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Overcoming apathy in frontotemporal dementia: challenges and future directions
Publication date: August 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22 Author(s): Emma Johnson, Fiona Kumfor Apathy is a common symptom in frontotemporal dementia that is associated with functional decline and carer stress. Evidence suggests that apathy presents differently depending on patterns of brain atrophy, and emerges earlier and is more severe in behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia than in semantic dementia or progressive nonfluent aphasia. Previously, apathy was assessed as a unidimensional construct using informant report questionnaires. Recent theories, however, conceptualise apathy as a...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - February 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Let's talk about sex … differences in human fear conditioning
Publication date: October 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 23 Author(s): Christian J Merz, Valerie L Kinner, Oliver T Wolf Fear conditioning represents an experimental paradigm ideally suited to investigate aversive learning and memory mechanisms that are fundamental to the development, maintenance and treatment of mental disorders. Men and women seem to differ in their capability to learn and retrieve fear and extinction memories. This review outlines how sex may influence human fear conditioning, with an emphasis on the sex hormones and oral contraceptives. Available evidence suggests women wit...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - February 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Inflammation-induced motivational changes: perspective gained by evaluating positive and negative valence systems
Publication date: August 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22 Author(s): Elisabeth G Vichaya, Robert Dantzer Inflammation can profoundly impact motivated behavior, as is the case with inflammation-induced depression. By evaluating objectively measurable basic neurobehavioral processes involved in motivation, recent research indicates that inflammation generally reduces approach motivation and enhances avoidance motivation. Increased effort valuation largely mediates the effects of inflammation on approach motivation. Changes in reward valuation are not uniformly observed in approach motivation. Ho...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - February 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Comparative evidence for the importance of the amygdala in regulating reward salience
Publication date: August 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22 Author(s): Christopher R Pryce Environmental stimuli and life events are often of emotional relevance to the individual. This is due to their recognition and processing by the brain's neural circuits for emotion. In terms of emotion valence, stimuli/events can be neutral (non-emotional), rewarding or aversive. In addition to its basic valence, the salience of an emotional stimulus, that is, how rewarding or how aversive it is, is also of critical importance. Quantitative changes in stimulus reward salience or aversion salience are likel...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - February 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Hypothalamic survival circuits related to social and predatory defenses and their interactions with metabolic control, reproductive behaviors and memory systems
Publication date: December 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24 Author(s): Newton Sabino Canteras The hypothalamus may be viewed as the central piece of the survival circuits and is responsible for organizing endocrine, autonomic and behavioral responses to guarantee the survival of both the individual and the species. The hypothalamus is largely known to control the three basic classes of behavior required for animal survival, namely, ingestive, defensive, and reproductive behaviors. Over the years, a great deal has been learned regarding the hypothalamic circuits organizing these classes of beha...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - February 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effort-based decision-making paradigms as objective measures of apathy in schizophrenia?
Publication date: August 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22 Author(s): Matthias Hartmann-Riemer, Matthias Kirschner, Stefan Kaiser In recent years, effort-based decision-making paradigms have been applied in patients with schizophrenia with the aim to establish a potentially ‘objective’ measure of apathy symptoms and shed light on underlying mechanisms. Initial studies have reported promising findings regarding symptom-level links to effort-based choice. However, a review of the recent and overall literature yields divergent findings. Published studies vary substantially in terms of ...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - February 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Editorial overview: Interactions between Emotion and Cognition
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 19 Author(s): Mara Mather, Michael S Fanselow (Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences)
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - February 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Corticostriatal foundations of habits
This article reviews recent advances in understanding the corticostriatal system's role in habit learning and representation. New methods have led to a better understanding of how striatal circuitry (particularly the direct and indirect basal ganglia pathways) underlies habit learning. Research has established the critical role of perceptual processing in habit learning and has raised the intriguing possibility that some attentional mechanisms are habitual. Habit learning is only one of several mechanisms for acquiring appropriate behaviors; we can now better characterize when habit learning will predominate, and how habit...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - February 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Neurobiology of habit formation
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20 Author(s): Kenneth A Amaya, Kyle S Smith Our knowledge of the brain changes that enable habits to be formed continues to grow rapidly. As a key hub for habits, many studies have focused on neurobiological processes related to habits in the striatum. Attention has been paid to the contributions of the direct and indirect pathways, interneurons, dopaminergic inputs, and potential cortical and amygdala influences. We highlight this research here and conclude with a discussion of several additional topics that are also being addressed to pro...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - February 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Acquisition, maintenance, and therapeutic use of a simple motor skill
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20 Author(s): James JS Norton, Jonathan R Wolpaw Operant conditioning of the spinal stretch reflex (SSR) or its electrical analog, the H-reflex, is a valuable experimental paradigm for studying the acquisition and maintenance of a simple motor skill. The central nervous system (CNS) substrate of this skill consists of brain and spinal cord plasticity that operates as a hierarchy—the learning experience induces plasticity in the brain that guides and maintains plasticity in the spinal cord. This is apparent in the two components of the...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - February 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The interplay between psychological predispositions and skill learning in the evolution of tool use
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20 Author(s): Piero Amodio, Sarah A Jelbert, Nicola S Clayton Tool use behaviours tend to be split into cases that appear to entail complex cognitive abilities and that are highly reliant on learning to be acquired (e.g. flexible tool use), and into others that seem to be more genetically canalized (e.g. stereotyped tool use). However recent evidences suggest that the differences between these forms of tool use are more nuanced than previously assumed, as in both cases tool use can entail some degree of both inborn predisposition and learni...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - February 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Neanderthal language revisited: not only us
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 21 Author(s): Dan Dediu, Stephen C Levinson Here we re-evaluate our 2013 paper on the antiquity of language (Dediu and Levinson, 2013) in the light of a surge of new information on human evolution in the last half million years. Although new genetic data suggest the existence of some cognitive differences between Neanderthals and modern humans—fully expected after hundreds of thousands of years of partially separate evolution, overall our claims that Neanderthals were fully articulate beings and that language evolution was gradual are ...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - February 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Current perspectives on incentive salience and applications to clinical disorders
Publication date: August 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22 Author(s): Jeffrey J Olney, Shelley M Warlow, Erin E Naffziger, Kent C Berridge Affective neuroscience research has revealed that reward contains separable components of ‘liking’, ‘wanting’, and learning. Here we focus on current ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ findings and applications to clinical disorders. ‘Liking’ is the hedonic impact derived from a pleasant experience, and is amplified by opioid and related signals in discrete sites located in limbic-related brain areas. ‘Wa...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - January 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Multidimensional apathy: evidence from neurodegenerative disease
Publication date: August 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22 Author(s): Ratko Radakovic, Sharon Abrahams Apathy is a demotivation syndrome common in neurodegenerative diseases and is fundamentally multidimensional in nature. Different methodologies have been used to identify and quantify these dimensions, which has resulted in multifarious concepts, ranging in the number and characteristics of apathy subtypes. This has created an ambiguity over the fundamental substructure of apathy. Here we review the multidimensional concepts of apathy and demonstrate that overlapping elements exist, pointing t...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - January 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

When decisions talk: computational phenotyping of motivation disorders
Publication date: August 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22 Author(s): Mathias Pessiglione, Raphaël Le Bouc, Fabien Vinckier Clinical assessment of motivation disorders, such as apathy or compulsivity, is currently based on psychometric scales that do not provide any mechanistic insight susceptible to better target therapeutic intervention. Here, we expose a new approach that consists in phenotyping motivation states by fitting computational models to the behavioral responses made by patients in choice and/or learning tests. A computational phenotype is nothing but a set of fitted parameter...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - January 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Mapping dexterity and handedness: recent insights and future challenges
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20 Author(s): Kasper Winther Andersen, Hartwig Roman Siebner Manual ability (dexterity) and hand preference (handedness) are key features of human motor control. Recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies casted new light on the neural underpinnings of dexterity. In right-handers, MRI identified structural brain features related to the right–left difference in dexterity or skill acquisition. Functional MRI disclosed a hierarchical and modular representation of discrete finger sequences in sensorimotor cortical areas and uncovered...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - January 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

How heart rate variability affects emotion regulation brain networks
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 19 Author(s): Mara Mather, Julian F Thayer Individuals with high heart rate variability tend to have better emotional well-being than those with low heart rate variability, but the mechanisms of this association are not yet clear. In this paper, we propose the novel hypothesis that by inducing oscillatory activity in the brain, high amplitude oscillations in heart rate enhance functional connectivity in brain networks associated with emotion regulation. Recent studies using daily biofeedback sessions to increase the amplitude of heart ra...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - January 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Updating the role of dopamine in human motivation and apathy
Publication date: August 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22 Author(s): Trevor T-J Chong Apathy is a paradigmatic disorder of motivation, and is encountered across a breadth of neurological and psychiatric disease. Importantly, apathy is not a unitary symptom—rather, it is a syndrome comprising a constellation of impairments across multiple domains of behaviour. Recent work has focused on characterising the distinct neurophysiological mechanisms that give rise to clinical apathy. Although dopamine has long been known to have a central role in complex behaviour, current data indicate that it...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - January 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The molecular basis for sex differences in depression susceptibility
Publication date: October 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 23 Author(s): Orna Issler, Eric J Nestler Depression is a prevalent, devastating psychiatric disorder which women are twice as likely to suffer as men. Yet, until recently, most of the mechanistic studies shedding light on the molecular pathways involved in depression have focused on males, both animals and humans. It has been established that women have a more sensitive stress response, and that sex hormones contribute to depression onset. Recent genome-wide studies on human and mouse brain tissue have revealed that the overlap in the ge...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - January 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Dopamine and proximity in motivation and cognitive control
Publication date: August 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22 Author(s): Andrew Westbrook, Michael Frank Cognitive control—the ability to override a salient or prepotent action to execute a more deliberate one—is required for flexible, goal-directed behavior, and yet it is subjectively costly: decision-makers avoid allocating control resources, even when doing so affords more valuable outcomes. Dopamine likely offsets effort costs just as it does for physical effort. And yet, dopamine can also promote impulsive action, undermining control. We propose a novel hypothesis that reconciles ...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - January 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Translational approaches to evaluating motivation in laboratory rodents: conventional and touchscreen-based procedures
Publication date: August 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22 Author(s): Benjamin U Phillips, Laura Lopez-Cruz, Jonathan Hailwood, Christopher J Heath, Lisa M Saksida, Timothy J Bussey Several neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders are characterised by motivational impairments manifested as lack of behavioural activation or energy resulting in significant functional impairment. Given the clinical significance of these symptoms, the study of motivation in preclinical research has recently intensified. This review briefly summarises the tasks that have been implemented for the evaluation o...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - January 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The neuroanatomical and neurochemical basis of apathy and impulsivity in frontotemporal lobar degeneration
Publication date: August 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22 Author(s): L Passamonti, CJ Lansdall, JB Rowe Apathy and impulsivity are common and often coexistent consequences of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). They increase patient morbidity and carer distress, but remain under-estimated and poorly treated. Recent trans-diagnostic approaches that span the spectrum of clinical presentations of FTLD and parkinsonism, indicate that apathy and impulsivity can be fractionated into multiple neuroanatomical and pharmacological systems. These include ventral/dorsal frontostriatal circuits for r...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - January 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Modality general and modality specific coding of hedonic valence
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 19 Author(s): V Miskovic, AK Anderson The pleasant or unpleasant qualities that attach to our perceptions help to determine whether we approach or avoid environmental stimuli, shaping their affordances. How do brains create this affective perceptual dimension? The traditional answer is that sensory areas serve only as conduits for external impressions that are then modulated by heteromodal limbic structures in subsequent phases. Here we raise the possibility that, in addition to these well established gain control effects, sensory system...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - January 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Emotion regulation choice: the role of orienting attention and action readiness
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 19 Author(s): Reza D Ghafur, Gaurav Suri, James J Gross People frequently do not regulate their emotions even when doing so would be adaptive. Further, people often use maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, despite knowledge of more adaptive strategies. We propose that such anomalies can be explained at least in part by the orienting attention/action readiness (OAAR) framework according to which people are more likely to implement a particular emotion regulation strategy when (1) they direct a sufficient level orienting at...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - January 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Habit formation and change
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20 Author(s): Lucas Carden, Wendy Wood This review highlights emerging findings and new directions in research on habit formation and change. We first identify the cognitive, attentional mechanisms that contribute to habit formation. Then we show how habit is transforming the way researchers think about self-control, and how changing habits involves environmental pressures as much as intrapsychic forces. Finally, we describe big data and new technologies that offer novel methods to study habits outside the lab by capturing repeated actions ...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - January 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Erratum to “Editorial overview: Big data in the behavioral sciences” [Curr Opin Behav Sci 2017, 18:1–3]
Publication date: Available online 29 December 2017 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences (Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences)
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - December 30, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Apathy in Alzheimer's disease
Publication date: August 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22 Author(s): Lisa Nobis, Masud Husain Apathy is the most common neuropsychiatric symptom in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The presence of apathy has been related to greater caregiver distress, decreased quality of life, and increased morbidity. Here we review the most recent studies on this neuropsychiatric syndrome, focusing on prevalence, impact on quality of life, behavioural and neuroimaging studies, and treatment options. The results of some investigations on the behavioural and neuroanatomical profile of apathy in AD point...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - December 28, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Economic choice: the foraging perspective
Publication date: December 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24 Author(s): Benjamin Y Hayden Foraging theory offers an alternative foundation for understanding economic choice, one that sees economic choices as the outcome of psychological processes that evolved to help our ancestors search for food. Most of the choices encountered by foragers are between pursuing an encountered prey (accept) and ignoring it in favor of continued search (reject). Binary choices, which typically occur between simultaneously presented items, are special case, and are resolved through paired alternating accept–...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - December 23, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Structured sequence learning across sensory modalities in humans and nonhuman primates
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 21 Author(s): AE Milne, B Wilson, MH Christiansen Structured sequence processing tasks inform us about statistical learning abilities that are relevant to many areas of cognition, including language. Despite the ubiquity of these abilities across different tasks and cognitive domains, recent research in humans has demonstrated that these cognitive capacities do not represent a single, domain-general system, but are subject to modality-specific and stimulus-specific constraints. Sequence processing studies in nonhuman primates have provided i...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effort-based decision-making in schizophrenia
Publication date: August 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22 Author(s): Adam J Culbreth, Erin K Moran, Deanna M Barch Motivational impairment has long been associated with schizophrenia but the underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Recently, a small but growing literature has suggested that aberrant effort-based decision-making may be a potential contributory mechanism for motivational impairments in psychosis. Specifically, multiple reports have consistently demonstrated that individuals with schizophrenia are less willing than healthy controls to expend effort to obtain rewards. Fur...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Habits and goals: a motivational perspective on action control
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20 Author(s): Ahmet O Ceceli, Elizabeth Tricomi Two distinct systems govern the motivational control of action: first, cue-driven, outcome-insensitive habits, and second, value-based, goal-directed behaviors. These separate but interactive systems are based in distinct neural circuits—habitual behaviors are driven by a circuit of putamen-thalamic-motor regions, whereas value-based decision making relies on a top-down PFC-caudate network. This review highlights the recent advancements in behavioral science that investigate the motivati...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - December 21, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Computational approaches to habits in a model-free world
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20 Author(s): Wolfgang M Pauli, Jeffrey Cockburn, Eva R Pool, Omar D Pérez, John P O’Doherty Model-free (MF) reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms account for a wealth of neuroscientific and behavioral data pertinent to habits; however, conspicuous disparities between model-predicted response patterns and experimental data have exposed the inadequacy of MF-RL to fully capture the domain of habitual behavior. We review several extensions to generic MF-RL algorithms that could narrow the gap between theory and empirical data. We...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - December 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Constraints and flexibility during vocal development: insights from marmoset monkeys
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 21 Author(s): Asif A Ghazanfar, Diana A Liao Human vocal development is typically conceived as a sequence of two processes—an early maturation phase where vocal sounds change as a function of body growth (‘constraints’) followed by a period during which social experience can influence vocal sound production (‘flexibility’). However, studies of other behaviors (e.g., locomotion) reveal that growth and experience are interactive throughout development. As it turns out, vocal development is not exceptional; it is a...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - December 6, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Genetic signatures of socio-communicative abilities in primates
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 21 Author(s): Nicky Staes, Brenda J Bradley, William D Hopkins, Chet C Sherwood Although many studies stress the distinctive aspects of human language abilities, others argue that its foundations stem from a complex reconfiguration of ancestral systems that are shared with other species. This homology is crucial for identifying the genetic basis of human language, as much of the current research focuses on the recent evolutionary changes of the human genome. Here we provide a review of studies describing genetic variation related to socio-co...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - December 6, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Predicting and binding: interacting algorithms supporting the consolidation of sequential motor skills
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20 Author(s): Patrick Beukema, Timothy Verstynen The efficient execution of serially ordered actions is crucial for many everyday tasks. Rather than emerge from a singular learning process, a growing body of evidence in both cognitive science and neuroscience suggests that the acquisition of habitual motor sequences relies on a multitude of learning systems that fall under two general classes of computation: fast prediction of transition probabilities between events and slower binding of serial actions into unified sets. Here we review the ...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - December 2, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Connectivity and the search for specializations in the language-capable brain
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 21 Author(s): Rogier B Mars, Nicole Eichert, Saad Jbabdi, Lennart Verhagen, Matthew F.S. Rushworth The search for the anatomical basis of language has traditionally been a search for specializations. More recently such research has focused both on aspects of brain organization that are unique to humans and aspects shared with other primates. This work has mostly concentrated on the architecture of connections between brain areas. However, as specializations can take many guises, comparison of anatomical organization across species is often c...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - December 2, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Current issues related to motor sequence learning in humans
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20 Author(s): J Doyon, E Gabitov, S Vahdat, O Lungu, A Boutin The learning of sequential motor behaviors involves the integration of separate movements into a unified and coordinated sequence of actions through practice. Neuroimaging studies in humans strongly suggest that this form of procedural memory relies on the progressive reorganization of motor-related neural networks over the course of learning. This experience-driven reorganization of internal task representations is also subserved by consolidation processes that require time, and...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - November 30, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The effects of reward and punishment on motor skill learning
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20 Author(s): Xiuli Chen, Peter Holland, Joseph M Galea Motor skill learning consists of improvement in two main components: action selection and action execution. Although sports’ coaching identifies reward and punishment as having important but dissociable effects for optimising motor skill learning, it is unknown whether they influence selection and/or execution. In addition, whilst current laboratory-based motor skill tasks have investigated the impact of reward and punishment on learning, they have failed to distinguish between i...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - November 27, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Big data in education and the models that love them
Publication date: December 2017 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18 Author(s): Zachary A Pardos As the modal sources of data in education have shifted over the past few decades, so too have the modeling paradigms applied to these data. In this paper, we overview the principle foci of modeling in the areas of standardized testing, computer tutoring, and online courses from whence these big data have come, and provide a rationale for their adoption in each context. As these data become more behavioral in nature, we argue that a shift to connectionist paradigms of modeling is called for as well as a reaf...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - November 25, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Interactions of motivation and cognitive control
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 19 Author(s): Debbie M Yee, Todd S Braver There is general agreement that both motivation and cognitive control play critical roles in shaping goal-directed behavior, but only recently has scientific interest focused around the question of motivation–control interactions. Here we briefly survey this literature, organizing contemporary findings around three issues: (1) whether motivation preferentially impacts cognitive control processes, (2) the neural mechanisms that underlie motivation–cognition interactions, and (3) why mo...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - November 25, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The comparative study of grammar learning mechanisms: birds as models
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 21 Author(s): Carel ten Cate Human language learning is based on the ability to acquire and apply grammar rules. Comparative studies using nonhuman animals may help to understand the nature, human uniqueness and evolution of language-related rule learning mechanisms. This brief review outlines what studies on birds can contribute to this understanding. It shows that birds are capable of categorization and concept learning and can detect structural regularities in strings of items. It next turns to studies inspired by artificial grammar learn...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - November 24, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

From bird calls to human language: exploring the evolutionary drivers of compositional syntax
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 21 Author(s): Michael Griesser, David Wheatcroft, Toshitaka N Suzuki Compositional syntax, where lexical items are combined into larger units, has been assumed to be unique to human language. Recent experiments, however, showed that Japanese tits combine alert and recruitment calls into alert-recruitment sequences when attracting conspecifics to join in mobbing a predator. We speculate that such call combinations are favoured when: Firstly, callers and receivers have shared interests in exchanging information; secondly, species produce diffe...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - November 24, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Editorial overview: Big data in the behavioral sciences
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences Author(s): Michal Kosinski, Tara Behrend (Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences)
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - November 23, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Affect and cognition: three principles
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 19 Author(s): Gerald L Clore, Alexander J Schiller, Adi Shaked Affect and its object are separable, so the same affective reaction can have different effects. Relevant principles from the affect-as-information approach include: first, the impact of affect depends on implicit attributions—what it appears to be about. Second, affect is always taken to be about whatever is currently mentally accessible. Affective reactions can therefore serve as appraisals of objects of judgment or of initial thoughts and opinions about such objects w...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - November 23, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Subregional specificity in human striatal habit learning: a meta-analytic review of the fMRI literature
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20 Author(s): Tara K Patterson, Barbara J Knowlton Research on the neural basis of human habit learning has made significant advances in recent years, creating a need for synthesis of disparate results. We conducted a meta-analytic review of fMRI studies on human habit learning to evaluate the hypothesis that the human putamen plays a similar role to the rodent dorsolateral striatum in habitual behavior. Results from studies using outcome devaluation, sequential decision-making, and motor sequence learning tasks were consistent with this hy...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - November 23, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Big data methods in the social sciences
Publication date: December 2017 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18 Author(s): Frederick L Oswald, Dan J Putka (Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences)
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - November 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Bias in predicted and remembered emotion
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 19 Author(s): Linda J Levine, Heather C Lench, Melissa M Karnaze, Steven J Carlson Predicting and remembering emotion both rely on the episodic memory system which is constructive and subject to bias. In keeping with the common cognitive processes underlying prospection and retrospection, people show similar strengths and weaknesses when they predict how they will feel in the future and remember how they felt in the past. Recent findings reveal that people predict and remember the intensity of emotion more accurately than their overall o...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - November 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The subjective experience of emotion: a fearful view
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 19 Author(s): Joseph E LeDoux, Stefan G Hofmann We argue that subjective emotional experience, the feeling, is the essence of an emotion, and that objective manifestations in behavior and in body or brain physiology are, at best, indirect indicators of these inner experiences. As a result, the most direct way to assess conscious emotional feelings is through verbal self-report. This creates a methodological barrier to studies of conscious feelings in animals. While the behavioral and physiological responses are not ‘emotions,&rsquo...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - November 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Regulation of habit formation in the dorsal striatum
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20 Author(s): Melissa Malvaez, Kate M Wassum Habits are an essential and pervasive component of our daily lives that allow us to efficiently perform routine tasks. But their disruption contributes to the symptoms that underlie many psychiatric diseases. Emerging data are revealing the cellular and molecular mechanisms of habit formation in the dorsal striatum. New data suggest that in both the dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatum histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity acts as a critical negative regulator of the transcriptional processes unde...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - November 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Individual differences in sensorimotor skills among musicians
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20 Author(s): Shinichi Furuya The grace of a musician has always fascinated people in the world. It has been widely accepted that quantity of musical practice is a prerequisite but not sufficient for acquisition of musical expertise. An increasing number of studies have recently proposed that an interaction between gene and environment underlies musical expertise, based on empirical evidences demonstrating roles of genetic predisposition. In contrast, it has not been elucidated how ways of musical practice play a role in the expertise, whic...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - November 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research