Autoimmune Diseases and Infections: A Controversial Relationship
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease whose etiology and pathogenesis are incompletely understood. Over the past 50-60 years, there has been a rise of more than ten-fold in the annual incidence of SLE in industrialized Western countries. Although it is believed that the etiology of SLE is multifactorial, including genetic, hormonal and environmental triggers, the molecular mechanisms underlying this systemic autoimmune response remain largely unknown. Clinical and epidemiological studies have revealed that SLE is rarely observed in rural tropical areas of Africa and Asia, where parasitic infections ar...
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - June 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

High Fat Intake, Inflammation and Risk of Neuropsychiatric Disorders
Conclusion: It is suggested that reducing fat intake might decline the risk of NPDs. (Source: Current Immunology Reviews)
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - June 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Coenzyme Q10: A Potential Adjunct for Treatment of Antiphospholipid Syndrome and Recurrent Miscarriage
Conclusion: Based on this review, further comprehensive studies may be conducted to illuminate the beneficial therapeutic effects of supplementing CoQ10 on possible modifiable pathways involved in the progression of RM and APS. (Source: Current Immunology Reviews)
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - June 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Immunomodulatory Effects of Vitamin D in Influenza Infection
Conclusion: Our literature review suggests that treatment of influenza-infected individuals with Vitamin D supplements or cathelicidin-derived agents may provide appreciable protection against natural influenza infection. Moreover, Vitamin D given at appropriate doses may facilitate protection against seasonal flu. (Source: Current Immunology Reviews)
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - June 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Chikungunya Infection and Immunity: An Overview
Conclusion: In the current review we highlighted the importance of conceptual mechanism of the host immune responses to CHIKV and the immunopathology of this alpha virus. The presented review provides an update on the infection, its vector, and the disease transmission, research development, and administration for avoidance of Chikungunya disease. (Source: Current Immunology Reviews)
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - June 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Otorhinolaryngological Manifestations in Sjogren Syndrome
Conclusion: To date, there is no straight forward and reliable diagnostic test for Sjögren's syndrome. Its diagnosis can be difficult because the signs and symptoms vary widely and sometimes are similar to those caused by other diseases. Hence, it is important to identify conditions with similar patterns in order to make a correct diagnosis, begin the appropriate therapy, determine a proper follow-up and ensure a good quality of life. (Source: Current Immunology Reviews)
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - June 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis and its Relationship with the Immune System and Oxidative Stress
Conclusion: Dietary intake of PUFAs and melatonin could also be considered as adjuvant treatments for that clinical course of relapsing-recurrent multiple sclerosis. Further studies focusing on the role of endocannabinoids derived from PUFA´s in MS are needed. (Source: Current Immunology Reviews)
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - June 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Regulation of the Unfolded Protein Response in Disease: Cellular Stress and microRNAs
Conclusion: It is evident that microRNAs regulate several components of the UPR and that these small non-coding RNAs, or other molecules that restore the UPR balance, may represent possible therapeutic options to normalise intracellular homeostasis. (Source: Current Immunology Reviews)
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - June 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Meet Our Co-Editor
(Source: Current Immunology Reviews)
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - June 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Acknowledgements to Reviewers
(Source: Current Immunology Reviews)
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - January 12, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

IL-27: Friend or Foe in the Autoimmune Diseases
Conclusions: The functions of IL-27 are currently unclear because it appears to affect different cells, cytokines, and signaling pathways differently. Further investigations are needed to clarify the role of IL-27 in autoimmune diseases. Hence, this article reviewed the multiple roles of IL-27 in autoimmune diseases and describe the influence of IL-27 on the immune system. (Source: Current Immunology Reviews)
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - January 12, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Electro-Optical Assays for Immunoindication of Microbial Cells
Conclusion: The suggested electro-optical method can be recommended for analyzing of mixed cell suspensions (detection of bacterial cells in liquid phase) by using specific antibodies with further registration of their interactions measuring changes of electro-optical parameters, but without immobilization of antibodies on the solid surface (various kinds of plates). (Source: Current Immunology Reviews)
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - January 12, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Application of Aptasensors for the Aging Diseases Diagnosis
Conclusion: This paper reveals the potential application of aptasensors as a rapid point-of-care technology for the early aging-associated disease immunodiagnostics. Thus, the aptasensors would be used in the clinical practice for the elderly healthcare. (Source: Current Immunology Reviews)
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - January 12, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Dendritic Cells and Immunomodulation: Role in Health and Disease
Conclusions: The emergence of new classes of T-helper effector cells and their cytokines has led to a change in our understanding of therapeutic potentials of DCs. This has provided both new options and challenges for researchers involved in this field, and is likely to result in advancement in identifying and developing novel therapeutic measures and innovative strategies for several immunological chronic disorders. (Source: Current Immunology Reviews)
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - January 12, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Endothelial Function and Pathogenesis of Endothelial Dysfunction
Conclusion: The present review intends to clarify the mechanisms behind the development of endothelial dysfunction, and aims to show how widely proven is the correlation between endothelial dysfunction (assessed both by Endo-PAT and sphigmoCOR) and cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, stroke, coronary artery disease and heart failure. Moreover, the assessment of endothelial dysfunction may represent an integral adjuvant test to identify the predisposed patients at risk for future cardiovascular accidents, as we suggest. (Source: Current Immunology Reviews)
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - January 12, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Neonatal Immune System: General Concepts and Clinical Correlations
Conclusion: Nearly every component of the neonatal immune system shows differences from adults. As research progresses, a clearer understanding of the mechanisms of neonatal immune suppression will allow for the development of therapeutic interventions to help neonates overcome serious infections. (Source: Current Immunology Reviews)
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - January 12, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Meet Our Associate Editor
(Source: Current Immunology Reviews)
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - January 12, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Leishmania Heat Shock Proteins as Effectors of Immune Evasion and Virulence
Historically, heat shock proteins were seen foremost as playing roles in stress protection and short term adaption to changing environmental parameters. This view is now superseded by findings that implicate HSPs in various aspects of cell regulation, protein maturation and modulation, immune response and immune modulation. Likewise in parasitic protozoa, the old view of HSPs as protecting the pathogens against the harsh conditions inside mammalian hosts has given way to a far broader picture in which parasite HSPs play decisive regulatory roles in primitive protozoa, regulating cell cycle, life cycle, morphology and prote...
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - September 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Regulatory Role of Heat Shock Proteins in the Pathogenesis of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes is a severe metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due to defects in insulin secretion and/or insulin action. Over the past decades, a continuous rise of the incidence of diabetes is observed, leading to epidemic dimensions of the disease in large parts of the western world. Depending on the type of diabetes, (auto-)immune processes (type 1 diabetes) or metabolic disorders (type 2 diabetes) dominate the pathogenesis of the disease. Therefore, investigations aiming at the identification of disease mechanisms and the development of preventive and therapeutic approaches, focus on the identification of comm...
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - September 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Role of Heat Shock Proteins in Atherosclerosis and Atrial Fibrillation
Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) are a group of highly conserved molecular chaperones that play important roles in homeostasis and the cellular response to stress. In the cardiovascular system, HSPs maintain vessel wall integrity and cardiomyocyte function; they may be upregulated and translocated to the cell surface in response to environmental stressors. HSPs contribute to the inflammatory processes that mediate the development of atherosclerosis by activating the innate and adaptive immune response. Misdirected autoimmune attack of surface HSPs on stressed vascular endothelial cells by circulating anti-Hsp60 antibodies lead t...
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - September 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of the Chaperone Grp94/Gp96 in the Intestinal Barrier and Innate Immune Functions
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play an important role in innate immune function of the intestinal mucosa and in the barrier function of intestinal epithelial cells. Among the HSPs expressed in epithelial cells, as well as cells of the innate immune system is Grp94/Gp96. Differences in protein expression of Gp96 have been observed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), suggesting that this chaperone may be important in this pathology. The role that Gp96 plays seems to be different depending on the cell type where it is expressed. In epithelial cells, Gp96 is recognized by pathogenic bacteria and allows bacterial inv...
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - September 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Collaboration of Heat Shock Protein 70 and Stress-induced NKG2D Ligands in the Activation of NK Cells against Tumors
The stress-inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) contributes to the cellular stress response that protects cells from adverse environmental conditions. HSP70 can block apoptosis and other types of cell death induced by various stimuli. In malignant cells, the expression of HSP70 is frequently elevated and some cancers even depend on HSP70 overexpression to maintain their malignant phenotype. Extracellular HSP70 in contrast, provides a danger signal to the immune system and may activate anti-tumor immune responses by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells. HSP70-activated NK cells, for example, can at...
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - September 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

HSP60 is a Ubiquitous Player in the Physiological and Pathogenic Interactions between the Chaperoning and the Immune Systems
HSP60 participates in many interactions between the system integrated by all chaperones and closely associated molecules (chaperoning system or CS) and the immune system (IS). These interactions occur constantly to maintain normal cell physiology but, occasionally, they are perturbed and become mediators of pathologic events that may lead to disease. This switch to pathology may be initiated by various factors, genetic or acquired, which cause qualitative and/or quantitative modifications of HSP60, or immune crossreactivity between the human and microbial chaperonin orthologs, or a break in the balance between the pro- and...
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - September 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The ATP-driven Hsp60 Machinery: Biological and Clinical Implications
The 60 kDa heat shock chaperonin protein 60 (Hsp60 or Cpn60) is highly conserved in evolution and present in nearly all organisms. Eukaryotic paralogues are nuclear encoded but act in certain intra- and extracellular compartments including venous blood. HSP60s function as ATP-dependent molecular chaperones and collaborate with further chaperones to perform their duties. While intracellular HSP60s are crucially involved in proteostasis as well as pro-apoptotic and pro-survival pathways, membrane-bound and extracellular HSP60s are thought to function as danger signals to the immune system and act as powerful immune mediators...
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - September 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Versatile Functions of Heat Shock Factors: It is Not All About Stress
Organisms are constantly exposed to acute and chronic stress conditions, which challenge the maintenance of protein homeostasis. Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) function as molecular chaperones to stabilize protein structures, facilitate refolding of misfolded proteins, and prevent uncontrolled protein aggregation. Therefore, HSPs serve as the first and last line of defense in the events of proteotoxic stresses. The stress-inducible expression of HSPs, which is a hallmark of the heat shock response, is under strict control of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors, known as Heat Shock Factors (HSFs). Invertebrates have ...
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - September 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Editorial: The Heat Shock Protein Chaperone Interaction Network as Guardian of the Proteome in Health and Disease
(Source: Current Immunology Reviews)
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - September 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Meet Our Regional Editor
(Source: Current Immunology Reviews)
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - September 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Acknowledgements to reviewers
(Source: Current Immunology Reviews)
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - July 28, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Lymphocyte Subsets in Patients with β -Thalassemia Major
Conclusion: In our study the patients with β-thalassemia major had lower natural killer (NK) lymphocytes than healthy control. (Source: Current Immunology Reviews)
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - July 28, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Orchestrating HIV Neutralization by Secondary Immune Response- Mediated Induction of RF Antibodies
Antibody-dependent enhancement of infection is among the main challenges for HIV vaccines. Neutralization-enhancing RF antibodies (NeRFa) arising against immune complexes during secondary immune response not only enhance the action of neutralizing antibodies but also make infectionenhancing antibodies neutralizing in a sensitized virus. NeRFa represent the oldest type of immune response since it protects a fetus with unformed immune system from maternally acquired infections. Vaccination with HIV gp120 glycoprotein each 3 weeks may be a strategy to induce NeRFa both in prophylactic and therapeutic immunizations. Twenty-fol...
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - January 12, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Role of IL-17F in the Pathogenesis of Psoriasis
Psoriasis is a complex autoimmune inflammatory disease with a genetic basis. The increased expression of IL-17F gene and protein is observed in the lesional skins of psoriatic patients. We and other groups discovered human IL-17F gene that shows the highest homology with IL-17A. IL-17F induces various inflammatory molecules, such as IL-6 and IL-8. IL-17F is mainly derived from Th17, Tc17 and ILC3 cells, and induces CCL20 expression, resulting in the recruitment of additional IL-17F-producing cells to enhance skin inflammation via CCR6. The receptor for IL-17F is the heterodimeric complex of IL-17RA and IL-17RC, and several...
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - January 12, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Thinking Outside the Brain: Immunorregulation in Multiple Sclerosis
A defective immunorregulation has been demonstrated at different levels in autoimmune disease and in multiple sclerosis (MS) in particular, which can be partly restored by therapies used for MS. This fact highlights the relevance of promoting specific tolerance for central nervous system antigens for the prevention of MS. In the present review, we summarize recent findings on the role of the diverse regulatory immune cell subsets to convey an integrated view of MS pathogenesis in the framework of the immune and psychoneuroendocrine metasystem. We also discuss the effects of MS therapies on these regulatory cells’ sub...
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - January 12, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Developments Towards a Prophylactic Hepatitis C Virus Vaccine
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major health problem worldwide, affecting approximately 3% of the human population. Although decades of research have amassed since the virus was characterized in 1989, there remains no prophylactic HCV vaccine approved for clinical use. The vast genetic variability of HCV, together with weak host immune responses following infection, and a paucity of suitable animal models for HCV vaccine research, have made HCV an elusive vaccine target. Despite the recent advances in medical treatment enjoyed by wealthy nations, there remains an unmet need for an affordable, effective, and ...
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - January 12, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

NF-κB in Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Probiotics: An Update
The NF-κB (nuclear factor κappa B) belongs to a family of transcription factors that regulate a number of key cellular pathways and control many physiological processes, including the immune and inflammatory responses. The beneficial effect of probiotics is presently recognized in both the intestinal and extra-intestinal development. The growing literature on the subject suggests an important role of specific probiotic strains, mixtures of strains, and secreted products, all of which have a role in either the preventive or therapeutic treatment of certain human disorders. During the last two decades, a number o...
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - January 12, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Immunotherapeutic Options for Pediatric Malignancies
Conclusion: The robust immunological responsiveness of pediatric patients constitutes a unique opportunity for maximum therapeutic impact but additional investigation needs to be directed toward further understanding the operational mechanisms of immune suppression in pediatric tumors and alternative approaches for antigenically bland tumors. (Source: Current Immunology Reviews)
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - January 12, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Meet Our Editorial Board Member
(Source: Current Immunology Reviews)
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - January 12, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Under Performance of Anti Tuberculosis Vaccine MVA85A in BCGPrimed Subjects: A Commentary
Developing an effective anti tuberculosis (TB) vaccine is a top priority for global control of TB. Since BCG has limited protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection, efforts are being made to improve its protective efficacy further. Prime-boost is a strategy whereby an individual is primed with BCG followed by boosting with a heterologous anti TB vaccine/antigen. In several instances, boosting involves up-modulation of CD4+ Th1 mediated cellular immunity by stimulation with the corresponding antigen(s) as well as by down modulating the immunosuppressive regulatory T cells. In a recent trial with such a bo...
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - March 31, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Emerging Cytokines in Allergic Airway Inflammation: A Genetic Update
Conclusion: The emergence of new classes of T-helper effector cells and their cytokines has led to a change in our understanding of asthma pathogenesis. This has created both new opportunities and challenges for researchers involved in this field, and is likely to result in improvements and progress in identifying and developing novel therapeutic measures and innovative treatments for asthma. (Source: Current Immunology Reviews)
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - March 31, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Under Performance of Anti Tuberculosis Vaccine MVA85A in BCG-Primed Subjects: a Commentary
Developing an effective anti tuberculosis (TB) vaccine is a top priority for global control of TB. Since BCG has limited protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection, efforts are being made to improve its protective efficacy further. Prime-boost is a strategy whereby an individual is primed with BCG followed by boosting with a heterologous anti TB vaccine/antigen. In several instances, boosting involves up-modulation of CD4+ Th1 mediated cellular immunity by stimulation with the corresponding antigen(s) as well as by down modulating the immunosuppressive regulatory T cells. In a recent trial with such a bo...
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - March 30, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Currently Available Methods of Bacterial Cell Detection
The bacterial surface is a complex combination of various immunogenic components of genus, species, and strain specificity. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, used widely in the manufacture of diagnostic test systems, have traditionally served as biological components for the specific detection of bacterial cells. In molecular biology, bacterial cell detection is performed with the help of genetic engineering technologies for cloning recognizing fragments (hypervariable immunoglobulin domains (miniantibodies). These technologies are cheaper and can be competitive in selectivity with hybridoma technologies. At present, r...
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - March 30, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Inflammatory Atherosclerosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Cardiovascular disease dependent on inflammatory accelerated atherosclerosis leads to increased mortality in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition to traditional, Framingham risk factors, several immuno-inflammatory cells, mediators and molecules may link atherosclerosis to arthritis. Among immune cells, primarily TH1 cells, as well as endothelial cells play a crucial role in synovial and vascular inflammation. Various cell surface molecules, such as adhesion receptors, CD40-CD40 ligand or members of the RANK-RANK ligand-osteoprotegerin system, as well as soluble pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, autoantibodies and ...
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - March 30, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inflammasomes – A Mini-Review
The cells of the innate immune system continually undergo surveillance of the extracellular milieu to serve as the first line of defense against invading microbial pathogens. As a result, these innate immune cells have evolved receptors to sense microbial motifs and danger signals. The inflammasome is an important component of the innate immune system’s “arsenal” against invading microbes such as viruses and bacteria and acts as a homeostatic checkpoint to regulate inflammation. Inflammasomes are cytosolic multi-protein complexes that activate caspase 1 and 11, which result in the production of pro-inflam...
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - March 30, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Interleukin 10 in Antiviral Responses
The type of immune response a host can raise against an invading parasite may often be decisive between chronicity or clearance, and in the worst cases between host survival and death. Helper T cells are key to determining whether antibody-mediated, inflammatory or cytolytic responses will be predominant. Interleukin 10 (IL10) is widely recognized to be the most important cytokine for anti-inflammatory reactions and tends to be associated to chronicity in quite a few types of viral infections. On the other hand, it has also been associated to tissue preservation in chronic viral disease. This review summarizes the most rec...
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - March 30, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Regulatory T cells: Biomarkers and Immunopathogenesis
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) is a hematological malignancy and the most prevalent form of childhood leukemia. Development of ALL is related to the blockade of lymphocyte differentiation, which might affect B or T precursor cells, resulting in the accumulation of blasts in bone marrow. Moreover, immunopathogenesis of ALL involves T regulatory cells (Tregs), which have been investigated in leukemic patients, presenting more immunosuppressive ability than those from normal individuals. Tregs are critical for the maintenance of autoreactive cells, affecting both lineages CD4+ and CD8+, and immune vigilance. Evaluating th...
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - March 30, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Crosstalk between Histamine and T cells in Allergic Diseases
Histamine, a prominent mediator of the symptoms and pathogenesis of allergic diseases, is produced not only by mast cells and basophils via the classical degranulation process but also by other immune cells including T cells via a neosynthesis process. Interestingly, T cells produce and are affected by histamine. Various T cell functions are also regulated by histamine via H1, H2, and H4 receptors. We recently demonstrated that T cells induce massive allergic inflammation without assistance from the immunoglobulin E (IgE)/mast cell-dependent pathway, and histamine may be involved in the development of allergic diseases via...
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - March 30, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Editorial (Thematic Issue: Biomarkers of Impaired Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Health and Disease)
(Source: Current Immunology Reviews)
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - March 30, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Meet Our Editor
(Source: Current Immunology Reviews)
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - March 30, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Acknowledgements to the reviewers
(Source: Current Immunology Reviews)
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - November 27, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in Asthma
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways with distinct features including nonspecific airway hyper-responsiveness, reversible bronchoconstriction, inflammation, and airway remodeling. The classical characteristics of asthma are the activation and recruitment of inflammatory cells, shedding of bronchial epithelium, subepithelial fibrosis, angiogenesis, mucus metaplasia and changes in the mass of airway smooth muscle cells. A complex interaction between environmental and genetic factors contributes to the disease and its heterogeneity. Various cell types, endogenous mediators including cytokines, chemokines, a...
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - November 27, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inflammatory Cyclooxygenase Activity and PGE2 Signaling in Models of Alzheimer’s Disease
The inflammatory response is a fundamental driving force in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In the setting of accumulating immunogenic Aß peptide assemblies, microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain, generate a non-resolving immune response and fail to adequately clear accumulating Aß peptides, accelerating neuronal and synaptic injury. Pathological, biomarker, and imaging studies point to a prominent role of the innate immune response in AD development, and the molecular components of this response are beginning to be unraveled. The inflammatory cyclooxygenase-PGE2 pathway is implica...
Source: Current Immunology Reviews - November 27, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research