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Does it always pay to defend one's nest? A case study in African penguin
In this study, we related breeding success to individual behaviour, specifically a risk‐taking behaviour, and pair assortment per behaviour in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) over two breeding seasons of contrasting food availability. On Bird Island, Algoa Bay, South Africa, we used indices of boldness and overall mobility in penguins’ nest defence behaviour as a response to a standard pedestrian approach during chick‐rearing. These behaviours were consistent over the trials and indicated these traits may be related to personality in African penguins. Individuals were categorized as risk‐prone (“bo...
Source: Ethology - November 16, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Gwendoline Traisnel, Lorien Pichegru Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Behavior and temperature modulate a thermoregulation –predation risk trade‐off in juvenile gopher tortoises
Abstract Ectotherms frequently thermoregulate behaviorally to improve physiological processes such as digestion and growth, but basking and other thermoregulatory activities can also increase predation risk. Organismal and environmental characteristics can, in some species, influence predation risk associated with thermoregulation and thereby relax or tighten constraints on thermoregulatory behavior, physiological performance, and, ultimately, life history traits. Providing one of the first such investigations in turtles, we examine whether behavior and thermal environment modulate a thermoregulation–predation risk t...
Source: Ethology - November 9, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Thomas A. Radzio, Michael P. O'Connor Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) basking in the sun with mouth agape. Crocodiles do not have sweat glands and therefore open their jaws to avoid overheating. Photograph taken in Zimanga Private Game Reserve (South Africa) and reproduced by permission of Emmanuel Do Linh San.
(Source: Ethology)
Source: Ethology - November 9, 2017 Category: Zoology Tags: FRONT COVER Source Type: research

Functions of post ‐conflict affiliation with a bystander differ between aggressors and victims in Japanese macaques
In conclusion, aggressors benefited in stress reduction, whereas victims benefited in self‐protection through affiliation with bystanders with whom they have a good relationship. Our study indicated that monkeys cope with post‐conflict problems according to their roles or situations not only by reconciliation but also by bystander affiliation. (Source: Ethology)
Source: Ethology - November 1, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Noriko Katsu, Kazunori Yamada, Masayuki Nakamichi Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Melodic males and flashy females: Geographic variation in male and female reproductive behavior in red ‐eyed treefrogs (Agalychnis callidryas)
Abstract Geographic variation in courtship behavior can affect reproductive success of divergent phenotypes via mate choice. Over time, this can lead to reproductive isolation and ultimately to speciation. The Neotropical red‐eyed treefrog (Agalychnis callidryas) exhibits high levels of phenotypic variation among populations in Costa Rica and Panama, including differences in color pattern, body size, and skin peptides. To test the extent of behavioral premating isolation among differentiated populations, we quantified male advertisement calls from six sites and female responses to male stimuli (acoustic and visual signal...
Source: Ethology - November 1, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Maria Akopyan, Kristine Kaiser, Andres Vega, Neha G. Savant, Cassandra Y. Owen, Steven R. Dudgeon, Jeanne M. Robertson Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

A comparison of individual distinctiveness in three vocalizations of the dwarf mongoose (Helogale parvula)
Abstract Individual specificity can be found in the vocalizations of many avian and mammalian species. However, it is often difficult to determine whether these vocal cues to identity rise from “unselected” individual differences in vocal morphology or whether they have been accentuated by selection for the purposes of advertising caller identity. By comparing the level of acoustic individuality of different vocalizations within the repertoire of a single species, it is possible to ascertain whether selection for individual recognition has modified the vocal cues to identity in particular contexts. We used disc...
Source: Ethology - October 17, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Janneke Rubow, Michael I. Cherry, Lynda L. Sharpe Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Reconciliation and third ‐party affiliation in carrion crows
Abstract Conflicts are costly because they can damage social relationships. To buffer conflicts, various species use post‐conflict behaviour, such as reconciliation or third‐party affiliation. Both behaviours have predominantly been studied in non‐human primates. However, recently, studies revealed post‐conflict behaviour in other mammalian and some bird species (e.g., corvids). While third‐party affiliation has been reported in several corvid species, reconciliation has only rarely been observed. The social structure of the studied groups has been postulated as a reason for the absence of reconciliation. Here, w...
Source: Ethology - October 17, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Miriam Jennifer Sima, Theresa Matzinger, Thomas Bugnyar, Simone Pika Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Behavioural response evoked by conspecific distress calls in two neotropical treefrogs
Abstract Anurans emit distress calls when attacked by predators as a defensive mechanism. As distress calls may trigger antipredator behaviour even in individuals that are not under attack, we tested whether this defensive behaviour induced behavioural changes in neighbouring conspecifics. We compared the behavioural responses of two species of Neotropical hylid frogs (genus Boana) to conspecific distress calls and white noise. Individuals of both species interrupted their vocal activity and decreased call rate after hearing the distress call. Natural variation on signal intensity calibrated among the nearest neighbours di...
Source: Ethology - October 16, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Lucas Rodriguez Forti, Anna B árbara Bella Sanches Forti, Rafael Márquez, Luís Felipe Toledo Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Grooming behaviors of black ‐tailed prairie dogs are influenced by flea parasitism, conspecifics, and proximity to refuge
Abstract Grooming is a common animal behavior that aids in ectoparasite defense. Ectoparasites can stimulate grooming, and natural selection can also favor endogenous mechanisms that evoke periodic bouts of “programmed” grooming to dislodge or kill ectoparasites before they bite or feed. Moreover, grooming can function as a displacement or communication behavior. We compared the grooming behaviors of adult female black‐tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on colonies with or without flea control via pulicide dust. Roughly 91% of the prairie dogs sampled on the non‐dusted colony carried at least one fl...
Source: Ethology - October 13, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: David A. Eads, Dean E. Biggins, Samantha L. Eads Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Grunt to go —Vocal coordination of group movements in redfronted lemurs
This study thus contributes to a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms of group coordination and collective decision‐making. (Source: Ethology)
Source: Ethology - October 13, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Anna Lucia Sperber, Lynne M. Werner, Peter M. Kappeler, Claudia Fichtel Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Do birds differentiate between white noise and deterministic chaos?
Abstract Noisy, unpredictable sounds are often present in the vocalizations of fearful and stressed animals across many taxa. A variety of structural characteristics, called nonlinear acoustic phenomena, that include subharmonics, rapid frequency modulations, and deterministic chaos are responsible for the harsh sound quality of these vocalizations. Exposure to nonlinear sound can elicit increased arousal in birds and mammals. Past experiments have used white noise to test for effects of deterministic chaos on perceivers. However, deterministic chaos differs structurally from white noise (i.e., random signal with equal ene...
Source: Ethology - October 12, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Daniel T. Blumstein, Jessica Whitaker, Judith Kennen, Gregory A. Bryant Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Mangrove crab uses victory display to “browbeat” losers from re‐initiating a new fight
Abstract Signalling behaviour is integral to animal contests. However, post‐contest signals, such as victory displays, have received relatively little attention. One hypothesised function of victory displays is to ensure a more lasting dominance by reducing the risk of losers re‐initiating a new contest with winners. Despite several theoretical studies using game theory that support this hypothesis, empirical support for the understanding of when and why victory displays are used with respect to browbeating is lacking. We use a common South‐East Asian mangrove crab, Perisesarma eumolpe, to examine whether the perform...
Source: Ethology - October 12, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Paul Z. Chen, Roman L. Carrasco, Peter K. L. Ng Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Mating plugs and sexual cannibalism in the Colombian orb ‐web spider Leucauge mariana
Abstract In Leucauge orb‐web spiders, females form mating plugs, which play a part in cryptic female choice after they evaluate male performance during courtship and mating. Our aim was to assess sexual behavior and mating plug formation of Leucauge mariana from Colombia (CO). We carried out mating trials to describe in detail courtship and mating behavior of sexual pairs from the CO population, and then compared the results to previously collected data from a Costa Rican population (CR). In addition, we assessed the amount of sperm transferred during mating predict plug formation in CO pairs. All CO virgin females mated...
Source: Ethology - October 12, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Linda Hern ández, Anita Aisenberg, Jorge Molina Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Habitat complexity dampens selection on prey activity level
Abstract Conspecific prey individuals often exhibit persistent differences in behavior (i.e., animal personality) and consequently vary in their susceptibility to predation. How this form of selection varies across environmental contexts is essential to predicting ecological and evolutionary dynamics, yet remains currently unresolved. Here, we use three separate predator–prey systems (sea star–snail, wolf spider–cricket, and jumping spider–cricket) to independently examine how habitat structural complexity influences the selection that predators impose on prey behavioral types. Prior to conducting s...
Source: Ethology - October 12, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Carl N. Keiser, Spencer J. Ingley, Benjamin J. Toscano, Inon Scharf, Jonathan N. Pruitt Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Olfactory eavesdropping: The odor of feathers is detectable to mammalian predators and competitors
Abstract The role of olfactory eavesdropping in interactions between mammalian predator and prey species is well established. Bird plumage can be odorous and consequently nest predators could use odor to identify and locate avian prey, and nest competitors could use odor to assess occupancy of nest cavities by birds. However, despite extensive research on avian nest predation and competition, the costs of olfactory eavesdropping on plumage odor by nest predators or competitors remain largely unknown. We used two experiments to investigate whether feather odor is detected by marsupial species which are competitors for nest ...
Source: Ethology - October 12, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Milla Mihailova, Mathew L. Berg, Katherine L. Buchanan, Andrew T. D. Bennett Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Importance of wing movements for information transfer during honey bee waggle dance
Abstract There is growing evidence indicating that dancing honeybees can transfer some information about the found food source by means of wing movements. However, the available data are limited and inconclusive in the case of the frequency of wing beats. Therefore, in this study, the hypothesis that the wing beats convey information about the foraging distance was re‐examined. Honeybee dances were recorded using a high‐speed camera, and foraging distances were decoded from the duration of waggle phases. Dancing honeybees moved their wings for almost half (47%) of the duration of waggle phases. The number of wing‐bea...
Source: Ethology - October 12, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Sylwia Łopuch, Adam Tofilski Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Interspecific association of brown trout (Salmo trutta) with non ‐native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) at the fry stage
In this study, we therefore assess whether juvenile brown trout associate with non‐native juvenile brook trout to the same extent as with conspecifics by setting up two experiments: (i) a binomial choice test allowing visual and chemical cues to estimate the species specificity of group preference, and (ii) an association test without physical barriers to estimate the degree of association of a focal brown trout with a group of either conspecifics or heterospecifics. In experiment (1), we found that focal juvenile brown trout preferred to associate with the stimuli groups and did not discriminate either against conspecif...
Source: Ethology - October 11, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Magnus Lov én Wallerius, Joacim Näslund, Barbara Koeck, Jörgen I. Johnsson Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

White ‐fronted Bee‐eaters (Merops bullockoides) nest in small colonies averaging 200 individuals, digging holes in cliffs or earthen banks. Their diet primarily comprises bees, but they also take other flying insects (such as Ichneumon wasps) depending on season and related prey availability. They hun t either by making quick hawking flights from lower branches of shrubs and trees, or glide slowly down from their perch and hover briefly to catch insects. Photograph taken in Zimanga Private Game Reserve (South Africa) and reproduced by permission of Emmanuel Do Linh San.
(Source: Ethology)
Source: Ethology - October 11, 2017 Category: Zoology Tags: FRONT COVER Source Type: research

Riverside wren pairs jointly defend their territories against simulated intruders
This study is one of the few to demonstrate equal attention and aggression from mated pairs towards simulated same‐sex and opposite‐sex intruders. We suggest that pairs responding together, in close proximity to one another, might be favourable in duetting species when defending the territory because maintaining a close distance between partners facilitates the extreme coordination of their joint territorial signals. (Source: Ethology)
Source: Ethology - October 11, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Esmeralda Quir ós‐Guerrero, Maria João Janeiro, Marvin Lopez‐Morales, Will Cresswell, Christopher N. Templeton Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Ontogenetic changes in chemical alarm cue recognition and fast ‐start performance in guppies (Poecilia reticulata)
The objectives of this study were to determine whether risk recognition and fast‐start performance in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exhibit ontogenetic variation, and whether there is a trade‐off between risk recognition and fast‐start performance. To achieve these objectives, individual guppies from replicate groups were assayed on one of the 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st, or 28th day after their birth. We found that both the risk recognition and fast‐start performance in guppies exhibited ontogenetic variation, as on days 1 and 7, fish did not exhibit risk recognition when exposed to alarm cues from conspecifics, but by d...
Source: Ethology - October 11, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Jigang Xia, Meiling Cheng, Ruiyu Cai, Shijian Fu, Steven J. Cooke, Chris K. Elvidge Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

After encountering a possibly novel odour, this African Wild Dog (Lycaon pictus) sniffed and rolled in it, getting the scent on its body, especially around the face and the neck. The tail up indicates arousal or excitement as a result of rolling in the scent. The adaptive value of this behaviour is still unclear; the most plausible explanations propose that it could either be a way to bring information back to the pack or to mask the dog's odour while hunting. Photograph taken in Zimanga Private Game Reserve, South Africa, and reproduced by permission of Emmanuel Do Linh San.
(Source: Ethology)
Source: Ethology - September 19, 2017 Category: Zoology Tags: FRONT COVER Source Type: research

Personality traits and behavioural profiles in the domestic canary are affected by sex and photoperiod
This study is the first to explicitly investigate the influence of photoperiod on both behavioural profiles and personality traits. Six potential personality traits (within‐flock activity, ability to escape, response to threat, isolation calling, boldness and neophobia) and dominance were measured four times in 96 domestic canaries Serinus canaria (48 males and 48 females): twice during a long photoperiod (Long Days) and 6 months later twice during a short photoperiod (Short Days). Without regard to sex and photoperiod, most traits were highly repeatable, and bolder canaries were more dominant, less sensitive to an ...
Source: Ethology - September 15, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Mathieu Amy, Davy Ung, Nathalie B éguin, Gérard Leboucher Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Personality ‐related differences in response to habitat in Mediterranean blue tits
This study aimed to test whether personality‐related differences in annual reproductive success differed between two populations of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) occupying different Mediterranean habitats (oakwood and pinewood). We measured exploration and parental provisioning behaviours and used a path analysis to ask how the interplay between these two behavioural traits affected reproductive success in each of these two habitats. We found that blue tits breeding in the pinewood were slow‐exploring compared to blue tits breeding in the oakwood, suggesting the occurrence of personality‐related differences in sett...
Source: Ethology - September 11, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Eva Serrano ‐Davies, Yimen G. Araya‐Ajoy, Niels J. Dingemanse, Juan José Sanz Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Behaviors associated with mating success in the “purring” wolf spider Gladicosa gulosa
Abstract Studies of sexual selection in animal systems frequently use courtship and receptivity behaviors as metrics for mating success, and this is generally built upon data associating such behaviors with mating. Spider systems are becoming increasingly popular in sexual selection research, and the wolf spider Gladicosa gulosa has the potential to help answer unique questions in animal communication. However, this species is understudied, and no quantitative data exist that demonstrate which male and female behaviors may be indicators of mating success. We paired male and female G. gulosa and recorded the behaviors invol...
Source: Ethology - September 11, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Alexander L. Sweger, Corey J. Vaughn, George W. Uetz Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Bottlenose dolphins that forage with artisanal fishermen whistle differently
Abstract Acoustic communication is a taxonomically widespread phenomenon, crucial for social animals. We evaluate social sounds from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) of Laguna, southern Brazil, whose social structure is organized around a cooperative foraging tactic with artisanal fishermen. This tactic involves stereotyped and coordinated behaviour by dolphins and fishermen and is performed by a subset of the dolphin population, splitting it into two distinct social communities. We compared the acoustic parameters and type of whistles emitted by dolphins of the “non‐cooperative” and “cooperativ...
Source: Ethology - September 1, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Bianca Romeu, Mauricio Cantor, Carolina Bezamat, Paulo C. Sim ões‐Lopes, Fábio G. Daura‐Jorge Tags: REASERCH PAPER Source Type: research

Social function of a variable lateral stripe in Xiphophorus hellerii?
Abstract In a single population of a livebearing fish, the green swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii), a trait considered a static badge of status in males of other populations, the color of a stripe covering the lateral line, has been found to be dynamic relative to their social environment, potentially rendering this signal meaningless. Males change the color expression of their lateral stripe dynamically based on social environment. We investigated if males (n = 26) respond to visual and chemical information about other males with a color change and aggressive behavior. We found that visual information is indeed c...
Source: Ethology - September 1, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Elizabeth J. Hardy, Lloyd A. Bumm, Ingo Schlupp Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Variation in chick ‐a‐dee calls of bridled titmice (Baeolophus wollweberi): Frequent use of non‐combinatorial calls in a combinatorial calling system
Abstract Chick‐a‐dee calls of Poecile (chickadee) and Baeolophus (titmouse) species are complex in terms of the structural composition of note types and the diversity of messages. Studies so far have mainly focused on the calls of various chickadee and just one titmouse species—the tufted titmouse (B. bicolor). To begin to address this lack of titmouse data, our study investigated variation in note composition of calls of bridled titmice (B. wollweberi). We obtained calls from 26 flocks in the Chiricahua Mountains of Arizona in the overwintering flocking period. Bridled titmice produce proportionally mo...
Source: Ethology - August 30, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Hwayoung Jung, Todd M. Freeberg Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Adaptive parasitic manipulation as exemplified by acanthocephalans
Abstract Parasites with complex life cycles often change intermediate host traits in order to enhance their transmission to the next host. Acanthocephalans are excellent examples of such parasitic manipulation. Here, we summarise evidence for adaptive parasitic manipulation in this group, provide a comprehensive overview of intermediate host traits affected by these parasites and discuss critical items for parasitic manipulation such as avoidance of infected prey by target hosts and transmission to dead‐end hosts. (Source: Ethology)
Source: Ethology - August 29, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Theo C. M. Bakker, Joachim G. Frommen, Timo Th ünken Tags: INVITED PERSPECTIVES AND REVIEWS Source Type: research

Does artificial light pollution impair problem ‐solving success in peafowl?
Abstract Behavioral innovations allow animals to adjust their behavior to solve novel problems. While innovative behavior can be important for animals living in new environments, anthropogenic pollution may limit their ability to adapt by impairing cognition or motivation. In particular, exposure to light pollution at night can cause sleep deprivation and may, therefore, hinder innovative behavior. To test this hypothesis, we examined experimentally whether exposure to acute light pollution impacts problem‐solving success in peafowl (Pavo cristatus). After peafowl were exposed to artificial light pollution for one night,...
Source: Ethology - August 29, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Jessica L. Yorzinski, Kimberly A. Ordonez, Kailey T. Chema Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Shoal sex composition affects exploration in the Mediterranean killifish
Abstract As a consequence of sexual selection, males and females may exhibit wide behavioural differences, for example, spatial behaviour. In fish, the two sexes often show different exploratory tendencies. This sex difference has been usually studied by testing individual fish. As many fish species live in social groups with different sex composition, the aforementioned approach might not picture the natural variation of the exploratory behaviour expressed by males and females. Here, we observed shoals of four Mediterranean killifish, Aphanius fasciatus, with three different sex compositions (4 females, 4 males, or 2 fema...
Source: Ethology - August 18, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Tyrone Lucon ‐Xiccato, Matteo Griggio Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Negative impact of urban noise on sexual receptivity and clutch size in female domestic canaries
Abstract In oscines, male song stimulates female reproduction and females are known to adjust both their sexual preferences and their maternal investment according to song quality. Female domestic canaries are especially responsive to wide frequency bandwidth (4 kHz) male songs emitted with a high‐repetition syllable rate and low minimal frequencies (1 kHz). We previously showed that low‐frequency urban noise decreases female sexual responsiveness for these low‐frequency songs (1–5 kHz) through auditory masking. Based on the differential allocation hypothesis, we predicted that urban noise exposu...
Source: Ethology - August 17, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Guillaume Huet des Aunay, Marco Grenna, Hans Slabbekoorn, Pierre Nicolas, Laurent Nagle, G érard Leboucher, Giorgio Malacarne, Tudor I. Draganoiu Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

How does hunger affect convergence on prey patches in a social forager?
In this study, we investigated the effects of hunger upon the time taken to locate and converge upon hidden simulated prey patches in a socially foraging fish, the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We predicted that groups of food‐deprived fish would find and recruit to prey patches faster than recently fed groups, reasoning that they might search more rapidly and be more attentive to inadvertent social information produced by other foragers. Instead we saw no difference between the two groups in the time taken to find the patches and found that in fact, once prey patches had been discovered, it was the re...
Source: Ethology - August 17, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Joanne Riddell, Mike M. Webster Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Male tree weta are attracted to cuticular scent cues but do not discriminate according to sex or among two closely related species
Abstract Recognition of conspecifics is an essential precursor of successful mating. Where related species coexist, species discrimination might be important, but because related species are similar, species signal recognition may actually be low. Chemical cues such as cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are frequently used by insects to identify suitable sexual partners. We predicted that New Zealand tree weta (Hemideina spp.), a genus of nocturnal ensiferan Orthoptera that live both allopatrically and sympatrically, use chemical signals from either frass or CHCs to find mates. In a series of six laboratory trials using both H....
Source: Ethology - August 17, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Priscilla M. Wehi, Adrian Monks, Mary Morgan ‐Richards Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Effects of avpr1a length polymorphism on male social behavior and reproduction in semi ‐natural populations of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster)
Abstract Intraspecific variation in sociosexual behavior has typically been investigated in the context of its relationship with environmental factors, but neurogenetic factors can also influence sociosexual behavior. In laboratory studies of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), length polymorphism of microsatellite DNA within the gene (avpr1a) encoding the vasopressin 1a receptor is correlated with variation in male sociosexual behavior. However, field studies of prairie voles have found the relationship between male avpr1a microsatellite allele length and sociosexual behavior to be more ambiguous, possibly because most ...
Source: Ethology - August 17, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Brian Keane, Frank R. Castelli, Haley Davis, Thomas O. Crist, Nancy G. Solomon Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Bush Hyrax, Heterohyrax brucei, sunbathing on a flat rock in Mpala Ranch, Kenya. This species is smaller than the Rock Hyrax, Procavia capensis, and has darker, grey fur with more obvious white facial markings. Photograph reproduced by permission of Emmanuel Do Linh San.
(Source: Ethology)
Source: Ethology - August 17, 2017 Category: Zoology Tags: Front Cover Source Type: research

Restricted responsiveness to noise interference in two anurans from the southern temperate forest
Abstract Animals adopt different strategies to communicate by means of sound in noisy environments such that some species increase, while others decrease their vocal activity in the presence of interference. Anuran amphibians from diverse latitudes exhibit both kinds of responses. Recent studies have shown that males of Batrachyla taeniata and Batrachyla antartandica from the temperate austral forest do not call in response to the presentation of advertisement calls of sympatric congeneric species. In contrast, Batrachyla leptopus responds to these signals in a similar way as to conspecific calls. The responsiveness of B.&...
Source: Ethology - August 14, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Mario Penna, Javiera Cisternas, Jessica Toloza Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Behavioural acclimation to cameras and observers in coral reef fishes
Abstract Observer presence can bias behavioural studies of animals in both the wild and the laboratory. Despite existing evidence for significant observer effects across several taxa, little is known about the minimum periods of acclimation that should precede behavioural observations. To date, most studies either do not report any acclimation periods or include a non‐specific period without empirically quantifying its appropriateness. Here, we conducted in situ behavioural observations of two species of demersal coral reef fishes using cameras and/or observers to examine the biases associated with either approach. For b...
Source: Ethology - August 14, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Gerrit B. Nanninga, Isabelle M. C ôté, Ricardo Beldade, Suzanne C. Mills Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

The role of biotic and abiotic cues in stimulating aggregation by larval cane toads (Rhinella marina)
Abstract Tadpoles of the cane toad (Rhinella marina) form dense aggregations in the field, but the proximate cues eliciting this behavior are not well understood. We sampled water‐bodies in the Northern Territory of Australia, finding that the density of cane toad tadpoles increased with increasing temperature. Furthermore, we conducted laboratory experiments to explore the roles of biotic factors (attraction to conspecifics; chemical cues from an injured conspecific; food) and spatially heterogeneous abiotic factors (light levels, water depth, physical structure) to identify the cues that induce tadpole aggregation. Ann...
Source: Ethology - August 14, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Camilla Raven, Richard Shine, Matthew Greenlees, Timothy M. Schaerf, Ashley J. W. Ward Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Territoriality mediates atypical size ‐symmetric cannibalism in the Amblypygi Phrynus longipes
Abstract Cannibalism can have important demographic and ecological effects on populations. Typically, cannibalism is size‐structured, where larger individuals eat smaller conspecifics. Initial cursory observations of the whip spider, Phrynus longipes, however, suggested that cannibalism might not be size‐structured in this species, perhaps because cannibalism is often a by‐product of territory contests. We staged paired interactions and recorded latency to escalate to physical aggression or cannibalize to understand the dynamics of cannibalism and resource contests. We employed a multimodel comparative approach to te...
Source: Ethology - August 14, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Kenneth J. Chapin, Sarah Reed ‐Guy Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Wanting, liking and welfare: The role of affective states in proximate control of behaviour in vertebrates
Abstract Animals choose a course of action countless times each day. To do so, they need to prioritise their behaviour within a set of alternative actions and decide which of these actions to perform at any one time and for how long, that is, determine when the behaviour has reached its desired effect. This process has classically been called the proximate behavioural control mechanism. Several aspects contribute to this process: internal and external stimuli, the emotions that they elicit, motivation (wants), behavioural goals, valuation, decision‐making and its modulation by mood, and the assessment of behavioural outc...
Source: Ethology - August 14, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Lorenz Gygax Tags: PERSPECTIVES AND REVIEWS Source Type: research

Early experience affects learning performance and neophobia in a cooperatively breeding cichlid
Abstract The ability to respond flexibly to environmental challenges, for instance by learning or by responding appropriately to novel stimuli, may be crucial for survival and reproductive success. Experiences made during early ontogeny can shape the degree of behavioural flexibility maintained by individuals during later life. In natural habitats, animals are exposed to a multitude of social and non‐social ecological factors during early ontogeny, but their relative influences on future learning ability and behavioural flexibility are only poorly understood. In the cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher, ...
Source: Ethology - August 1, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Francis Bannier, Sabine Tebbich, Barbara Taborsky Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

What is driving male mate preference evolution in Jamaican field crickets?
ABSTRACT Male mating preferences are often a neglected aspect of studies on sexual selection. Male mating preferences may evolve if they provide males with direct‐fitness benefits such as increased opportunity to fertilize more eggs or indirect‐fitness benefits such as enhanced offspring survival. We tested these ideas using Jamaican field crickets, Gryllus assimilis, previously shown to exhibit male mating preferences. We randomly mated males to either their preferred or non‐preferred potential mates and then asked whether mating treatment influenced egg oviposition or offspring viability. Preferred females were not...
Source: Ethology - July 26, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Susan M. Bertram, Sarah J. Harrison, Genevieve L. Ferguson, Ian R. Thomson, Michelle J. Loranger, Mykell L. Reifer, Deborah H. Corlett, Patricia Adair Gowaty Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Rapid partner switching may facilitate increased broadcast group size in dance compared with conversation groups
Abstract Dancing is a universal human activity that involves exertive rhythmic movement to music. It is often conducted in a social environment and often involves synchronization. It has been found to cause dancers to bond socially. Like conversation, it has been suggested that dancing may be an inexpensive form of social bonding, in that both activities facilitate efficient group bonding by allowing multiple individuals to bond simultaneously. However, no previous study has systematically observed the size of naturally occurring dance groups. During unobtrusive observation of natural dance and conversation behavior, we fo...
Source: Ethology - July 26, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Cole Robertson, Bronwyn Tarr, Mary Kempnich, Robin Dunbar Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Male territorial aggression does not drive conformity to local vocal culture in a passerine bird
Abstract In many songbird species, young individuals learn songs from neighbors and then settle nearby, thus creating neighborhoods of conformity to local vocal culture. In some species, individuals appear to postpone song learning until after dispersal, possibly to facilitate conformity to local dialects. Despite decades of study, we still lack a consensus regarding the selective pressures driving this delayed song learning. Two common hypothetical benefits to conformity, and thus delayed song learning, are rooted in territorial interactions; individuals preferentially produce local song either to avoid detection as new a...
Source: Ethology - July 26, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Marcelina Parra, Anthony C. Dalisio, William E. Jensen, Timothy H. Parker Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Personality predicts ectoparasite abundance in an asocial sciurid
Abstract Parasitism is a consequence of complex interactions between host, parasite, and their shared environment, and host behavior can influence parasite risk. Animal personality (i.e., consistent behavioral differences that are repeatable across time and context) can influence parasitism with more explorative individuals typically hosting greater parasite loads. Host “sociality” is known to impact parasite risk with more social individuals typically at higher risk of acquiring or transmitting parasites, but other behaviors could also be important. We quantified personality in least chipmunks (Tamias minimus)...
Source: Ethology - July 26, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Shelby J. Bohn, Quinn M. R. Webber, Katie R. N. Florko, Katlyn R. Paslawski, Amelia M. Peterson, Julia E. Piche, Allyson K. Menzies, Craig K. R. Willis Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Sexually dimorphic effect of mating on the melanotic encapsulation response in the harem ‐defending Wellington tree weta, Hemideina crassidens (Orthoptera: Tettigonioidea: Anostostomatidae)
Abstract Reproductive activities are generally costly to immune responsiveness because limited resources required by reproduction are diverted away from immunity (and vice versa). Reproduction, however, is not expected to affect the immune response in males and females similarly as mating is expected to negatively affect male immunity more so than female immunity. Here, I test the phenotypic plasticity hypothesis in the Wellington tree weta (Hemideina crassidens), a sexually dimorphic orthopteran insect that is endemic to New Zealand. My laboratory experiment showed that although males had higher rates of melanotic encapsu...
Source: Ethology - July 26, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Clint D. Kelly Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Feel good, do good? Disentangling reciprocity from unconditional prosociality
Abstract Direct and generalised reciprocity can establish evolutionarily stable levels of cooperation among unrelated individuals, with animals reciprocating help based on whether they have been helped by a social partner before. It has been argued that the actual cooperative act by a social partner may be of minor importance for seemingly reciprocal cooperation and that a mere positive experience might suffice to enhance helpful behaviour towards a conspecific (‘feel good, do good’). However, this effect could easily be exploited by defectors free‐riding on an individual's enhanced propensity to cooperate af...
Source: Ethology - July 17, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Res Schmid, Karin Schneeberger, Michael Taborsky Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Female wolf spiders exert cryptic control drastically reducing ejaculate size
Abstract Sexes' roles in post‐copulatory processes have important effects on individual fitness and are promising to study in species showing complex mating behaviours. In the spider Schizocosa malitiosa, males perform two different copulatory patterns, pattern 1 includes 80% of total pedipalp insertions and pattern 2 includes 20%. Both patterns produce similar number of offspring, but pattern 1 induces higher female reluctance to remating than pattern 2. We hypothesised that the complex copulatory patterns are linked to post‐copulatory sexual selection, affecting males' sperm transfer and the resulting sperm storage b...
Source: Ethology - July 5, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Maria J. Albo, Fernando G. Costa Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Contact calling behaviour in the male ring ‐tailed lemur (Lemur catta)
Abstract The ring‐tailed lemur (Lemur catta) is a group‐living strepsirhine primate endemic to Madagascar that has a complex vocal repertoire including affiliative moan and hmm calls. Past research has suggested that both vocalisations may be contact calls, and we assessed their usage in addition to examining the effect of individual differences and social factors on male calling behaviour. We tested three hypotheses: the group cohesion, preferred companion and individual differences hypotheses. From March to July 2010, 565 h of focal animal data were collected on 31 males aged ≥1 year at the Beza Mahafaly...
Source: Ethology - July 4, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Laura M. Bolt, Erica Tennenhouse Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Subadult male Flap ‐necked Chameleon, Chamaeleo dilepsis, day‐resting in a small bush in Telperion Nature Reserve, South Africa. This species' common name derives from the large and movable flaps that protrude from either side of the upper surface of the neck. The sex can be determined based on the presence of the hemipenal bulges (not visible on the picture) and that of a nipple‐like spur on the hind legs. Adult males also have taller casques and larger flaps than females. Photograph reproduced by permission of Emmanuel Do Linh San.
(Source: Ethology)
Source: Ethology - July 3, 2017 Category: Zoology Tags: Front Cover Source Type: research