Chromatin regulation in complex brain disorders
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 25Author(s): Ryan M Bastle, Ian S. MazeChromatin-related phenomena regulate gene expression by altering the compaction and accessibility of DNA to relevant transcription factors, thus allowing every cell in the body to attain distinct identities and to function properly within a given cellular context. These processes occur not only in the developing central nervous system, but continue throughout the lifetime of a neuron to constantly adapt to changes in the environment. Such changes can be positive or negative, thereby altering the chro...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - August 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

State-change decisions and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex: the importance of time
Publication date: Available online 25 July 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral SciencesAuthor(s): Nils Kolling, Jill X O'ReillyDifferent kinds of decision making can be categorized by their differential effect on the agent’s current and future states as well as the computational challenges they pose. Here, we draw a distinction between within-state and state-change decision-making, and propose that a dedicated decision mechanism exists in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) that is specialized for state-change decisions. We set out a formal framework in which state change decisions may be made on the basis of...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Epigenetic regulation of behavior in Drosophila melanogaster
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 25Author(s): Ina Anreiter, Stephanie D Biergans, Marla B SokolowskiAnimal behavior is arguably among the most intricate and complex phenotypes. Not only are the molecular processes underlying most behavioral phenotypes exceedingly complex, but these processes are also variable, to allow for behavioral adjustments in response to external and internal conditions. The adaptation of behavior to the current circumstances (i.e. plasticity) can be crucial for survival as a single behavioral strategy may only be beneficial under the right conditi...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The epigenetic basis of individuality
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 25Author(s): J David SweattThis commentary reviews the concept of experience-dependent epigenetic modifications in the CNS as a core mechanism underlying individuality and individuation at the behavioral level. I use the term individuation to refer to the underlying neurobiological processes that result in individuality, with the discussion focusing on individuality of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral repertoire. The review describes recent work supporting the concept of neuroepigenetic mechanisms underlying individuation, possible ro...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Language acquisition as skill learning
Publication date: Available online 25 April 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral SciencesAuthor(s): Nick Chater, Morten H ChristiansenLanguage acquisition researchers have often viewed children as ‘mini-linguists,’ attempting to infer abstract knowledge of language from exposure to their native language. From this perspective, the challenge of acquisition can seem so formidable that meeting it would appear to require that much of this knowledge must be built-in, as a language instinct or universal grammar. From this viewpoint, language acquisition is also disconnected from language processing, and from the...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Sex differences in the nicotinic acetylcholine and dopamine receptor systems underlying tobacco smoking addiction
Publication date: Available online 26 April 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral SciencesAuthor(s): Terril L .Verplaetse, Evan D Morris, Sherry A McKee, Kelly P CosgroveConverging lines of evidence suggest that men generally smoke for nicotine-related reinforcement, whereas women smoke for non-nicotine factors. Women have more difficulty quitting smoking and are less responsive to nicotine replacement therapies than men, underscoring the importance of examining sex differences in the neurochemical mechanisms underlying nicotine-motivated behavior. We review the recent imaging literature on sex differences in the nicot...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Vocal learning: a language-relevant trait in need of a broad cross-species approach
Publication date: Available online 27 April 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral SciencesAuthor(s): Ella Z Lattenkamp, Sonja C VernesAlthough humans are unmatched in their capacity to produce speech and learn language, comparative approaches in diverse animal models are able to shed light on the biological underpinnings of language-relevant traits. In the study of vocal learning, a trait crucial for spoken language, passerine birds have been the dominant models, driving invaluable progress in understanding the neurobiology and genetics of vocal learning despite being only distantly related to humans. To date, there is...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Editorial overview: The evolution of language as a neurobiological system
Publication date: Available online 27 June 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral SciencesAuthor(s): Christopher I Petkov, William D. Marslen-Wilson (Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences)
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Editorial overview: Apathy and motivation
Publication date: Available online 3 July 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral SciencesAuthor(s): Masud Husain, Christopher R Pryce (Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences)
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Economic choice: the foraging perspective
Publication date: December 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24Author(s): Benjamin Y HaydenForaging theory offers an alternative foundation for understanding economic choice, one that sees economic choices as the outcome of psychological processes that evolved to help our ancestors search for food. Most of the choices encountered by foragers are between pursuing an encountered prey (accept) and ignoring it in favor of continued search (reject). Binary choices, which typically occur between simultaneously presented items, are special case, and are resolved through paired alternating accept–rej...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Hypothalamic survival circuits related to social and predatory defenses and their interactions with metabolic control, reproductive behaviors and memory systems
Publication date: December 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24Author(s): Newton Sabino CanterasThe hypothalamus may be viewed as the central piece of the survival circuits and is responsible for organizing endocrine, autonomic and behavioral responses to guarantee the survival of both the individual and the species. The hypothalamus is largely known to control the three basic classes of behavior required for animal survival, namely, ingestive, defensive, and reproductive behaviors. Over the years, a great deal has been learned regarding the hypothalamic circuits organizing these classes of behavio...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Survival circuits and risk assessment
Publication date: December 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24Author(s): Neil McNaughton, Philip J CorrRisk assessment (RA) behaviour is unusual in the context of survival circuits. An external object elicits eating, mating or fleeing; but conflict between internal approach and withdrawal tendencies elicits RA-specific behaviour that scans the environment for new information to bring closure. Recently rodent and human threat responses have been compared using ‘predators’ that can be real (e.g. a tarantula), robot, virtual, or symbolic (with the last three rendered predatory by the use ...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Survival circuits and therapy: from automaticity to the conscious experience of fear and anxiety
Publication date: December 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24Author(s): Steven C Hayes, Stefan G HofmannWe will briefly examine the implication of a multi-dimensional and multi-level view of evolution for addressing the role and function of survival circuits in the context of human cognition, and the underlying emotional, memory, and behavioral processes both impact. It is our contention that human cognition can partially direct and channel these more ancient neurobiological regulatory systems. We argue that while survival circuits can be helpful or hurtful to human functioning, they are particul...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Prospection and natural selection
Publication date: December 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24Author(s): T Suddendorf, A Bulley, B MiloyanProspection refers to thinking about the future, a capacity that has become the subject of increasing research in recent years. Here we first distinguish basic prospection, such as associative learning, from more complex prospection commonly observed in humans, such as episodic foresight, the ability to imagine diverse future situations and organize current actions accordingly. We review recent studies on complex prospection in various contexts, such as decision-making, planning, deliberate pr...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The ethological deconstruction of fear(s)
Publication date: December 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24Author(s): Dean MobbsThe natural world presents a myriad of dangers that can threaten an organism's survival. This diversity of threats is matched by a set of universal and species specific defensive behaviors which are often subsumed under the emotions of fear and anxiety. A major issue in the field of affective science, however, is that these emotions are often conflated and scientists fail to reflect the ecological conditions that gave rise to them. I attempt to clarify these semantic issues by describing the link between ethological...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Fear paradigms: The times they are a-changin’
Publication date: December 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24Author(s): Jeansok J Kim, Min Whan JungFear is considered an integral part of the brain's defensive mechanism that evolved to protect animals and humans from predation and other ecological threats. Hence, it is logical to study fear from the perspective of antipredator-survival behaviors and circuits by sampling a range of threatening situations that organisms are likely to encounter in the wild. In the past several decades, however, mainstream fear research has focused on the importance of associative learning; that is, how animals bec...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The role of learning in threat imminence and defensive behaviors
Publication date: December 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24Author(s): Michael S FanselowLife threatening situations as urgent as defending against a predator precludes the use of slow trial and error strategies. Natural selection has led to the evolution of a behavioral system that has three critical elements. (1) When it is activated it limits the behaviors available to the organism to a set of prewired responses that have proven over phylogeny to be effective at defense. (2) A rapid learning system, called Pavlovian fear conditioning, that has the ability to immediately identify threats and p...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Developmental and neurobehavioral transitions in survival circuits
Publication date: December 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24Author(s): Regina M Sullivan, Maya OpendakAlthough animals of all ages experience threats, the neurobehavioral response to threat shows fundamental changes across development in altricial species, including humans and rodents. Although the mature animal has an arsenal of defensive strategies to engage, including attack, escape, hide or freeze, the motorically immature infant exhibits age-appropriate responses to threats that involve approach to the caregiver for protection. The neurobiology supporting this difference relies on both the ...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Genomic imprinting and neurobehavioral programming by adverse early life environments: evidence from studying Cdkn1c
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 25Author(s): Anthony R Isles, Rosalind M JohnImprinted genes are subject to epigenetic regulation that leads to monoallelic expression from one parental allele only. Brain expression of the imprinted gene Cdkn1c is sensitive to early life adversity, including exposure to maternal low protein diet (LPD) where increased expression of Cdkn1c is due to de-repression of the normally silent paternal allele. Maternal LPD also leads to changes in the dopamine system and reward related behaviours in offspring. We have recently demonstrated that th...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Autism, psychosis, and genomic imprinting: recent discoveries and conundrums
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 25Author(s): Bernard J CrespiGenomic imprinting generates a category of genes that is unique because: (1) they are subject to intragenomic conflicts, within individuals, and thus (2) their phenotypic effects on offspring-to-mother interactions are predictable from evolutionary theory. I describe recent advances in our understanding of how imprinted genes may exert conflicting effects, and how the sequelae of such conflicts may impact upon aspects of human behavior and risks for specific psychiatric conditions. The main conclusion is that ...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Imprinted small noncoding RNA genes in brain function and behaviour
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 25Author(s): Virginie Marty, Jérôme CavailléThe imprinted DLK1-DIO3 and SNURF-SNRPN (PWS) chromosomal domains are characterized by large arrays of box C/D small nucleolar RNA and microRNA genes that display preferential expression in the brain. Here, we provide an overview of their multifaceted roles in brain function and behaviour focusing particularly on the miR-379/miR-410, SNORD115 and SNORD116 gene clusters. (Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences)
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Circadian and epigenetic control of depression-like behaviors
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 25Author(s): Shogo Sato, Paolo Sassone-CorsiAccumulating evidence illustrates that disruption of circadian rhythms may lead to depression-like behaviors. Recent studies demonstrate that neuronal and synaptic gene induction is under epigenetic control, and robust epigenetic remodeling is observed under depression and related psychiatric disorders. Notably, intertwined links between the circadian clock and epigenetics may point to novel approaches for antidepressant treatments, epigenetic therapy and chronotherapy. Indeed, clock components ...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Circadian biology and sleep in monogenic neurological disorders and its potential application in drug discovery
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 25Author(s): Shu-qun Shi, Carl Hirschie JohnsonSleep disturbances are common in people with monogenic neurological disorders and they dramatically affect the life of individuals with the disorders and their families. The associated sleep problems are probably caused by multiple factors that have not been elucidated. Study of the underlying molecular cause, behavioral phenotypes, and reciprocal interactions in several single-gene disorders (Angelman Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, Rett Syndrome, and Huntington’s Disease) leads to the s...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Parent-of-origin specific gene expression and dispersal
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 25Author(s): Thomas J Hitchcock, Andy GardnerGenes can behave in ways that are conditional upon their parent-of-origin. The best understood form of this is genomic imprinting (GI), which typically involves the silencing of a gene originating from one parent and the expression of its homologue originating from the other parent. A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain GI, which may be grouped into those based on asymmetries of genetic interest versus those based on asymmetries of genetic information. Dispersal patterns can driv...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Genomic imprinting and neurobehavioral programming by adverse early life environments: evidence from studying Cdkn1c
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 25Author(s): Anthony R Isles, Rosalind M JohnImprinted genes are subject to epigenetic regulation that leads to monoallelic expression from one parental allele only. Brain expression of the imprinted gene Cdkn1c is sensitive to early life adversity, including exposure to maternal low protein diet (LPD) where increased expression of Cdkn1c is due to de-repression of the normally silent paternal allele. Maternal LPD also leads to changes in the dopamine system and reward related behaviours in offspring. We have recently demonstrated that th...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Language acquisition as skill learning
Publication date: Available online 25 April 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral SciencesAuthor(s): Nick Chater, Morten H ChristiansenLanguage acquisition researchers have often viewed children as ‘mini-linguists,’ attempting to infer abstract knowledge of language from exposure to their native language. From this perspective, the challenge of acquisition can seem so formidable that meeting it would appear to require that much of this knowledge must be built-in, as a language instinct or universal grammar. From this viewpoint, language acquisition is also disconnected from language processing, and from the...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Sex differences in the nicotinic acetylcholine and dopamine receptor systems underlying tobacco smoking addiction
Publication date: Available online 26 April 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral SciencesAuthor(s): Terril L .Verplaetse, Evan D Morris, Sherry A McKee, Kelly P CosgroveConverging lines of evidence suggest that men generally smoke for nicotine-related reinforcement, whereas women smoke for non-nicotine factors. Women have more difficulty quitting smoking and are less responsive to nicotine replacement therapies than men, underscoring the importance of examining sex differences in the neurochemical mechanisms underlying nicotine-motivated behavior. We review the recent imaging literature on sex differences in the nicot...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Vocal learning: a language-relevant trait in need of a broad cross-species approach
Publication date: Available online 27 April 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral SciencesAuthor(s): Ella Z Lattenkamp, Sonja C VernesAlthough humans are unmatched in their capacity to produce speech and learn language, comparative approaches in diverse animal models are able to shed light on the biological underpinnings of language-relevant traits. In the study of vocal learning, a trait crucial for spoken language, passerine birds have been the dominant models, driving invaluable progress in understanding the neurobiology and genetics of vocal learning despite being only distantly related to humans. To date, there is...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Editorial overview: The evolution of language as a neurobiological system
Publication date: Available online 27 June 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral SciencesAuthor(s): Christopher I Petkov, William D. Marslen-Wilson (Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences)
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Editorial overview: Apathy and motivation
Publication date: Available online 3 July 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral SciencesAuthor(s): Masud Husain, Christopher R Pryce (Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences)
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Economic choice: the foraging perspective
Publication date: December 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24Author(s): Benjamin Y HaydenForaging theory offers an alternative foundation for understanding economic choice, one that sees economic choices as the outcome of psychological processes that evolved to help our ancestors search for food. Most of the choices encountered by foragers are between pursuing an encountered prey (accept) and ignoring it in favor of continued search (reject). Binary choices, which typically occur between simultaneously presented items, are special case, and are resolved through paired alternating accept–rej...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Hypothalamic survival circuits related to social and predatory defenses and their interactions with metabolic control, reproductive behaviors and memory systems
Publication date: December 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24Author(s): Newton Sabino CanterasThe hypothalamus may be viewed as the central piece of the survival circuits and is responsible for organizing endocrine, autonomic and behavioral responses to guarantee the survival of both the individual and the species. The hypothalamus is largely known to control the three basic classes of behavior required for animal survival, namely, ingestive, defensive, and reproductive behaviors. Over the years, a great deal has been learned regarding the hypothalamic circuits organizing these classes of behavio...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Survival circuits and risk assessment
Publication date: December 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24Author(s): Neil McNaughton, Philip J CorrRisk assessment (RA) behaviour is unusual in the context of survival circuits. An external object elicits eating, mating or fleeing; but conflict between internal approach and withdrawal tendencies elicits RA-specific behaviour that scans the environment for new information to bring closure. Recently rodent and human threat responses have been compared using ‘predators’ that can be real (e.g. a tarantula), robot, virtual, or symbolic (with the last three rendered predatory by the use ...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Survival circuits and therapy: from automaticity to the conscious experience of fear and anxiety
Publication date: December 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24Author(s): Steven C Hayes, Stefan G HofmannWe will briefly examine the implication of a multi-dimensional and multi-level view of evolution for addressing the role and function of survival circuits in the context of human cognition, and the underlying emotional, memory, and behavioral processes both impact. It is our contention that human cognition can partially direct and channel these more ancient neurobiological regulatory systems. We argue that while survival circuits can be helpful or hurtful to human functioning, they are particul...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Prospection and natural selection
Publication date: December 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24Author(s): T Suddendorf, A Bulley, B MiloyanProspection refers to thinking about the future, a capacity that has become the subject of increasing research in recent years. Here we first distinguish basic prospection, such as associative learning, from more complex prospection commonly observed in humans, such as episodic foresight, the ability to imagine diverse future situations and organize current actions accordingly. We review recent studies on complex prospection in various contexts, such as decision-making, planning, deliberate pr...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The ethological deconstruction of fear(s)
Publication date: December 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24Author(s): Dean MobbsThe natural world presents a myriad of dangers that can threaten an organism's survival. This diversity of threats is matched by a set of universal and species specific defensive behaviors which are often subsumed under the emotions of fear and anxiety. A major issue in the field of affective science, however, is that these emotions are often conflated and scientists fail to reflect the ecological conditions that gave rise to them. I attempt to clarify these semantic issues by describing the link between ethological...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Fear paradigms: The times they are a-changin’
Publication date: December 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24Author(s): Jeansok J Kim, Min Whan JungFear is considered an integral part of the brain's defensive mechanism that evolved to protect animals and humans from predation and other ecological threats. Hence, it is logical to study fear from the perspective of antipredator-survival behaviors and circuits by sampling a range of threatening situations that organisms are likely to encounter in the wild. In the past several decades, however, mainstream fear research has focused on the importance of associative learning; that is, how animals bec...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The role of learning in threat imminence and defensive behaviors
Publication date: December 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24Author(s): Michael S FanselowLife threatening situations as urgent as defending against a predator precludes the use of slow trial and error strategies. Natural selection has led to the evolution of a behavioral system that has three critical elements. (1) When it is activated it limits the behaviors available to the organism to a set of prewired responses that have proven over phylogeny to be effective at defense. (2) A rapid learning system, called Pavlovian fear conditioning, that has the ability to immediately identify threats and p...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Developmental and neurobehavioral transitions in survival circuits
Publication date: December 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24Author(s): Regina M Sullivan, Maya OpendakAlthough animals of all ages experience threats, the neurobehavioral response to threat shows fundamental changes across development in altricial species, including humans and rodents. Although the mature animal has an arsenal of defensive strategies to engage, including attack, escape, hide or freeze, the motorically immature infant exhibits age-appropriate responses to threats that involve approach to the caregiver for protection. The neurobiology supporting this difference relies on both the ...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Circadian and epigenetic control of depression-like behaviors
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 25Author(s): Shogo Sato, Paolo Sassone-CorsiAccumulating evidence illustrates that disruption of circadian rhythms may lead to depression-like behaviors. Recent studies demonstrate that neuronal and synaptic gene induction is under epigenetic control, and robust epigenetic remodeling is observed under depression and related psychiatric disorders. Notably, intertwined links between the circadian clock and epigenetics may point to novel approaches for antidepressant treatments, epigenetic therapy and chronotherapy. Indeed, clock components ...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Autism, psychosis, and genomic imprinting: recent discoveries and conundrums
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 25Author(s): Bernard J CrespiGenomic imprinting generates a category of genes that is unique because: (1) they are subject to intragenomic conflicts, within individuals, and thus (2) their phenotypic effects on offspring-to-mother interactions are predictable from evolutionary theory. I describe recent advances in our understanding of how imprinted genes may exert conflicting effects, and how the sequelae of such conflicts may impact upon aspects of human behavior and risks for specific psychiatric conditions. The main conclusion is that ...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Imprinted small noncoding RNA genes in brain function and behaviour
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 25Author(s): Virginie Marty, Jérôme CavailléThe imprinted DLK1-DIO3 and SNURF-SNRPN (PWS) chromosomal domains are characterized by large arrays of box C/D small nucleolar RNA and microRNA genes that display preferential expression in the brain. Here, we provide an overview of their multifaceted roles in brain function and behaviour focusing particularly on the miR-379/miR-410, SNORD115 and SNORD116 gene clusters. (Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences)
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Circadian biology and sleep in monogenic neurological disorders and its potential application in drug discovery
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 25Author(s): Shu-qun Shi, Carl Hirschie JohnsonSleep disturbances are common in people with monogenic neurological disorders and they dramatically affect the life of individuals with the disorders and their families. The associated sleep problems are probably caused by multiple factors that have not been elucidated. Study of the underlying molecular cause, behavioral phenotypes, and reciprocal interactions in several single-gene disorders (Angelman Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, Rett Syndrome, and Huntington’s Disease) leads to the s...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Circadian biology and sleep in monogenic neurological disorders and its potential application in drug discovery
Publication date: February 2019 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 25 Author(s): Shu-qun Shi, Carl Hirschie Johnson Sleep disturbances are common in people with monogenic neurological disorders and they dramatically affect the life of individuals with the disorders and their families. The associated sleep problems are probably caused by multiple factors that have not been elucidated. Study of the underlying molecular cause, behavioral phenotypes, and reciprocal interactions in several single-gene disorders (Angelman Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, Rett Syndrome, and Huntington’s Disease) leads to th...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Functions of medial hypothalamic and mesolimbic dopamine circuitries in aggression
Publication date: December 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24 Author(s): Takashi Yamaguchi, Dayu Lin Aggression is a crucial survival behavior: it is employed to defend territory, compete for food and mating opportunities, protect kin, and resolve disputes. Two highly conserved circuitries emerge as critical substrates for generating and modulating aggression. One circuitry centers on the medial hypothalamus, a brain region essential for driving the expression of aggressive behaviors. The other circuit involves the mesolimbic dopamine cells. Animal studies support essential roles of mesolimbic d...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

When planning to survive goes wrong: predicting the future and replaying the past in anxiety and PTSD
Publication date: December 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24 Author(s): Christopher Gagne, Peter Dayan, Sonia J Bishop We increase our probability of survival and wellbeing by minimizing our exposure to rare, extremely negative events. In this article, we examine the computations used to predict and avoid such events and to update our models of the world and action policies after their occurrence. We also consider how these computations might go wrong in anxiety disorders and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). We review evidence that anxiety is linked to increased simulations of the future ...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Fast and slow extinction pathways in defensive survival circuits
Publication date: December 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24 Author(s): Temidayo Orederu, Daniela Schiller Threat extinction is the decline in responding to a stimulus that previously signaled danger, following repeated non-consequential exposures. The amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus are known contributors to the neural circuits driving threat extinction, however, research has not yet resolved the precise neuronal interactions necessary for extinction success. At times, research even appears to present conflicting conclusions concerning the neurocircuitry that drives extinction lea...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - June 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Sex steroid hormones and differential risk for eating pathology: a review of genetic and phenotypic effects across development
Publication date: October 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 23 Author(s): Kristen M Culbert, Cheryl L Sisk, Kelly L Klump Eating disorders and their core symptoms (e.g. binge eating, weight/shape concerns) become prominent during puberty and disproportionately affect females. This review evaluates evidence for phenotypic and genetic effects of sex steroid hormones on differential vulnerability to eating pathology. Accumulating data suggest that perinatal testosterone exerts an initial bout of protection that decreases risk for eating pathology in males, relative to females. The subsequent exposure...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - June 29, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Survival circuits in affective disorders
Publication date: December 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24 Author(s): Katherine S Young, Michelle G Craske Neuroscientific investigation of maladaptive learning in affective disorders has highlighted aberrant functioning of corticolimbic survival circuits. In particular, altered functioning of amygdala-prefrontal cortex circuitry has been demonstrated during acquisition and extinction of maladaptive conditional fears. Studies of psychological and pharmacological treatments for affective disorders demonstrate altered activation within overlapping circuitries but suggest that the mechanisms of ...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - June 29, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The role of ovarian steroids in affective disorders
Publication date: October 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 23 Author(s): Shau-Ming Wei, Crystal Edler Schiller, Peter J Schmidt, David R Rubinow The role of reproductive steroids in the pathophysiology or treatment of traditional affective disorders remains unestablished. However, there is strong evidence documenting roles of ovarian steroids in reproductive endocrine-related mood disorders including Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD). Studies in PMDD have consistently demonstrated the absence of a deficiency or excess of circulating ovarian steroid hormones. Thus, if ovarian steroids play a ...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - June 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research