The Effects of Chlormequat Chloride on the Development of Pubertal Male Rats
In this study, CCC was administered to rats daily by gavage on postnatal days 23-60 at doses of 0, 75, 150 and 300mg/kg bw/d. The results showed that body weight and the length of the right femur were significantly decreased in the 300mg/kg bw/d group. Histological analysis of proximal growth plates of the right femurs showed narrowed proliferative zones and hypertrophic zones in CCC-treated groups. The mRNA expression of growth hormone, growth hormone receptor and insulin like growth factor 1 were decreased in the CCC-treated group. The results indicated that CCC may affect the expression of growth hormone and insulin-lik...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - September 4, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The toxicology mechanism of endophytic fungus and swainsonine in locoweed
Publication date: Available online 31 August 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Chenchen Wu, Tiesuo Han, Hao Lu, Baoyu Zhao Locoweed is a perennial herbaceous plant included in Astragalus spp. and Oxytropis spp. that contains the toxic indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine. The livestock that consume locoweed can suffer from a type of toxicity called locoism. There are aliphaticnitro compounds, selenium, selenium compounds, and alkaloids in locoweed. The toxic component in locoweed has been identified as swainsonine, an indolizidine alkaloid. Swainsonine inhibits lysosomal a-mannosidase and manno...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - September 1, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Effect of exposure to staphylococcus aureus, particulate matter, and their combination on the neurobehavioral function of mice
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Fan Wang, Fei Liu, Haifang Liu Neurotoxicity in Kunming mice caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Particulate matter (PM) as individual matter and mixtures was studied in this paper. Male Kunming mice were instilled intratracheally with PM at doses of 0.2mg/mouse and S. aureus at doses of 5.08×106 CFU/mouse as individual matter and mixtures two times at 5-day intervals. Morris water maze (MWM) test was performed during the exposure experiment. One day following the exposure experiment, the express...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - August 31, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Biosynthesis of size-controllable silver nanoparticles and their in vitro antidiabetic activity
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Rui-xia Liu A simple biosynthetic approach for the size-controllable production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the leaf extract of Cinnamomum tsoi as a reducing and capping agent was developed. The polyphenolic functionalities present in the extract were responsible for synthesis and stabilization of the AgNPs. The size and morphology of the AgNPs were effectively adjusted by changing the volume of the extract. The AgNPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - August 30, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Applications in environmental risk assessment of biochemical analysis on the Indian fresh water fish, Labeo rohita exposed to monocrotophos pesticide
Publication date: Available online 22 August 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): S. Binukumari, K.Anusiya Devi, J. Vasanthi Pesticides are widely used in modern agriculture to aid in the production of high quality food. However, some pesticides have the potential to cause serious health and environmental damage. Repeated exposure to sub-lethal doses of pesticides can cause physiological and behavioral changes in fish that reduce populations such as abandonment of nests and broods, decreased immunity to disease and increased failure to avoid predators. Monocrotophos is one of the organophosphor...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - August 23, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Role of HSF1-Upregulated AC6 in Ameliorating Heart Failure in Mice
Conclusion In the pressure overload heart failure model, HSF1 can ameliorate heart failure by positively regulating the pathway of AC6/cAMP/PKA. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - August 23, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Does environmental exposure to the greenhouse gas, N2O, contribute to etiological factors in neurodevelopmental disorders? A Mini-Review of the Evidence
Conclusions The current evidence and subsequent hypotheses suggest that a renewed interest be taken in the toxicological assessment of environmental N2O exposure using validated biomarkers and psychiatric endpoints. Given the relevance of N2O as a greenhouse gas, societies may also wish to engage in a more robust monitoring and reporting of N2O levels in the environment for climactic benefit as well. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - August 19, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Oxidative stress, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium chloride on Paramisgurnus dabryanus
This study evaluated the toxicity of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium chloride ([C8mim]Cl) on Paramisgurnus dabryanus by enzyme analysis, comet assay, and apoptosis analysis. The study showed that [C8mim]Cl had an obvious toxic effect inducing oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and cytotoxicity to fish liver cells. [C8mim]Cl also induced changes in the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, and the glutathione content and malondialdehyde level in fish exposed at 20–80mgL−1. With increased exposure concentration and time, the four antioxidant enzyme activities, three different comet parameters and apoptosis ra...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - August 18, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Ethambutol induces testicular damage and decreases the sperm functional competence in Swiss albino mice
In conclusion, the result of the present study indicates that EMB has adverse effect on testicular function and impairs the sperm functional competence. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - August 13, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

2,2 ′,4,4′-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether injures cell viability and mitochondrial function of mouse spermatocytes by decreasing mitochondrial proteins Atp5b and Uqcrc1
Publication date: Available online 11 August 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Shaoping Huang, Jing Wang, Yiqiang Cui Our object was to explore direct effects and mechanism of BDE47 on GC2 (immortalized mouse spermatocyte). GC2 were exposed to DMSO, 0.1, 1, 10, 100μM BDE47 for 48hours. Cell viability was detected by trypan-blue exclusion; ultrastructure by electron-microscopy; cell cycle, mitochondrial membrane motential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) by flow-cytometry; ATP production by luminometer; Atp5b, Uqcrc1, Bcl-2 level by WB. To explore whether the decreased mitochondrial pr...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - August 12, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Glyphosate induces cardiovascular toxicity in Danio rerio
Publication date: September 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 46 Author(s): Nicole M. Roy, Jeremy Ochs, Ewelina Zambrzycka, Ariann Anderson Glyphosate is a broad spectrum herbicide used aggressively in agricultural practices as well as home garden care. Although labeled “safe” by the chemical industry, doses tested by industry do not mimic chronic exposures to sublethal doses that organisms in the environment are exposed to over long periods of time. Given the widespread uses of and exposure to glyphosate, studies on developmental toxicity are needed. Here we utilize the zebrafish v...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - August 12, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Pollution by metals: is there a relationship in glycemic control?
Publication date: Available online 10 August 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Adriana González-Villalva, Laura Colín-Barenque, Bizarro-Nevares Patricia, Marcela Rojas-Lemus, Vianey Rodríguez-Lara, García-Pelaez Isabel, Martha Ustarroz-Cano, Nelly López-Valdéz, Juan Carlos Albarrán-Alonso, Teresa I Fortoul There are evidences of environmental pollution and health effects. Metals are pollutants implicated in systemic toxicity. One of the least studied effects, but which is currently becoming more important, is the effect of metals on glycemic c...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - August 11, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in rat thyroid toxicity caused by excess fluoride and/or iodide
In conclusion, thyroid structure and thyroid function were both affected by excess fluoride and/or iodide. IRE1-induced apoptosis were involved in this cytotoxic process caused by fluoride or the combination of two microelements. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - August 10, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) in brown trout: Interference of estrogenic and androgenic inputs in primary hepatocytes
Publication date: Available online 9 August 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Célia Lopes, Tânia Vieira Madureira, Nádia Ferreira, Ivone Pinheiro, L.Filipe C. Castro, Eduardo Rocha Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a pivotal regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism in vertebrates. Here, we isolated and characterized for the first time the PPARγ gene from brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario). Hormones have been reported to interfere with the regulatory function of PPARγ in various organisms, albeit with little focus on fish. Thus...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - August 10, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Characterization of a cadmium resistance lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain by antioxidant assays and proteome profiles methods
In this study, resistance properties of a newly isolated lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis for cadmium were studied by antioxidant assays and proteomics analysis. Antioxidant capacity of this strain was significantly activated under cadmium stress indicated by Fenton reaction, DPPH assay, SOD assay and GSH assay. Intracellular antioxidant enzyme systems, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and catalase were suggested to play vital roles in the activated antioxidant capacity. The up-regulated cadA was associated with the activated P-type ATPases that plays an important role in cadmium resistance. Proteomics a...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - August 7, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Relationship between fluoride exposure and osteoclast markers during RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation
In this study, osteoclasts were formed from bone marrow cells of C57BL/6 mice-treated with macrophage colony stimulating factor and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand. The mRNA expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b), osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR), calcitonin receptor (CTR), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and cathepsin K (CK) were detected using real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Results showed that fluoride between 0.5 and 8mg/L had no effect on osteoclast formation. However fluoride at 0.5mg/L level significantly decreased the activity of osteoclast bone resorption. Fluoride concen...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - August 4, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Zinc enhances CDKN2A, pRb1 expression and regulates functional apoptosis via upregulation of p53 and p21 expression in human breast cancer MCF-7 cell
In conclusion, physiological level of zinc is important to prevent DNA damage and MCF-7 cell proliferation via regulation of tumor suppressor gene. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - August 4, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Emodin Protects Mice against Radiation-induced Mortality and Intestinal Injury via Inhibition of Apoptosis and Modulation of p53
Publication date: Available online 3 August 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Jing Wang, Yue Zhang, Qiuzhen Zhu, Yulan Liu, Hao Cheng, Yuefan Zhang, Tiejun Li The aim of this study was to explore the protective effect of emodin, a plant-derived anthraquinone, against gamma radiation-induced mortality and intestinal injury in mice, and to investigate the radioprotective molecular mechanism. C57BL/6 male mice were pre-treated with emodin for 7days via oral gavage before gamma radiation. We found that pretreatment with emodin prolonged mice survival time after 9Gy total body irradiation (TBI). ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - August 4, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

High fat diet aggravates the nephrotoxicity of berberrubine by influencing on its pharmacokinetic profile
In this study, we found BRB showed not only a stronger lipid-lowering effect than berberine but also a specific nephrotoxicity in mice fed with high fat diet (HFD). To explore the underlying mechanism, the pharmacokinetics of BRB were evaluated. There was a greater in vivo exposure of BRB in C57BL/6J mice fed with HFD than with routine chows, in terms of Cmax, AUC0-t, levels of BRB in kidney and urinary excretion. Moreover, in vitro assessment clearly showed BRB had a toxic effect on renal cell lines, while the primary metabolite, berberrubine-9-O-β-D-glucuronide (BRBG), did not show any obvious toxicity. These result...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - August 4, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Combination of chlorogenic acid and salvianolic acid B protects against polychlorinated biphenyls-induced oxidative stress through Nrf2
Publication date: Available online 3 August 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Lijun Chen, Yuan Li, Wenqin Yin, Wenqi Shan, Jinfeng Dai, Ye Yang, Lei LiGraphical abstract (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - August 4, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

MAP4K4 deficiency in CD4+ T cells aggravates lung damage induced by ozone-oxidized black carbon particles
This study aims to observe the effect of oBC on lung damage in mice and discuss how the functional MAP4K4 defect CD4+ T cells (conditional knockout of MAP4K4) presents its role in this process. In our study, MAP4K4 deletion in CD4+ T cells (MAP4K4 cKO) could increase cell number of macrophages, lymphocytes and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) exposed to oBC. MAP4K4 deletion in CD4+ T cell also affected CD4+ T cell differentiation in mediastinal lymph nodes after oBC stimulation. The number of CD4+ IL17+ T cell increased obviously. The levels of IL-6 mRNA of lung in MAP4K4 cKO mice was higher than that in ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - August 4, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The immune responses in juvenile rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii for the stress by the exposure to the dietary lead (II)
Publication date: Available online 30 July 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Jun-Hwan Kim, Ju-Chan Kang The aim of this study was to evaluate the lead toxic effects on the stress parameters and immune responses of Sebastes schlegelii. Juvenile rockfish, S. schlegelii (mean length 14.2±1.9cm, and mean weight 57.3±5.2g) were exposed for 4 weeks with the different levels of dietary lead (Pb2+) at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 240mg/L. The plasma cortisol and heat shock protein 70 was evaluated as stress indicators. The plasma cortisol of S. schlegelii was significantly increased in respon...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 31, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

β-eudesmol, a sesquiterpene from Teucrium ramosissimum, inhibits superoxide production, proliferation, adhesion and migration of human tumor cell
In this study we examined the effect of β-eudesmol, a sesquiterpenoid alcohol isolated from Teucrium ramosissimum leaves, on proliferation, superoxide anion production, adhesion and migration of human lung (A549) and colon (HT29 and Caco-2) cancer cell lines. Proliferation of tumor cells was inhibited by β-eudesmol. It also significantly inhibited superoxide production in A549 cells. Furthermore, β-eudesmol inhibited adhesion and migration of A549 and HT29 cell. These results demonstrate that β-eudesmol may be a novel anticancer agent for the treatment of lung and colon cancer by different ways: by inhi...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 31, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Tanshinone IIA sensitizes oral squamous cell carcinoma to radiation due to an enhanced autophagy
Conclusions TanIIA exerted a strong radiosensitizing effect on SCC090 comparing with the simple drug or single radiation treatment, which was due to an enhanced ROS generation and autophagy. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 31, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Preventive effects of cedrol against alopecia in cyclophosphamide-treated mice
Publication date: Available online 30 July 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Shan-shan Chen, Yan Zhang, Qiu-li Lu, Zhe Lin, Yuqing Zhao Although numerous hypotheses have been proposed to prevent chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA), effective pharmaceuticals have yet to be developed. In our study, the back hairs of C57BL/6 mice were factitiously removed. These mice were then treated with cedrol or minoxidil daily. Mice with early-stage anagen VI hair follicles were treated with cyclophosphamide (CYP, 125mg/kg) to induce alopecia. The CYP-damaged hair follicles were observed and quantifi...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 31, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Consideration of interaction between nanoparticles and food components for the safety assessment of nanoparticles following oral exposure: A review
Publication date: Available online 30 July 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Yi Cao, Juan Li, Fang Liu, Xiyue Li, Qin Jiang, Shanshan Cheng, Yuxiu Gu Nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used in food, and the toxicity of NPs following oral exposure should be carefully assessed to ensure the safety. Indeed, a number of studies have shown that oral exposure to NPs, especially solid NPs, may induce toxicological responses both in vivo and in vitro. However, most of the toxicological studies only used NPs for oral exposure, and the potential interaction between NPs and food components in...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 31, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

A metabolic profiling analysis of the nephrotoxicity of acyclovir in rats using ultra performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry
Publication date: Available online 28 July 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Wenmin Xing, Lili Gu, Xinyue Zhang, Jiadong Xu, Hong Lu Acyclovir (ACV) exposure is a common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). The toxicity mechanism of ACV has always been a matter of debate. The present study investigated into the time-effect relationship and dose-effect relationship of ACV-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using metabonomics. Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into four groups: a 0.9% NaCl solution group, and 100, 300, and 600mg/kg ACV-treated groups; the ACV or vehicle solution was admi...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 29, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Removal of Oxytetracycline and Determining Its Biosorption Properties on Aerobic Granular Sludge
This study investigates biosorption of Oxytetracycline, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, using aerobic granular sludge as an adsorbent in aqueous solutions. A sequencing batch reactor fed by a synthetic wastewater was operated to create aerobic granular sludge. Primarily, the pore structure and surface area of granular sludge, the chemical structure and the molecular sizes of the pharmaceutical, operating conditions, such as pH, stirring rate, initial concentration of Oxytetracycline, during adsorption process were verified. Subsequently, thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the adsorption were examined and adsorption isotherm...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 28, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Zidovudine and Isoniazid induced liver toxicity and oxidative stress: Evaluation of mitigating properties of silibinin
This study investigate the hepatotoxic potentials of AZT alone, INH alone and AZT+INH treatments and the mitigating potentials of SBN against these drugs induced toxic insults of liver in rats. Separate groups of rats (n=6 in each group) were administered AZT alone (50mg/kg b.w.), INH alone (25mg/kg, b.w.), AZT+INH (50mg/kg, b.w. and 25mg/kg, b.w.), SBN alone (100mg/kg, b.w.) and SBN+AZT+INH daily for sub-chronic period of 45days orally. The control rats received saline/propyleneglycol. INH alone and AZT+INH-induced parenchymal cell injury and cholestasis of liver was evidenced by highly significant increase in the activit...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 27, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Effects of inducers of cytochrome P450s on enrofloxacin N-deethylation in crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio
In this study with crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), the effect on enrofloxacin (EF) and its metabolite ciprofloxacin (CF) on the activity of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) was estimated following the oral administration of rifampicin (RIF) (12mg/kg) and β-naphthoflavone (BNF) (12mg/kg), respectively. First, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was used to detect the pharmacokinetics of EF with continual blood sampling. In RIF-treated, BNF-treated and control groups, the value of the CmaxCF/CmaxEF ratio was 4.41, 0.81 and 0.95, and the corresponding value o...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 27, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Effects of dietary green tea polyphenol supplementation on the health of workers exposed to high-voltage power lines
Publication date: Available online 26 July 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Yang Zhang, Dan Zhang, Baoyu Zhu, He Zhang, Ye Sun, Chengxun Sun Although it has been several decades since the focus on the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) of high-voltage power lines on human health, no consistent conclusion has been drawn. The present study aimed to investigate the change in oxidative stress after exposure to ELF-EMFs, and potential protective effects of green tea polyphenol supplementation (GTPS) on ELF-EMFs induced oxidative stress. A total of 867 subje...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 26, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Tideglusib induces apoptosis in Human Neuroblastoma IMR32 cells, provoking sub-G0/G1 accumulation and ROS generation
Publication date: Available online 20 July 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Theodore Lemuel Mathuram, Vilwanathan Ravikumar, Lisa M. Reece, Selvaraju Karthik, Changam Sheela Sasikumar, Kotturathu Mammen Cherian Neuroblastoma is the most common tumor amongst children amounting to nearly 15% of cancer deaths. This cancer is peculiar in its characteristics, exhibiting differentiation, maturation and metastatic transformation leading to poor prognosis and low survival rates among children. Chemotherapy, though toxic to normal cells, has shown to improve the survival of the patient with e...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 22, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Shift from darbepoetin- α to continuous erythropoietin receptor activator decreases serum aluminium concentration in patients on hemodialysis
Conclusion We found the shift from DPO to CERA results in lower Al levels, a reduced inflammatory response, and an increase in RBC number and PTH level in uremic patients on hemodialysis. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 21, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Mutagenic and genotoxic potential of native air borne particulate matter from industrial area of Rourkela city, Odisha, India
In this study, we examined potential adverse health effect of particulate matter (PM) collected from industrial areas of Rourkela, Odisha, India. Results indicate that PM in these areas contains benzo[a]pyrene in addition to other unidentified molecules. Ames test revealed the above PM to be highly mutagenic. Further studies of PM in HaCaT cells suggest its DNA damaging potential which may lead to apoptosis. Generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species following PM exposure may be an early event in the PM induced apoptosis. In addition, the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP450), the key xenobiotic metabolism enzyme, w...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 21, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Effect of GADD45a on olaquindox-induced apoptosis in human Hepatoma G2 cells: involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction
In conclusion, the results revealed that GADD45a played a critical role in olaquindox-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, which may embrace the regulatory ability on the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 21, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Effects of resveratrol on carbon monoxide-induced cardiotoxicity in rats
In conclusion, the present study offers evidence of a protective effect of RES administration on CO-induced cardiotoxicity via Akt up-regulation and attenuation of caspase-3 activity in rat hearts. Graphical abstract (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 21, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Genetic polymorphisms study of pharmacogenomic VIP variants in Han ethnic of China ’s Shaanxi province
Conclusions Our study have supplemented the Han Chinese data related to pharmacogenomics and illustrated differences in genotypic frequencies of selected VIP variants' among the Han population and 15 other populations. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 21, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Arsenite suppresses angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cells mediated by Platelet Derived Growth Factor Receptor-beta
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Xiaotong Wang, Yan Mou, Zhen Yue, Haiying Zhang, Xuejin Su, Yang Wang, Ronggui Li, Xin Sun The present study aimed to investigate the effects of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) on the angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the mechanism involved. Firstly, a Matrigel-based in vitro angiogenesis assay demonstrated that arsenite suppressed the angiogenesis of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. Then by using a global inhibitor for multiple growth factor receptors (E7080) and a specific inh...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 20, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The influence of aripiprazole and olanzapine on neurotransmitters level in frontal cortex of prenatally stressed rats.
Conclusion Alterations observed as a result of ARI and OLA administration may be pivotal in identifying animal models of mental disorders and in the analysis of neuroleptics effectiveness. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 20, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Nano-encapsulated chlorophyllin significantly delays progression of lung cancer both in in vitro and in vivo models through activation of mitochondrial signaling cascades and drug-DNA interaction
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Jayeeta Das, Asmita Samadder, Jesmin Mondal, Suresh K Abraham, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh Chlorophyllin (CHL), a sodium-copper-salt derived from chlorophyll, has been widely used as a food-dye, also reportedly having some anti-cancer effect. We tested if PLGA-loaded CHL (NCHL) could have additional protective abilities through its faster and targeted drug delivery in cancer cells. Physico-chemical characterization of NCHL was done through atomic-forcemicroscopy and UV-spectroscopy. NCHL demonstrated greater ab...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 20, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Phycoremediation and adsorption isotherms of cadmium and copper ions by Merismopedia tenuissima and their effect on growth and metabolism
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Mustafa A. Fawzy The current study tends to investigate the removal of cadmium and copper ions by Merismopedia tenuissima, grown in different concentrations of cadmium and copper ions, as well to investigate their effects on growth and metabolism. Sorption isotherms of Langmuir and Freundlich were obtained for the quantitative description of cadmium and copper uptake by M. tenuissima. Langmuir model adequately to describe the data of biosorption for these metals. However, the Freundlich model could work well in ca...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 20, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Inhibition of diethylnitrosamine-induced liver cancer in rats by Rhizoma paridis saponin
Publication date: Available online 14 July 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Jing Liu, Shuli Man, Jing Li, Yang Zhang, Xin Meng, Wenyuan Gao Rhizoma Paridis saponin (RPS) had been regarded as the main active components responsible for the anti-tumor effects of the herb Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis (Franch.) Hand.-Mazz. In the present research, we set up a rat model of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced hepatoma to evaluate antitumor effect of RPS. After 20 weeks treatment, rats were sacrificed to perform histopathological examinations, liver function tests, oxidative stress assays ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 16, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Genetic polymorphisms study of pharmacogenomic VIP variants in Han ethnic of China’s Shaanxi province
Conclusions Our study have supplemented the Han Chinese data related to pharmacogenomics and illustrated differences in genotypic frequencies of selected VIP variants' among the Han population and 15 other populations. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 16, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Ligustrazine attenuates inflammation and the associated chemokines and receptors in ovalbumine-induced mouse asthma model
In this study, we aim to observe the effect of ligustrazine on inflammation and the associated chemokines and receptors in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse asthma model. Our data demonstrates that ligustrazine suppresses airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine and lung inflammation in OVA-induced mouse asthma model. Ligustrazine also induces inhibition of inflammatory cells including neutrophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils. In addition, ligustrazine significantly reduces IL-4, IL-5, IL-17A, CCL3, CCL19 and CCL21 level in BALF of asthma mice. Furthermore, ligustrazine induces down-regulation of CCL19 receptor CCR7, STAT3 a...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 14, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Cellular elimination of nanoparticles
Publication date: Available online 11 July 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Eleonore Fröhlich Exposure of the general population to nanoparticles (NPs) occurs mainly by dermal and oral uptake of consumer products, food and pharmaceutical applications and by inhalation. While cellular uptake mechanisms have been intensely studied it is less well known how NPs are eliminated from the cells. Quantification of the amount of excreted particles is complicated by inherent limitations of the technologies that are suitable to study excretion. Among the mechanisms to decrease intracellular par...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 13, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

PM2.5 collected in China causes inflammatory and oxidative stress responses in macrophages through the multiple pathways
In this study, we investigated the toxicological properties of particulate matter ≤2.5mm (PM2.5) collected in an urban area in China (Shenyang), focusing on inflammation and oxidative stress tightly linked to respiratory diseases. Exposure to PM2.5 significantly increased the expression levels of inflammatory (interleukin-1β and cyclooxygenase-2) and oxidative stress (heme oxygenase1) genes in the mouse macrophages. PM2.5-caused inflammatory response was strongly suppressed by endotoxin neutralizer (polymyxin B) and knock-out of toll-like receptor 4, while oxidative stress was not. On the other hand, an antioxidant...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 7, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Influence of tobacco smoking on transferrin sialylation during pregnancy in smoking and non-smoking women with iron deficiency
Conclusion Tobacco smoking has an influence on number of sialic acids residue in the transferrin and seems to change conversion of Tf isoforms, and this may disturb iron transport and in consequence influence on foetal development and nourishment. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 7, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Chlorogenic acid suppresses monocrotaline-induced sinusoidal obstruction syndrome: the potential contribution of NFκB, Egr1, Nrf2, MPAKs and PI3K signals
In conclusion, this study demonstrates the protection of CGA against MCT-induced SOS. Transcriptional factor NFκB, Egr1 and Nrf2-regulated inflammation, coagulation-fibrinolysis, and antioxidant, and PI3K and MAPKs all contribute to such protection. Graphical abstract (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 7, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim in Swimming Crabs (Portunus trituberculatus) and in vitro antibacterial activity against Vibrio: PK/PD of SMZ-TMP in crabs and antibacterial activity against Vibrio
In this study, the antibacterial activity against Vibrio and the pharmacokinetics (PK) of sulfamethoxazole (SMZ)-trimethoprim (TMP) in crabs were estimated to explore the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) properties of the SMZ-TMP combination. The in vitro bacteriostatic activity and the anti-Vibrio infection activity of the SMZ-TMP combination at various ratios in crabs were studied. A degree of synergism was observed in the SMZ-TMP combination at ratios ranging from 50:1 to 1:5. The results showed that the MIC50 and MIC90 values for different SMZ-TMP combinations were in the ranges of 0.62–5 and 0.62–...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 2, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Non-cytotoxic concentrations of acetaminophen induced mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant response in HepG2 cells
Publication date: Available online 1 July 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Tingfen Zhang, Qiang zhang, Jiabin Guo, Haitao Yuan, Hui Peng, Lan Cui, Jian Yin, Li Zhang, Jun Zhao, Jin Li, Andrew White, Paul L. Carmichael, Carl Westmoreland, Shuangqing Peng Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in acute, severe liver injury caused by overdose of acetaminophen (APAP). However, whether mitochondrial biogenesis is involved is unclear. Here we demonstrated that mitochondrial biogenesis, as indicated by the amounts of mitochondrial DNA and proteins, increased significantly in ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 2, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research