The potential therapeutic effects of creatine supplementation on body composition and muscle function in cancer
Individuals with cancer are at a high risk of skeletal muscle wasting that may be exacerbated by tumour-related factors and cancer therapies (certain hormone and chemotherapies in particular) (Barreto et al., 2016; Vaughan et al., 2013; Aversa et al., 2017; Christensen et al., 2014; Shachar et al., 2016). An emerging body of literature supports the role of exercise as a means to ameliorate these treatment-related declines and improve clinically relevant outcomes in individuals with cancer (Schmitz et al., 2009; Galvao et al., 2010; Focht et al., 2018; Fairman et al., 2017a). (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - November 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: C.M. Fairman, K.L. Kendall, N.H. Hart, D.R. Taaffe, D.A. Galv ão, R.U. Newton Source Type: research

Targeting homologous repair deficiency in breast and ovarian cancers: biological pathways, preclinical and clinical data
DNA is constantly suffering damage from environmental assaults and endogenous metabolic activities. The DNA damage response (DDR) consists of five main overlapping pathways that reinforce genomic integrity throughout the cell cycle and DNA replication. Homologous recombination (HR) repair is the main rescue pathway, in which double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired. BRCA1 and 2 are essential proteins involved in this pathway, and their deficiencies lead to genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer. (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - November 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Elodie Chartron, Charles Theillet, S éverine Guiu, William Jacot Source Type: research

Metabolic syndrome as cardiovascular risk factor in childhood cancer survivors
Over the past decades, survival rates of childhood cancer have increased considerably from 5-30% in the early seventies to current rates exceeding 80% (SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2014 and National Cancer Institutie [Internet], 2016). This is due to the development of effective chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy and stem cell transplantation (SCT), combined with an optimized stratification of therapy and better supportive care regimens. These improved survival rates currently result in an ongoing increasing number of survivors (Meadows, 2003), which in turn resulted in increased awareness of late side effects of t...
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - November 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: V.G. Pluimakers, M. van Waas, S.J.C.M.M. Neggers, van den Heuvel-Eibrink Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Precision medicine in ALK rearranged NSCLC: A rapidly evolving scenario” [Crit. Rev. Oncol./Hematol. 122 (February) (2018) 150–156]
The authors regret that there was a typographical error in text when the paper was published. The article mentions a 1603 EORTC trial but this should have read as 1613 EORTC trial. (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - November 2, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Alfredo Addeo, Fabrizio Tabb ò, Tim Robinson, Lucio Buffoni, Silvia Novello Source Type: research

RANK/RANKL signaling inhibition may improve the effectiveness of checkpoint blockade in cancer treatment
Binding between the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB (RANK) and its ligand (RANKL) triggers recruitment of TNF receptor associated (TRAF) adaptor proteins and activation of downstream pathways. RANK/RANKL signaling is controlled by a decoy receptor called osteoprotegerin (OPG) which interacts with RANKL. Additional networks regulating RANK/RANKL signaling are active in a context specific manner. RANK/RANKL signaling is essential for the differentiation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts, and is deregulated in pathological processes such as postmenopausal osteoporosis or cancer induced bone destruction. (Source: Critical ...
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - November 2, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Peter A van Dam, Yannick Verhoeven, Xuan B Trinh, An Wauters, Filip Lardon, Hans Prenen, Evelien Smits, Marcella Baldewijns, Martin Lammens Source Type: research

“Shades of Gray” in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: reappraisals on resectability criteria
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths and, currently, surgery is the only curative treatment. Patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) can benefit from a multidisciplinary approach and R0 resection, and can achieve the same outcome as resectable patients treated with upfront surgery. However, the definition of BRPC changes according to different classifications with a heterogeneous distribution of patients, and it is thus difficult to compare clinical evidence. (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - November 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: P. Lombardi, S. Silvestri, D. Marino, M. Santarelli, D. Campra, P. De Paolis, M. Aglietta, F. Leone, On behalf of Rete Oncologica Piemonte e Valle d ’Aosta Source Type: research

Squamous cell carcinoma arising from mature cystic teratoma of the ovary: a challenging question for gynecologic oncologists
Mature cystic teratoma [MCT] of the ovary arises from germ cells by failure of meiosis II or from a premeiotic cell in which meiosis I has failed, and it might consist of multiple cell types derived from one or more of the three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm) ( Surti et al., 1990; Hackethal et al., 2008). It may occur at any age, with highest peak between 30 and 40 years (Nogales et al., 2003; Comerci et al., 1994; Morgante et al., 1998; Rim et al., 2006; Goudeli et al., 2016). The incidence of ovarian MCTs is approximately 1.2 –14.2 cases per 100.000 people per year (Hackethal et al., 2008). (Source: ...
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - November 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Angiolo Gadducci, Maria Elena Guerrieri, Stefania Cosio Source Type: research

Immunotherapy in advanced gastric cancer, is it the future?
The prognosis of advanced gastric cancer remains extremely poor despite the use of standard therapies such as chemotherapy and biological agents. Blocking immune checkpoint especially programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1 or B7-H1), has proven efficacy in several solid cancers, and seems to become a potential option in gastric cancer treatment. This review will focus on data describing the immune microenvironment of gastric tumors on which blocking PD-1/PD-L1 axis may have an anti-tumor efficacy. (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - November 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: C Coutzac, S Pernot, N Chaput, A Zaanan Source Type: research

A systematic review examining clinical markers and biomarkers of analgesic response to radiotherapy for cancer-induced bone pain
A consequence of the increasing number of patients being diagnosed and living with cancer is that more patients also live with disseminated disease. These patients will often need palliative care input at some point in their disease trajectory, resulting in an increased burden on palliative care services. Of all organs primary cancers spread to, bone is one of the most common. Bone metastases are associated with pain in up to 50% of patients, termed cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP). (Coleman, 1997; Coleman, 2006; Mercadante, 1997) CIBP adversely affects quality of life, therefore treatment of CIBP is of great importance.( C...
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - November 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kirstyn Gardner, Barry JA Laird, Marie T Fallon, Tonje A Sande Source Type: research

Available prognostic models for risk stratification of diffuse large b cell lymphoma patients: systemic review
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). It is a clinically and biologically heterogeneous disease with a variable course. (Saygin et al., 2017). The most common used tool for prognostication in DLBCL patients still remains the International Prognostic Index (IPI), despite being created in the pre-rituximab era – (about 25 years ago) (Shipp et al., 1993). The prognostic significance of the IPI has been validated in several studies, including those which analysed rituximab-treated patients (Ziepert et al., 2010; Hosoda et al., 2018). (Source: Critical Rev...
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - October 31, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jelena Jelicic, Thomas Stauffer Larsen, Milos Maksimovic, Goran Trajkovic Source Type: research

Second-line cabozantinib versus nivolumab in advanced renal cell carcinoma: Systematic review and indirect treatment comparison
Nivolumab and cabozantinib, two new treatment options for previously-treated advanced/metastatic renal cell carcinoma (aRCC), have recently been approved. (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - October 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Camillo Porta, Cezary Szczylik, Roman Casciano, Shuai Fu, Billy Amzal, Johanna Lister, Helene Karcher, Jie Meng, Monika Neumann, Jerome Dinet Source Type: research

Congenital neutropenia and primary immunodeficiency diseases
Neutropenia is a condition that is not seldom encountered by paediatricians but can sometimes still face them with a conundrum. In neutropenia, the absolute count of Polymorphonuclear cells (PNC) is diminished making the body more susceptible to certain pathogens. An unusual severe course- or unusual frequency of infection is often the consequence (Segel and Halterman, 2008; van den Berg and Kuijpers, 2011). Neutrophil granulocytes are a major component of innate immunity and quantitatively the most significant product of haematopoiesis. (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - October 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jonathan Spoor, Hamid Faraji Fard, Nima Rezaei Source Type: research

A rationale multidisciplinary approach for treatment of esophageal and gastroesophageal junction cancer: accurate review of management and perspectives
The Globocan 2012 asserted that cancer of the esophagus is the eighth most common cancer worldwide, sixth for mortality, with approximately 496,000 cases in 2015. Less developed countries are most likely to develop this disease (80%), although incidence is truly variable worldwide [1]. Despite the fact that the survival rate has been slowly increasing in the U.S.A. by around 0.7% per year (2002-2012), perhaps after the adhesion to multimodality techniques for treatment and improved supportive care, the worldwide survival rate has not been superior to 18.8% at 5 years yet [2]. (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - October 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Antonio Chiappa, Bruno Andreoni, Renzo Dionigi, Lorenzo Spaggiari, Diego Foschi, Gianluca Polvani, Roberto Orecchia, Nicola Fazio, Gabriella Pravettoni, Maria Laura Cossu, Domenico Galetta, Marco Venturino, Carlo Ferrari, Lorenzo Macone, Cristiano Crosta, Source Type: research

To resect or not to resect: the hamletic dilemma of primary tumor resection in patients with asymptomatic stage IV colorectal cancer
CRC represents one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide (Siegel et al., 2018). Despite widespread of screening procedures, even today approximately 20% of patients with CRC are found to have distant metastases at the time of diagnosis (Nitzkorski et al., 2012). (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - October 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: F Gelsomino, A. Spallanzani, G. Orsi, F. Caputo, C. Santini, S. Cascinu Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - October 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The prognostic value of the systemic inflammatory response in randomised clinical trials in cancer: A systematic review
The prognostic value of the systemic inflammatory response in cancer has been well established in observational studies. This review aims to examine and rationalise the evidence for the role of systemic inflammation based prognostic scores in randomised clinical trials. (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - October 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ross D Dolan, Barry JA Laird, Paul G Horgan, Donald C McMillan Source Type: research

Crosstalk in Cancer Resistance and Metastasis
Prolonged exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs can result in the development of drug resistance in tumor cells leading to clinical failure of the chemotherapy regime (Ghandadi et al., 2016a). Drug resistance may be intrinsic and present before exposure to the medications (Ghandadi et al., 2016b). However, research studies show that in tumor cells acquired drug resistance is more common than inherent drug resistance (Wu et al., 2014). Many studies have reported that drug resistance is accompanied by upregulation of Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) associated proteins expression leading to enhanced migration and metasta...
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - October 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Saeed Norouzi, Mahmoud Gorji Valokala, Fatemeh Mosaffa, Mohammad Reza Zirak, Parvin Zamani, Javad Behravan Source Type: research

Fertility Preserving Options for Gynecologic Malignancies: A Review of Current Understanding and Future Directions
A significant proportion of the reproductive aged women are affected by gynecologic malignancies. This population is faced with difficult considerations such as: i) cancer diagnosis and prognosis, ii) treatment options, and iii) future childbearing potentials. Thus, it is essential for the treating physician to be familiar with the emerging fertility sparing management options. (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - October 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Nathalie D. McKenzie, Jessica A. Kennard, Sarfraz Ahmad Source Type: research

Hormone replacement therapy after prophylactic risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: a meta-analysis
Mutations in DNA repair pathways, including breast-cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) and breast-cancer susceptibility gene 2 (BRCA2) mutation carries, predispose women to an elevated lifetime risk for ovarian cancer (OC) and breast cancer (BC) (National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines, 2018). While the role of bilateral risk-reducing mastectomy is still controversial, risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) represents nowadays the main effective prophylactic OC risk measure that should be proposed to BRCA carries, especially once childbearing is complete (National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines, 2018...
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - October 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: C. Marchetti, F. De Felice, S. Boccia, C. Sassu, V. Di Donato, G. Pergnola, I. Palaia, M. Monti, L. Muzii, V. Tombolini, P. Benedetti Panici Source Type: research

Liver Toxicity in the Era of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: A Practical Approach
In the last decade, immunotherapy went from a constituent of tumors to a mainstay in the cancer treatment. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligands (PD-L1/PD-L2) as well as several new generation checkpoint inhibitors have proven to modulate the immune response towards cancer clearance among a variety of human malignancies and many have reached a solid placement in routine clinical practice. (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - October 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Carmen Belli, Massimo Zuin, Luca Mazzarella, Dario Trapani, Paolo D ’Amico, Elena Guerini-Rocco, Bruno Achutti Duso, Giuseppe Curigliano Source Type: research

Direct oral anticoagulants for the treatment of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients: Potential for drug –drug interactions
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), comprising deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a complication frequently encountered in patients with cancer, and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality (Prandoni et al., 2002; Chew et al., 2006). Large cohort population studies indicate that patients with cancer have an average 4- to 7-fold higher risk of VTE than the general population (Walker et al., 2013; Cronin-Fenton et al., 2010). Numerous factors influence this increased risk, including patient-related factors (e.g. (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - September 29, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hanno Riess, Paolo Prandoni, Sebastian Harder, Stephan Kreher, Rupert Bauersachs Source Type: research

Performance of advanced imaging modalities at diagnosis and treatment response evaluation of patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder:A systematic review and meta-analysis
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious complication after solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In this systematic review we evaluated the clinical performance of advanced imaging modalities at diagnosis and treatment response evaluation of PTLD patients after solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - September 19, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: F.M. Montes de Jesus, T.C. Kwee, M. Nijland, X.U. Kahle, G. Huls, R.A.J.O. Dierckx, T. van Meerten, O. Gheysens, D. Dierickx, V. Vergote, W. Noordzij, A.W.J.M. Glaudemans Source Type: research

THE ROLE OF ENDOTHELIAL COLONY FORMING CELLS IN KIDNEY CANCER ’S PATHOGENESIS, AND IN RESISTANCE TO ANTI-VEGFR AGENTS AND mTOR INHIBITORS: A SPECULATIVE REVIEW
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignancy of the kidney and accounts for approximately 2-3% of all adult malignancies and 2% of all deaths from neoplasms. Despite not being one of the so-called “big killers”, RCC incidence and mortality have steadily increased over time, with a 126 and 37% increase in its incidence and annual mortality, respectively, since the 1950s (Chow et al., 1999; Pantuck et al., 2001), though more recently a plateau in its incidence has been postulated. (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - September 18, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Valentina Poletto, Vittorio Rosti, Marco Biggiogera, Germano Guerra, Francesco Moccia, Camillo Porta Source Type: research

One step ahead: miRNA-34 in colon cancer-future diagnostic and therapeutic tool?
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. The last global statistics were provided for 2012, with approximately 1.4 million new cases and 0.7 million deaths (Ferlay et al. 2013). In 2017 in the United States alone approximately 135,430 new cases and 50,260 deaths were reported, while in 2015 in China around 350,000 new cases and 190,000 deaths were noted (Chen et al. 2016; Siegel et al. 2017). The majority of cases occur in more developed regions, which points to the importance of environmental risk factors in colorectal carcinogenesis, such as improper dietary habits, insufficient physical activit...
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - September 15, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Julia B. Krajewska, Jakub Fichna, Paula Mosi ńska Source Type: research

Continuous Therapy in Standard- and High-Risk Newly-Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma: a Pooled Analysis of 2 Phase III Trials
Risk-adapted therapy is a common strategy in curable hematologic malignancies: standard-risk patients receive less intensive treatment, whereas high-risk patients require a more intensive approach. This model cannot be applied in multiple myeloma (MM), which is still incurable.Continuous treatment (CT) is a key strategy for MM treatment, since it improves duration of remission. However, the role of CT according to standard- or high-risk baseline prognosis remains an open question. (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - September 14, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mattia D ’Agostino, Lorenzo De Paoli, Concetta Conticello, Massimo Offidani, Roberto Ria, Maria Teresa Petrucci, Stefano Spada, Magda Marcatti, Lucio Catalano, Milena Gilestro, Tommasina Guglielmelli, Luca Baldini, Barbara Gamberi, Rita Rizzi, Giovanni Source Type: research

Prevalence of pathogenic variants and variants of unknown significance in patients at high risk of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of gene-panel data
Next-generation sequencing technologies allow for the sequencing of multiple genes simultaneously in a cost-effective way, increasing the likelihood of detecting variants (Walsh et al., 2010). This technological breakthrough allowed commercial gene-panel testing for breast cancer predisposition to enter clinical practice, with a promise towards personalized care (Desmond et al., 2015). Since the discovery two decades ago that mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 cause hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, a huge amount of research has been dedicated to these genes. (Source...
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - September 14, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: C. van Marcke, A. Collard, M. Vikkula, F.P. Duhoux Source Type: research

The role of Cancer/Testis Antigens in Multiple Myeloma pathogenesis and their application in disease monitoring and therapy
A unique group of genes, encoding tumour associated antigens, known as the Cancer/Testis Antigens (CTAs), have been explored as novel markers of disease progression and as targets of immunotherapy in several cancers, including the haematological malignancy Multiple Myeloma (MM). This review aims to update the knowledge of CTA involvement in MM pathogenesis and how their potential as biomarkers for disease monitoring and targets of immunotherapy has been explored in the MM disease arena. (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - September 14, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Karen Shires, Teagan Van Wyk Source Type: research

Radiotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer: current situation and upcoming strategies
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) (estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative, and HER2-negative) is viewed as an aggressive subgroup of breast cancer. Treating patients with TNBC remains clinically challenging. It ’s now well established than radiation therapy is able to improve locoregional control in breast cancer patients both after breast conserving surgery or mastectomy, with positive impact in high-risk patients for long-term survival. Biologic characterization of breast tumor different subtypes, in p articular the heterogeneous subtype of TNBC could permit to adapt the treatment plan. (Sour...
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - September 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ming Yuan He, Chlo é Rancoule, Amel Rehailia-Blanchard, Sophie Espenel, Jane-Chloé Trone, Emilie Bernichon, Elodie Guillaume, Alexis Vallard, Nicolas Magné Source Type: research

Polymorphisms in Non-coding RNAs and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth leading cause of mortality among cancer in Asia (Haerian et al., 2014). In the USA, it is the third leading cause of cancer death in men and women (Rong et al., 2017). In Iran, CRC is the third most common cancer in men and fourth most common cancer in women (Moghimi-Dehkordi and Safaee, 2012). (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - September 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Maryam Alidoust, Leila Hamzehzadeh, Mahdi Rivandi, Alireza Pasdar Source Type: research

Chondrosarcoma: An Overview of Clinical Behavior, Molecular Mechanisms Mediated Drug Resistance and Potential Therapeutic Targets
Sarcomas are known as a heterogeneous class of cancers arisen in the connective tissues and demonstrated various histological subtypes including both soft tissue and bone origin. Chondrosarcoma is one of the main types of bone sarcoma that shows a considerable deficiency in response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. While conventional treatment based on surgery, chemo-and radiotherapy are used in this tumor, high rate of death especially among children and adolescents are reported. Due to high resistance to current conventional therapies in chondrosarcoma, there is an urgent requirement to recognize factors causing resista...
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - September 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Elahe Nazeri, Mohammad Gouran Savadkoohi, Keivan Majidzadeh-A, Rezvan Esmaeili Source Type: research

Supporting Supportive Care in Cancer: The ethical importance of promoting a holistic conception of quality of life
Advances in anticancer therapies and increasing attention towards patient quality of life make Supportive Care in Cancer (SCC) a key aspect of excellence in oncological care. SCC promotes a holistic conception of quality of life encompassing clinical, ethical/existential, and spiritual dimensions. Despite the calls of international oncology societies empirical evidence shows that SCC has not yet been implemented. More efforts are needed given the clinical and ethical value of SCC not only for patients, but also for clinicians and hospitals. (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - September 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: D. Carrieri, F.A. Peccatori, G. Boniolo Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - September 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Critical appraisal of oncological safety of stent as bridge to surgery in left-sided obstructing colon cancer; a systematic review and meta-analysis
Traditionally, acute malignant colonic obstruction has been managed with emergency surgery (ES), either consisting of acute resection or decompressing stoma construction. Resection in the emergency setting might be associated with a substantial risk of mortality and morbidity rates, especially in patients with high operative risk (Tanis et al., 2015; Dohmoto, 1991; Vitale et al., 2006). This resulted in the search for alternative treatment approaches. In 1991, Dohmoto first proposed the placement of a self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) to relief colonic obstruction (Saida et al., 1996). (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - September 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Femke J. Amelung, Thijs A. Burghgraef, Pieter J. Tanis, Jeanin E. van Hooft, Frank ter Borg, Peter D. Siersema, Willem A. Bemelman, Esther C.J. Consten Source Type: research

The Era of PARP inhibitors in Ovarian Cancer: “Class Action” or not? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Among epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients, women with genetic predisposition show an early onset of disease. Rare high penetrant mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes greatly increase lifetime risk and account for the majority of hereditary cases, 10% –15% of all cases. These women have a 40-60% lifetime risk of EOC (44% in BRCA1 families and 27% in BRCA2 families, respectively) (Mavaddat et al., 2012; Xu et al., 2017). (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - September 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Nicoletta Staropoli, Domenico Ciliberto, Teresa Del Giudice, Eleonora Iuliano, Maria Cuc è, Francesco Grillone, Angela Salvino, Vito Aldo Barbieri, Antonio Russo, Pierfrancesco Tassone, Pierosandro Tagliaferri Source Type: research

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) on renal cell carcinoma, an overview of technical aspects, biological rationale and current literature
Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is characterized by the delivery of high doses of ionizing radiation in few fractions. It is highly effective in achieving local control, and, due to the high biological effective dose administered, it seems to overcome the radioresistance of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Thus, SBRT could constitute a treatment option for the management of localized RCC in patients who are not surgical candidates. In this paper, we report an overview about data from the current evidence about SBRT in patients affected by localized RCC. (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - August 28, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: G. Francolini, B. Detti, G. Ingrosso, I. Desideri, C. Becherini, G. Carta, D. Pezzulla, G. Caramia, L. Dominici, V. Maragna, M.A. Teriaca, M. Bottero, L. Livi Source Type: research

Revisiting the Dynamic Cancer Stem Cell Model: Importance of Tumour Edges
The lack of an effective treatment against cancer is not only due to its huge heterogeneity, but also to the fact that we don ’t have an answer to the question on how cancer originates. Among the proposed models to explain the development of cancer, the hierarchical model has been widely accepted. Nevertheless, this model fails to explain several experimental observations such as the cancer stem cells (CSCs) location ins ide a tumour or the differences between primary and metastatic tumours. Moreover, increasing evidence shows that the CSC phenotype is not a rigid state. (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - August 28, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Pablo Hern ández-Camarero, Gema Jiménez, Elena López-Ruiz, Shivan Barungi, Juan Antonio Marchal, Macarena Perán Source Type: research

c-MET as a Potential Target Therapy Toward Personalized Therapy in Some Pediatric Tumors: An Overview
Although pediatric tumors represent less than 1% of all new cancer diagnoses, they still rank the second in the list of disease-related morbidity and mortality in children in the US. Combining biomarker-driven targeted therapy with individualized genomic analysis is the principle of precision medicine trials. The cellular –mesenchymal-epithelial transition (c-MET) factor receptor signaling pathway plays an important role in many physiological functions including embryological development. It, tightly, regulates changes in cell growth and survival, it also defines the general pattern of invasive growth during normal d...
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - August 28, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wafaa M. Rashed Source Type: research

Can we avoid the toxicity of chemotherapy in elderly cancer patients?
Despite the fact that approximately 50% of patients with cancer are ≥70 years old (Siegel et al., 2016), cancer treatment in the elderly continues to represent a therapeutic challenge. Elderly patients form a very heterogeneous group in relation to their health condition, degree of dependence, comorbidities, performance status, physical reserve and geriatric situa tion, for which therapeutic decisions must be adopted in an individualized manner. (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - August 28, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jaime Feliu, Victoria Heredia-Soto, Regina Giron és, Beatriz Jiménez-Munarri, Juana Saldaña, Carmen Guillén-Ponce, MJ Molina-Garrido Source Type: research

Duration of first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer: translating the available evidence into general recommendations for routine practice
Over the last two decades the number of front-line regimens for metastatic colorectal cancer has progressively increased. Nevertheless, there is still no consensus on the optimal duration of treatment or the role of de-escalated/maintenance strategies after induction chemotherapy. In this article we provide an overview of the studies that addressed the duration of first-line systemic treatment with cytotoxic agents plus or minus targeted therapies highlighting caveats and limitations of the same. (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - August 27, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Federica Morano, Francesco Sclafani Source Type: research

Criteria for Eligibility to Cisplatin in the Curative Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer: Consensus Opinion from a Panel of Experts
Squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is an important problem in Brazil, where epidemiological and socioeconomic features often create barriers to the implementation of combined modalities with curative potential. Cisplatin improves the efficacy of radiotherapy in the adjuvant treatment of localized SCCHN and in the definitive therapy of locally advanced disease. However, the addition of high-dose cisplatin to radiotherapy increases treatment toxicity and is not always warranted. A panel of experts convened in Sao Paulo, Brazil, for discussions and recommendations regarding the use of high-dose cisplatin in ...
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - August 27, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Gilberto de Castro, Gustavo V. Alves, Ana F. Castro, Aline L.F. Chaves, Pedro De Marchi, Thiago B. de Oliveira, Fernando L. Dias, Rodrigo S.C. Guindalini, Ulisses R. Nicolau, Andrey Soares, Paulo A.R. Mora Source Type: research

The role of pdgf-b/pdgfr-beta axis in the normal development and carcinogenesis of the breast
PDGFs/PDGFRs axis is documented as an important tumor-promoting agent and potential therapeutic target for several human carcinomas, including breast cancer. However, little is known about the role played by the PDGF family members in the normal development of the breast tissue, breast carcinogenesis and tumor-microenvironment dynamics Despite its potent pro-lymphangiogenic effects, PDGF-B/PDGFR-beta axis remains controversial and incompletely elucidated in the field of breast cancer, with emphasis to its differential implications in breast cancer molecular subtypes. (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - August 27, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Adriana-Andreea Jitariu, Marius Raica, Anca Maria C împean, Silviu Cristian Suciu Source Type: research

The effects of Mitochondria-associated long noncoding RNAs in cancer mitochondria: new players in an old arena
LncRNAs, as new players in the old battle against cancer, are significant components of gene regulatory networks. Mitochondria-associated lncRNAs have newly been discovered to work in concert with transcription factors and epigenetic regulators to modulate mitochondrial gene expression and mitochondrial function. Many mitochondria-associated lncRNAs regulate mitochondrial biosynthesis, bioenergetics, apoptosis and possibly govern the cross-talk of mitochondria with nuclei. The complexity of mitochondria-associated lncRNAs is now just starting to envisage. (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - August 27, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Yijing Zhao, Lemeng Sun, Rachel R. Wang, Ji-Fan Hu, Jiuwei Cui Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - August 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A comprehensive review of the role of immune checkpoint inhibitors in brain metastasis of renal cell carcinoma origin
Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) occurs in 25-30% of patients at diagnosis and develops in 40% after surgical treatment in localized stages (Choueiri and Motzer, 2017). Brain metastases (BM) are not a rare finding in mRCC as the 5-year cumulative incidence of BM RCC reaches 9.8% (Schouten et al., 2002). Other retrospective series report similar incidence of BM from RCC reaching 7 to 13% % (Ernest Marshall et al., 1990; Seaman et al., 1995; Ljungberg and Rasmuson, 1999; Shuch et al., 2008; Sun et al., 2018). (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - August 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Joseph Kattan, Elie El Rassy, Tarek Assi, Ziad Bakouny, Nicholas Pavlidis Source Type: research

Prognostic value and clinical feature of SF3B1 mutations in myelodysplastic syndromes: A meta-analysis
SF3B1 gene mutations are the most frequent mutations found in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and the prognostic implication of these mutations remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies assessing the prognostic impact and clinical feature of SF3B1 mutations in MDS patients. The overall hazard ratio for overall survival (OS) was 0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.60-1.35, P  = 0.61) in MDS patients with SF3B1 mutations compared to those without. Lower leukemia-free survival was associated with SF3B1 mutations. (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - August 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Yaqiong Tang, Miao Miao, Shiyu Han, Jiaqian Qi, Hong Wang, Changgeng Ruan, Depei Wu, Yue Han Source Type: research

Trastuzumab uptake in HER2-positive breast cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
Overexpression of the HER2 gene is predictive of treatment benefit with trastuzumab therapy for breast cancer (BC) patients. The study objective was to investigate whether all eligible patients with HER2-positive BC initiated trastuzumab therapy. A systematic search was conducted through PubMed, Web of Science PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Cochrane Library. From 2651 studies identified, 107 observational studies were included for full text review, of which 26 met the inclusion criteria and an additional 7 studies were identified through citation searching. (Source: Critical...
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - August 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Antony P. Martin, Jennifer Downing, Madeleine Cochrane, Brendan Collins, Ben Francis, Alan Haycox, Ana Alfirevic, Munir Pirmohamed Source Type: research

Biomarkers of response to immune checkpoint blockade in cancer treatment
Academic history of immunity in tumors dates back to 1893 when William Coley, considered the Father of Immunotherapy, reported that sarcoma or cancer patients injected with or infected by bacteria named “Coley’s toxin” showed marked tumor regression 1,2,3. No significant progress was made thereafter as the concept of immunity against cancer cells was much debated and abandoned in preference to chemotherapy and radiation 3, until the theory of cancer immunosurveillance was proposed by Lewis Th omas and Frank Macfarlane Burnet in 1957 4,5. (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - August 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Takeo Fujii, Aung Naing, Christian Rolfo, Joud Hajjar Source Type: research

Evolution of Randomized Controlled Trials and Surrogacy of Progression-free Survival in Advanced/metastatic Urothelial Cancer
Clinical trials in advanced/metastatic urothelial cancer have been difficult to perform. We review the current characteristics of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and evaluate whether PFS could be a potential surrogate endpoint for overall survival (OS) in advanced/metastatic urothelial cancer. (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - August 2, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Fei Liang, Sheng Zhang, Qing Wang, Wenfeng Li Source Type: research

Clinical update on K-Ras targeted therapy in gastrointestinal cancers
Ras proteins are small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) with a key role in regulating cell proliferation and survival (Prior et al., 2012), while abnormal Ras function is associated with developmental disorders and cancer (Fernandez-Medarde and Santos, 2011). Mutations in RAS oncogenes are present in an estimated 20 –30% of epithelial cancers (Singh et al., 2015a), and are particularly common in lung, pancreatic and colorectal cancers (McCormick, 2016). There are three highly related isoforms of the RAS gene: HRAS, NRAS and KRAS, which has two splice variants, KRAS4A and the major isoform, KRAS4B (Wellcome Sa nger...
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - August 2, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Shubham Pant, Joleen Hubbard, Erika Martinelli, Tanios Bekaii-Saab Source Type: research

Emerging immunotherapeutic strategies targeting telomerases in genitourinary tumors
In the last decade, immunotherapy has completely changed the therapeutic armamentarium of patients with genitourinary tumors. In particular, the approval of anti-Programmed-death-1 (PD-1) agents in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and bladder cancer (BC) has increased their life expectancy, with a generally tolerated toxicity profile. On the contrary, patients with prostate cancer (PCa) seem to scarcely benefit from this strategy. (Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - August 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Francesco Carrozza, Matteo Santoni, Francesco Piva, Liang Cheng, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Marina Scarpelli, Rodolfo Montironi, Nicola Battelli, Stefano Tamberi Source Type: research