Apathy in corticobasal degeneration: possible parietal involvement.
Authors: Moretti R, Caberlotto R, Signori R Abstract Corticobasal degeneration is a rare disorder, which usually consists of a combination of complex movement disorders, apraxia and cortical changes. Its definition is still evolving and in 2013 an international consortium tried to develop new criteria, based on a systematic literature review. Over a long period of time, we carefully selected 23 patients who fulfilled the criteria for a diagnosis of corticobasal degeneration; all had the so-called corticobasal syndrome phenotype, in accordance with Armstrong et al. (2013). Through a dedicated study, we set out to st...
Source: Functional Neurology - January 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Foreground and background: an interview with Peter Singer and three arguments against naturalism.
Authors: Loffi A Abstract The first part of this paper reports an interview with the philosopher Peter Singer. In the second, we examine Singer's background: naturalism and neurophilosophy, discussing three of its theses, as presented by Patricia Smith Churchland. Finally, we go back to Singer himself, to draw some conclusions. PMID: 29306358 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - January 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

The culturally adapted Italian version of the Barthel Index (IcaBI): assessment of structural validity, inter-rater reliability and responsiveness to clinically relevant improvements in patients admitted to inpatient rehabilitation centers.
Authors: Castiglia SF, Galeoto G, Lauta A, Palumbo A, Tirinelli F, Viselli F, Santilli V, Sacchetti ML Abstract The Barthel Index (BI) is widely used to determine eligibility criteria for inpatient rehabilitation and to monitor patients' recovery, irrespective of the illnesses that affect them. The culturally adapted Italian version of the Barthel Index (IcaBI) was recently validated. This paper reports the structural validity and inter-rater reliability of the IcaBI and its responsiveness to the results of inpatient rehabilitation. The IcaBI was administered to a cohort of 264 patients hospitalized in two rehabili...
Source: Functional Neurology - January 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

The need for better access to pain treatment: learning from drug consumption trends in the USA.
Authors: Scuteri D, Piro B, Morrone LA, Corasaniti MT, Vulnera M, Bagetta G Abstract The Authors of this letter look at consumption of opioids and a2- ligands, also known as "gabapentinoids", in Italy, and specifically in the Provincial Health District of Cosenza, as compared with USA trends of recent decades. Access to analgesic drugs since the introduction of Italian law 38/2010 is also evaluated and possible future measures for better management of chronic pain are proposed. PMID: 29306360 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - January 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Rethinking dementias.
Authors: Sinforiani E, Cotta Ramusino M, Costa A PMID: 29041998 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - October 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Electrodiagnostic and nerve ultrasonographic features in upper limb spasticity: an observational study.
Authors: Picelli A, Tamburin S, Berto G, Chemello E, Gandolfi M, Saltuari L, Waldner A, Smania N Abstract To better understand the effects of spasticity on peripheral nerves, we evaluated the electrodiagnostic and nerve ultrasonographic features of the median and ulnar nerves in adults with upper limb spasticity. Twenty chronic stroke patients with spastic hemiparesis underwent nerve conduction study and nerve ultrasonography of the median and ulnar nerves at both upper limbs. Affected versus unaffected upper limb comparisons showed significant differences in the median and ulnar nerve distal motor latencies, compo...
Source: Functional Neurology - October 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Nociceptive blink reflex habituation biofeedback in migraine.
Authors: de Tommaso M, Delussi M Abstract Reduced habituation of the nociceptive blink reflex (NBR) is considered a trait marker for genetic predisposition to migraine. In this open-label randomized controlled study, we aimed to test the efficacy of a biofeedback training based on learning of habituation of the NBR (NBR biofeedback) compared with pharmacological (topiramate) treatment and NBR biofeedback plus topiramate treatment in a cohort of migraine without aura patients eligible for prophylaxis. Thirty-three migraine patients were randomly assigned to three months of treatment with: 1) NBR biofeedback, 2) NBR ...
Source: Functional Neurology - October 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Recovery from vegetative state of patients with a severe brain injury: a 4-year real-practice prospective cohort study.
Authors: Baricich A, de Sire A, Antoniono E, Gozzerino F, Lamberti G, Cisari C, Invernizzi M Abstract Patients who have suffered severe traumatic or nontraumatic brain injuries can show a progressive recovery, transitioning through a range of clinical conditions. They may progress from coma to a vegetative state (VS) and/or a minimally conscious state (MCS). A longer duration of the VS is known to be related to a lower probability of emergence from it; furthermore, the literature seems to lack evidence of late improvements in these patients. This real-practice prospective cohort study was conducted in inpatients in...
Source: Functional Neurology - October 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in Parkinson's disease and other parkinsonisms.
Authors: Crosta F, Desideri G, Marini C Abstract An association of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and other sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) with Parkinson's disease (PD) has been reported in some small studies. In the present study we investigated the occurrence of SDB in a large consecutive outpatient series. This is a case-control study in subjects attending a neurological clinic where all patients were screened for SDB by means of sleep-wake history, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and full-night polysomnography, when indicated. 3194 patients were recruited. Of these, 194 were affected by PD and 77 by other ...
Source: Functional Neurology - October 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Pisa syndrome in Parkinson's disease: electromyographic quantification of paraspinal and non-paraspinal muscle activity.
Authors: Geroin C, Squintani G, Morini A, Donato F, Smania N, Gandolfi MG, Tamburin S, Fasano A, Tinazzi M Abstract Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and Pisa syndrome (PS) may present tonic dystonic or compensatory (i.e. acting against gravity) hyperactivity in the paraspinal and non-paraspinal muscles. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was measured in nine patients with PD and PS, three with PD without PS, and five healthy controls. Fine-wire intramuscular electrodes were inserted bilaterally into the iliocostalis lumborum (ICL), iliocostalis thoracis (ICT), gluteus medius (GM), and external oblique (EO) musc...
Source: Functional Neurology - October 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Quantitative, functional MRI and neurophysiological markers in a case of Gerstmann-Str äussler-Scheinker syndrome.
We describe the case of a 40-year-old male, affected by a slowly progressive gait disturbance, leg weakness and cognitive impairment. Genomic DNA revealed a point mutation of PRNP at codon 102, resulting in P102L, and the diagnosis of GSS was confirmed. Somatosensory evoked potentials showed alterations of principal parameters, particularly in the right upper and lower limbs. Laser-evoked potentials were indicative of nociceptive system impairment, especially in the right upper and lower limbs. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed marked atrophy of the vermis and cerebellar hemispheres and mild atrophy of...
Source: Functional Neurology - October 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Analysis of Italian regulations on pathways of care for patients in a vegetative or minimally conscious state.
Authors: Sattin D, De Torres L, Dolce G, Arcuri F, Estraneo A, Cardinale V, Piperno R, Zavatta E, Formisano R, D'Ippolito M, Vassallo C, Dessi B, Lamberti G, Antoniono E, Lanzillotti C, Navarro J, Bramanti P, Marino S, Zampolini M, Scarponi F, Avesani R, Salvi L, Ferro S, Mazza L, Fogar P, Feller S, De Nigris F, Martinuzzi A, Buffoni M, Pessina A, Corsico P, Leonardi M Abstract Different rehabilitation models for persons diagnosed with disorders of consciousness have been proposed in Europe during the last decade. In Italy, the Ministry of Health has defined a national healthcare model, although, to date, there is ...
Source: Functional Neurology - October 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

The past and future of Functional Neurology.
Authors: D'Angelo E, Boller F, Wheeler-Kingshott CG, Vanacore N, Sandrini G, Cisari C, Tamburin S, Baricich A PMID: 28676137 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - July 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

European core curriculum in neurorehabilitation.
In conclusion, after defining the European medical core curriculum in neurorehabilitation, the next activities of the EFNR will be to try and reach the largest possible consensus on its content among all national societies across Europe in order to further validate it and try to extend it to the other, non-medical, professionals on the neurorehabilitation team in line with their core curricula defined by each professional association. PMID: 28676138 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - July 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Object decision and multiple sclerosis: a preliminary study.
Authors: Caputi N, Matrella A, Totaro R, Raparelli C, Pontecorvo S, Di Giacomo D, Passafiume D Abstract The aim of this research was to study cognitive dysfunctions in multiple sclerosis (MS) by exploring subtle cognitive tasks, usually not included in the standard neuropsychological assessment. We wished to investigate whether it is possible to identify object decision deficits in MS patients without evident cognitive impairment; secondary objectives were to understand whether these deficits can be detected in the early stages of the disease and whether there are differences related to different phenotypes. Partic...
Source: Functional Neurology - July 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Cerebellar transcranial static magnetic field stimulation transiently reduces cerebellar brain inhibition.
Authors: Matsugi A, Okada Y Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate whether transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS) delivered using a compact cylindrical NdFeB magnet over the cerebellum modulates the excitability of the cerebellum and contralateral primary motor cortex, as measured using cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI), motor evoked potentials (MEPs), and resting motor threshold (rMT). These parameters were measured before tSMS or sham stimulation and immediately, 5 minutes and 10 minutes after stimulation. There were no significant changes in CBI, MEPs or rMT over time in the sham stimul...
Source: Functional Neurology - July 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

HLA-DRB1*15 association with multiple sclerosis is confirmed in a multigenerational Italian family.
We describe a multigenerational Italian family with six individuals affected by MS, showing different clinical and neuroradiological findings. HLA-DRB1* typing revealed the presence of the DRB1*15:01 allele in all the MS cases and in 4/5 non-affected subjects. Reports on six multigenerational MS families have previously been published, giving similar results. The HLA-DRB1*15:01 allele was confirmed to be linked to MS disease in this family; moreover, its presence in non-affected subjects suggests the involvement of other susceptibility factors in the development and expression of the disease, in accordance with the complex...
Source: Functional Neurology - July 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

The Italian real-life post-stroke spasticity survey: unmet needs in the management of spasticity with botulinum toxin type A.
Authors: Picelli A, Baricich A, Cisari C, Paolucci S, Smania N, Sandrini G Abstract The present national survey seeking to identify unmet needs in the management of spasticity with botulinum toxin type A focused on the use of OnabotulinumoxinA, since this is the brand with the widest range of licensed indications in Italy. Physicians from twenty-four Italian neurorehabilitation units compiled a questionnaire about "real-life" post-stroke spasticity management. OnabotulinumtoxinA was reported to be used in the following average doses: upper limb 316.7 ± 79.1 units; lower limb 327.8 ± 152.3; u...
Source: Functional Neurology - July 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Sensitivity of multi-shell NODDI to multiple sclerosis white matter changes: a pilot study.
Authors: Schneider T, Brownlee W, Zhang H, Ciccarelli O, Miller DH, Wheeler-Kingshott CG Abstract Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is sensitive to white matter (WM) damage in multiple sclerosis (MS), not only in focal lesions but also in the normal-appearing WM (NAWM). However, DTI indices can also be affected by natural spatial variation in WM, as seen in crossing and dispersing white matter fibers. Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) is an advanced diffusion-weighted imaging technique that provides distinct indices of fiber density and dispersion. We performed NODDI of lesion tissue and NAWM ...
Source: Functional Neurology - July 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Ixcellence Network ®: an international educational network to improve current practice in themanagement of cervical dystonia or spastic paresis by botulinum toxin injection.
Ixcellence Network®: an international educational network to improve current practice in themanagement of cervical dystonia or spastic paresis by botulinum toxin injection. Funct Neurol. 2017 Apr/Jun;32(2):103-110 Authors: Fheodoroff K, Bhidayasiri R, Jacinto LJ, Chung TM, Bhatia K, Landreauf T, Colosimo C Abstract Botulinum toxin is a well-established treatment for a number of conditions involving muscle hyperactivity, such as focal dystonia and spastic paresis. However, current injection practice is not standardized and there is a clear need for structured training. An international group of expe...
Source: Functional Neurology - July 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Back to the future: 30th anniversary of deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease.
Authors: Pozzi NG, Pacchetti C PMID: 28380317 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - April 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Recent advances in the molecular genetics of frontotemporal lobar degeneration.
Authors: Rainero I, Rubino E, Michelerio A, D'Agata F, Gentile S, Pinessi L Abstract The term frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) describes a spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders associated with deposition of misfolded proteins in the frontal and temporal lobes. Up to 40% of FTLD patients reports a family history of neurodegeneration, and approximately 1/3 of familial cases shows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance of the phenotype. Over the past two decades, several causative and susceptibility genes for FTLD have been discovered, supporting the notion that genetic factors are important contributo...
Source: Functional Neurology - April 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

The coefficient of friction in Parkinson's disease gait.
In conclusion, the patients' COFs exhibited patterns that were different from those of the control group. Moreover, during the loading response phase, these differences were well-correlated with the Timed Up and Go Test scale data; Timed Up and Go Test data can be used to identify the risk of falls among PD patients. PMID: 28380319 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - April 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Reappraisal of the F/M amplitude ratio in carpal tunnel syndrome.
Authors: Ginanneschi F, Mondelli M, Aretini A, Rossi A Abstract The F-wave/M-wave amplitude (F/M-amp) ratio has been shown to be increased in peripheral neuropathies, provided the maximum M-wave is relatively preserved. Reduced M-wave amplitudes and central facilitation of antidromically-induced reactivation of the anterior horn cells' axon hillocks (F-wave) are believed to contribute to higher F/M-amp ratios. The present study was undertaken to re-evaluate mechanisms responsible for higher F/M-amp ratios in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We enrolled 232 cases affected by CTS and 108 controls. Fand M-wave amplitudes...
Source: Functional Neurology - April 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Gait analysis and clinical correlations in early Parkinson's disease.
Authors: Pistacchi M, Gioulis M, Sanson F, De Giovannini E, Filippi G, Rossetto F, Zambito Marsala S Abstract The aim of our study was to identify and quantify spatiotemporal and kinematic gait parameters obtained by 3D gait analysis (GA) in a group of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients compared with healthy subjects in order to investigate whether early PD patients could present an abnormal gait pattern. Forty-four patients affected by early-stage PD compared with a control group were analyzed. All participants were evaluated with 3D GA in the gait laboratory. The greatest significance in temporal parameters was fo...
Source: Functional Neurology - April 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Vitamin D in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Authors: Libonati L, Onesti E, Gori MC, Ceccanti M, Cambieri C, Fabbri A, Frasca V, Inghilleri M Abstract Vitamin D supplementation has been proposed as a potential treatment to delay amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) progression. The aims of this study were to compare retrospectively vitamin D blood levels in ALS patients with those in healthy subjects; to correlate vitamin D blood levels with clinical functions in patients; and to evaluate whether administration of vitamin D could modify the clinical progression of the disease. Vitamin D blood levels were evaluated in 57ALS patients and in 57 healthy subjects. ...
Source: Functional Neurology - April 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

A retrospective analysis of 254 acute stroke cases admitted to two university hospitals in Beirut: classification and associated factors.
Authors: Lahoud N, Abbas MH, Salameh P, Saleh N, Abes S, Hosseini H, Gebeily S Abstract Lebanon is a developing country where the prevalence of stroke subtypes and their correlation with risk factors have not been studied, even though stroke management is an ongoing major national healthcare challenge. In a retrospective study conducted in two university hospitals, data were collected on all stroke cases admitted in 2012 and 2013. Ischemic strokes were then classified according to a modified TOAST classification. A total of 254 inpatients (mean age 68.41 years ±13.34, 55.1% males) was included in the study; ...
Source: Functional Neurology - April 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

A 15-year epileptogenic period after perinatal brain injury.
We report the case of a young patient who presented stroke-related seizures in the neonatal period and then developed focal symptomatic epilepsy at 15 years of age, and in whom the epileptic focus was found to co-localize with the site of his ischemic brain lesion. Such a prolonged silent period before onset of remote symptomatic epilepsy has not previously been reported. This case suggests that newborns with seizures due to a neonatal stroke are at higher risk of epilepsy and that the epileptogenic process in these subjects can last longer than a decade. PMID: 28380324 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - April 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

In the face of pain there are no heroes. An open letter to the members of the European Parliament about ensuring in the whole Europe high quality care, research, equitable employment opportunities, and socio-economic support for Cluster Headache (CH) pati.
Authors: Rossi P, Craven A, De La Torra ER PMID: 28380325 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - April 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

The challenge of in vivo tissue characterization, connectivity and big data.
Authors: Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott C PMID: 28072379 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - January 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Network functional connectivity and whole-brain functional connectomics to investigate cognitive decline in neurodegenerative conditions.
Authors: Dipasquale O, Cercignani M Abstract Non-invasive mapping of brain functional connectivity (FC) has played a fundamental role in neuroscience, and numerous scientists have been fascinated by its ability to reveal the brain's intricate morphology and functional properties. In recent years, two different techniques have been developed that are able to explore FC in pathophysiological conditions and to provide simple and non-invasive biomarkers for the detection of disease onset, severity and progression. These techniques are independent component analysis, which allows a network-based functional exploration o...
Source: Functional Neurology - January 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative dementias.
Authors: Del Sole A, Malaspina S, Magenta Biasina A Abstract Neuroimaging, both with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), has gained a pivotal role in the diagnosis of primary neurodegenerative diseases. These two techniques are used as biomarkers of both pathology and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to differentiate AD from other neurodegenerative diseases. MRI is able to identify structural changes including patterns of atrophy characterizing neurodegenerative diseases, and to distinguish these from other causes of cognitive impairment, e.g. infarcts, space-occupyin...
Source: Functional Neurology - January 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Modeling white matter microstructure.
Authors: Duval T, Stikov N, Cohen-Adad J Abstract Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging can be combined with advanced biophysical models to measure microstructural features of white matter. Non-invasive microstructural imaging has the potential to revolutionize neuroscience, and acquiring these measures in clinically feasible times would greatly improve patient monitoring and clinical studies of drug efficacy. However, a good understanding of microstructural imaging techniques is essential to set realistic expectations and to prevent over-interpretation of results. This review explains the methodology behind micr...
Source: Functional Neurology - January 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Reconstructing contralateral fiber tracts: methodological aspects of cerebello-thalamocortical pathway reconstruction.
Authors: Palesi F, Tournier JD, Calamante F, Muhlert N, Castellazzi G, Chard D, D'Angelo E, Wheeler-Kingshott CG Abstract The identification of pathways connecting the cerebral cortex with subcortical structures is critical to understanding how large-scale brain networks operate. The cerebellum, for example, is known to project numerous axonal bundles to thecerebral cortex passing through the thalamus. This paper focuses on the technical details of cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathway reconstruction using advanced diffusion MRI techniques in humans in vivo. Pathways reconstructed using seed/target placement on super-...
Source: Functional Neurology - January 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Impact of cerebellar atrophy on cortical gray matter and cerebellar peduncles as assessed by voxel-based morphometry and high angular resolution diffusion imaging.
We examined a cohort of patients suffering from cerebellar atrophy resulting in ataxia, with two main objectives: first to investigate which regions of the cerebrum were affected by the cerebellar degeneration, and second to assess whether diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) metrics within the medial (MCP) and superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) - namely fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) - could be used as a biomarker in patients with this condition. Structural and dMRI data of seven patients with cerebellar atrophy (2 with spinocerebellar atrophy type 2, 1 with Friedreich's ataxia, 4 with idiop...
Source: Functional Neurology - January 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Connectivity measures in the Poffenberger paradigm indicate hemispheric asymmetries.
In this study we used connectivity measures in an attempt to interpret CUD from the perspective of functional connectivity. Accordingly, we tried to define functional couplings in the Poffenberger paradigm; we used a simple choice version of the paradigm, and included a stimulation only (SO) condition for comparison. As an index of functional coupling we employed partial directed coherence, exploiting bilateral grouping of the electrodes to compute intra-and interhemispheric connection weight ratios (CWRs). Our findings indicated modulations in functional weights in relation to the SO condition, rather than the crossed and...
Source: Functional Neurology - January 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Main effects and interactions of cerebral hemispheres, gender, and age in the calculation of volumes and asymmetries of selected structures of episodic memory.
Authors: Ramirez-Carmona R, Garcia-Lazaro HG, Dominguez-Corrales B, Aguilar-Castañeda E, Roldan-Valadez E Abstract The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of anatomical (cerebral hemisphere) and demographic (age and gender) variables on the gray matter (GM) volumes and volumetric asymmetry indices (VAIs) of selected structures involved in episodic memory. A cross-sectional study was performed in 47 healthy volunteers. Neuropsychological evaluation revealed similar IQs across the sample. Using SPM-based software, brain segmentation, labeling and volume measurements of the hippocampus, amygdala, mid...
Source: Functional Neurology - January 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

The challenge of in vivo tissue characterization, connectivity and big data.
Authors: Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott C PMID: 27976607 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - December 17, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Network functional connectivity and whole-brain functional connectomics to investigate cognitive decline in neurodegenerative conditions.
Authors: Dipasquale O, Cercignani M Abstract Non-invasive mapping of brain functional connectivity (FC) has played a fundamental role in neuroscience, and numerous scientists have been fascinated by its ability to reveal the brain's intricate morphology and functional properties. In recent years, two different techniques have been developed that are able to explore FC in pathophysiological conditions and to provide simple and non-invasive biomarkers for the detection of disease onset, severity and progression. These techniques are independent component analysis, which allows a network-based functional exploration o...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 17, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Modeling white matter microstructure.
Authors: Duval T, Stikov N, Cohen-Adad J Abstract Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging can be combined with advanced biophysical models to measure microstructural features of white matter. Non-invasive microstructural imaging has the potential to revolutionize neuroscience, and acquiring these measures in clinically feasible times would greatly improve patient monitoring and clinical studies of drug efficacy. However, a good understanding of microstructural imaging techniques is essential to set realistic expectations and to prevent over-interpretation of results. This review explains the methodology behind micr...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 14, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Main effects and interactions of cerebral hemispheres, gender, and age in the calculation of volumes and asymmetries of selected structures of episodic memory.
Authors: Ramirez-Carmona R, Garcia-Lazaro HG, Dominguez-Corrales B, Aguilar-Castañeda E, Roldan-Valadez E Abstract The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of anatomical (cerebral hemisphere) and demographic (age and gender) variables on the gray matter (GM) volumes and volumetric asymmetry indices (VAIs) of selected structures involved in episodic memory. A cross-sectional study was performed in 47 healthy volunteers. Neuropsychological evaluation revealed similar IQs across the sample. Using SPM-based software, brain segmentation, labeling and volume measurements of the hippocampus, amygdala, mid...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 3, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Impact of cerebellar atrophy on cortical gray matter and cerebellar peduncles as assessed by voxel-based morphometry and high angular resolution diffusion imaging.
We examined a cohort of patients suffering from cerebellar atrophy resulting in ataxia, with two main objectives: first to investigate which regions of the cerebrum were affected by the cerebellar degeneration, and second to assess whether diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) metrics within the medial (MCP) and superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) - namely fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) - could be used as a biomarker in patients with this condition. Structural and dMRI data of seven patients with cerebellar atrophy (2 with spinocerebellar atrophy type 2, 1 with Friedreich's ataxia, 4 with idiop...
Source: Functional Neurology - October 28, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Connectivity measures in the Poffenberger paradigm indicate hemispheric asymmetries.
In this study we used connectivity measures in an attempt to interpret CUD from the perspective of functional connectivity. Accordingly, we tried to define functional couplings in the Poffenberger paradigm; we used a simple choice version of the paradigm, and included a stimulation only (SO) condition for comparison. As an index of functional coupling we employed partial directed coherence, exploiting bilateral grouping of the electrodes to compute intra-and interhemispheric connection weight ratios (CWRs). Our findings indicated modulations in functional weights in relation to the SO condition, rather than the crossed and...
Source: Functional Neurology - October 28, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative dementias.
Authors: Del Sole A, Malaspina S, Magenta Biasina A Abstract Neuroimaging, both with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), has gained a pivotal role in the diagnosis of primary neurodegenerative diseases. These two techniques are used as biomarkers of both pathology and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to differentiate AD from other neurodegenerative diseases. MRI is able to identify structural changes including patterns of atrophy characterizing neurodegenerative diseases, and to distinguish these from other causes of cognitive impairment, e.g. infarcts, space-occupyin...
Source: Functional Neurology - October 28, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Women with epilepsy.
Authors: Sharma A, Boller F, Koubeissi M PMID: 27678204 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - October 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Women with epilepsy: clinically relevant issues.
Authors: Bangar S, Shastri A, El-Sayeh H, Cavanna AE Abstract Women with epilepsy (WWE) face specific challenges throughout their lifespan due to the effects of seizures and antiepileptic drugs on hormonal function, potentially affecting both sexual and reproductive health. This review article addresses the most common issues of practical relevance to clinicians treating WWE: epidemiology and clinical presentations (including catamenial epilepsy), contraception, reproductive and sexual dysfunction, pregnancy, lactation, menopause-related issues (including bone health), and mental health aspects. Awareness of these ...
Source: Functional Neurology - October 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Clinical and genetic investigation of a Brazilian family with Huntington's disease.
Authors: Agostinho LA, Spitz M, Pereira JS, Paiva CL Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate a Brazilian family carrying full penetrance alleles for Huntington's disease (HD) in order to correlate each member's genetic and clinical features. To this end, the following scales were administered in each patient: the Beck Depression Inventory, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS). The patterns of CAG and CCG polymorphic regions in the HTT gene were determined, the disease burden score was calculated, and genotypes were correlated with phenotypes wi...
Source: Functional Neurology - October 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Spectrum of cognitive disorders in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.
Authors: Picascia M, Minafra B, Zangaglia R, Gracardi L, Pozzi NG, Sinforiani E, Pacchetti C Abstract Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a syndrome characterized by ventricular dilation accompanied by a progressive triad of a gait disturbance, "dementia" and incontinence. We retrospectively evaluated cognitive profile, and its relationship with disease variables, in 64 iNPH patients. The iNPH group performed significantly worse than the control group on all neuropsychological tests, except for verbal memory (within the normal range). The patients were subdivided into four groups: group 1 (...
Source: Functional Neurology - October 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

New test of odor pleasantness in Parkinson's disease.
This study shows that the NTOP is a valuable method within the complex array of olfactory screening tools used in PD. PMID: 27678208 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - October 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Incidence and predictors of stroke during the index event in an ethnically diverse Takotsubo cardiomyopathy population.
Authors: Dias A, Franco E, Janzer S, Koshkelashvili N, Bhalla V, Rubio M, Amanullah S, Hebert K, Figueredo VM Abstract Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTS) is a peculiar clinical condition often affecting postmenopausal women after a stressful trigger. The underlying mechanisms have not been completely elucidated but several hypotheses have been advanced, with catecholamine cardiotoxicity, microvascular dysfunction and coronary artery spasm each suggested to play a role. The incidence of stroke after TTS appears to range from 0% to 7.7%, and interestingly TTS has been described as both a cause and a complication of strok...
Source: Functional Neurology - October 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research