Cytomegalovirus is a tumor-associated virus: armed and dangerous
Publication date: December 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 39Author(s): Charles CobbsHuman cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gene products are present in multiple human malignancies, often in specific association with tumor cells and tumor vasculature. Emerging evidence from human and mouse models of CMV infection in cancer indicate that CMV can transform epithelial cells, promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal to epithelial (MET) in tumor cells, promote tumor angiogenesis and proliferation and incapacitate the host anti-CMV immune response. This review will discuss the increasing role of H...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - September 14, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Applications of CRISPR/Cas9 tools in deciphering the mechanisms of HIV-1 persistence
Publication date: October 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 38Author(s): Roxane Verdikt, Gilles Darcis, Amina Ait-Ammar, Carine Van LintHIV-1 infection can be controlled but not cured by combination antiretroviral therapy. Indeed, the virus persists in treated individuals in viral reservoirs, the best described of which consisting in latently infected central memory CD4+ T cells. However, other cell types in other body compartments than in the peripheral blood contribute to HIV-1 persistence. Addressing the molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 persistence and their cell-specific and tissue-specific variations is thu...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - September 9, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Targeting HIV-1 proviral transcription
Publication date: October 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 38Author(s): Alex Olson, Binita Basukala, Wilson W Wong, Andrew J HendersonDespite the success of antiretroviral therapies, there is no cure for HIV-1 infection due to the establishment of a long-lived latent reservoir that fuels viral rebound upon treatment interruption. ‘Shock-and-kill’ strategies to diminish the latent reservoir have had modest impact on the reservoir leading to considerations of alternative approaches to target HIV-1 proviruses. This review explores approaches to target HIV-1 transcription as a way to block the provir...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - August 30, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Dynamic factors affecting HPV-attributable fraction for head and neck cancers
Publication date: December 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 39Author(s): Jitesh B Shewale, Maura L GillisonHead and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is attributable to carcinogen and oncogenic virus exposure and rates are driven by the prevalence, intensity, and duration of exposures. Recent dramatic shifts in human behavior have resulted in substantial heterogeneity in HNSCC incidence trends over calendar time. For example, changes in sexual behavior during the 1900s likely increased exposure to oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and, consequently, rates of HPV-positive HNSCC. Shifting rate-ratio...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - August 28, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Detecting viral sequences in NGS data
Publication date: December 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 39Author(s): Paul G Cantalupo, James M PipasNext generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provide an increasingly important avenue for detecting known viruses, and for discovering novel viruses present in clinical or environmental samples. Several computational pipelines capable of identifying and classifying viral sequences in NGS data have been developed and used to search for viruses in human or animal samples, microbiomes, and in various environments. In this review we summarize the different approaches used to determine viral presence in sequen...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - August 28, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Elimination of infectious HIV DNA by CRISPR–Cas9
Publication date: October 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 38Author(s): Atze T Das, Caroline S Binda, Ben BerkhoutCurrent antiretroviral drugs can efficiently block HIV replication and prevent transmission, but do not target the HIV provirus residing in cells that constitute the viral reservoir. Because drug therapy interruption will cause viral rebound from this reservoir, HIV-infected individuals face lifelong treatment. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are being investigated that aim to permanently inactivate the proviral DNA, which may lead to a cure. Multiple studies showed that CRISPR–Cas9...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - August 25, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The potential of engineered antibodies for HIV-1 therapy and cure
Publication date: October 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 38Author(s): Marloes Grobben, Richard AL Stuart, Marit J van GilsBroadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are currently under investigation as a therapy for HIV-1 infection and recent clinical trials have shown prolonged viral suppression by bnAbs during antiretroviral treatment interruption. Interestingly, these bnAbs also showed the ability to activate the host immune system to clear HIV-1 infected cells. There are many possibilities to further increase the potential efficacy of bnAbs. Most notably, Fc domain engineering to improve half-life and inc...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - August 15, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Altered microRNA processing proteins in HPV-induced cancers
Publication date: December 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 39Author(s): Barbara C Snoek, Iris Babion, Danijela Koppers-Lalic, Dirk M Pegtel, Renske DM SteenbergenHigh-risk human papilloma virus (hrHPV) infections are associated with the development of anogenital cancers, in particular cervical cancer, and a subset of head and neck cancers. Previous studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to the development and progression of HPV-induced malignancies. miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that exist as multiple length and sequence variants, termed isomiRs. Efficient processing of miRNAs and generati...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - August 12, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

HIV-1 persistence in the central nervous system: viral and host determinants during antiretroviral therapy
Publication date: October 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 38Author(s): EF Balcom, WC Roda, EA Cohen, MY Li, C PowerDespite remarkable therapeutic advances in the past two decades, the elimination of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from latent reservoirs constitutes a major barrier to eradication and preventing neurological disease associated with HIV/AIDS. Invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) by HIV-1 occurs early in infection, leading to viral infection and productive persistence in brain macrophage-like cells (BMCs) including resident microglia and infiltrating macrophages. HIV-1 persi...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - August 5, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Human papillomavirus vaccine disease impact beyond expectations
Publication date: December 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 39Author(s): Silvia de Sanjose, Maria Brotons, D Scott LaMontagne, Laia BruniSince 2006, 115 countries and territories have introduced human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs.Several efforts have been undertaken to evaluate the impact of HPV vaccines. Many countries, mainly high-income and with high screening coverage, are already reporting a visible impact of the HPV vaccine on HPV-related diseases. Others, largely low-income and middle-income countries, are introducing HPV vaccine to control HPV diseases that will undoubtedly generate a si...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - August 3, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The case for BK polyomavirus as a cause of bladder cancer
Publication date: December 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 39Author(s): Gabriel J Starrett, Christopher B BuckIn 2014, the International Agency for Research on Cancer judged Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) to be a probable human carcinogen. BK polyomavirus (BKPyV, a distant cousin of MCPyV) was ruled a possible carcinogen. In this review, we argue that it has recently become reasonable to view both of these viruses as known human carcinogens. In particular, several complementary lines of evidence support a causal role for BKPyV in the development of bladder carcinomas affecting organ transplant patients. T...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - July 27, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

BK polyomavirus is a cause of bladder cancer
Publication date: December 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 39Author(s): Gabriel J Starrett, Christopher B BuckIn 2014, the International Agency for Research on Cancer judged Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) to be a probable human carcinogen. BK polyomavirus (BKPyV, a distant cousin of MCPyV) was ruled a possible carcinogen. In this review, we argue that it has recently become reasonable to view both of these viruses as known human carcinogens. In particular, several complementary lines of evidence support a causal role for BKPyV in the development of bladder carcinomas affecting organ transplant patients. T...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - July 21, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Editorial overview: Viruses and the microbiome
Publication date: Available online 20 July 2019Source: Current Opinion in VirologyAuthor(s): Stephanie M Karst, Christiane E Wobus (Source: Current Opinion in Virology)
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - July 21, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

A broad drug arsenal to attack a strenuous latent HIV reservoir
Publication date: October 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 38Author(s): Mateusz Stoszko, Enrico Ne, Erik Abner, Tokameh MahmoudiHIV cure is impeded by the persistence of a strenuous reservoir of latent but replication competent infected cells, which remain unsusceptible to c-ART and unrecognized by the immune system for elimination. Ongoing progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms that control HIV transcription and latency has led to the development of strategies to either permanently inactivate the latent HIV infected reservoir of cells or to stimulate the virus to emerge out of latency, coupled t...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - July 17, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Regulating cellular plasticity to persist: a way for tumor viruses to triumph
Publication date: December 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 39Author(s): Vural Yilmaz, Katerina StratiGraphical abstract (Source: Current Opinion in Virology)
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - July 12, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Virome–host interactions in intestinal health and disease
Publication date: August 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 37Author(s): Sang-Uk Seo, Mi-Na KweonThe enteric virome consists largely of bacteriophages and prophages related to commensal bacteria. Bacteriophages indirectly affect the host immune system by targeting their associated bacteria; however, studies suggest that bacteriophages also have distinct pathways that enable them to interact directly with the host. Eukaryotic viruses are less abundant than bacteriophages but are more efficient in the stimulation of host immune responses. Acute, permanent, and latent viral infections are detected by different ty...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - July 9, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Enteric viruses exploit the microbiota to promote infection
Publication date: August 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 37Author(s): Christopher M RobinsonEnteric viruses infect the mammalian gastrointestinal tract which is home to a diverse community of intestinal bacteria. Accumulating evidence suggests that certain enteric viruses utilize these bacteria to promote infection. While this is not surprising considering their proximity, multiple viruses from different viral families have been shown to bind directly to bacteria or bacterial components to aid in viral replication, pathogenesis, and transmission. These data suggest that the concept of a single virus infecti...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - July 6, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Elite controllers and lessons learned for HIV-1 cure
Publication date: October 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 38Author(s): Cecilio Lopez-Galindez, Maria Pernas, Concepcion Casado, Isabel Olivares, Ramon Lorenzo-RedondoFollowing the success of HIV-1 antiviral treatment that maintains undetectable levels of viral replication and lack of clinical progression, the design of an HIV-1 cure for patients became the next objective. The success of the treated individuals together with the identification of subjects that spontaneously control the clinical progression for long periods, such as long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) and particularly LTNP Elite Controllers (LT...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - June 29, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

What is (not) known about the dynamics of the human gut virome in health and disease
Publication date: August 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 37Author(s): Leen Beller, Jelle MatthijnssensThe human gut virome has an important role in human health but its dynamics remain poorly understood. Few longitudinal studies in healthy adults showed a stable temporal gut virome, with high inter-individual diversity. In contrast, the infant virome shows a high temporal intra-individual diversity. Unfortunately, these virome studies ignore an enormous amount of unknown ‘dark matter’ sequences, leading to incomplete analyses and possibly incorrect conclusions. Also, the interactions between pro...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - June 27, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Editorial overview: Virus structure and expression
Publication date: Available online 25 June 2019Source: Current Opinion in VirologyAuthor(s): Juliana Reis Cortines, Peter Prevelige (Source: Current Opinion in Virology)
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - June 26, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

A long-distance relationship: the commensal gut microbiota and systemic viruses
Publication date: August 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 37Author(s): Emma S Winkler, Larissa B ThackrayRecent advances defining the role of the commensal gut microbiota in the development, education, induction, function, and maintenance of the mammalian immune system inform our understanding of how immune responses govern the outcome of systemic virus infection. While characterization of the impact of the local oral, respiratory, dermal and genitourinary microbiota on host immune responses and systemic virus infection is in its infancy, the gut microbiota interacts with host immunity systemically and at di...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - June 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Virome and bacteriome: two sides of the same coin
Publication date: August 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 37Author(s): Jonathan Stern, George Miller, Xin Li, Deepak SaxenaAlthough bacterial dysbiosis has been previously associated with carcinogenesis and HIV infection, the impact of the virome and these disease states has been less well studied. In this review, we will summarize what is known about the interplay between both the bacterial and the viral components of the microbiome on cancer and HIV pathogenesis. Bacterial dysbiosis has been associated with carcinogenesis such as colorectal cancer (CRC), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), lung cancer, breast ...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - June 7, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Curious entanglements: interactions between mosquitoes, their microbiota, and arboviruses
Publication date: August 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 37Author(s): Eric P Caragata, Chinmay V Tikhe, George DimopoulosMosquitoes naturally harbor a diverse community of microorganisms that play a crucial role in their biology. Mosquito–microbiota interactions are abundant and complex. They can dramatically alter the mosquito immune response, and impede or enhance a mosquito’s ability to transmit medically important arboviral pathogens. Yet critically, given the massive public health impact of arboviral disease, few such interactions have been well characterized. In this review, we describe th...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - June 5, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Astrovirus and the microbiome
Publication date: August 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 37Author(s): Valerie Cortez, Elisa Margolis, Stacey Schultz-CherryAlthough astroviruses are most commonly associated with acute gastrointestinal illness in humans, their ability to infect a broad range of hosts and cause a spectrum of disease makes them widespread and complex pathogens. The precise mechanisms that dictate the course of astrovirus disease have not been studied extensively but are likely driven by multifactorial host–microbe interactions. Recent insights from studies of animal astrovirus infections have revealed both beneficial an...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - June 2, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

How the gut microbiome regulates host immune responses to viral vaccines
Publication date: August 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 37Author(s): Anastasia N Vlasova, Sayaka Takanashi, Ayako Miyazaki, Gireesh Rajashekara, Linda J SaifThe co-evolution of the microbiota and immune system has forged a mutually beneficial relationship. This relationship allows the host to maintain the balance between active immunity to pathogens and vaccines and tolerance to self-antigens and food antigens. In children living in low-income and middle-income countries, undernourishment and repetitive gastrointestinal infections are associated with the failure of oral vaccines. Intestinal dysbiosis assoc...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - June 2, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Editorial overview: Antiviral strategies: Antiviral drug development for single-stranded RNA viruses
Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Current Opinion in VirologyAuthor(s): Margo A Brinton, Richard K Plemper (Source: Current Opinion in Virology)
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - May 29, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Development of CAR-T cells for long-term eradication and surveillance of HIV-1 reservoir
Publication date: October 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 38Author(s): Bingfeng Liu, Wanying Zhang, Hui ZhangHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reservoir is a pool of latently infected cells harboring replication-competent proviral DNA that limits antiretroviral therapy. Suppression of HIV-1 by combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) delays progression of the disease but does not eliminate the viral reservoir, necessitating lifetime daily administration of antiretroviral drugs. To achieve durable suppression of viremia without daily therapy, various strategies have been developed, including long-...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - May 25, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Small RNAs to treat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection by gene therapy
Publication date: October 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 38Author(s): Ryan P Goguen, Camille MG Malard, Robert J Scarborough, Anne GatignolCurrent drug therapies for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection are effective in preventing progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome but do not eliminate the infection and are associated with unwanted side effects. A potential alternative is to modify the genome of patient cells via gene therapy to confer HIV resistance to these cells. Small RNAs are the largest and most diverse group of anti-HIV genes that have been developed for engineering HI...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - May 19, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Interactions between noroviruses, the host, and the microbiota
Publication date: August 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 37Author(s): Forrest C Walker, Megan T BaldridgeIn recent years, appreciation has been growing for the role that the microbiota plays in interactions between the host and various pathogens, including norovirus. Proviral and antiviral effects of the microbiota have been observed for both human and murine noroviruses, and it has become clear that direct effects of microbes and their metabolites as well as indirect effects of commensals on the host are key in modulating pathogenesis. In particular, a common thread has emerged in the ability of members of...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - May 15, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Virus capsid assembly across different length scales inspire the development of virus-based biomaterials
Publication date: June 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 36Author(s): Ekaterina Selivanovitch, Trevor DouglasIn biology, there are an abundant number of self-assembled structures organized according to hierarchical levels of complexity. In some examples, the assemblies formed at each level exhibit unique properties and behaviors not present in individual components. Viruses are an example of such where first individual subunits come together to form a capsid structure, some utilizing a scaffolding protein to template or catalyze the capsid formation. Increasing the level of complexity, the viral capsids can t...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - May 7, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Between a shock and a hard place: challenges and developments in HIV latency reversal
Publication date: October 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 38Author(s): Jennifer M Zerbato, Harrison V Purves, Sharon R Lewin, Thomas A RasmussenLatently infected cells that persist in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are a major barrier to cure. One strategy to eliminate latency is by activating viral transcription, commonly called latency reversal. Several small non-randomised clinical trials of latency reversing agents (LRAs) in HIV-infected individuals on ART increased viral production, but disappointingly did not reduce the number of latently infected cells or delay time to viral...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - April 30, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Current status of small molecule drug development for Ebola virus and other filoviruses
Publication date: April 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 35Author(s): Megan R Edwards, Christopher F BaslerThe filovirus family includes some of the deadliest viruses known, including Ebola virus and Marburg virus. These viruses cause periodic outbreaks of severe disease that can be spread from person to person, making the filoviruses important public health threats. There remains a need for approved drugs that target all or most members of this virus family. Small molecule inhibitors that target conserved functions hold promise as pan-filovirus therapeutics. To date, compounds that effectively target virus ...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - April 18, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Slow and steady wins the race: physical limits on the rate of viral DNA packaging
Publication date: June 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 36Author(s): Paul J JardineDuring the assembly of dsDNA viruses such as the tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses, the viral chromosome is compacted to near crystalline density inside a preformed head shell. DNA translocation is driven by powerful ring ATPase motors that couple ATP binding, hydrolysis, and release to force generation and movement. Studies of the motor of the bacteriophage phi29 have revealed a complex mechanochemistry behind this process that slows as the head fills. Recent studies of the physical behavior of packaging DNA suggest tha...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - April 18, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Editorial overview: Emerging viruses: interspecies transmission: Expect the unexpected
Publication date: Available online 21 March 2019Source: Current Opinion in VirologyAuthor(s): Adolfo García-Sastre, Juergen A Richt (Source: Current Opinion in Virology)
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - March 21, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The intersection of sex and gender in the treatment of influenza
Publication date: April 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 35Author(s): Rosemary Morgan, Sabra L KleinMales/men and females/women differ in the outcome of influenza A virus (IAV) infections, vaccination, and antiviral treatments. Both sex (i.e. biological factors) and gender (i.e. sociocultural factors) can impact exposure and severity of IAV infections as well as responses and outcomes of treatments for IAV. Greater consideration of the combined effects of sex and gender in epidemiological, clinical, and animal studies of influenza pathogenesis is needed.Graphical abstract (Source: Current Opinion in Virology)
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - March 21, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The multiple origins of proteins present in tupanvirus particles
Publication date: June 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 36Author(s): Paulo Victor de Miranda Boratto, Ana Cláudia dos Santos Pereira Andrade, Rodrigo Araújo Lima Rodrigues, Bernard La Scola, Jônatas Santos AbrahãoIn the last few decades, the isolation of amoebae-infecting giant viruses has challenged established principles related to the definition of virus, their evolution, and their particle structures represented by a variety of shapes and sizes. Tupanviruses are one of the most recently described amoebae-infecting viruses and exhibit a peculiar morphology with a cylindrical tai...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - March 18, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Taming a beast: lessons from the domestication of hepatitis C virus
Publication date: April 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 35Author(s): Joseph M Luna, Mohsan Saeed, Charles M Rice“What I cannot create, I do not understand.” Richard Feynman may have championed reasoning from first principles in his famous blackboard missive, but he could just as well have been referring to the plight of a molecular virologist. What cannot be grown in a controlled laboratory setting, we cannot fully understand. The story of the laboratory domestication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is now a classic example of virologists applying all manner of inventive skill to create cell-based mo...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - March 13, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Mass spectrometry-based studies of virus assembly
Publication date: June 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 36Author(s): Alison E AshcroftThe assembly of exact numbers of protein monomers into the distinct architectures of virus capsids has long been of intrigue. Despite the diseases associated with viruses, there is a paucity of anti-viral therapies; however, mapping virus capsid assembly at the molecular level may lead to the development of more therapeutics.Native mass spectrometry is a powerful, versatile tool with which to monitor biomolecular assembly pathways and identify key intermediates. Recent highlights in this field in terms of MDa mass measureme...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - March 10, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Baloxavir marboxil: the new influenza drug on the market
Publication date: April 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 35Author(s): Ryan O’Hanlon, Megan L ShawFor the first time in nearly 20 years there is a new class of antiviral drug for influenza. The latest approved antiviral is baloxavir marboxil (trade name, Xofluza) which targets the endonuclease function of the viral PA polymerase subunit and prevents the transcription of viral mRNA. The most promising aspect of this new drug is its pharmacology which allows for effective treatment of influenza A or B virus infection with just a single dose. A clinical trial showed greater reductions in viral loads with b...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - March 10, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The amazing HK97 fold: versatile results of modest differences
Publication date: June 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 36Author(s): Robert L Duda, Carolyn M TeschkedsDNA Bacteriophages, some dsDNA archaeal viruses and the Herpesviruses share many features including a common capsid assembly pathway and coat protein fold. The coat proteins of these viruses, which have the HK97 fold, co-assemble with a free or attached scaffolding protein and other capsid proteins into a precursor capsid, known as a procapsid or prohead. The procapsid is a metastable state that increases in stability as a result of morphological changes that occur during the dsDNA packaging reaction. We re...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - March 10, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Strategies for Zika drug discovery
Publication date: April 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 35Author(s): Jing Zou, Pei-Yong ShiZika virus (ZIKV) can cause devastating congenital syndrome in fetuses from pregnant women and autoimmune disorder Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. No clinically approved vaccine or drug is currently available for ZIKV. This unmet medical need has motivated a global effort to develop countermeasures. Several promising ZIKV vaccine candidates have already entered clinical trials. In contrast, antiviral development of ZIKV is lagging behind. Here, we review the overall strategies for ZIKV drug discovery, includ...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - March 8, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Structural perspectives of antibody-dependent enhancement of infection of dengue virus
Publication date: June 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 36Author(s): Seamus R Morrone, Shee-Mei LokDengue virus (DENV) consists of four serotypes. Sequential serotype infections can cause increased disease severity, likely due to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection. Here, we review two recent papers showing major advancements in the understanding of the ADE mechanism for both mature and immature DENV. The surface of both mature and immature DENV contains E and another protein — M in mature and prM in immature virus. On mature DENV, the orientation of anti-E antibody with respect to the vi...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - March 5, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Status of antiviral therapeutics against rabies virus and related emerging lyssaviruses
Publication date: April 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 35Author(s): Venice Du Pont, Richard K Plemper, Matthias J SchnellRabies virus (RABV) constitutes a major social and economic burden associated with 60 000 deaths annually worldwide. Although pre-exposure and post-exposure treatment options are available, they are efficacious only when initiated before the onset of clinical symptoms. Aggravating the problem, the current RABV vaccine does not cross-protect against the emerging zoonotic phylogroup II lyssaviruses. A requirement for an uninterrupted cold chain and high cost of the immunoglobulin co...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - February 11, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Emergence and re-emergence of mosquito-borne arboviruses
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 34Author(s): Yan-Jang S Huang, Stephen Higgs, Dana L VanlandinghamArthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are ecologically distinct from many other pathogens because of the involvement of arthropod vectors and animal reservoirs. Several mosquito-borne arboviruses have emerged in various geographic regions during the past few decades. Since the beginning of the 21st century, the emergence of two mosquito-borne arboviruses, chikungunya and Zika, has taken place globally. Millions of infections have not only changed the epidemiology of previously obscure...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - February 9, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Emerging viruses in aquaculture
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 34Author(s): Frederick SB KibengeAquaculture remains the world’s fastest-growing sector producing food of animal origin. Unlike in terrestrial animal agriculture, in aquaculture both farmed and wild aquatic animals in the same water column experience the same virus challenges. Additionally, the burgeoning international aquaculture expansion and expanding global trade in live aquatic animals and their products have been accompanied by long distance geographical redistribution of aquatic animal species and their viruses. The outcome is a continu...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - February 2, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Parallel molecular evolution and adaptation in viruses
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 34Author(s): Bernardo Gutierrez, Marina Escalera-Zamudio, Oliver G PybusParallel molecular evolution is the independent evolution of the same genotype or phenotype from distinct ancestors. The simple genomes and rapid evolution of many viruses mean they are useful model systems for studying parallel evolution by natural selection. Parallel adaptation occurs in the context of several viral behaviours, including cross-species transmission, drug resistance, and host immune escape, and its existence suggests that at least some aspects of virus evolution...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - January 30, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Viruses in bats and potential spillover to animals and humans
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 34Author(s): Lin-Fa Wang, Danielle E AndersonIn the last two decades, several high impact zoonotic disease outbreaks have been linked to bat-borne viruses. These include SARS coronavirus, Hendra virus and Nipah virus. In addition, it has been suspected that ebolaviruses and MERS coronavirus are also linked to bats. It is being increasingly accepted that bats are potential reservoirs of a large number of known and unknown viruses, many of which could spillover into animal and human populations. However, our knowledge into basic bat biology and immuno...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - January 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and expansion from endemic regions
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 34Author(s): Jessica R Spengler, Éric Bergeron, Christina F SpiropoulouCrimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a virus-mediated hemorrhagic disease that occurs over a wide geographic region. In recent years, a variety of active and passive surveillance networks have improved our knowledge of areas with existing circulation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), the etiologic agent of CCHF. These investigations aid in better defining the distribution of the virus. Expansion of a virus into new areas can occur through a variety of ...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - January 17, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Emerging and re-emerging coronaviruses in pigs
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 34Author(s): Qiuhong Wang, Anastasia N Vlasova, Scott P Kenney, Linda J SaifPorcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), and swine acute diarrhea syndrome-coronavirus (SADS-CoV) are emerging/reemerging coronaviruses (CoVs). They cause acute gastroenteritis in neonatal piglets. Sequence analyses suggest that PEDV and SADS-CoV may have originated from bat CoVs and PDCoV from a sparrow CoV, reaffirming the interspecies transmission of CoVs. The clinical signs and pathogenesis of the three viruses are similar. Necrosis of in...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - January 15, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Evolution of plant–virus interactions: host range and virus emergence
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 34Author(s): Michael J McLeish, Aurora Fraile, Fernando García-ArenalChanges in host range are central to virus emergence. Host range, together with its evolution, is determined by virus intrinsic factors, such as genetic traits determining its fitness in different hosts. Experimental analyses have shown the relevance in host range evolution of across-host fitness trade-offs. Host range is also determined by ecological factors extrinsic to the virus such as the distribution, abundance, and interaction of species, and understanding their role ...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - January 15, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research