Robot-assisted gait training versus treadmill training in patients with Parkinson's disease: a kinematic evaluation with gait profile score.
Authors: Galli M, Cimolin V, De Pandis MF, Le Pera D, Sova I, Albertini G, Stocchi F, Franceschini M Abstract The purpose of this study was to quantitatively compare the effects, on walking performance, of end-effector robotic rehabilitation locomotor training versus intensive training with a treadmill in Parkinson's disease (PD). Fifty patients with PD were randomly divided into two groups: 25 were assigned to the robot-assisted therapy group (RG) and 25 to the intensive treadmill therapy group (IG). They were evaluated with clinical examination and 3D quantitative gait analysis [gait profile score (GPS) and its c...
Source: Functional Neurology - October 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Frailty and resilience in an older population. The role of resilience during rehabilitation after orthopedic surgery in geriatric patients with multiple comorbidities.
Authors: Rebagliati GA, Sciumè L, Iannello P, Mottini A, Antonietti A, Caserta VA, Gattoronchieri V, Panella L, Callegari C Abstract Hip fracture is common in the elderly and it is usually associated with comorbidities and physiological changes which may have an impact on functioning and quality of life. The concept of resilience may explain why this impact varies among patients. The aim of this open, prospective cohort study was to explore the relationships between resilience, frailty and quality of life in orthopedic rehabilitation patients, and also to assess whether these factors might affect rehabilitat...
Source: Functional Neurology - October 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Post-stroke spasticity as a condition: a new perspective on patient evaluation.
Authors: Baricich A, Picelli A, Molteni F, Guanziroli E, Santamato A PMID: 27678212 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - October 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

What is cluster headache? Fact sheet for patients and their families. A publication to mark Cluster Headache Day 2016.
Authors: Rossi P, Whelan J, Craven A, Ruiz De La Torre E PMID: 27678213 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - October 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Incidence and predictors of stroke during the index event in an ethnically diverse Takotsubo cardiomyopathy population.
Authors: Dias A, Franco E, Janzer S, Koshkelashvili N, Bhalla V, Rubio M, Amanullah S, Hebert K, Figueredo VM Abstract Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTS) is a peculiar clinical condition often affecting postmenopausal women after a stressful trigger. The underlying mechanisms have not been completely elucidated but several hypotheses have been advanced, with catecholamine cardiotoxicity, microvascular dysfunction and coronary artery spasm each suggested to play a role. The incidence of stroke after TTS appears to range from 0% to 7.7%, and interestingly TTS has been described as both a cause and a complication of strok...
Source: Functional Neurology - September 27, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Clinical and genetic investigation of a Brazilian family with Huntington's disease.
Authors: Agostinho LA, Spitz M, Pereira JS, Paiva CL Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate a Brazilian family carrying full penetrance alleles for Huntington's disease (HD) in order to correlate each member's genetic and clinical features. To this end, the following scales were administered in each patient: the Beck Depression Inventory, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS). The patterns of CAG and CCG polymorphic regions in the HTT gene were determined, the disease burden score was calculated, and genotypes were correlated with phenotypes wi...
Source: Functional Neurology - August 20, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Women with epilepsy: clinically relevant issues.
Authors: Bangar S, Shastri A, El-Sayeh H, Cavanna AE Abstract Women with epilepsy (WWE) face specific challenges throughout their lifespan due to the effects of seizures and antiepileptic drugs on hormonal function, potentially affecting both sexual and reproductive health. This review article addresses the most common issues of practical relevance to clinicians treating WWE: epidemiology and clinical presentations (including catamenial epilepsy), contraception, reproductive and sexual dysfunction, pregnancy, lactation, menopause-related issues (including bone health), and mental health aspects. Awareness of these ...
Source: Functional Neurology - July 21, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Spectrum of cognitive disorders in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.
Authors: Picascia M, Minafra B, Zangaglia R, Gracardi L, Pozzi NG, Sinforiani E, Pacchetti C Abstract Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a syndrome characterized by ventricular dilation accompanied by a progressive triad of a gait disturbance, "dementia" and incontinence. We retrospectively evaluated cognitive profile, and its relationship with disease variables, in 64 iNPH patients. The iNPH group performed significantly worse than the control group on all neuropsychological tests, except for verbal memory (within the normal range). The patients were subdivided into four groups: group 1 (...
Source: Functional Neurology - July 21, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Robot-assisted gait training versus treadmill training in patients with Parkinson's disease: a kinematic evaluation with gait profile score.
Authors: Galli M, Cimolin V, De Pandis MF, Le Pera D, Sova I, Albertini G, Stocchi F, Franceschini M Abstract The purpose of this study was to quantitatively compare the effects, on walking performance, of end-effector robotic rehabilitation locomotor training versus intensive training with a treadmill in Parkinson's disease (PD). Fifty patients with PD were randomly divided into two groups: 25 were assigned to the robot-assisted therapy group (RG) and 25 to the intensive treadmill therapy group (IG). They were evaluated with clinical examination and 3D quantitative gait analysis [gait profile score (GPS) and its c...
Source: Functional Neurology - July 21, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

New test of odor pleasantness in Parkinson's disease.
This study shows that the NTOP is a valuable method within the complex array of olfactory screening tools used in PD. PMID: 27428291 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - July 21, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

The cerebral venous system in migraine: the not so innocent bystander?
Authors: Tassorelli C PMID: 27358217 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - July 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Lower- and higher-level models of right hemisphere language. A selective survey.
Authors: Gainotti G Abstract The models advanced to explain right hemisphere (RH) language function can be divided into two main types. According to the older (lower-level) models, RH language reflects the ontogenesis of conceptual and semantic-lexical development; the more recent models, on the other hand, suggest that the RH plays an important role in the use of higher-level language functions, such as metaphors, to convey complex, abstract concepts. The hypothesis that the RH may be preferentially involved in processing the semantic-lexical components of language was advanced by Zaidel in splitbrain patients and...
Source: Functional Neurology - July 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Vestibular disorders following different types of head and neck trauma.
Authors: Kolev OI, Sergeeva M Abstract This review focuses on the published literature on vestibular disorders following different types of head and neck trauma. Current knowledge of the different causes and underlying mechanisms of vestibular disorders, as well as the sites of organic damage, is presented. Non-organic mechanisms are also surveyed. The frequency of occurrence of vestibular symptoms, and of other accompanying subjective complaints, associated with different types of trauma is presented and related to the specific causes. Hypotheses about the pathogenesis of traumatic vestibular disorders are present...
Source: Functional Neurology - July 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Cerebral venous hemodynamic abnormalities in episodic and chronic migraine.
Authors: Petolicchio B, Viganò A, di Biase L, Tatulli D, Toscano M, Vicenzini E, Passarelli F, Di Piero V Abstract Alterations of cerebral venous drainage have been demonstrated in chronic migraine (CM), suggesting that cerebral venous hemodynamic abnormalities (CVHAs) play a role in this condition. The aim of the present study was to look for a correlation between CM and CVHAs. We recruited 33 subjects suffering from CM with or without analgesic overuse, 29 episodic migraine (EM) patients with or without aura, and 21 healthy subjects as controls (HCs). CVHAs were evaluated by transcranial and extracranial e...
Source: Functional Neurology - July 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Antiepileptic drug use in a nursing home setting: a retrospective study in older adults.
Authors: Callegari C, Ielmini M, Bianchi L, Lucano M, Bertù L, Vender S Abstract The authors set out to examine qualitatively the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in a population of older adults in a nursing home setting, evaluating aspects such as specialist prescriptions and changes in dosage. This retrospective prevalence study was carried out in a state-funded nursing home that provides care and rehabilitation for elderly people. The first objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of AED use in this population. The second objective was to monitor AED dosage modifications during the fifteen-...
Source: Functional Neurology - July 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Delayed auditory conduction in diabetes: is metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency responsible?
Authors: Khattar D, Khaliq F, Vaney N, Madhu SV Abstract The present study aims to evaluate the functional integrity of the auditory pathway in patients with diabetes taking metformin. A further aim is to assess its association with vitamin B12 deficiency induced by metformin. Thirty diabetics taking metformin and 30 age-matched non-diabetic controls were enrolled. Stimulus-related potentials and vitamin B12 levels were evaluated in all the subjects. The diabetics showed deficient vitamin B12 levels and delayed wave III latency and III-V interpeak latency in the right ear and delayed Na and Pa wave latencies in the...
Source: Functional Neurology - July 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Cerebrospinal fluid analysis after unprovoked first seizure.
This study is one of the few to evaluate postictal CSF parameters in a clinical setting, and to our knowledge the first to investigate these parameters specifically in the emergency department. The development of a rapid, easy-to-use test that does not require extensive laboratory equipment to differentiate UFS from other conditions could be of great value in everyday clinical practice. PMID: 27358223 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - July 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Outcomes of a multicomponent intervention on occupational performance in persons with unilateral acquired brain injury.
Authors: Huertas Hoyas E, Pedrero Pérez EJ, Águila Maturana AM, Rojo Mota G, Martínez Piédrola R, Pérez de Heredia Torres M Abstract Complications after unilateral acquired brain injury (ABI) can affect various areas of expertise causing (depending on the location of the lesion) impairment in occupational performance. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the concepts of occupational performance and functional independence, both before and after a multicomponent intervention including occupational therapy, in persons with unilateral brain damage. This was a longitudinal...
Source: Functional Neurology - July 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Clinical effects of non-invasive cerebellar magnetic stimulation treatment combined with neuromotor rehabilitation in traumatic brain injury. A single case study.
We present the case of a 25-year-old man with chronic TBI (a bilateral corticosubcortical parieto-occipital lesion) who underwent three weeks of cerebellar intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), a form of rTMS, combined with neurorehabilitation treatment. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, and accelerometer gait analysis were administered before and after treatment. The results showed improvements in balance performance (BBS: T0=47; T1=53; +10.72%), motor recovery (FMA: T0=93/100; T1=96/100; +3.00%), step length (T0=50.4±7.2; T1=53.8±2.2 cm, p
Source: Functional Neurology - July 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Delayed auditory conduction in diabetes: is metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency responsible?
Authors: Khattar D, Khaliq F, Vaney N, Madhu SV Abstract The present study aims to evaluate the functional integrity of the auditory pathway in patients with diabetes taking metformin. A further aim is to assess its association with vitamin B12 deficiency induced by metformin. Thirty diabetics taking metformin and 30 age-matched non-diabetic controls were enrolled. Stimulus-related potentials and vitamin B12 levels were evaluated in all the subjects. The diabetics showed deficient vitamin B12 levels and delayed wave III latency and III-V interpeak latency in the right ear and delayed Na and Pa wave latencies in the...
Source: Functional Neurology - June 11, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Vestibular disorders following different types of head and neck trauma.
Authors: Kolev OI, Sergeeva M Abstract This review focuses on the published literature on vestibular disorders following different types of head and neck trauma. Current knowledge of the different causes and underlying mechanisms of vestibular disorders, as well as the sites of organic damage, is presented. Non-organic mechanisms are also surveyed. The frequency of occurrence of vestibular symptoms, and of other accompanying subjective complaints, associated with different types of trauma is presented and related to the specific causes. Hypotheses about the pathogenesis of traumatic vestibular disorders are present...
Source: Functional Neurology - May 27, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Clinical effects of non-invasive cerebellar magnetic stimulation treatment combined with neuromotor rehabilitation in traumatic brain injury. A single case study.
We present the case of a 25-year-old man with chronic TBI (a bilateral corticosubcortical parieto-occipital lesion) who underwent three weeks of cerebellar intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), a form of rTMS, combined with neurorehabilitation treatment. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, and accelerometer gait analysis were administered before and after treatment. The results showed improvements in balance performance (BBS: T0=47; T1=53; +10.72%), motor recovery (FMA: T0=93/100; T1=96/100; +3.00%), step length (T0=50.4±7.2; T1=53.8±2.2 cm, p
Source: Functional Neurology - May 27, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Cerebrospinal fluid analysis after unprovoked first seizure.
This study is one of the few to evaluate postictal CSF parameters in a clinical setting, and to our knowledge the first to investigate these parameters specifically in the emergency department. The development of a rapid, easy-to-use test that does not require extensive laboratory equipment to differentiate UFS from other conditions could be of great value in everyday clinical practice. PMID: 27222259 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - May 27, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Lower- and higher-level models of right hemisphere language. A selective survey.
Authors: Gainotti G Abstract The models advanced to explain right hemisphere (RH) language function can be divided into two main types. According to the older (lower-level) models, RH language reflects the ontogenesis of conceptual and semantic-lexical development; the more recent models, on the other hand, suggest that the RH plays an important role in the use of higher-level language functions, such as metaphors, to convey complex, abstract concepts. The hypothesis that the RH may be preferentially involved in processing the semantic-lexical components of language was advanced by Zaidel in splitbrain patients and...
Source: Functional Neurology - May 16, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Antiepileptic drug use in a nursing home setting: a retrospective study in older adults.
Authors: Callegari C, Ielmini M, Bianchi L, Lucano M, Vender S Abstract The authors set out to examine qualitatively the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in a population of older adults in a nursing home setting, evaluating aspects such as specialist prescriptions and changes in dosage. This retrospective prevalence study was carried out in a state-funded nursing home that provides care and rehabilitation for elderly people. The first objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of AED use in this population. The second objective was to monitor AED dosage modifications during the fifteen-month study peri...
Source: Functional Neurology - May 16, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Reconstructing contralateral fiber tracts: methodological aspects of cerebello-thalamocortical pathway reconstruction.
Authors: Palesi F, Tournier JD, Calamante F, Muhlert N, Castellazzi G, Chard D, D'Angelo E, Wheeler-Kingshott CG Abstract The identification of pathways connecting the cerebral cortex with subcortical structures is critical to understanding how large-scale brain networks operate. The cerebellum, for example, is known to project numerous axonal bundles to thecerebral cortex passing through the thalamus. This paper focuses on the technical details of cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathway reconstruction using advanced diffusion MRI techniques in humans in vivo. Pathways reconstructed using seed/target placement on super-...
Source: Functional Neurology - May 6, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Outcomes of a multicomponent intervention on occupational performance in persons with unilateral acquired brain injury.
Authors: Huertas Hoyas E, Pedrero Pérez EJ, Águila Maturana AM, Rojo Mota G, Martínez Piédrola R, Pérez de Heredia Torres M Abstract Complications after unilateral acquired brain injury (ABI) can affect various areas of expertise causing (depending on the location of the lesion) impairment in occupational performance. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the concepts of occupational performance and functional independence, both before and after a multicomponent intervention including occupational therapy, in persons with unilateral brain damage. This was a longitudinal...
Source: Functional Neurology - May 6, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Cerebral venous hemodynamic abnormalities in episodic and chronic migraine.
Authors: Petolicchio B, Viganò A, Di Biase A, Tatulli D, Toscano M, Vicenzini E, Passarelli F, Di Piero V Abstract Alterations of cerebral venous drainage have been demonstrated in chronic migraine (CM), suggesting that cerebral venous hemodynamic abnormalities (CVHAs) play a role in this condition. The aim of the present study was to look for a correlation between CM and CVHAs. We recruited 33 subjects suffering from CM with or without analgesic overuse, 29 episodic migraine (EM) patients with or without aura, and 21 healthy subjects as controls (HCs). CVHAs were evaluated by transcranial and extracranial e...
Source: Functional Neurology - May 6, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Decision making in MS: factors affecting engagement in treatment choices.
Authors: Muhlert N PMID: 27027888 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - April 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and environmental factors.
Authors: Bozzoni V, Pansarasa O, Diamanti L, Nosari G, Cereda C, Ceroni M Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that affects central and peripheral motor neuron cells. Its etiology is unknown, although a relationship between genetic background and environmental factors may play a major role in triggering the neurodegeneration. In this review, we analyze the role of environmental factors in ALS: heavy metals, electromagnetic fields and electric shocks, pesticides, β-N-methylamino-L-alanine, physical activity and the controversial role of sports. The literature on the...
Source: Functional Neurology - April 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Disability may influence patient willingness to participate in decision making on first-line therapy in multiple sclerosis.
This study, conducted in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), examined several factors in relation to the patient's role in the therapeutic decision-making process. One hundred newly diagnosed patients with MS attending their first ever specialist consultation at the MS center of Catania, Italy, were consecutively enrolled in a single-center, open, observational study. Clinical and demographic data were collected as part of this routine first consultation. Through administration of the Control Preferences Scale, we ascertained the patients' willingness to participate in the decision-making process on their first-line tre...
Source: Functional Neurology - April 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Effects of treadmill training on cognitive and motor features of patients with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease: a pilot, single-blind, randomized controlled trial.
Authors: Picelli A, Varalta V, Melotti C, Zatezalo V, Fonte C, Amato S, Saltuari L, Santamato A, Fiore P, Smania N Abstract The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of treadmill training on cognitive and motor performance in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Seventeen persons with mild to moderate PD were enrolled. Nine patients were allocated to the Intervention group and received twelve 45-minute sessions of treadmill training: one session a day, three days a week, for four consecutive weeks. Eight patients were allocated to the Control group; these patients did not unde...
Source: Functional Neurology - April 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Melatonin 4 mg as prophylactic therapy for primary headaches: a pilot study.
Authors: Bougea A, Spantideas N, Lyras V, Avramidis T, Thomaidis T Abstract There is growing evidence that headaches are connected to melatonin secretion. Our aim was to assess the potential effectiveness of melatonin for primary headache prevention. Forty-nine patients (37 with migraine and 12 with chronic tension-type headache, TTH) were prescribed oral melatonin, 4 mg, 30 minutes before bedtime for six months. Forty-one (83.6%) of the 49 patients completed the study, while eight dropped out for personal reasons. A statistically significant reduction in headache frequency was found between baseline and final foll...
Source: Functional Neurology - April 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Global fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity together with segmented brain volumes assemble a predictive discriminant model for young and elderly healthy brains: a pilot study at 3T.
Authors: Garcia-Lazaro HG, Becerra-Laparra I, Cortez-Conradis D, Roldan-Valadez E Abstract Several parameters of brain integrity can be derived from diffusion tensor imaging. These include fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). Combination of these variables using multivariate analysis might result in a predictive model able to detect the structural changes of human brain aging. Our aim was to discriminate between young and older healthy brains by combining structural and volumetric variables from brain MRI: FA, MD, and white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes. This w...
Source: Functional Neurology - April 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Does chronic exposure to mobile phones affect cognition?
Authors: Mohan M, Khaliq F, Panwar A, Vaney N Abstract Mobile phones form an integral part of our modern lifestyle. Following the drastic rise in mobile phone use in recent years, it has become important to study its potential public health impact. Amongst the various mobile phone health hazards, the most alarming is the possible effect on the brain. The aim of the present study was to explore whether chronic exposure to mobile phones affects cognition. Ninety subjects aged 17-25 years with normal hearing were recruited for the study and divided into three groups according to their duration of mobile phone use. No ...
Source: Functional Neurology - April 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Andrographis Paniculata shows anti-nociceptive effects in an animal model of sensory hypersensitivity associated with migraine.
Authors: Greco R, Siani F, Demartini C, Zanaboni A, Nappi G, Davinelli S, Scapagnini G, Tassorelli C Abstract Administration of nitroglycerin (NTG) to rats induces a hyperalgesic condition and neuronal activation of central structures involved in migraine pain. In order to identify therapeutic strategies for migraine pain, we evaluated the anti-nociceptive activity of Andrographis Paniculata (AP), a herbaceous plant, in the hyperalgesia induced by NTG administration in the formalin test. We also analyzed mRNA expression of cytokines in specific brain areas after AP treatment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-treat...
Source: Functional Neurology - April 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Does chronic exposure to mobile phones affect cognition?
Authors: Mohan M, Khaliq F, Panwar A, Vaney N Abstract Mobile phones form an integral part of our modern lifestyle. Following the drastic rise in mobile phone use in recent years, it has become important to study its potential public health impact. Amongst the various mobile phone health hazards, the most alarming is the possible effect on the brain. The aim of the present study was to explore whether chronic exposure to mobile phones affects cognition. Ninety subjects aged 17-25 years with normal hearing were recruited for the study and divided into three groups according to their duration of mobile phone use. No ...
Source: Functional Neurology - March 11, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Melatonin 4 mg as prophylactic therapy for primary headaches: a pilot study.
Authors: Bougea A, Spantideas N, Lyras V, Avramidis T, Thomaidis T Abstract There is growing evidence that headaches are connected to melatonin secretion. Our aim was to assess the potential effectiveness of melatonin for primary headache prevention. Forty-nine patients (37 with migraine and 12 with chronic tension-type headache, TTH) were prescribed oral melatonin, 4 mg, 30 minutes before bedtime for six months. Forty-one (83.6%) of the 49 patients completed the study, while eight dropped out for personal reasons. A statistically significant reduction in headache frequency was found between baseline and final foll...
Source: Functional Neurology - March 11, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

[The Ettore Majorana international science center launches the first course of its "Camillo Golgi" International School of Brain Cells and Circuits: modeling the brain].
[The Ettore Majorana international science center launches the first course of its "Camillo Golgi" International School of Brain Cells and Circuits: modeling the brain]. Funct Neurol. 2015 Jul-Sep;30(3):149 Authors: D'Angelo E, Wheeler-Kingshott CA PMID: 26910175 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - February 26, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Why is nitric oxide important for our brain?
Authors: Džoljić E, Grbatinić I, Kostić V Abstract The freely diffusible gaseous compound nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to be an important messenger in many organ systems throughout the body, and particularly in the central nervous system (CNS). The importance of NO as an intermediary in cell communication in the brain is highlighted by the fact that the excitatory amino acid glutamate, the most abundant CNS neurotransmitter, is an initiator of the reaction that forms NO. Because of its numerous physiological and pathophysiological roles, the impact of NO on clinical medicine is developing. NO can act as a &...
Source: Functional Neurology - February 26, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy for children with epileptic encephalopathy.
Authors: Pera MC, Randazzo G, Masnada S, Dontin SD, De Giorgis V, Balottin U, Veggiotti P Abstract The aim of this retrospective study of children affected by epileptic encephalopathy was to evaluate seizure frequency, electroencephalographic pattern and neuropsychological status, before and after intravenous methylprednisolone therapy. Eleven children with epileptic encephalopathy were administered one cycle of intravenous methylprednisolone (15-30 mg/kg/day for three consecutive days, once a month for four months) in addition to constant dosages of their regular antiepileptic drugs. The treatment resulted in stat...
Source: Functional Neurology - February 26, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Functional magnetic resonance imaging in disorders of consciousness: preliminary results of an innovative analysis of brain connectivity.
Authors: De Pasquale F, Falletta Caravasso C, Péran P, Catani S, Tuovinen N, Sabatini U, Formisano R Abstract The aim of this preliminary study was to present a new approach for connectivity analysis in patients with severe acquired brain injury (ABI) that overcomes some of the difficulties created by anatomical abnormalities due to the brain injury. Using a data-driven approach, resting-state structural MRI (sMRI) and functional MRI (fMRI) data from three severe ABI patients - two with disorders of consciousness (DOC) and one who had recovered consciousness (non-DOC) - were integrated and analyzed. Paramete...
Source: Functional Neurology - February 26, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

The new challenge for Functional Neurology.
Authors: D'Angelo E PMID: 26727699 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - January 15, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

A review of cognitive impairment and differential diagnosis in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.
Authors: Picascia M, Zangaglia R, Bernini S, Minafra B, Sinforiani E, Pacchetti C Abstract Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a complex and still underestimated pathology. In the early stages, the cognitive profile is characterized mainly by impairments of attention, psychomotor speed and memory, suggesting frontal involvement; patients with more advanced iNPH show overall cognitive deterioration. The memory impairment, however, seems to be milder than that seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Clinical and neuroimaging data are crucial for the diagnosis of iNPH, but the presence of different variables,...
Source: Functional Neurology - January 15, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Thermal nociception using a modified Hargreaves method in primates and humans.
Authors: Ma Z, Li Y, Zhang YP, Shields LB, Xie Q, Yan G, Liu W, Chen G, Zhang Y, Brommer B, Xu XM, Lu Y, Chen X, Shields CB Abstract Nociception is an important protective mechanism. The Hargreaves method, which involves measuring withdrawal latency following thermal stimulation to Thermal nociception using a modified Hargreaves method in primates and humans the paw, is commonly used to measure pain thresholds in rodents. We modified this technique to measure pain thresholds in monkeys and humans. The modified Hargreaves method was used to quantitate pain sensitivity in eight normal rhesus monkeys, 55 human volunte...
Source: Functional Neurology - January 15, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Neurophysiological assessment for evaluating residual cognition in vegetative and minimally conscious state patients: a pilot study.
Authors: De Salvo S, Caminiti F, Bonanno L, De Cola MC, Corallo F, Caizzone A, Rifici C, Bramanti P, Marino S Abstract The aim of this study was to assess residual cognitive function and perform outcome evaluation in vegetative state (VS) and minimally conscious state (MCS) patients, using Neurowave, a system able to monitor event-related potentials (ERPs) induced by neurosensory stimulation. Eleven VS and five MCS patients underwent neurological examination and clinical evaluation performed using validated clinical and behavioral scales; they also underwent neurosensory stimulation, which consisted of administrati...
Source: Functional Neurology - January 15, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Multi-channel registration of fractional anisotropy and T1-weighted images in the presence of atrophy: application to multiple sclerosis.
Authors: Roura E, Schneider T, Modat M, Daga P, Muhlert N, Chard D, Ourselin S, Lladó X, Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott C Abstract Co-registration of structural T1-weighted (T1w) scans and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-derived fractional anisotropy (FA) maps to a common space is of particular interest in neuroimaging, as T1w scans can be used for brain segmentation while DTI can provide microstructural tissue information. While the effect of lesions on registration has been tackled and solutions are available, the issue of atrophy is still open to discussion. Multi-channel (MC) registration algorithms have the a...
Source: Functional Neurology - January 15, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Cortical excitability changes over time in progressive multiple sclerosis.
Authors: Ayache SS, Créange A, Farhat WH, Zouari HG, Lesage C, Palm U, Abdellaoui M, Lefaucheur JP Abstract In 25 patients with progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS), motor cortex excitability was longitudinally studied over one year by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The following TMS parameters were considered: resting and active motor thresholds (MTs), input-output curve, short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), and intracortical facilitation. Clinical evaluation was based on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). In the 16 patients not receiving disease-modifying dru...
Source: Functional Neurology - January 15, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Measurement of urinary copper excretion after 48-h d-penicillamine cessation as a compliance assessment in Wilson's disease.
Authors: Dzieżyc K, Litwin T, Chabik G, Członkowska A Abstract Treatment of Wilson's disease (WD) with anti-copper agents is effective in most compliant patients. During long-term treatment with chelating agents, a two-day interruption of the treatment should result in normal urinary copper concentrations (
Source: Functional Neurology - January 15, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Acute effects of high-frequency microfocal vibratory stimulation on the H reflex of the soleus muscle. A double-blind study in healthy subjects.
This study in healthy subjects examined the effects of a system delivering focal microvibrations at high frequency (Equistasi®) on tonic vibration stimulus (TVS)-induced inhibition of the soleus muscle H reflex. Highfrequency microvibrations significantly increased the inhibitory effect of TVS on the H reflex for up to three minutes. Moreover, Equistasi® also significantly reduced alpha-motoneuron excitability, as indicated by the changes in the ratio between the maximumamplitude H reflex (Hmax reflex) and the maximumamplitude muscle response (Mmax response); this effect was due to reduction of the amplitude of the...
Source: Functional Neurology - January 15, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research