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Male mate choice and the potential for complex mating dynamics in the tree lizard (Urosaurus ornatus)
Abstract A growing body of literature is recognizing that males may also play a role in the mating process by behaving non‐randomly toward potential female mates during courtship. In numerous species, discrete color polymorphisms in males are inferred to represent alternative mating tactics, which often correspond with concomitant asymmetries in ecology and behavior. In terms of their mating behavior, these ecological outcomes of a color polymorphism should affect a morph's likelihood and frequency of encountering females in a population, possibly favoring the evolution of morph‐specific mating preferences. Knowledge o...
Source: Ethology - February 1, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Kylie I. Krohmaly, Zachary W. Martin, Matthew S. Lattanzio Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Random size ‐assortative mating despite size‐dependent fecundity in a Neotropical amphibian with explosive reproduction
Abstract Sexual selection theory predicts that, when body size is correlated with fecundity, there should be fitness advantages for mate choice of the largest females. Moreover, because larger males are expected to monopolise the largest females, this should result in an assortative mating based on body size. Although such patterns could be expected in both explosive and prolonged breeders, non‐assortative mating should be more widespread in species under time constraints. However, patterns of sexual selection are largely unexplored in explosive breeding species, and contrasting patterns have been found previously. We ex...
Source: Ethology - January 24, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Diana Sz ékely, Paul Székely, Mathieu Denoël, Dan Cogălniceanu Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Choosing among alternative refuges: Distances and directions
Abstract Many prey flee to refuges to escape from approaching predators, but little is known about how they select one among many refuges available. The problem of choice among alternative refuges has not been modeled previously, but a recent model that predicts flight initiation distance (FID = predator–prey distance when escape starts) for a prey fleeing to a refuge provides a basis for predicting which refuge should be chosen. Because fleeing is costly, prey should choose to flee to the refuge permitting the shortest FID. The model predicts that the more distant of two refuges can be favored if it is not...
Source: Ethology - January 24, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: William E. Cooper, Diogo S. M. Samia Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Hunt or hide: How insularity and urbanization affect foraging decisions in lizards
In this study, we investigated the effect of both insularity and urbanization on risk‐taking and neophobia during foraging in the Dalmatian wall lizard (Podarcis melisellensis). Small islets tend to have both a lower number of predators and less resources. Therefore, islet populations were expected to show more risk‐taking behaviour and less neophobia in a foraging context. Previous studies on behaviour of urban lizards have yielded inconsistent results, but due to a lack of both predators and arthropod prey in urban habitats, we expected urban lizards to also take more risks and behave less neophobic. We sampled sever...
Source: Ethology - January 23, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Gilles De Meester, Yorick Lambreghts, Bjorn Briesen, Tom Smeuninx, Zoran Tadi ć, Raoul Van Damme Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Behavioural responses of male ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus, L.) to playbacks of drumming displays
Abstract Birds use a variety of sounds in their courtship displays, but the majority of behavioural studies have focused on vocalizations. In contrast, little is known about how non‐vocal sounds, or sonations, are used, even though many avian species produce them. The ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) is a useful species to examine non‐vocal sounds because they lack vocal components in their courtship and rely on a non‐vocal sound to attract mates and defend their territory. Their courtship display, known as “drumming,” is created by the wings, and the number of pulses and speed (pulse rate) varies signific...
Source: Ethology - January 22, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Nicholas P. O'Neil, Isabelle Charrier, Andrew N. Iwaniuk Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Honest error, precaution or alertness advertisement? Reactions to vertebrate pseudopredators in red ‐nosed cuxiús (Chiropotes albinasus), a high‐canopy neotropical primate
Abstract Predation on primates is considered to have far‐reaching effects on the foraging and social ecology of a species. Primate species display a variety of responses to predator proximity and attack, ranging from active physical defense and mobbing, to flight and concealment. Warning calls are often given, and potentially threatening animals may be tracked, either actively or with head movements. Such behaviors take time that could be used for other activities. Accordingly, there should be strong selection to respond only to those species that represent a genuine threat. However, primates give defense‐based behavio...
Source: Ethology - January 17, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Adrian A. Barnett, Tadeu Oliveira, Rafaela Fatima Soares da Silva, Samara Albuquerque Teixeira, Lucy M. Todd, Sarah A. Boyle Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Nuthatch uses tool in London park
Abstract Here, we report an observation of a Eurasian nuthatch Sitta europaea foraging with a tool in a public park in Greater London, UK. This record is of significance, as it provides the first photographic evidence (to our knowledge) of nuthatch tool use, reveals an unusually wide phylogenetic and geographic distribution of tool behaviour within the Sittidae, and constitutes a rare example of animal tool use in an urban environment. To improve our understanding of nuthatch tool behaviour, we are building a global database of relevant anecdotal field observations—submissions are most welcome. (Source: Ethology)
Source: Ethology - January 16, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Christian Rutz, Simon Deans Tags: BEHAVIOURAL NOTES Source Type: research

Announcing two new manuscript categories in ethology
(Source: Ethology)
Source: Ethology - January 16, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Jutta Schneider, Susan Foster Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Ethology)
Source: Ethology - January 16, 2018 Category: Zoology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Eurasian nuthatch (Sitta europaea) using a wooden splinter as a foraging tool. Photograph taken in South Norwood Country Park, London (UK) and reproduced by permission of Simon Deans.
(Source: Ethology)
Source: Ethology - January 16, 2018 Category: Zoology Tags: FRONT COVER Source Type: research

Shoaling with infected conspecifics does not improve resistance to trematode infection
Abstract Group‐living animals can gain protection against parasitic infections through social contacts with previously infected conspecifics (social immunization). Recent research suggests that such protective effects can be induced through visual or chemical cues released by infected individuals, resulting in anticipatory immune upregulation among group members. Here, we study cue‐induced social resistance in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to a trematode parasite, the eye‐fluke Diplostomum pseudospathaceum. We established groups of naïve individuals (receivers) that were paired with previously infect...
Source: Ethology - January 1, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Ines Klemme, Anssi Karvonen Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Inferring dominance interactions from automatically recorded temporal data
Abstract Understanding dominance hierarchies is an important aspect of many studies of animal groups. Collecting the necessary data requires a large amount of time and effort to detect only a small number of interactions. Here, we assess the viability of extracting interactions from a temporal data stream of arrival and departures to a feeder equipped with a radio‐frequency identifier antenna. We show that the interactions extracted from this type of data can create similar dominance hierarchies to those produced by analysing video data of interactions. Additionally, we assessed the amount of temporal data required to ob...
Source: Ethology - January 1, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Julian C. Evans, Isabelle Devost, Teri B. Jones, Julie Morand ‐Ferron Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Changes in courtship behaviour following rejection: The influence of female phenotype in Drosophila melanogaster
Abstract Courtship can be costly and so selection should favour individual males that reduce courtship towards female types that have a low probability of resulting in copulation. One way males can do this is by associating previous courtship failure with the traits of particular rejecting females. We characterised changes in male Drosophila melanogaster courtship behaviour following a failed mating attempt with one of the four female phenotypes that varied in size, age or mating status. To do this, we assessed individual courtship behaviour for each male presented again with a female of the same phenotype that previously ...
Source: Ethology - December 22, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Jesse Balaban ‐Feld, Thomas J. Valone Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Persistence of antipredator behavior in an island population of California quail
Abstract Island populations may provide unique insights into the evolution and persistence of antipredator behavior. If antipredator behavior is costly and islands have reduced predation risk, then we expect the reduction or loss of antipredator behavior on islands. However, if even a single predator remains, the multipredator hypothesis predicts that antipredator behaviors will be conserved. We compared the flight initiation distances (FID) of California quail (Callipepla californica) on Santa Catalina Island (a location with reduced predation pressure) with quail on the mainland. We found no differences in FID between ma...
Source: Ethology - December 21, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Ayesha A. Rasheed, Kristina Hambley, Gabriel Chan, Carlos A. Rosa, Brenda Larison, Daniel T. Blumstein Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Female response to predation risk alters conspecific male behaviour during pre ‐copulatory mate guarding
Abstract Mating behaviour often increases predation risk, but the vulnerability within mating pairs differs between the sexes. Such a sex difference is expected to lead to differences in responses to predation risk between the sexes. In the two‐spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, males engage in pre‐copulatory mate guarding because only the first mating results in fertilisation. We investigated (i) whether pre‐copulatory pairs are more conspicuous to the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis than solitary females, (ii) whether the vulnerability to the predator differs between sexes within the pre‐copulatory p...
Source: Ethology - December 11, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Keiko Oku, Erik H. Poelman, Peter W. Jong, Marcel Dicke Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Generalized estimating equations: A pragmatic and flexible approach to the marginal GLM modelling of correlated data in the behavioural sciences
Abstract Within behavioural research, non‐normally distributed data with a complicated structure are common. For instance, data can represent repeated observations of quantities on the same individual. The regression analysis of such data is complicated both by the interdependency of the observations (response variables) and by their non‐normal distribution. Over the last decade, such data have been more and more frequently analysed using generalized mixed‐effect models. Some researchers invoke the heavy machinery of mixed‐effect modelling to obtain the desired population‐level (marginal) inference, which can be ...
Source: Ethology - December 11, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Stano Pek ár, Marek Brabec Tags: PERSPECTIVES AND REVIEWS Source Type: research

Disentangling the effects of genetic and environmental factors on movement behaviour
Abstract Individual variability in animal movement behaviour is well documented for many species. However, it remains unclear whether this variability reflects genetic variation, environmental variation or a combination of the two. Here, we conduct a cross‐fostering experiment with the aim of investigating the role of these two components in movement patterns during the post‐fledging dependence period and early natal dispersal of 21 eagle owls Bubo bubo. Our experiment showed that cross‐fostering did not influence any of the movement parameters considered. Movement parameters were, however, affected by the age and se...
Source: Ethology - December 5, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Giulia Bombieri, Antonio Fasciolo, Vincenzo Penteriani, Juan Carlos Illera, Dan Chamberlain, Mar ía del Mar Delgado Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) behavioral reactions toward a dead member of the herd
Abstract Humans, elephants, chimpanzees, and cetaceans show concern with the death of other members of their species and respond to death in particular ways. Science considers that these species are exceptions and that other mammal species show little or no reaction to the dead bodies of individuals of their species. Collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu; Tayassuidae) are social animals that live in groups of 5–50 individuals maintaining close and complex social relationships. The collared peccary occupies many different environments and it is widely distributed from the south of North America to the north of Argentina. ...
Source: Ethology - December 5, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Dante Kort, Mariana Altrichter, Sara Cortez, Micaela Camino Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Experimental manipulation of female tail length did not cause differential allocation by males in the barn swallow
Abstract The evolution and maintenance of female ornamentation has attracted increasing attention, because the previous explanation, that is a non‐functional copy of functional male ornamentation, seems insufficient to explain female ornamentation. A post‐mating sexual selection, differential allocation, may be more common than pre‐mating sexual selection, but few studies have investigated differential allocation by males. Here, we studied differential allocation of incubation investment by male barn swallows Hirundo rustica, a model species for the study of sexual selection, because our previous correlative study de...
Source: Ethology - December 5, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Masaru Hasegawa, Emi Arai, Masahiko Nakamura Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Measuring social tolerance: An experimental approach in two lemurid primates
Abstract Social tolerance crucially affects the life of group‐living animals as it can influence, among other things, their competitive regimes, access to food, learning behavior, and recruitment. However, social tolerance tests were mainly conducted in semi‐free or captive populations, and we know little about the behavioral mechanisms and consequences of social tolerance under natural conditions. We therefore developed a co‐feeding experiment to measure social tolerance in groups of wild and captive animals across two primate species. Specifically, we recorded the social tolerance level of redfronted lemurs (Eulemu...
Source: Ethology - December 4, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Claudia Fichtel, Anna V. Schnoell, Peter M. Kappeler Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Ethology)
Source: Ethology - December 4, 2017 Category: Zoology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Baby Chacma Baboon, Papio ursinus, sitting on a tree branch. Photograph taken in Mosi ‐oa‐Tunya National Park (Zambia) and reproduced by permission of David Hewes.
(Source: Ethology)
Source: Ethology - December 4, 2017 Category: Zoology Tags: FRONT COVER Source Type: research

Habitat ‐specific capture timing of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) suggests that predators structure temporal activity of prey
Abstract Timing is an essential component of the choices that animals make: The likelihood of successful resource capture (and predator avoidance) depends not just on what an animal chooses to do, but when it chooses to do it. Despite the importance of activity timing, our ability to understand the forces that constrain activity timing has been limited because this aspect of animal behavior is shaped by several factors (e.g., interspecific competitors, predators, physical conditions), and it is difficult to examine activity timing in a setting where only a single factor is operating. Using an island system that makes it po...
Source: Ethology - November 22, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Brian M. Connolly, John L. Orrock Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Does it always pay to defend one's nest? A case study in African penguin
In this study, we related breeding success to individual behaviour, specifically a risk‐taking behaviour, and pair assortment per behaviour in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) over two breeding seasons of contrasting food availability. On Bird Island, Algoa Bay, South Africa, we used indices of boldness and overall mobility in penguins’ nest defence behaviour as a response to a standard pedestrian approach during chick‐rearing. These behaviours were consistent over the trials and indicated these traits may be related to personality in African penguins. Individuals were categorized as risk‐prone (“bo...
Source: Ethology - November 16, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Gwendoline Traisnel, Lorien Pichegru Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Behavior and temperature modulate a thermoregulation –predation risk trade‐off in juvenile gopher tortoises
Abstract Ectotherms frequently thermoregulate behaviorally to improve physiological processes such as digestion and growth, but basking and other thermoregulatory activities can also increase predation risk. Organismal and environmental characteristics can, in some species, influence predation risk associated with thermoregulation and thereby relax or tighten constraints on thermoregulatory behavior, physiological performance, and, ultimately, life history traits. Providing one of the first such investigations in turtles, we examine whether behavior and thermal environment modulate a thermoregulation–predation risk t...
Source: Ethology - November 9, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Thomas A. Radzio, Michael P. O'Connor Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) basking in the sun with mouth agape. Crocodiles do not have sweat glands and therefore open their jaws to avoid overheating. Photograph taken in Zimanga Private Game Reserve (South Africa) and reproduced by permission of Emmanuel Do Linh San.
(Source: Ethology)
Source: Ethology - November 9, 2017 Category: Zoology Tags: FRONT COVER Source Type: research

Functions of post ‐conflict affiliation with a bystander differ between aggressors and victims in Japanese macaques
In conclusion, aggressors benefited in stress reduction, whereas victims benefited in self‐protection through affiliation with bystanders with whom they have a good relationship. Our study indicated that monkeys cope with post‐conflict problems according to their roles or situations not only by reconciliation but also by bystander affiliation. (Source: Ethology)
Source: Ethology - November 1, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Noriko Katsu, Kazunori Yamada, Masayuki Nakamichi Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Melodic males and flashy females: Geographic variation in male and female reproductive behavior in red ‐eyed treefrogs (Agalychnis callidryas)
Abstract Geographic variation in courtship behavior can affect reproductive success of divergent phenotypes via mate choice. Over time, this can lead to reproductive isolation and ultimately to speciation. The Neotropical red‐eyed treefrog (Agalychnis callidryas) exhibits high levels of phenotypic variation among populations in Costa Rica and Panama, including differences in color pattern, body size, and skin peptides. To test the extent of behavioral premating isolation among differentiated populations, we quantified male advertisement calls from six sites and female responses to male stimuli (acoustic and visual signal...
Source: Ethology - November 1, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Maria Akopyan, Kristine Kaiser, Andres Vega, Neha G. Savant, Cassandra Y. Owen, Steven R. Dudgeon, Jeanne M. Robertson Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

A comparison of individual distinctiveness in three vocalizations of the dwarf mongoose (Helogale parvula)
Abstract Individual specificity can be found in the vocalizations of many avian and mammalian species. However, it is often difficult to determine whether these vocal cues to identity rise from “unselected” individual differences in vocal morphology or whether they have been accentuated by selection for the purposes of advertising caller identity. By comparing the level of acoustic individuality of different vocalizations within the repertoire of a single species, it is possible to ascertain whether selection for individual recognition has modified the vocal cues to identity in particular contexts. We used disc...
Source: Ethology - October 17, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Janneke Rubow, Michael I. Cherry, Lynda L. Sharpe Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Reconciliation and third ‐party affiliation in carrion crows
Abstract Conflicts are costly because they can damage social relationships. To buffer conflicts, various species use post‐conflict behaviour, such as reconciliation or third‐party affiliation. Both behaviours have predominantly been studied in non‐human primates. However, recently, studies revealed post‐conflict behaviour in other mammalian and some bird species (e.g., corvids). While third‐party affiliation has been reported in several corvid species, reconciliation has only rarely been observed. The social structure of the studied groups has been postulated as a reason for the absence of reconciliation. Here, w...
Source: Ethology - October 17, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Miriam Jennifer Sima, Theresa Matzinger, Thomas Bugnyar, Simone Pika Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Behavioural response evoked by conspecific distress calls in two neotropical treefrogs
Abstract Anurans emit distress calls when attacked by predators as a defensive mechanism. As distress calls may trigger antipredator behaviour even in individuals that are not under attack, we tested whether this defensive behaviour induced behavioural changes in neighbouring conspecifics. We compared the behavioural responses of two species of Neotropical hylid frogs (genus Boana) to conspecific distress calls and white noise. Individuals of both species interrupted their vocal activity and decreased call rate after hearing the distress call. Natural variation on signal intensity calibrated among the nearest neighbours di...
Source: Ethology - October 16, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Lucas Rodriguez Forti, Anna B árbara Bella Sanches Forti, Rafael Márquez, Luís Felipe Toledo Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Grooming behaviors of black ‐tailed prairie dogs are influenced by flea parasitism, conspecifics, and proximity to refuge
Abstract Grooming is a common animal behavior that aids in ectoparasite defense. Ectoparasites can stimulate grooming, and natural selection can also favor endogenous mechanisms that evoke periodic bouts of “programmed” grooming to dislodge or kill ectoparasites before they bite or feed. Moreover, grooming can function as a displacement or communication behavior. We compared the grooming behaviors of adult female black‐tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on colonies with or without flea control via pulicide dust. Roughly 91% of the prairie dogs sampled on the non‐dusted colony carried at least one fl...
Source: Ethology - October 13, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: David A. Eads, Dean E. Biggins, Samantha L. Eads Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Grunt to go —Vocal coordination of group movements in redfronted lemurs
This study thus contributes to a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms of group coordination and collective decision‐making. (Source: Ethology)
Source: Ethology - October 13, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Anna Lucia Sperber, Lynne M. Werner, Peter M. Kappeler, Claudia Fichtel Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Do birds differentiate between white noise and deterministic chaos?
Abstract Noisy, unpredictable sounds are often present in the vocalizations of fearful and stressed animals across many taxa. A variety of structural characteristics, called nonlinear acoustic phenomena, that include subharmonics, rapid frequency modulations, and deterministic chaos are responsible for the harsh sound quality of these vocalizations. Exposure to nonlinear sound can elicit increased arousal in birds and mammals. Past experiments have used white noise to test for effects of deterministic chaos on perceivers. However, deterministic chaos differs structurally from white noise (i.e., random signal with equal ene...
Source: Ethology - October 12, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Daniel T. Blumstein, Jessica Whitaker, Judith Kennen, Gregory A. Bryant Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Mangrove crab uses victory display to “browbeat” losers from re‐initiating a new fight
Abstract Signalling behaviour is integral to animal contests. However, post‐contest signals, such as victory displays, have received relatively little attention. One hypothesised function of victory displays is to ensure a more lasting dominance by reducing the risk of losers re‐initiating a new contest with winners. Despite several theoretical studies using game theory that support this hypothesis, empirical support for the understanding of when and why victory displays are used with respect to browbeating is lacking. We use a common South‐East Asian mangrove crab, Perisesarma eumolpe, to examine whether the perform...
Source: Ethology - October 12, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Paul Z. Chen, Roman L. Carrasco, Peter K. L. Ng Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Mating plugs and sexual cannibalism in the Colombian orb ‐web spider Leucauge mariana
Abstract In Leucauge orb‐web spiders, females form mating plugs, which play a part in cryptic female choice after they evaluate male performance during courtship and mating. Our aim was to assess sexual behavior and mating plug formation of Leucauge mariana from Colombia (CO). We carried out mating trials to describe in detail courtship and mating behavior of sexual pairs from the CO population, and then compared the results to previously collected data from a Costa Rican population (CR). In addition, we assessed the amount of sperm transferred during mating predict plug formation in CO pairs. All CO virgin females mated...
Source: Ethology - October 12, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Linda Hern ández, Anita Aisenberg, Jorge Molina Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Habitat complexity dampens selection on prey activity level
Abstract Conspecific prey individuals often exhibit persistent differences in behavior (i.e., animal personality) and consequently vary in their susceptibility to predation. How this form of selection varies across environmental contexts is essential to predicting ecological and evolutionary dynamics, yet remains currently unresolved. Here, we use three separate predator–prey systems (sea star–snail, wolf spider–cricket, and jumping spider–cricket) to independently examine how habitat structural complexity influences the selection that predators impose on prey behavioral types. Prior to conducting s...
Source: Ethology - October 12, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Carl N. Keiser, Spencer J. Ingley, Benjamin J. Toscano, Inon Scharf, Jonathan N. Pruitt Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Olfactory eavesdropping: The odor of feathers is detectable to mammalian predators and competitors
Abstract The role of olfactory eavesdropping in interactions between mammalian predator and prey species is well established. Bird plumage can be odorous and consequently nest predators could use odor to identify and locate avian prey, and nest competitors could use odor to assess occupancy of nest cavities by birds. However, despite extensive research on avian nest predation and competition, the costs of olfactory eavesdropping on plumage odor by nest predators or competitors remain largely unknown. We used two experiments to investigate whether feather odor is detected by marsupial species which are competitors for nest ...
Source: Ethology - October 12, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Milla Mihailova, Mathew L. Berg, Katherine L. Buchanan, Andrew T. D. Bennett Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Importance of wing movements for information transfer during honey bee waggle dance
Abstract There is growing evidence indicating that dancing honeybees can transfer some information about the found food source by means of wing movements. However, the available data are limited and inconclusive in the case of the frequency of wing beats. Therefore, in this study, the hypothesis that the wing beats convey information about the foraging distance was re‐examined. Honeybee dances were recorded using a high‐speed camera, and foraging distances were decoded from the duration of waggle phases. Dancing honeybees moved their wings for almost half (47%) of the duration of waggle phases. The number of wing‐bea...
Source: Ethology - October 12, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Sylwia Łopuch, Adam Tofilski Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Interspecific association of brown trout (Salmo trutta) with non ‐native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) at the fry stage
In this study, we therefore assess whether juvenile brown trout associate with non‐native juvenile brook trout to the same extent as with conspecifics by setting up two experiments: (i) a binomial choice test allowing visual and chemical cues to estimate the species specificity of group preference, and (ii) an association test without physical barriers to estimate the degree of association of a focal brown trout with a group of either conspecifics or heterospecifics. In experiment (1), we found that focal juvenile brown trout preferred to associate with the stimuli groups and did not discriminate either against conspecif...
Source: Ethology - October 11, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Magnus Lov én Wallerius, Joacim Näslund, Barbara Koeck, Jörgen I. Johnsson Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

White ‐fronted Bee‐eaters (Merops bullockoides) nest in small colonies averaging 200 individuals, digging holes in cliffs or earthen banks. Their diet primarily comprises bees, but they also take other flying insects (such as Ichneumon wasps) depending on season and related prey availability. They hun t either by making quick hawking flights from lower branches of shrubs and trees, or glide slowly down from their perch and hover briefly to catch insects. Photograph taken in Zimanga Private Game Reserve (South Africa) and reproduced by permission of Emmanuel Do Linh San.
(Source: Ethology)
Source: Ethology - October 11, 2017 Category: Zoology Tags: FRONT COVER Source Type: research

Riverside wren pairs jointly defend their territories against simulated intruders
This study is one of the few to demonstrate equal attention and aggression from mated pairs towards simulated same‐sex and opposite‐sex intruders. We suggest that pairs responding together, in close proximity to one another, might be favourable in duetting species when defending the territory because maintaining a close distance between partners facilitates the extreme coordination of their joint territorial signals. (Source: Ethology)
Source: Ethology - October 11, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Esmeralda Quir ós‐Guerrero, Maria João Janeiro, Marvin Lopez‐Morales, Will Cresswell, Christopher N. Templeton Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Ontogenetic changes in chemical alarm cue recognition and fast ‐start performance in guppies (Poecilia reticulata)
The objectives of this study were to determine whether risk recognition and fast‐start performance in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exhibit ontogenetic variation, and whether there is a trade‐off between risk recognition and fast‐start performance. To achieve these objectives, individual guppies from replicate groups were assayed on one of the 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st, or 28th day after their birth. We found that both the risk recognition and fast‐start performance in guppies exhibited ontogenetic variation, as on days 1 and 7, fish did not exhibit risk recognition when exposed to alarm cues from conspecifics, but by d...
Source: Ethology - October 11, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Jigang Xia, Meiling Cheng, Ruiyu Cai, Shijian Fu, Steven J. Cooke, Chris K. Elvidge Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

After encountering a possibly novel odour, this African Wild Dog (Lycaon pictus) sniffed and rolled in it, getting the scent on its body, especially around the face and the neck. The tail up indicates arousal or excitement as a result of rolling in the scent. The adaptive value of this behaviour is still unclear; the most plausible explanations propose that it could either be a way to bring information back to the pack or to mask the dog's odour while hunting. Photograph taken in Zimanga Private Game Reserve, South Africa, and reproduced by permission of Emmanuel Do Linh San.
(Source: Ethology)
Source: Ethology - September 19, 2017 Category: Zoology Tags: FRONT COVER Source Type: research

Personality traits and behavioural profiles in the domestic canary are affected by sex and photoperiod
This study is the first to explicitly investigate the influence of photoperiod on both behavioural profiles and personality traits. Six potential personality traits (within‐flock activity, ability to escape, response to threat, isolation calling, boldness and neophobia) and dominance were measured four times in 96 domestic canaries Serinus canaria (48 males and 48 females): twice during a long photoperiod (Long Days) and 6 months later twice during a short photoperiod (Short Days). Without regard to sex and photoperiod, most traits were highly repeatable, and bolder canaries were more dominant, less sensitive to an ...
Source: Ethology - September 15, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Mathieu Amy, Davy Ung, Nathalie B éguin, Gérard Leboucher Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Personality ‐related differences in response to habitat in Mediterranean blue tits
This study aimed to test whether personality‐related differences in annual reproductive success differed between two populations of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) occupying different Mediterranean habitats (oakwood and pinewood). We measured exploration and parental provisioning behaviours and used a path analysis to ask how the interplay between these two behavioural traits affected reproductive success in each of these two habitats. We found that blue tits breeding in the pinewood were slow‐exploring compared to blue tits breeding in the oakwood, suggesting the occurrence of personality‐related differences in sett...
Source: Ethology - September 11, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Eva Serrano ‐Davies, Yimen G. Araya‐Ajoy, Niels J. Dingemanse, Juan José Sanz Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Behaviors associated with mating success in the “purring” wolf spider Gladicosa gulosa
Abstract Studies of sexual selection in animal systems frequently use courtship and receptivity behaviors as metrics for mating success, and this is generally built upon data associating such behaviors with mating. Spider systems are becoming increasingly popular in sexual selection research, and the wolf spider Gladicosa gulosa has the potential to help answer unique questions in animal communication. However, this species is understudied, and no quantitative data exist that demonstrate which male and female behaviors may be indicators of mating success. We paired male and female G. gulosa and recorded the behaviors invol...
Source: Ethology - September 11, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Alexander L. Sweger, Corey J. Vaughn, George W. Uetz Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Bottlenose dolphins that forage with artisanal fishermen whistle differently
Abstract Acoustic communication is a taxonomically widespread phenomenon, crucial for social animals. We evaluate social sounds from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) of Laguna, southern Brazil, whose social structure is organized around a cooperative foraging tactic with artisanal fishermen. This tactic involves stereotyped and coordinated behaviour by dolphins and fishermen and is performed by a subset of the dolphin population, splitting it into two distinct social communities. We compared the acoustic parameters and type of whistles emitted by dolphins of the “non‐cooperative” and “cooperativ...
Source: Ethology - September 1, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Bianca Romeu, Mauricio Cantor, Carolina Bezamat, Paulo C. Sim ões‐Lopes, Fábio G. Daura‐Jorge Tags: REASERCH PAPER Source Type: research

Social function of a variable lateral stripe in Xiphophorus hellerii?
Abstract In a single population of a livebearing fish, the green swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii), a trait considered a static badge of status in males of other populations, the color of a stripe covering the lateral line, has been found to be dynamic relative to their social environment, potentially rendering this signal meaningless. Males change the color expression of their lateral stripe dynamically based on social environment. We investigated if males (n = 26) respond to visual and chemical information about other males with a color change and aggressive behavior. We found that visual information is indeed c...
Source: Ethology - September 1, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Elizabeth J. Hardy, Lloyd A. Bumm, Ingo Schlupp Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Variation in chick ‐a‐dee calls of bridled titmice (Baeolophus wollweberi): Frequent use of non‐combinatorial calls in a combinatorial calling system
Abstract Chick‐a‐dee calls of Poecile (chickadee) and Baeolophus (titmouse) species are complex in terms of the structural composition of note types and the diversity of messages. Studies so far have mainly focused on the calls of various chickadee and just one titmouse species—the tufted titmouse (B. bicolor). To begin to address this lack of titmouse data, our study investigated variation in note composition of calls of bridled titmice (B. wollweberi). We obtained calls from 26 flocks in the Chiricahua Mountains of Arizona in the overwintering flocking period. Bridled titmice produce proportionally mo...
Source: Ethology - August 30, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Hwayoung Jung, Todd M. Freeberg Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research