Mind-wandering as creative thinking: neural, psychological, and theoretical considerations
Publication date: June 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 27Author(s): Kieran CR Fox, Roger E BeatyCreative thinking is understood via a dual-process model involving the generation of creative ideas followed by their subsequent evaluation and refinement. Creative products must also meet a dual-criterion definition requiring that they be both novel and useful. Mind-wandering consists of self-generated thoughts unrelated to a task or the surrounding environment, involving a relatively spontaneous generation stage sometimes (but not always) followed by a more deliberate stage in which thoughts are eval...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - December 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Bidirectional regulation of reward, punishment, and arousal by dopamine, the lateral habenula and the rostromedial tegmentum (RMTg)
Publication date: April 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 26Author(s): Thomas C Jhou, Peter J VentoDopamine (DA) neurons play multiple roles in reward-related behavior,including distinct roles in learning versus performance of reward-seeking, as well as effort-based decision-making and sleep–wake regulation. We review the increasing evidence that a major inhibitory input to DA neurons arising from the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) plays a similarly wide range of roles that strikingly oppose multiple DA functions. These roles are in part dependent on excitatory inputs from the lateral ...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - December 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Toward a neurocognitive framework of creative cognition: the role of memory, attention, and cognitive control
Publication date: June 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 27Author(s): Mathias Benedek, Andreas FinkThe investigation of creative cognition is rapidly advancing, driven by important methodological developments related to the modeling and scoring of creative performance, and stimulated by exciting contributions from cognitive neuroscience. Here, we argue that a deeper understanding of this complex cognitive capacity requires defining the role of its constituting neurocognitive functions including memory, attention, and cognitive control. The available evidence from cognitive and neuroscience research...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - December 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Pallidal circuits for aversive motivation and learning
Publication date: April 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 26Author(s): Marcus Stephenson-JonesThe basal ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei that play a critical role in goal-directed behaviour by setting motivation, adjusting the vigour of actions, and driving reinforcement learning. Detailed knowledge exists of how these nuclei contribute to the different aspects of goal-directed behaviour in the context of reward-seeking, but far less is known about how they work in a framework of avoiding threats. This review will highlight recent work that has begun exploring how the non-motor output of t...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - November 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The contribution of the lesion approach to the neuroscience of creative cognition
Publication date: June 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 27Author(s): Marcela P Ovando-Tellez, Theophile Bieth, Matthieu Bernard, Emmanuelle VollePsychological and recent neuroimaging findings indicate that creativity relies on a balance between associative thinking likely supported by the default mode network and cognitive control processes sustained by control-related networks including frontoparietal regions. Exploring patients with brain lesions allows testing this model and ascertaining a more causal link between creative processes and brain systems. Results from the lesion approach provide ar...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - November 16, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Measurement matters: the relationship between methods of scoring the Alternate Uses Task and brain activation
Publication date: June 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 27Author(s): Oshin Vartanian, Erin L Beatty, Ingrid Smith, Sarah Forbes, Emma Rice, Jenna CrockerPerformance on the Alternate Uses Task can be measured using many approaches. The traditional approach involves scoring participants’ output based on indices such as fluency, originality, and flexibility. The subjective approach involves using experts to rate output directly on creativity (or related constructs). The definitional approach involves rating output on novelty and usefulness—the two criteria deemed necessary and jointly suf...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - November 16, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Placebo hypoalgesia: above and beyond expectancy and conditioning
Publication date: April 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 26Author(s): Chika Okusogu, Luana CollocaPlacebo hypoalgesia provides pain relief for individuals via the expectation of a beneficial or therapeutic outcome, while nocebo hyperalgesia results in increased pain in response to anxious anticipation of harmful outcomes. These forms of placebo pain modulation can be induced through repeated associations, verbal cues, and social interactions. Understanding these methods of pain modulation can provide greater insight into the psychosocial contexts of pain modulation, as well as develop novel approa...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - November 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Creativity in and out of (cognitive) control
Publication date: June 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 27Author(s): Evangelia G ChrysikouThe neurobiological mechanisms supporting cognitive regulation during creative thinking have been at the forefront of recent research on creative cognition. This work has revealed tradeoffs between activity in prefrontal executive control systems and posterior or subcortical brain regions, typically thought to comprise the brain’s default mode network. This review will offer a critical summary of the recent literature on the costs and benefits of cognitive control mechanisms for creative thinking, propo...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - November 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Pain And Opioid Systems, Implications In The Opioid Epidemic
Publication date: April 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 26Author(s): Nicolas Massaly, Jose A MorónPain has a useful protective role; through avoidance learning, it helps to decrease the probability of engaging in tissue-damaging, or otherwise dangerous experiences. In our modern society, the experience of acute post-surgical pain and the development of chronic pain states represent an unnecessary negative outcome. This has become an important health issue as more than 30% of the US population reports experiencing “unnecessary” pain at any given time. Opioid therapies are often ...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - October 31, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Bayesian Learning Models of Pain: A Call to Action
Publication date: April 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 26Author(s): Abby Tabor, Christopher BurrLearning is fundamentally about action, enabling the successful navigation of a changing and uncertain environment. The experience of pain is central to this process, indicating the need for a change in action so as to mitigate potential threat to bodily integrity. This review considers the application of Bayesian models of learning in pain that inherently accommodate uncertainty and action, which, we shall propose are essential in understanding learning in both acute and persistent cases of pain. (So...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - October 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Threat-related disorders as persistent motivational states of defense
Publication date: April 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 26Author(s): Felipe Corchs, Daniela SchillerDefensive motivation, broadly defined as the orchestrated optimization of defensive functions, encapsulates core components of threat-related psychopathology. The exact relationship between defensive functions and stress-induced symptoms, however, is not entirely clear. Here we review how some of the most important behavioral and neurological findings related to threat-related disorders — lowering response threshold to threats, facilitated learning and generalization to new threatening cues, ...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - October 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The role of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in pain-induced aversive motivation
Publication date: April 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 26Author(s): Masabumi MinamiPain consists of sensory-discriminative and negative-emotional components. The negative-emotional component of pain is closely related to aversive motivation that promotes avoidance behaviors to escape from noxious stimuli and aversive learning to avoid the cue (conditioned stimulus) associated with noxious stimulation. Recent behavioral studies have revealed the brain regions that mediate the negative-emotional component of pain, including the anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, and bed nucleus of the stria term...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Central amygdala cells for learning and expressing aversive emotional memories
Publication date: April 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 26Author(s): Bo LiAnticipatory defensive responses to an aversive or harmful event depend on memories linking the event with the predictive environmental cues. Extensive evidence indicates that the central amygdala is essential for the acquisition and recall of such memories. The evidence came initially from studies that relied on traditional lesion and pharmacological techniques, and recently from studies in which new methodologies were used to target, record and manipulate neuronal activities with improved precision and specificity. In thi...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - October 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Episodic memory and Pavlovian conditioning: ships passing in the night
Publication date: April 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 26Author(s): Joseph E Dunsmoor, Marijn CW KroesResearch on emotional learning and memory is traditionally approached from one of two directions: episodic memory and classical conditioning. These approaches differ substantially in methodology and intellectual tradition. Here, we offer a new approach to the study of emotional memory in humans that involves integrating theoretical knowledge and experimental techniques from these seemingly distinct fields. Specifically, we describe how subtle modifications to traditional Pavlovian conditioning p...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - October 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Unveiling artistic minds: case studies of creativity
Publication date: June 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 27Author(s): Karen Chan Barrett, Charles J. LimbResearch on musical creativity and expertise principally relies on cross-sectional or longitudinal experiments comparing groups of subjects (e.g. musicians vs. non-musicians, professional vs. amateur musicians). While this is vital, case studies of individuals may provide valuable insight into the variability underlying real-world creative musical performance and improvisation. We survey recent case study experiments on musical disorders, musical savants, and unique musical abilities as well as ...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - October 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Re-examining prominent measures of divergent and convergent creativity
Publication date: June 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 27Author(s): Robert A Cortes, Adam B Weinberger, Richard J Daker, Adam E GreenMuch of creativity research has focused on the constructs of divergent and convergent thinking. In this review, we address key gaps in extant empirical understanding of these constructs and offer suggestions for future research to parse their respective contributions to creative cognition. Furthermore, we consider the construct validity of the psychometric tasks most commonly used to measure these types of thinking: The Alternative Uses Task and the Remote Associate...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - October 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

How serotonin transporter gene variance affects defensive behaviours along the threat imminence continuum
Publication date: April 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 26Author(s): Marijn CW Kroes, Marloes JAG Henckens, Judith R HombergAdequate responding to threat is essential to survival. The optimal defensive behavioural response depends on threat imminence. Serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene variance is known to affect defensive behaviours, and thought to predispose to stress-related disorders. Here, we propose that reduced 5-HTT availability is associated with increased defensive behaviours before and after threat detection, as well as flight behaviour at circa-strike, all aimed at preventing direct t...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - October 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Editorial overview: Sex and gender
Publication date: Available online 27 September 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral SciencesAuthor(s): Jill B Becker, Carrie R Ferrario, Natalie C Tronson (Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences)
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - October 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Parabrachial-to-amygdala control of aversive learning
Publication date: April 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 26Author(s): Masashi Nagase, Kaori Mikami, Ayako M WatabeElucidating neuronal circuitry mechanisms underlying adaptive behaviors and memory formation is fundamental to understanding brain function. Pavlovian fear conditioning studies have provided important insights into the neuronal mechanisms of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli in the amygdala, and their associative mechanisms and plasticity have been intensively studied. Recent advances in optogenetics and pharmacogenetics combined with genetic manipulation tools, however, reveal new...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - October 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The neuropsychology of creativity
Publication date: June 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 27Author(s): Anna AbrahamThe neuropsychological approach has been instrumental in delivering key insights that have enabled a clearer understanding of the human mind and its workings. Despite the promise of this approach and the unique perspective it affords, it has only been limitedly utilized when exploring creative cognition. This paper presents a brief overview of three methodologies — single case studies, case series investigations on neurological populations, and case series investigations on psychiatric populations — that h...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - October 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Computational models of creativity: a review of single-process and multi-process recent approaches to demystify creative cognition
Publication date: June 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 27Author(s): Vera Mekern, Bernhard Hommel, Zsuzsika SjoerdsCreativity is a compelling but heterogeneous phenomenon. As opposed to big-C creativity, which is regarded as limited to the rare brilliant mind, little-c creativity is indispensable in adaptive everyday behavior, serving to adjust to changing circumstances and challenges. Computational approaches help demystify human creativity by offering insights into the underlying mechanisms and their characteristics. Recently proposed computational models to creative cognition often focus on eit...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - October 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Neuropsychopharmacological regulation of performance on creativity-related tasks
Publication date: June 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 27Author(s): David Q BeversdorfA number of factors affect performance on tasks associated with creativity. Two pharmacological systems in particularly been identified as important for their impact on creativity, the noradrenergic system and the dopaminergic systems. Furthermore, stress is also established as an important factor impacting performance, most likely mediated by its effects on these neurotransmitter systems. Herein, we review the current literature on the relationships between stress, the noradrenergic system, the dopaminergic sys...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - October 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Measuring spontaneous processes in creativity research
Publication date: June 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 27Author(s): Tali R Marron, Miriam FaustSpontaneous cognitive processes, operating in combination with controlled (executive) processes, are critical for creative ideation. Whereas decades of research have produced numerous validated methods for measuring controlled processes, the development of tasks and measurement tools that can capture spontaneous processes is still in relatively early stages. We review the most recent advancements in measuring spontaneous processes specifically in creative cognition. The methods we discuss include mind-w...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - October 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Creativity: linchpin in the quest for a viable theory of cultural evolution
Publication date: June 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 27Author(s): Liane GaboraThis paper outlines the implications of neural-level accounts of insight, and models of the conceptual interactions that underlie creativity, for a theory of cultural evolution. Since elements of human culture exhibit cumulative, adaptive, open-ended change, it seems reasonable to view culture as an evolutionary process, one fueled by creativity. Associative memory models of creativity and mathematical models of how concepts combine and transform through interaction with a context, support a view of creativity that is...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - October 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Avoidance problems reconsidered
Publication date: April 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 26Author(s): Christopher K Cain, Nathan S KlineActive avoidance is the prototypical paradigm for studying aversively motivated instrumental behavior. However, avoidance research stalled amid heated theoretical debates and the hypothesis that active avoidance is essentially Pavlovian flight. Here I reconsider key ‘avoidance problems’ and review neurobehavioral data collected with modern tools. Although the picture remains incomplete, these studies strongly suggest that avoidance has an instrumental component and is mediated by bra...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - September 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Neural and genetic mechanisms of creative potential
Publication date: June 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 27Author(s): Zhiting Ren, Wenjing Yang, Jiang QiuCreative potential exists in everyone and it has pervasively penetrated into our daily life. A series of recently studies have shed new light on the issue of how the brain produces creative potential and how genes affect it. The present study systematically explored the genetic and brain basis of creative potential. In terms of brain level, a wide range of brain regions in the structure and function are involved in creative potential. In terms of heredity level, genes involved in dopamine (DA) ...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - September 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Where in the brain is creativity: a brief account of a wild-goose chase
Publication date: June 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 27Author(s): Arne DietrichThe neuroscientific study of creativity is stuck and lost. Having perseverated on a paradigm — divergent thinking — that is theoretically incoherent, the field has neither produced intelligible data on the brain mechanisms of creativity nor developed alternative approaches to study the topic. This paper brings into sharp focus the three confounds — validity, false category formation, compound construct — that cripple this paradigm and shows how the use of in-vogue neuroscientific concepts &mda...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - September 16, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Network neuroscience of creative cognition: mapping cognitive mechanisms and individual differences in the creative brain
Publication date: June 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 27Author(s): Roger E Beaty, Paul Seli, Daniel L SchacterNetwork neuroscience research is providing increasing specificity on the contribution of large-scale brain networks to creative cognition. Here, we summarize recent experimental work examining cognitive mechanisms of network interactions and correlational studies assessing network dynamics associated with individual creative abilities. Our review identifies three cognitive processes related to network interactions during creative performance: goal-directed memory retrieval, prepotent-res...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - September 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Primary and secondary creativity
Publication date: June 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 27Author(s): Mark A Runco, Ronald A BeghettoWho decides what counts as creative? Although most creativity researchers would acknowledge that both individuals and broader social audiences can offer interpretations about creativity, the way in which researchers tend to conceptualize and study creativity typically focuses on either an individual or a social perspective. Those who focus on individual interpretations may treat the social superficially (if at all), whereas those who focus on social judgments risk minimizing or erasing the role of t...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - September 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Creativity and the Big Two model of personality: plasticity and stability
Publication date: June 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 27Author(s): Gregory J FeistThe general conclusion from recent research on the Big Two dimensions of human personality — Plasticity (extraversion and openness) and Stability (neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) — show that Plasticity has a more robust and stronger association with creativity than Stability. More specifically, people who are high in plasticity and low in stability may be most likely to exhibit creative thought and behavior. Moreover, current research in neuroscience, genet...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - September 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Rules for aversive learning and decision-making
Publication date: April 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 26Author(s): Joanna Oi-Yue Yau, Gavan P McNallyAssociative and reinforcement learning rules describe how animals, including humans, predict events in the world. In aversive learning, these rules describe how we predict danger. Here we outline major associative and reinforcement rules for aversive learning as well as behavioural approaches to study them. We identify key findings from the emerging literature on how these different learning rules are instantiated in the mammalian brain. We also highlight key areas where understanding is lacking...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - September 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Creativity and psychopathology: the tenacious mad-genius controversy updated
Publication date: June 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 27Author(s): Dean Keith SimontonThe mad-genius controversy concerning the relation between creativity and psychopathology is one of the oldest and most contentious in the behavioral sciences. Although the prevailing consensus is that the debate is not specious, it is also evident that its scientific resolution is far more complicated than a mere yes–no decision. To illustrate this complexity, this article examines seven central issues that must be addressed in future research: target persons, mental disorders, creative domains, specific...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - September 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

What can quantitative measures of semantic distance tell us about creativity?
Publication date: June 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 27Author(s): Yoed N KenettSemantic distance plays an important role in the creative process: The farther one `moves away’ from a conventional idea, the more creative the new idea will likely be. Although intuitive, the role of semantic distance in creativity has been only indirectly examined due to the challenge of its measurement. Recent studies have started applying quantitative measures of semantic distance in creativity research. Such studies complement standard subjective measures of creativity; provide objective measures of the cr...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - September 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A bio-psycho-behavioral model of creativity
Publication date: June 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 27Author(s): Emanuel JaukIn this article, a model of creativity is proposed that seeks to integrate concepts and findings from different lines of creativity research. The model aims to provide an understanding of interindividual differences in real-life creative behavior by considering central psychological constructs, their mutual relationships, and their respective neurobiological bases. It is argued that openness to experience, cognitive creative potential (divergent thinking ability), and intelligence constitute core variables relevant to...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - September 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Influences of genomic imprinting on brain function and behavior
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 25Author(s): Olivia Ho-Shing, Catherine DulacGenomic imprinting is a unique form of epigenetic regulation that is highly prevalent in the brain. The complexity of imprinted regulation in the adult and developing brain, and its central roles in neural processes are becoming increasingly appreciated. Here, we outline recent progress in elucidating the influence of imprinted genes on brain function — from neural development to synaptic function, cognition, and social and emotional behaviors. We review how improved sequenc...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - August 29, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Chromatin regulation in complex brain disorders
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 25Author(s): Ryan M Bastle, Ian S. MazeChromatin-related phenomena regulate gene expression by altering the compaction and accessibility of DNA to relevant transcription factors, thus allowing every cell in the body to attain distinct identities and to function properly within a given cellular context. These processes occur not only in the developing central nervous system, but continue throughout the lifetime of a neuron to constantly adapt to changes in the environment. Such changes can be positive or negative, thereby altering the chro...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - August 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

State-change decisions and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex: the importance of time
Publication date: Available online 25 July 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral SciencesAuthor(s): Nils Kolling, Jill X O'ReillyDifferent kinds of decision making can be categorized by their differential effect on the agent’s current and future states as well as the computational challenges they pose. Here, we draw a distinction between within-state and state-change decision-making, and propose that a dedicated decision mechanism exists in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) that is specialized for state-change decisions. We set out a formal framework in which state change decisions may be made on the basis of...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Epigenetic regulation of behavior in Drosophila melanogaster
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 25Author(s): Ina Anreiter, Stephanie D Biergans, Marla B SokolowskiAnimal behavior is arguably among the most intricate and complex phenotypes. Not only are the molecular processes underlying most behavioral phenotypes exceedingly complex, but these processes are also variable, to allow for behavioral adjustments in response to external and internal conditions. The adaptation of behavior to the current circumstances (i.e. plasticity) can be crucial for survival as a single behavioral strategy may only be beneficial under the right conditi...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The epigenetic basis of individuality
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 25Author(s): J David SweattThis commentary reviews the concept of experience-dependent epigenetic modifications in the CNS as a core mechanism underlying individuality and individuation at the behavioral level. I use the term individuation to refer to the underlying neurobiological processes that result in individuality, with the discussion focusing on individuality of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral repertoire. The review describes recent work supporting the concept of neuroepigenetic mechanisms underlying individuation, possible ro...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Language acquisition as skill learning
Publication date: Available online 25 April 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral SciencesAuthor(s): Nick Chater, Morten H ChristiansenLanguage acquisition researchers have often viewed children as ‘mini-linguists,’ attempting to infer abstract knowledge of language from exposure to their native language. From this perspective, the challenge of acquisition can seem so formidable that meeting it would appear to require that much of this knowledge must be built-in, as a language instinct or universal grammar. From this viewpoint, language acquisition is also disconnected from language processing, and from the...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Sex differences in the nicotinic acetylcholine and dopamine receptor systems underlying tobacco smoking addiction
Publication date: Available online 26 April 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral SciencesAuthor(s): Terril L .Verplaetse, Evan D Morris, Sherry A McKee, Kelly P CosgroveConverging lines of evidence suggest that men generally smoke for nicotine-related reinforcement, whereas women smoke for non-nicotine factors. Women have more difficulty quitting smoking and are less responsive to nicotine replacement therapies than men, underscoring the importance of examining sex differences in the neurochemical mechanisms underlying nicotine-motivated behavior. We review the recent imaging literature on sex differences in the nicot...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Vocal learning: a language-relevant trait in need of a broad cross-species approach
Publication date: Available online 27 April 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral SciencesAuthor(s): Ella Z Lattenkamp, Sonja C VernesAlthough humans are unmatched in their capacity to produce speech and learn language, comparative approaches in diverse animal models are able to shed light on the biological underpinnings of language-relevant traits. In the study of vocal learning, a trait crucial for spoken language, passerine birds have been the dominant models, driving invaluable progress in understanding the neurobiology and genetics of vocal learning despite being only distantly related to humans. To date, there is...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Editorial overview: The evolution of language as a neurobiological system
Publication date: Available online 27 June 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral SciencesAuthor(s): Christopher I Petkov, William D. Marslen-Wilson (Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences)
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Editorial overview: Apathy and motivation
Publication date: Available online 3 July 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral SciencesAuthor(s): Masud Husain, Christopher R Pryce (Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences)
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Economic choice: the foraging perspective
Publication date: December 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24Author(s): Benjamin Y HaydenForaging theory offers an alternative foundation for understanding economic choice, one that sees economic choices as the outcome of psychological processes that evolved to help our ancestors search for food. Most of the choices encountered by foragers are between pursuing an encountered prey (accept) and ignoring it in favor of continued search (reject). Binary choices, which typically occur between simultaneously presented items, are special case, and are resolved through paired alternating accept–rej...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Hypothalamic survival circuits related to social and predatory defenses and their interactions with metabolic control, reproductive behaviors and memory systems
Publication date: December 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24Author(s): Newton Sabino CanterasThe hypothalamus may be viewed as the central piece of the survival circuits and is responsible for organizing endocrine, autonomic and behavioral responses to guarantee the survival of both the individual and the species. The hypothalamus is largely known to control the three basic classes of behavior required for animal survival, namely, ingestive, defensive, and reproductive behaviors. Over the years, a great deal has been learned regarding the hypothalamic circuits organizing these classes of behavio...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Survival circuits and risk assessment
Publication date: December 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24Author(s): Neil McNaughton, Philip J CorrRisk assessment (RA) behaviour is unusual in the context of survival circuits. An external object elicits eating, mating or fleeing; but conflict between internal approach and withdrawal tendencies elicits RA-specific behaviour that scans the environment for new information to bring closure. Recently rodent and human threat responses have been compared using ‘predators’ that can be real (e.g. a tarantula), robot, virtual, or symbolic (with the last three rendered predatory by the use ...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Survival circuits and therapy: from automaticity to the conscious experience of fear and anxiety
Publication date: December 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24Author(s): Steven C Hayes, Stefan G HofmannWe will briefly examine the implication of a multi-dimensional and multi-level view of evolution for addressing the role and function of survival circuits in the context of human cognition, and the underlying emotional, memory, and behavioral processes both impact. It is our contention that human cognition can partially direct and channel these more ancient neurobiological regulatory systems. We argue that while survival circuits can be helpful or hurtful to human functioning, they are particul...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Prospection and natural selection
Publication date: December 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24Author(s): T Suddendorf, A Bulley, B MiloyanProspection refers to thinking about the future, a capacity that has become the subject of increasing research in recent years. Here we first distinguish basic prospection, such as associative learning, from more complex prospection commonly observed in humans, such as episodic foresight, the ability to imagine diverse future situations and organize current actions accordingly. We review recent studies on complex prospection in various contexts, such as decision-making, planning, deliberate pr...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The ethological deconstruction of fear(s)
Publication date: December 2018Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24Author(s): Dean MobbsThe natural world presents a myriad of dangers that can threaten an organism's survival. This diversity of threats is matched by a set of universal and species specific defensive behaviors which are often subsumed under the emotions of fear and anxiety. A major issue in the field of affective science, however, is that these emotions are often conflated and scientists fail to reflect the ecological conditions that gave rise to them. I attempt to clarify these semantic issues by describing the link between ethological...
Source: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research