in MS, it does not appear to be an independent or direct cause of such transitions. PMID: 24300037 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

A cross-sectional study investigating clinical predictors and physical experiences of pain in Parkinson's disease.
Authors: Rana AQ, Saeed U, Sufian Masroor M, Yousuf MS, Siddiqui I Abstract Pain is a non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) that is often neglected due to its high prevalence in both the PD and the normal elderly population. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to establish the prevalence of pain, investigate its clinical predictors and analyze physical experiences of pain as described by PD patients. A total of 121 patients diagnosed with PD were included. The patients underwent a neurological examination and a structured interview and completed questionnaires focusing on clinical types and physical...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Effect of zolpidem in chronic disorders of consciousness: a prospective open-label study.
Authors: Thonnard M, Gosseries O, Demertzi A, Lugo Z, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Marie-Aurélie B, Chatelle C, Thibaut A, Charland-Verville V, Habbal D, Schnakers C, Laureys S Abstract Zolpidem has been reported as an "awakening drug" in some patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). We here present the results of a prospective openlabel study in chronic DOC patients. Sixty patients (35±15 years; 18 females; mean time since insult ± SD: 4±5.5 years; 31 with traumatic etiology) with a diagnosis of vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (n=28) or minimally conscious state...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Arm weight support training improves functional motor outcome and movement smoothness after stroke.
Authors: Bartolo M, De Nunzio AM, Sebastiano F, Spicciato F, Tortola P, Nilsson J, Pierelli F Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness in acute stroke patients of a rehabilitation program performed with or without an arm weight support device. Twenty-eight acute, first-ever unilateral stroke patients were enrolled in a single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Clinical evaluation included Fugl-Mayer Assessment, Functional Independence Measure and kinematic analysis [maximum and mean hand velocity, maximum range of motion (Max RoM), normalized jerk (NJ)]. Patients received 12 daily 30-minute ...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Liver cirrhosis in patients newly diagnosed with neurological phenotype of Wilson's disease.
Authors: Przybyłkowski A, Gromadzka G, Chabik G, Wierzchowska A, Litwin T, Członkowska A Abstract Wilson's disease (WD) can manifest itself in different clinical forms, the neurological and hepatic ones being the most common. It is suggested that neurological signs and psychiatric symptoms develop secondary to liver involvement. The aim of this study was to characterize the liver disease in patients newly diagnosed with the neurological form of WD. Treatment-naive patients diagnosed with WD were classified into three phenotypic groups: hepatic, neurological and pre-symptomatic. Liver involvement was ascertained t...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Is an integrative perspective possible in brain sciences?
Authors: Vanacore N PMID: 24598391 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Use of botulinum toxin type A in the management of patients with neurological disorders: a national survey.
Authors: Smania N, Colosimo C, Bentivoglio AR, Sandrini G, Picelli A Abstract The aim of this survey was to provide an overview of important issues relating to therapeutic strategies based on botulinum toxin type A injection for the treatment of patients with neurological disorders. Two hundred and ten physicians from neurology and neurorehabilitation units in Italian hospitals answered a questionnaire exploring some clinical aspects of the use of botulinum toxin type A in patients with spasticity/dystonia. 66% of the physicians treated patients with dystonia, 80% treated adults with spasticity, and 35% treated chi...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Effect of zolpidem in chronic disorders of consciousness: a prospective open-label study.
Authors: Thonnard M, Gosseries O, Demertzi A, Lugo Z, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Bruno MA, Chatelle C, Thibaut A, Charland-Verville V, Habbal D, Schnakers C, Laureys S Abstract Zolpidem has been reported as an "awakening drug" in some patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). We here present the results of a prospective openlabel study in chronic DOC patients. Sixty patients (35±15 years; 18 females; mean time since insult ± SD: 4±5.5 years; 31 with traumatic etiology) with a diagnosis of vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (n=28) or minimally conscious state (n=32) were b...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Use of health and social care services in a cohort of Italian dementia patients.
Authors: Scalmana S, Di Napoli A, Franco F, Vanacore N, Di Lallo D, Giarrizzo ML, Guasticchi G, Working Group for Dementia of Lazio region Abstract The aim of this study, conducted in the Region of Lazio, Italy, in 2008-2010, was to describe the use, over a one-year period, of health and social care services in a cohort of 712 patients with a diagnosis of dementia. These patients had never previously used such services. We evaluated the association between the patients' sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and their use of services. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected at baseline using valida...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Depression as a predictor of occupational transition in a multiple sclerosis cohort.
In this study, prospective data were used to model the relationship between depressive symptoms and the transition out of employment. In unadjusted analyses, depression increased the risk of transition to non-working status, HR = 1.7 (95%CI 1.3-2.3). Adjustments for ambulation status, physical and mental quality of life composite scores and fatigue impact attenuated or eliminated the association. While depression commonly occurs around the time of occupational transitions in MS, it does not appear to be an independent or direct cause of such transitions. PMID: 24598395 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Requests for electromyography in Rome: a critical evaluation.
Authors: Di Fabio R, Castagnoli C, Madrigale A, Barella M, Serrao M, Pierelli F Abstract To date, there exist no data reporting the level of suitability of requests for electromyography examinations (EMGs) in Rome. The records of 1,220 consecutive patients (age: 57.6±15.0 years; 400 M, 820 F) in two neurophysiology laboratories were collected and analyzed. In total, 1,317 EMGs were requested, mainly by general practitioners (GPs) (57%) and orthopedic specialists (18%). The most common diagnoses were L4-L5 radiculopathy (22%) and carpal tunnel syndrome (21%); 332 examinations (25%) were normal. 68% of request...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

New trends in visual rehabilitation with MP-1 microperimeter biofeedback: optic neural dysfunction.
Authors: Verboschi F, Domanico D, Nebbioso M, Corradetti G, Zaccaria Scalinci S, Vingolo EM Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of visual rehabilitation with MP-1 microperimeter biofeedback in advanced optic neural dysfunction due to glaucoma, and to precisely characterize fixation stability and location in affected patients. Ten patients (18 eyes) with advanced glaucoma were submitted to a rehabilitation protocol that consisted of: a 25-item questionnaire (National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Que stionnaire); measurement of visual acuity; a reading speed test; microperimetry with fixat...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Electrophysiological study of the bulbocavernosus reflex: normative data.
Authors: Granata G, Padua L, Rossi F, De Franco P, Coraci D, Rossi V Abstract In the clinical setting the bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) is elicited by squeezing the glans penis and digitally palpating the contraction of the bulbocavernosus (BC) muscle. In neurophysiology the BCR is obtained by stimulating the dorsal nerve of the penis or clitoris and by recording the response from BC muscle and it should be performed in selected patients with suspected urinary, bowel, or sexual neurogenic dysfunction. The BCR is considered one of the sacral neurophysiological tests of the greatest clinical utility. Previous normativ...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

A cross-sectional study investigating clinical predictors and physical experiences of pain in Parkinson's disease.
Authors: Rana A, Saeed U, Masroor MS, Yousuf MS, Siddiqui I Abstract Pain is a non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) that is often neglected due to its high prevalence in both the PD and the normal elderly population. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to establish the prevalence of pain, investigate its clinical predictors and analyze physical experiences of pain as described by PD patients. A total of 121 patients diagnosed with PD were included. The patients underwent a neurological examination and a structured interview and completed questionnaires focusing on clinical types and physical experi...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Diet transiently improves migraine in two twin sisters: possible role of ketogenesis?
We report the case of a pair of twin sisters, whose high-frequency migraine improved during a ketogenic diet they followed in order to lose weight. The observed time-lock between ketogenesis and migraine improvement provides some insight into how ketones act to improve migraine. PMID: 24598400 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

How to assess abstract conceptual knowledge: construction, standardization and validation of a new battery of semantic memory tests.
We describe a new battery for assessing abstract concepts in brain-damaged patients. The battery includes three different tests: an association task, a multiplechoice naming-to-description task and a sentence completion task. The three tasks are based on the same 40 stimuli belonging to different categories of abstract concepts and they are tightly controlled for variables that can account for quantitative differences between abstract concepts (i.e. concreteness, imageability, context availability, familiarity, age of acquisition, mode of acquisition, emotional valence and arousal). The three tasks showed high reliability....
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Cerebellar theta burst stimulation in stroke patients with ataxia.
Authors: Bonnì S, Ponzo V, Caltagirone C, Koch G Abstract Evidence for effective improvement of the symptoms of cerebellar stroke is still limited. Here, we investigated the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied over the injured cerebellar hemisphere in six patients with posterior circulation stroke. We applied a two-week course of cerebellar intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS). Before and after the iTBS treatment, paired-pulse TMS methods were used to explore: i) the functional connectivity between the cerebellar hemisphere and the contralateral primary motor cortex ...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Diabetes mellitus may induce cardiovascular disease by decreasing neuroplasticity.
Authors: Zheng Z, Wu J, Wang R, Zeng Y Abstract Neuroplasticity has been defined "the ability of the nervous system to respond to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli by reorganizing its structure, function and connections". The nervous system monitors and coordinates internal organ function. Thus neuroplasticity may be associated with the pathogenesis of other diseases besides neuropsychiatric diseases. Decreased neuroplasticity is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a disease related to decreased neuroplasticity may confer a greater CVD risk. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is related to CVD and DM induce...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Elman neural network for the early identification of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease.
Authors: Bertè F, Lamponi G, Calabrò RS, Bramanti P Abstract Early detection of dementia can be useful to delay progression of the disease and to raise awareness of the condition. Alterations in temporal and spatial EEG markers have been found in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Herein, we propose an automatic recognition method of cognitive impairment evaluation based on EEG analysis using an artificial neural network (ANN) combined with a genetic algorithm (GA). The EEGs of 43 AD and MCI patients (aged between 62 and 88 years) were recorded, analyzed and co...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Hemifacial hyperhidrosis associated with ipsilateral/contralateral cervical disc herniation myelopathy. Functional considerations on how compression pattern determines the laterality.
We present five cases of hemifacial hyperhidrosis as a compensatory response to an/hypohidrosis caused by cervical disc herniation. All the patients complained of hemifacial hyperhidrosis, without anisocoria or blepharoptosis. Sweat function testing and thermography confirmed hyperhidrosis of hemifacial and adjacent areas. Neck MRI showed cervical disc herniation. Three of the patients had lateral compression with welldemarcated hypohidrosis below the hyperhidrosis on the same side as the cervical lesion. The rest had paramedian compression with poorly demarcated hyperhidrosis and hypohidrosis on the contralateral side. Al...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Epilepsy and phenylketonuria: a case description and EEG-fMRI findings.
Authors: Guida M, Pesaresi I, Fabbri S, Sartucci F, Cosottini M, Giorgi FS Abstract Phenylketonuria (PKU) is characterized by phenylalanine accumulation due to phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency. Up to 50% of PKU patients experience seizures. We evaluated an adult PKU patient who suffered from absences and primarily generalized tonicclonic seizures, associated with generalized spikeand-wave discharges (GSWs) on EEG. An analysis of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes during interictal epileptiform discharges showed early activation of the left perirolandic cortex followed by a BOLD signal decre...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Altered information processing in children with focal epilepsies with and without intellectual disability.
Authors: Japaridze N, Schark M, von-Ondarza G, Boor R, Muhle H, Gerber WD, Stephani U, Siniatchkin M Abstract The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the relationship between focal interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs), intellectual disability and cortical information processing in children with partial epilepsy. Two groups of patients - Group 1 (n = 9 patients) with focal IEDs and normal IQ and Group 2 (n = 10 patients) with focal IEDs and intellectual disability - were compared with 14 healthy control participants. A computerized choice reaction time task (go/no-go paradigm) was performed and eve...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Can robot-assisted movement training (Lokomat) improve functional recovery and psychological well-being in chronic stroke? Promising findings from a case study.
We describe the case of a 54-yearold female with post-stroke moderate-to-severe chronic hemiplegia, whose force, gait and balance significantly improved after intensive training with Lokomat Pro. We also noted a positive impact of Lokomat on mood and coping styles. This may be partly related to the task-oriented exercises with computerized visual feedback, which in turn can be considered an important tool for increasing patients' motor output, involvement and motivation during gait training. Augmented feedback during robot-assisted gait appears to be a promising way of facilitating gait and physical function, but also of i...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

"Masters and servants" in parkinsonian gait: a three-dimensional analysis of biomechanical changes sensitive to disease progression.
"Masters and servants" in parkinsonian gait: a three-dimensional analysis of biomechanical changes sensitive to disease progression. Funct Neurol. 2014 Jul 9;:1-7 Authors: Albani G, Cimolin V, Fasano A, Trotti C, Galli M, Mauro A Abstract Gait disorder is a very frequent and disabling symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to identify the main kinetic and kinematic features of PD gait according to different disease stages: early (Early Group), intermediate without freezing (Non-Freezers) and intermediate with freezing (Freezers). Kinematic data showed a distal to proxi...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Magnetic stimulation of the cerebellum. Moving towards the clinic.
Authors: Koch G, D'Angelo E PMID: 25014043 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Diabetes mellitus may induce cardiovascular disease by decreasing neuroplasticity.
Authors: Zheng Z, Wu J, Wang R, Zeng Y Abstract Neuroplasticity has been defined "the ability of the nervous system to respond to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli by reorganizing its structure, function and connections". The nervous system monitors and coordinates internal organ function. Thus neuroplasticity may be associated with the pathogenesis of other diseases besides neuropsychiatric diseases. Decreased neuroplasticity is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a disease related to decreased neuroplasticity may confer a greater CVD risk. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is related to CVD and DM induce...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Arm weight support training improves functional motor outcome and movement smoothness after stroke.
Authors: Bartolo M, De Nunzio AM, Sebastiano F, Spicciato F, Tortola P, Nilsson J, Pierelli F Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness in acute stroke patients of a rehabilitation program performed with or without an arm weight support device. Twenty-eight acute, first-ever unilateral stroke patients were enrolled in a single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Clinical evaluation included Fugl-Mayer Assessment, Functional Independence Measure and kinematic analysis [maximum and mean hand velocity, maximum range of motion (Max RoM), normalized jerk (NJ)]. Patients received 12 daily 30-minute ...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research