Acute effects of high-frequency microfocal vibratory stimulation on the H reflex of the soleus muscle. A double-blind study in healthy subjects.
This study in healthy subjects examined the effects of a system delivering focal microvibrations at high frequency (Equistasi®) on tonic vibration stimulus (TVS)-induced inhibition of the soleus muscle H reflex. Highfrequency microvibrations significantly increased the inhibitory effect of TVS on the H reflex for up to three minutes. Moreover, Equistasi® also significantly reduced alpha-motoneuron excitability, as indicated by the changes in the ratio between the maximumamplitude H reflex (Hmax reflex) and the maximumamplitude muscle response (Mmax response); this effect was due to reduction of the amplitude of the...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 19, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Multi-channel registration of fractional anisotropy and T1-weighted images in the presence of atrophy: application to multiple sclerosis.
Authors: Roura E, Schneider T, Modat M, Daga P, Muhlert N, Chard D, Ourselin S, Lladó X, Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott C Abstract Co-registration of structural T1-weighted (T1w) scans and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-derived fractional anisotropy (FA) maps to a common space is of particular interest in neuroimaging, as T1w scans can be used for brain segmentation while DTI can provide microstructural tissue information. While the effect of lesions on registration has been tackled and solutions are available, the issue of atrophy is still open to discussion. Multi-channel (MC) registration algorithms have the a...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 19, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Cortical excitability changes over time in progressive multiple sclerosis.
Authors: Ayache SS, Créange A, Farhat WH, Zouari HG, Lesage C, Palm U, Abdellaoui M, Lefaucheur JP Abstract In 25 patients with progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS), motor cortex excitability was longitudinally studied over one year by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The following TMS parameters were considered: resting and active motor thresholds (MTs), input-output curve, short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), and intracortical facilitation. Clinical evaluation was based on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). In the 16 patients not receiving disease-modifying dru...
Source: Functional Neurology - November 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Measurement of urinary copper excretion after 48-h d-penicillamine cessation as a compliance assessment in Wilson's disease.
Authors: Dzieżyc K, Litwin T, Chabik G, Członkowska A Abstract Treatment of Wilson's disease (WD) with anti-copper agents is effective in most compliant patients. During long-term treatment with chelating agents, a two-day interruption of the treatment should result in normal urinary copper concentrations (
Source: Functional Neurology - November 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

A review of cognitive impairment and differential diagnosis in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.
Authors: Picascia M, Zangaglia R, Bernini S, Minafra B, Sinforiani E, Pacchetti C Abstract Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a complex and still underestimated pathology. In the early stages, the cognitive profile is characterized mainly by impairments of attention, psychomotor speed and memory, suggesting frontal involvement; patients with more advanced iNPH show overall cognitive deterioration. The memory impairment, however, seems to be milder than that seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Clinical and neuroimaging data are crucial for the diagnosis of iNPH, but the presence of different variables,...
Source: Functional Neurology - November 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Neurophysiological assessment for evaluating residual cognition in vegetative and minimally conscious state patients: a pilot study.
Authors: De Salvo S, Caminiti F, Bonanno L, De Cola MC, Corallo F, Caizzone A, Rifici C, Bramanti P, Marino S Abstract The aim of this study was to assess residual cognitive function and perform outcome evaluation in vegetative state (VS) and minimally conscious state (MCS) patients, using Neurowave, a system able to monitor event-related potentials (ERPs) induced by neurosensory stimulation. Eleven VS and five MCS patients underwent neurological examination and clinical evaluation performed using validated clinical and behavioral scales; they also underwent neurosensory stimulation, which consisted of administrati...
Source: Functional Neurology - November 17, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Pathophysiology of knee jerk reflex abnormalities in L5 root injury.
Authors: Ginanneschi F, Mondelli M, Piu P, Rossi A Abstract Although the knee jerk reflex is mediated by the L3 and L4 nerve roots, evidence exists that altered knee jerk expression may occur with exclusively L5 radiculopathy. The present study set out to identify the factors responsible for knee jerk reflex abnormalities in L5 monoradiculopathy. We analyzed clinical and electrophysiological data in 56 subjects affected by L5 monoradiculopathy. Seventeen patients (30.3%) showed an abnormal knee reflex. L5 patients with an abnormal knee reflex differed significantly, in severity of pretibial muscle damage, from thos...
Source: Functional Neurology - November 17, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Thermal nociception using a modified Hargreaves method in primates and humans.
Authors: Ma Z, Li Y, Zhang YP, Shields LB, Xie Q, Yan G, Liu W, Chen G, Zhang Y, Brommer B, Xu XM, Lu Y, Chen X, Shields CB Abstract Nociception is an important protective mechanism. The Hargreaves method, which involves measuring withdrawal latency following thermal stimulation to Thermal nociception using a modified Hargreaves method in primates and humans the paw, is commonly used to measure pain thresholds in rodents. We modified this technique to measure pain thresholds in monkeys and humans. The modified Hargreaves method was used to quantitate pain sensitivity in eight normal rhesus monkeys, 55 human volunte...
Source: Functional Neurology - November 11, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Why is nitric oxide important for our brain?
Authors: Džoljić E, Grabatinić I, Kostić V Abstract The freely diffusible gaseous compound nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to be an important messenger in many organ systems throughout the body, and particularly in the central nervous system (CNS). The importance of NO as an intermediary in cell communication in the brain is highlighted by the fact that the excitatory amino acid glutamate, the most abundant CNS neurotransmitter, is an initiator of the reaction that forms NO. Because of its numerous physiological and pathophysiological roles, the impact of NO on clinical medicine is developing. NO can act as a ...
Source: Functional Neurology - October 14, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

High angular resolution diffusion imaging in a child with autism spectrum disorder and comparison with his unaffected identical twin.
Authors: Conti E, Pannek K, Calderoni S, Gaglianese A, Fiori S, Brovedani P, Scelfo D, Rose S, Tosetti M, Cioni G, Guzzetta A Abstract In recent years, the use of brain diffusion MRI has led to the hypothesis that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show abnormally connected brains. We used the model of disease-discordant identical twins to test the hypothesis that higher-order diffusion MRI protocols are able to detect abnormal connectivity in a single subject. We studied the structural connectivity of the brain of a child with ASD, and of that of his unaffected identical twin, using high angular resoluti...
Source: Functional Neurology - October 9, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

What are the perspectives for technology platforms in the field of neuroscience?
Authors: Sandrini G PMID: 26415780 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - September 30, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Thresholds for self-motion perception in roll without and with visual fixation target - the visualvestibular interaction effect.
Authors: Kolev OI Abstract The purpose of this study was to establish the selfmotion perception threshold, in roll, in the visualvestibular interaction (VVI) state, creating an oculogyral illusion, and to compare this threshold to the self-motion perception threshold in darkness. A further aim was to investigate the dynamics of the threshold at a low frequency range (0.1-1 Hz) of sinusoidal rotation. Seven healthy subjects were tested. A motion platform was used to generate motion. Single cycles of sinusoidal acceleration at four frequencies (0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1 Hz) were used as motion stimuli. To avoid otolith sti...
Source: Functional Neurology - September 30, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Effects of dispositional optimism on quality of life, emotional distress and disability in Parkinson's disease outpatients under rehabilitation.
In conclusion, a high level of DO was associated with QoL, HADS and UPDRS both on admission and at discharge. The level of DO remained stable after rehabilitation, while disability and anxiety were reduced. Participants with high DO generally had better QoL, and better clinical and psychological performances. PMID: 26415782 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - September 30, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Semantic profiles in mild cognitive impairment associated with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.
Authors: Guidi M, Paciaroni L, Paolini S, Scarpino O, Burn DJ Abstract The temporal and the prefrontal cortices have different roles in semantic information processing: the temporal lobe is where knowledge is stored (Graham and Hodges, 1997), whereas the prefrontal cortex is more specifically involved in executive aspects of semantic processing. Relatively little is known about the semantic profiles of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). This observational study investigated naming and semantic questionnaire performances in three groups of subjects: 10 patients ...
Source: Functional Neurology - September 30, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Preferential occurrence of attacks during night sleep and/or upon awakening negatively affects migraine clinical presentation.
Authors: Gori S, Lucchesi C, Baldacci F, Bonuccelli U Abstract It is well known that migraine attacks can preferentially occur during night sleep and/or upon awakening, however the possible implications of this timing on migraine clinical presentation remain unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the possible consequences of sleep-related migraine (defined as ≥75% of migraine attacks occurring during night sleep and/or upon awakening) on the migraine clinical picture (i.e. migraine-related disability, attack severity, use of symptomatic drugs), subjective sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness and fat...
Source: Functional Neurology - September 30, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

TMS-evoked N100 responses as a prognostic factor in acute stroke.
Authors: Manganotti P, Acler M, Masiero S, Del Felice A Abstract Rehabilitation programs, to be efficiently tailored, need clear prognostic markers. In acute stroke, neurophysiological measures, such as motor evoked potentials (MEPs), have been proposed, although with discordant results. The aim of this study was to identify a reliable neurophysiological measure of recovery in acute poststroke individuals by combining MEPs and the N100 component of transcranial magnetic stimulationevoked potentials (TEPs). Nine acute post-stroke subjects were included. Clinical evaluation performed in the first week after the event...
Source: Functional Neurology - September 30, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Sex differences in MDMA-induced toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats.
Authors: Soleimani Asl S, Mehdizadeh M, Hamedi Soudabeh S, Artimani T, Joghataei MT Abstract Recent evidence demonstrates that female subjects show exaggerated responses to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) compared with males. The aim of our study was to evaluate sex differences and the role of endogenous gonadal hormones on the effects of MDMA. Fifty-six intact and gonadectomized male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either MDMA (5 mg/kg) or saline treatment. Learning and memory were assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM). The expression of Bax and Bcl-2 in the hippocampus was d...
Source: Functional Neurology - September 30, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Encephalopathy with status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) induced by oxcarbazepine in idiopathic focal epilepsy in childhood.
We describe a child with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) in whom treatment with oxcarbazepine (OXC) induced ESES. The patient was studied through repeated clinical-neuropsychological evaluations and 24-hour EEG recordings. He was treated with OXC two months after epilepsy onset. One month after starting OXC, he developed an abrupt and severe cognitive deterioration. A 24-hour EEG and neuropsychological tests showed an electroclinical picture compatible with ESES. Withdrawal of OXC and introduction of other drugs were followed by a prompt improvement. Five months after ESES onset, a 24-hour EEG was normal...
Source: Functional Neurology - September 30, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

"Boosting" in Paralympic athletes with spinal cord injury: doping without drugs.
"Boosting" in Paralympic athletes with spinal cord injury: doping without drugs. Funct Neurol. 2015 Apr-Jun;30(2):91-8 Authors: Mazzeo F, Santamaria S, Iavarone A Abstract The intentional activation of autonomic dysreflexia (AD, also called "boosting"), a practice sometimes used by athletes affected by spinal cord injury (SCI), is banned by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC). Although various studies have addressed doping and AD as separate issues, studies evaluating AD as a doping method are lacking. The aim of this brief review is to contribute to better understanding of...
Source: Functional Neurology - September 30, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Sensory and sympathetic disorders in chronic non-specific neck pain.
Authors: Zaproudina N, Ming Z, Närhi M Abstract The signs of sympathetic and sensory nerve-related disorders are not widely investigated in chronic nonspecific neck pain (NNP) patients. Thus, we performed skin temperature (Tsk), evaporation and touch threshold (TT) measurements to reveal possible dysfunctions at the fingertips of NNP patients (n=60) compared with healthy controls (n=11). Neck pain intensity was the main modifier of Tsk, and age the main modifier of TT in a multivariate model. On comparisons of the subgroups of NNP patients with unilateral (n=26) and bilateral (n=34) symptoms and controls, TT d...
Source: Functional Neurology - September 29, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Pathophysiology of knee jerk reflex abnormalities in L5 root injury.
Authors: Gianneschi F, Mondelli M, Piu P, Rossi A Abstract Although the knee jerk reflex is mediated by the L3 and L4 nerve roots, evidence exists that altered knee jerk expression may occur with exclusively L5 radiculopathy. The present study set out to identify the factors responsible for knee jerk reflex abnormalities in L5 monoradiculopathy. We analyzed clinical and electrophysiological data in 56 subjects affected by L5 monoradiculopathy. Seventeen patients (30.3%) showed an abnormal knee reflex. L5 patients with an abnormal knee reflex differed significantly, in severity of pretibial muscle damage, from those...
Source: Functional Neurology - September 29, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of the efficacy of treatment with zinc in children with intractable epilepsy.
This study was conducted to assess the efficacy of oral zinc supplementation in children with intractable epilepsy. Forty-five children aged between three and 12 years and diagnosed with idiopathic intractable epilepsy at Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt were recruited. The patients were randomly allocated to two groups: the intervention group received oral zinc supplementation (1 mg/kg/day) while the placebo group received placebo, each for six months. The parents of each child filled in a detailed questionnaire that covered demographic characteristics, type of seizures, frequency, duration of seizures, previous ...
Source: Functional Neurology - September 29, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

What are the perspectives for technology platforms in the field of neuroscience?
Authors: Sandrini G PMID: 26376069 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - September 18, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

The possible involvement of mitochondrial dysfunctions in Lewy body dementia: a systematic review.
Authors: Spano M, Signorelli M, Vitaliani R, Aguglia E, Giometto B Abstract The hallmark of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the "Lewy body", an abnormal aggregation of alphasynuclein found in some areas of the brain. The brain is the organ/system that is most vulnerable to this oxidative damage, and reactive oxygen species can cause neurodegenerative diseases. Different models of mitochondrial deregulation have been compared in DLB. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that alpha-synuclein affects the mitochondria themselves, increasing their sensitivity or leading to cell death through prote...
Source: Functional Neurology - September 9, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Effect of three different jaw positions on postural stability during standing.
Authors: Alghadir AH, Zafar H, Iqbal ZA Abstract Studies in the literature show that jaw and neck regions are linked anatomically, biomechanically and neurologically. Voluntary clenching has been shown to improve muscle strength and performance of various motor tasks. Information from the neck sensory-motor system is reported to be important for posture. Hence it is reasonable to believe that activation of the jaw sensorymotor system has the potential to modulate posture. In a sample of 116 healthy subjects, we compared center of gravity (COG) velocity during quiet standing on a foam surface during three test posit...
Source: Functional Neurology - September 4, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Semantic profiles in mild cognitive impairment associated with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.
Authors: Guidi M, Paciaroni L, Paolini S, Scarpino O, Burn DJ Abstract The temporal and the prefrontal cortices have different roles in semantic information processing: the temporal lobe is where knowledge is stored (Graham and Hodges, 1997), whereas the prefrontal cortex is more specifically involved in executive aspects of semantic processing. Relatively little is known about the semantic profiles of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). This observational study investigated naming and semantic questionnaire performances in three groups of subjects: 10 patients ...
Source: Functional Neurology - August 8, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Sex differences in MDMA-induced toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats.
Authors: Soleimani S, Mehdizadeh M, Shahraki SH, Artimani T, Joghataei MT Abstract Recent evidence demonstrates that female subjects show exaggerated responses to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) compared with males. The aim of our study was to evaluate sex differences and the role of endogenous gonadal hormones on the effects of MDMA. Fifty-six intact and gonadectomized male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either MDMA (5 mg/kg) or saline treatment. Learning and memory were assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM). The expression of Bax and Bcl-2 in the hippocampus was detected by...
Source: Functional Neurology - August 8, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

"Boosting" in Paralympic athletes with spinal cord injury: doping without drugs.
"Boosting" in Paralympic athletes with spinal cord injury: doping without drugs. Funct Neurol. 2015 Aug 6;:1-8 Authors: Mazzeo F, Santamaria S, Iavarone A Abstract The intentional activation of autonomic dysreflexia (AD, also called "boosting"), a practice sometimes used by athletes affected by spinal cord injury (SCI), is banned by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC). Although various studies have addressed doping and AD as separate issues, studies evaluating AD as a doping method are lacking. The aim of this brief review is to contribute to better understanding of the rel...
Source: Functional Neurology - August 8, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Ennio De Renzi (1924-2014). A loving remembrance.
Authors: Boller F PMID: 26214022 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - July 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Integration of multimodal neuroimaging methods: a rationale for clinical applications of simultaneous EEG-fMRI.
Authors: Vitali P, Di Perri C, Vaudano AE, Meletti S, Villani F Abstract Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which has high spatial resolution, is increasingly used to evaluate cerebral functions in neurological and psychiatric diseases. The main limitation of fMRI is that it detects neural activity indirectly, through the associated slow hemodynamic variations. Because neurovascular coupling can be regionally altered by pathological conditions or drugs, fMRI responses may not truly reflect neural activity. Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings, which directly detect neural activity with optimal tempora...
Source: Functional Neurology - July 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

How genetics affects the brain to produce higher-level dysfunctions in myotonic dystrophy type 1.
This study assessed the differential role of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) damage in determining higher-level dysfunctions in DM1. Ten patients with genetically confirmed DM1 and 16 healthy How genetics affects the brain to produce higher-level dysfunctions in myotonic dystrophy type 1matched controls entered the study. The patients underwent a neuropsychological assessment and quantification of CTG triplet expansion. All the subjects underwent MR scanning at 3T, with studies including T1-weighted volumes and diffusion-weighted images. Voxel-based morphometry and tractbased spatial statistics were used for unbiase...
Source: Functional Neurology - July 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Impact of C24:0 on actin-microtubule interaction in human neuronal SK-N-BE cells: evaluation by FRET confocal spectral imaging microscopy after dual staining with rhodamine-phalloidin and tubulin tracker green.
Authors: Zarrouk A, Nury T, Dauphin A, Frère P, Riedinger JM, Bachelet CM, Frouin F, Moreau T, Hammami M, Kahn E, Lizard G Abstract Disorganization of the cytoskeleton of neurons has major consequences on the transport of neurotransmitters via the microtubule network. The interaction of cytoskeleton proteins (actin and tubulin) was studied in neuronal SK-N-BE cells treated with tetracosanoic acid (C24:0), which is cytotoxic and increased in Alzheimer's disease patients. When SK-N-BE cells were treated with C24:0, mitochondrial dysfunctions and a non-apoptotic mode of cell death were observed. Fluorescence mi...
Source: Functional Neurology - July 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Influence of intensive multifunctional neurorehabilitation on neuronal oxidative damage in patients with Huntington's disease.
Authors: Ciancarelli I, De Amicis D, Di Massimo C, Sandrini G, Pistarini C, Carolei A, Tozzi Ciancarelli MG Abstract The influence of intensive multifunctional neurorehabilitation on serum levels of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), as markers of oxidative damage, was evaluated in symptomatic patients with Huntington's disease (HD). Improved clinical outcome measures were observed after neurorehabilitation. Baseline levels of Cu/Zn-SOD, NSE and 8-OHdG were higher than those observed in controls. Cu/Zn-SOD and NSE values decreased after ne...
Source: Functional Neurology - July 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Effects of dispositional optimism on quality of life, emotional distress and disability in Parkinson's disease outpatients under rehabilitation.
In conclusion, a high level of DO was associated with QoL, HADS and UPDRS both on admission and at discharge. The level of DO remained stable after rehabilitation, while disability and anxiety were reduced. Participants with high DO generally had better QoL, and better clinical and psychological performances. PMID: 26214027 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - July 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Dual task-related gait changes in patients with mild cognitive impairment.
Authors: Nascimbeni A, Caruso S, Salatino A, Carenza M, Rigano M, Raviolo A, Ricci R Abstract Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) entails a high risk of developing Alzheimer's dementia. In MCI patients gait impairment, which increases the risk of falls and institutionalization, is an early motor sign. A dualtask (DT) paradigm might improve the observation of this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to investigate motor-cognitive interference in a sample of MCI patients and a group of matched healthy controls submitted to DT conditions. To this end, three different cognitive tasks were used: counting backwards, short ...
Source: Functional Neurology - July 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Minimally symptomatic posterior reversible encephalopathy in Guillain-Barré syndrome.
We present the case of a GBS patient with minimal CNS symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging findings consistent with PRES. PRES in GBS might be an underestimated condition. It should be suspected in GBS patients in the presence of even mild CNS symptoms. A timely PRES diagnosis along with early correction of autonomic system dysfunction in GBS patients is recommended to prevent possible dangerous CNS complications. PMID: 26214029 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - July 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Successful treatment with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in an acute stroke patient presenting with hemiballism.
Authors: Bembenek JP, Bilik M, Członkowska A Abstract A 79-year-old woman with hypertension was evaluated 3 hours and 20 minutes after the sudden onset of left-sided weakness which lasted about 15 minutes and was followed by involuntary, coarse, flinging movements of the left extremities (hemiballistic), occurring every few minutes, and facial asymmetry. Brain computed tomography revealed no abnormalities. The patient received intravenous thrombolysis with 0.9 mg/kg of alteplase 4 hours after the symptom onset. Involuntary movements and central facial nerve paresis subsided within 48 hours of the thrombolysis. Mag...
Source: Functional Neurology - July 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Golgi and Ranvier: from the black reaction to a theory of referred pain.
Authors: Cani V, Mazzarello P Abstract In his brief report on the structure of the gray matter of the central nervous system (1873), in which he described the "black reaction", Golgi noted the ramifications of the axon. This discovery prompted the French histologist Louis Antoine Ranvier, one of the first to try the black reaction outside Italy, to propose an ingenious theory of referred pain in his Traité technique d'histologie. Ranvier suggested that the nerve fibers originating from the irritated area and those coming from the region to which the sensation is referred converge on the same axon a...
Source: Functional Neurology - July 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Drug repurposing and beyond: the fundamental role of pharmacology.
Authors: Amantea D, Certo M, Bagetta G PMID: 26214032 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - July 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Preferential occurrence of attacks during night sleep and/or upon awakening negatively affects migraine clinical presentation.
Authors: Gori S, Lucchesi C, Baldacci F, Bonuccelli U Abstract It is well known that migraine attacks can preferentially occur during night sleep and/or upon awakening, however the possible implications of this timing on migraine clinical presentation remain unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the possible consequences of sleep-related migraine (defined as ≥75% of migraine attacks occurring during night sleep and/or upon awakening) on the migraine clinical picture (i.e. migraine-related disability, attack severity, use of symptomatic drugs), subjective sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness and fat...
Source: Functional Neurology - June 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

TMS-evoked N100 responses as a prognostic factor in acute stroke.
Authors: Manganotti P, Acler M, Masiero S, Del Felice A Abstract Rehabilitation programs, to be efficiently tailored, need clear prognostic markers. In acute stroke, neurophysiological measures, such as motor evoked potentials (MEPs), have been proposed, although with discordant results. The aim of this study was to identify a reliable neurophysiological measure of recovery in acute poststroke individuals by combining MEPs and the N100 component of transcranial magnetic stimulationevoked potentials (TEPs). Nine acute post-stroke subjects were included. Clinical evaluation performed in the first week after the event...
Source: Functional Neurology - June 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Effects of dispositional optimism on quality of life, emotional distress and disability in Parkinson's disease outpatients under rehabilitation.
In conclusion, a high level of DO was associated with QoL, HADS and UPDRS both on admission and at discharge. The level of DO remained stable after rehabilitation, while disability and anxiety were reduced. Participants with high DO generally had better QoL, and better clinical and psychological performances. PMID: 26068806 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - June 14, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Encephalopathy with status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) induced by oxcarbazepine in idiopathic focal epilepsy in childhood.
We describe a child with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) in whom treatment with oxcarbazepine (OXC) induced ESES. The patient was studied through repeated clinical-neuropsychological evaluations and 24-hour EEG recordings. He was treated with OXC two months after epilepsy onset. One month after starting OXC, he developed an abrupt and severe cognitive deterioration. A 24-hour EEG and neuropsychological tests showed an electroclinical picture compatible with ESES. Withdrawal of OXC and introduction of other drugs were followed by a prompt improvement. Five months after ESES onset, a 24-hour EEG was normal...
Source: Functional Neurology - June 9, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Thresholds for self-motion perception in roll without and with visual fixation target - the visualvestibular interaction effect.
Authors: Kolev OI Abstract The purpose of this study was to establish the selfmotion perception threshold, in roll, in the visualvestibular interaction (VVI) state, creating an oculogyral illusion, and to compare this threshold to the self-motion perception threshold in darkness. A further aim was to investigate the dynamics of the threshold at a low frequency range (0.1-1 Hz) of sinusoidal rotation. Seven healthy subjects were tested. A motion platform was used to generate motion. Single cycles of sinusoidal acceleration at four frequencies (0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1 Hz) were used as motion stimuli. To avoid otolith sti...
Source: Functional Neurology - June 2, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Drug repurposing and beyond: the fundamental role of pharmacology.
Authors: Amantea D, Certo M, Bagetta G PMID: 25970846 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - May 15, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Impact of C24:0 on actin-microtubule interaction in human neuronal SK-N-BE cells: evaluation by FRET confocal spectral imaging microscopy after dual staining with rhodamine-phalloidin and tubulin tracker green.
Authors: Zarrouk A, Nury T, Dauphin A, Frère P, Riedinger JM, Bachelet CM, Frouin F, Moreau T, Hammami M, Kahn E, Lizard G Abstract Disorganization of the cytoskeleton of neurons has major consequences on the transport of neurotransmitters via the microtubule network. The interaction of cytoskeleton proteins (actin and tubulin) was studied in neuronal SK-N-BE cells treated with tetracosanoic acid (C24:0), which is cytotoxic and increased in Alzheimer's disease patients. When SK-N-BE cells were treated with C24:0, mitochondrial dysfunctions and a non-apoptotic mode of cell death were observed. Fluorescence mi...
Source: Functional Neurology - May 7, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Minimally symptomatic posterior reversible encephalopathy in Guillain-Barré syndrome.
We present the case of a GBS patient with minimal CNS symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging findings consistent with PRES. PRES in GBS might be an underestimated condition. It should be suspected in GBS patients in the presence of even mild CNS symptoms. A timely PRES diagnosis along with early correction of autonomic system dysfunction in GBS patients is recommended to prevent possible dangerous CNS complications. PMID: 25940129 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - May 7, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Golgi and Ranvier: from the black reaction to a theory of referred pain.
Authors: Cani V, Mazzarello P Abstract In his brief report on the structure of the gray matter of the central nervous system (1873), in which he described the "black reaction", Golgi noted the ramifications of the axon. This discovery prompted the French histologist Louis Antoine Ranvier, one of the first to try the black reaction outside Italy, to propose an ingenious theory of referred pain in his Traité technique d'histologie. Ranvier suggested that the nerve fibers originating from the irritated area and those coming from the region to which the sensation is referred converge on the same axon a...
Source: Functional Neurology - April 14, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Integration of multimodal neuroimaging methods: a rationale for clinical applications of simultaneous EEG-fMRI.
Authors: Vitali P, Di Ferri C, Vaudano AE, Meletti S, Villani F Abstract Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which has high spatial resolution, is increasingly used to evaluate cerebral functions in neurological and psychiatric diseases. The main limitation of fMRI is that it detects neural activity indirectly, through the associated slow hemodynamic variations. Because neurovascular coupling can be regionally altered by pathological conditions or drugs, fMRI responses may not truly reflect neural activity. Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings, which directly detect neural activity with optimal tempora...
Source: Functional Neurology - April 3, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

How genetics affects the brain to produce higher-level dysfunctions in myotonic dystrophy type 1.
This study assessed the differential role of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) damage in determining higher-level dysfunctions in DM1. Ten patients with genetically confirmed DM1 and 16 healthy How genetics affects the brain to produce higher-level dysfunctions in myotonic dystrophy type 1matched controls entered the study. The patients underwent a neuropsychological assessment and quantification of CTG triplet expansion. All the subjects underwent MR scanning at 3T, with studies including T1-weighted volumes and diffusion-weighted images. Voxel-based morphometry and tractbased spatial statistics were used for unbiase...
Source: Functional Neurology - March 25, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research