Acceleration of blood flow as an indicator of improved hemodynamics after indirect bypass surgery in Moyamoya disease
Moyamoya disease is characterized by a steno-occlusive lesion in the distal internal carotid artery, with development of a range of collateral networks. Long-term hemodynamic overstress in Moyamoya disease can induce pathological changes in the dilated collateral vessels, including the lenticulostriate arteries, choroidal arteries, and other basal vessels [1 –3]. The development of collateral vessels can increase the risk of rupture, which leads to hemorrhagic stroke. This hemodynamic stress is relieved by bypass flow surgery, which reduces the burden on the Moyamoya vessels to maintain cerebral blood flow. (Source: ...
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - June 26, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Sayaka Ogawa, Toshiyasu Ogata, Hirofumi Shimada, Hiroshi Abe, Toshiro Katsuta, Kenji Fukuda, Tooru Inoue Source Type: research

Pipeline Embolization of Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms Associated with a Fetal Origin Posterior Cerebral Artery
The Pipeline Embolization Device (PED; Medtronic Neurovascular, Irvine, CA) received FDA approval in 2011 for the treatment of aneurysms larger than 10mm in size with necks larger than 4mm located from the petrous to superior hypophyseal segments of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Although successful off-label use of the device to treat ICA aneurysms smaller than 10mm in size has been widely reported [1 –7], Pipeline embolization of posterior communicating artery (PComA) aneurysms associated with a hypoplastic ipsilateral P1 segment, or fetal origin posterior cerebral artery (PCA), raises two important concerns. (...
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - June 26, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Adam N. Wallace, Yasha Kayan, Matthew J. Austin, Josser E. Delgado Almandoz, Mudassar Kamran, DeWitte T. Cross, Christopher J. Moran, Joshua W. Osbun, Akash P. Kansagra Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Enterprise stent in recanalizing non-acute atherosclerotic intracranial internal carotid artery occlusion
Non-acute atherosclerotic intracranial internal carotid artery occlusion (IICAO) forms on the basis of vascular stenosis and is associated with serious clinical symptoms and poor prognosis. Despite conservative therapies including antiplatelet aggregation, patients still suffer from repeated ischemic events due to the lack of compensatory collateral circulation. Safe and efficient therapeutic approaches have been developed, such as percutaneous vascular recanalization with a stent. This stent recanalization has been applied to intracranial occlusions of the basilar artery and vertebrobasilar arteries, but with a lower succ...
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - June 26, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Xiaofei Wang, Zhigang Wang, Yong Ji, Xuan Ding, Yizheng Zang, Chengwei Wang Source Type: research

Monthly methylprednisolone in combination with interferon beta or glatiramer acetate for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, single-blind, prospective trial
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediate disease involving both genetic and environmental determinants. It is usually clinically characterized by repeated subacute relapses followed by remissions, known as relapsing –remitting MS (RRMS). No curative treatment for MS is available, and therapeutic strategies are aimed at treating relapses, preventing new relapses and avoiding progression of disability [1]. Treatment of relapses has been based on the use of corticosteroids since the early 1950s. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - June 26, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Serkan Ozakbas, Bilge Piri Cinar, Gorkem Kosehasano ğullari, Turhan Kahraman, Didem Oz, Behice Bircan Kursun Source Type: research

123I-Meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardium scintigraphy in patients showing scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficits (SWEDDs)
Dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography (DAT-SPECT) with 123I-labeled 2 β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl) nortropane (123I-FP-CIT) is used to evaluate patients who are clinically presumed to have Parkinson’s disease (PD), because it can identify nigrostriatal degeneration with high sensitivity and specificity [1]. It is improbable that DAT-SPECT wo uld show normal findings in early PD, because 50% or more of striatal neurons have been lost by the time clinical symptoms of PD become manifest [2]. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - June 26, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Fumihito Yoshii, Yusuke Moriya, Tomohide Ohnuki, Masafuchi Ryo, Wakoh Takahashi, Saori Kohara, Jun Hashimoto Source Type: research

Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms Causing Facial Pain: A Comprehensive Review
Posterior communicating artery aneurysms (PComAAs) are the second most common cerebral aneurysms overall (25% of all intracranial aneurysms) [1]. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - June 22, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Javier Ros de San Pedro Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Association of primary central nervous system vasculitis with the presence of specific human leucocyte antigen gene variant
Primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV), also known as isolated angiitis of the CNS, is a very rare disease. Its diagnosis represents a challenge for clinicians [1]. The infrequency of the disease and the difficulties in diagnosing this condition correctly are the main reasons for the lack of a reliable registry and epidemiologic data [2]. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - June 22, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Markus Kraemer, Jana Becker, Peter A. Horn, Jan Claudius Schwitalla, Kathy Keyvani, Imke Metz, Christiane Wegner, Wolfgang Br ück, Marc Schlamann, Falko M. Heinemann, Peter Berlit Source Type: research

Fosphenytoin-Induced Purple Glove Syndrome: A Case Report
Purple glove syndrome (PGS) is an atypical adverse drug reaction that can occur after the administration of intravenous phenytoin. Although definitions of PGS vary, it has been loosely defined as signs and symptoms of progressive edema, discoloration, and pain that occurs following administration of intravenous phenytoin [1]. The characteristics of this syndrome occur in three different stages: appearance, progression, and resolution of symptoms. These characteristics usually occur in the upper extremity, distal to the intravenous access site. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - June 19, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Joseph W. Newman, Joseph R. Blunck, Ronald K. Fields, John E. Croom Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Effects of dexmedetomidine on CD42a+/CD14+, HLADR+/CD14+ and inflammatory cytokine levels in patients undergoing multilevel spinal fusion
Multi segmental spinal fusion is characterized by severe trauma and stress that frequently affect middle aged and elderly people. Surgery as well as anesthesia has been shown to modulate the stress response which involves both the endocrine as well as immune system [1]. Meanwhile, excessive inflammatory reactions lead to an imbalance of body function, causing serious adverse reactions. Therefore, excessive inflammatory response in the perioperative period is an important factor influencing the prognosis of patients. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - June 15, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Hongmei Zhou, Jian Lu, Yingyan Shen, Shuai Kang, Youming Zong Source Type: research

Premotor symptoms and the risk of Parkinson ’s disease: a case-control study in Mexican population.
Our understanding of Parkinson ’s disease (PD) has evolved from a neurological disease into a multi-system disorder, characterized by motor and non-motor features (NMS). Some of these non-motor symptoms include hyposmia/anosmia, neuropsychiatric disorders, gastrointestinal problems, sleep disorders and autonomic dysfunction [1] . Most of these NMS tend to appear before the motor symptoms (MS) of PD. The latter may be partially explained by the deposition of alpha-synuclein aggregates in non-nigral brainstem nuclei (serotoninergic, noradrenergic and cholinergic transmission pathways) and ventro-caudal progression sugg...
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - June 14, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Mayela Rodr íguez-Violante, Adib Jorge de Saráchaga, Amin Cervantes-Arriaga, Ned Merari Davila-Avila, Edith Carreón-Bautista, Ingrid Estrada-Bellmann, Guillermo Parra-López, Diego Cruz-Fino, Francisco Pascasio-Astudillo Source Type: research

Deep brain stimulation of subthalamic nucleus helps in improving late phase motor planning in Parkinson ’s disease
Bereitschaftspotentials (BP) are negative cortical evoked potentials that begin 1000 –1500 milliseconds (ms) prior to the onset of a self-paced movement [1]; they represent the cortical activity before the actual onset of the movement. Recording scalp BP has helped to study motor planning in health as well as in disease [2,3]. Two major components of BP can be distinguished associ ated with voluntary movement viz early and late BP. The early component is bilaterally symmetrical across the scalp with maximal amplitude recorded at the vertex and with a principal source in the bilateral supplementary motor area [4,5]. (...
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - June 14, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Patil Ashlesh, Sood Sanjay Kumar, Kochhar Kanwal Preet, Goyal Vinay Source Type: research

Serum lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 predicts the formation of carotid artery plaque and its vulnerability in anterior circulation cerebral infarction
Stroke is the leading cause of adult death and disability in China. Vulnerability of the atherosclerotic plaque is one of the pathological processes of ischemic stroke [1,2]. Recent researches demonstrate that inflammation plays an important role in atherosclerosis [3 –5] and inflammatory markers reveal the subclinical changes of stroke [6,7]. Evidence has been provided that high-sensitive C-creative protein (hsCRP) and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) show prognostic value in stroke and coronary heart disease [8–12]. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - June 14, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Yuping Yang, Tao Xue, Juehua Zhu, Jiayi Xu, Xiaowei Hu, Penghao Wang, Tao Kong, Yan Yan, Lihui Yang, Shouru Xue Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Optic nerve sheath fenestration for idiopathic intracranial hypertension: A seven year review of visual outcomes in a tertiary centre” [Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 137 (October) (2015) 94–101]
The authors regret that unfortunately due to an error in extracting data from our theatre operating database, 1 male patient was unfortunately missed in our collated database. In addition, this patient was further missed on our manual review of the collated study data because some authors believed it to be a strictly 7 year study starting in 2004 to 2010 with a minimum follow up of 6 months within this period. The actual study accrued data for approximately 7.5 years from the end of May 2004 to the first week in December 2011. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - June 13, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: E.E. Obi, B.K. Lakhani, J. Burns, R. Sampath Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

STMN1 as a candidate gene associated with atypical meningioma progression
Meningiomas, tumors that originate from meningothelial cells, account for approximately 30% of all new diagnoses of central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms [1]. According to the 2007 WHO classification of CNS tumors [2], meningiomas are classified into three grades, I, II, and III. Atypical meningiomas are “intermediate grade” malignancies (WHO grade II) that account for 4.7%–7.2% of meningiomas and are associated with a 29%–52% post-resection recurrence rate [2,3]. Meningioma progression involves partial or complete loss of multiple chromosomes. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - June 10, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Haiyu Liu, Ye Li, Yunbo Li, Lixiang Zhou, Li Bie Source Type: research

Thirty-day non-seizure outcomes following temporal lobectomy for adult epilepsy
Refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common cause of pharmacoresistant seizures [1,2]. Temporal lobectomy (TL) is performed after exhausting most other efforts to control refractory TLE. Given that seizure control is the ultimate goal of TL, numerous studies have investigated seizure outcomes after TL in adults [3 –11] and children [12–15]. However, few studies have investigated other (non-seizure) postoperative outcomes after TL, especially using multicenter data. Due to the recognized underutilization of TL for refractory TLE, understanding the full extent of TL complications is paramount in ma...
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - June 8, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Brandon A. Sherrod, Matthew C. Davis, Kristen O. Riley Source Type: research

Severe but reversible neuropathy and encephalopathy due to vitamin E deficiency
Vitamin E deficiency is known to result mainly in a spinocerebellar syndrome and involvement of the peripheral nervous system occurs less commonly. Most cases of vitamin E-deficient ataxic neuropathy reported relate to a genetically-mediated cause through mutation of the alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (TTPA) gene on chromosome 8q13 [1]. Severe subacute adult-onset rapidly disabling neuropathy due to vitamin E deficiency is not to our knowledge reported. Cognitive dysfunction is uncommon in this setting. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - June 8, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Barbara Wysota, Sophia Michael, Fu Liong Hiew, Charlotte Dawson, Yusuf A. Rajabally Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Evaluation of ALCAM, PECAM-1 and Selectin levels in intracranial meningiomas
Meningiomas are the most common extra-axial brain tumors and constitute almost 30% of all intracranial tumors [1] and arise from the arachnoid cap cells which form the outer layer of the arachnoid mater. Meningiomas show both mesenchymal and epithelial features, which form the basis of their histopathological classification [2]. Generally, these tumors are considered to be benign and slow growing. 20% of meningiomas are currently named as high-grade meningiomas comprising atypical meningiomas (grade-II; 17-18%) and anaplastic meningiomas (grade-III; 1-2%) [3]. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - June 6, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Pinar Atukeren, Okan Turk, Karolin Yanar, Rahsan Kemerdere, Sima Sayyahmelli, Bulent Eren, Taner Tanriverdi Source Type: research

Risk factors for postoperative pneumonia after microsurgery for vestibular schwannoma
Vestibular schwannoma (VS) is a rare benign tumour which arises in most cases from the schwann cells of the vestibular part of the eighth cranial nerve [1]. The incidence of VS is estimated to 1.9 per 100,000 per year [2]. Microsurgery is one of the primary current standard options for the treatment of VS [3]. Despite improvements in surgical techniques, intraoperative monitoring and anesthesia, complications continue to occur with considerable incidence [4].It is reported that the overall complication rate for VS surgery is 28.2% [5]. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - June 6, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Chenghong Wang, Tengfei Li, Shaozhou Tang, Yuekang Zhang Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

A combined cognitive and gait quantification to identify normal pressure hydrocephalus from its mimics: the Geneva ’s protocol
Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) was first described by Salomon Hakim in Bogota in 1957 [1,2] and represents a prevalent neurological conditions in older adults reaching 6% after 80 years [3]. A classic triad of clinical symptoms associating gait, cognitive and urinary disturbances with disproportional ventricular enlargement on brain imaging constitute this reversible condition [4]. Unfortunately, these clinical signs are unspecific and found in various other frequent neurological conditions, such as vascular dementia or Alzheimer ’s disease with comorbid urinary problems (i.e. (Source: Clinical Neuro...
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - June 5, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Gilles Allali, Magali Laidet, St éphane Armand, Shahan Momjian, Bruno Marques, Arnaud Saj, Frédéric Assal Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

A 30-year history of MPAN case from Russia
We present a patient with a complex progressive movement disorder undiagnosed for 30 years until detailed genetic analysis revealed MPAN mutation. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - June 2, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: M. Selikhova, E. Fedotova, S. Wiethoff, L.V. Schottlaender, S. Klyushnikov, S.N. Illarioshkin, H. Houlden Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Intrathecal IgM index correlates with a severe disease course in multiple sclerosis: Clinical and MRI results
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that progresses with axonal losses and demyelination of the central nervous system. The most important tool in the diagnosis of MS is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), although cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) also provides valuable information. Although CSF findings can provide information about the course of MS as well as assisting with diagnosis, their specificity is limited, despite being an individual marker in several neurological diseases [1]. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - June 1, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Serkan Ozakbas, Bilge Piri Cinar, Pinar Özcelik, Hatice Baser, Gorkem Kosehasanoğullari Source Type: research

The impact of white matter lesions on the cognitive outcome of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson ’s disease
Cognitive decline is a common symptom of Parkinson ’s disease (PD). Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) affects about a third of PD patients within the first five years after diagnosis [1]. In the Movement Society Task Force Criteria, PD-MCI is defined as a cognitive decline in the context of PD which is not sufficient to interfere with functional ind ependence [2]. Pure frontal deficits in executive functions may not be generally associated with a higher risk for dementia [3]. Instead, reduced semantic fluency and narrowed visual-constructive functioning indicate the progression from MCI to dementia in PD (PD-D) [4]. (S...
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 31, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: J. Blume, M. Lange, E. Rothenfusser, C. Doenitz, U. Bogdahn, A. Brawanski, J. Schlaier Source Type: research

Tramadol May Increases the Efficacy of Therapeutic Plasma Exchange in Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis was first described in 2005 in females with ovarian teratomas [1]. The disorder is characterized by altered mental status, psychiatric disorders, and seizures with progression to dyskinesias [1]. In many instances the disorder includes a prodrome which includes headaches, hyperthermia, and in some instances nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea [1]. The most common presenting symptom is usually altered short term memory and many patients present first to psychiatrists due to acute psychosis and agitation [1]. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 31, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Bradley A. Dengler, Deanna Kitchen, Ali Seifi Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

A simplified pressure adjustment clinical pathway for programmable valves in NPH patients
Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) occurs insidiously in the later decades of life and presents as a progressive clinical triad of gait disturbance, urinary incontinence, and dementia [1]. Hakim and Adams first proposed CSF diversion as a surgical treatment method for NPH in 1965 [2]. Since then, shunt placement is considered the recommended modality for NPH treatment. As the clinical presentation is variable, the diagnosis of NPH is often not binary and requires thoughtful synthesis of the patient ’s history, physical examination, and radiographic imaging [3]. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 30, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tracy S. Ma, Nikhil Sharma, M. Sean Grady Source Type: research

Disability from Pain Directly Correlated with Depression in Parkinson ’s Disease
Patients with Parkinson ’s disease (PD) experience motor, non-motor and neuropsychiatric manifestations that negatively impact their overall quality of life (QoL). PD is a chronic, progressively debilitating neurodegenerative disorder that affects between 0.1%–0.3% individuals and prevalence increasing with age [1]. Th e diagnostic features of PD are tremor, bradykinesia, and rigidity [2]. Non-motor symptoms (NMS) include pain and sensory disturbances, mood disorders including depression and sleep disturbances including Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS) [3–6]. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 30, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Abdul Qayyum Rana, Nabiha Rehman, Abdul-Rahman M. Qureshi, Aisha Mohammed Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Trends in the incidence of Primary malignant brain tumors in Taiwan and correlation with comorbidities: a population-based study
Brain tumors are a mixed group of primary and metastatic neoplasms that exhibit varying degrees of malignancy. Malignant lesions are relatively uncommon, but their incidence has increased rapidly in highly developed, industrialized countries [1]. Primary malignant brain tumors have drawn wide attention not only because of their poor prognosis, but also for their direct impact on neurologic function, psychological health, and quality of life [2]. Over the past decades, advances in diagnostic methods have revealed a trend toward an increased incidence of brain tumors [3,4]. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 25, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Ya-Jui Lin, Hsiao-Yean Chiu, Meng-Jiun Chiou, Yin-Cheng Huang, Kuo-Chen Wei, Chang-Fu Kuo, Jun-Te Hsu, Pin-Yuan Chen Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Etiologic classification of ischemic stroke: where do we stand?
Stroke is nowadays one of the major global health problems, comprising 75.2% of deaths and 81.0% of stroke-related disability adjusted life years lost in developing countries [1]. Up to 87% of the global burden of stroke is attributed to ischemic stroke, which is a heterogeneous disorder with more than 100 pathologies implicated in its pathogenesis [2]. Therefore, a reliable and precise etiologic classification of this disease is highly important for both daily clinical practice and research purposes [3 –5]. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 23, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: R ăzvan Alexandru Radu, Elena Oana Terecoasă, Ovidiu Alexandru Băjenaru, Cristina Tiu Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 22, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Post-operative unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia following basilar pneumocephalus after resection of C1 intradural extramedullary tumor
Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO), a gaze abnormality causing weak adduction of the affected eye and abduction nystagmus of the contralateral eye, results from damage of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) in the dorsomedial brainstem tegmentum of either the pons or the midbrain. When pneumocephalus, which is air or gas within the cranial cavity, becomes symptomatic then it is called tension pneumocephalus. Tension pneumocephalus affecting the brainstem has been known to various ocular symptoms such as 3rd nerve palsy [1] and pupillary changes [2]. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 16, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Deb Kumar Mojumder, Jason Choi, Ben Zion Roitberg Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Effective and Safe Mannitol Administration in Patients Undergoing Supratentorial Tumor Surgery: A Prospective, Randomized and Double Blind Study
The management of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) and brain relaxation are the main factors determining the clinical and surgical outcomes in neurosurgery [1]. Although the safe and effective dose of mannitol, the duration of administration and its use in combination with loop diuretics, such as furosemide, are still matters of debate, mannitol remains a common treatment approach for brain relaxation [2]. Distal loop diuretics promote further fluid excretion and sustain the osmotic effect initiated by mannitol. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 15, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Eren Akcil, Ozlem Korkmaz Dilmen, Esra Sultan Karabulut, Serdar Selcuk Koksal, Fatis Altindas, Yusuf Tunali Source Type: research

Atypical presentation and outcome of cervicogenic headache in patients with cervical degenerative disease: A single-center experience
Headache is a major health concern and the most prevalent (66%) pain disorder in the worldwide population [1]. It interferes with quality of life, reduces work productivity and increases health care costs [2]. The International Headache Society has classified and sub-classified headaches based on their characteristics and sources. Thirty-eight percent of all headaches are tension headaches, the most common type. Ten percent of headaches are migraines; three percent are chronic daily headaches; and 2.5 –4.1% are CGH [3]. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 13, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Shyamal C. Bir, Anil Nanda, Devi Prasad Patra, Tanmoy Kumar Maiti, Cesar Liendo, Minagar Alireza, Oleg Y. Chernyshev Source Type: research

The association of arachnoid cysts and focal epilepsy: Hospital based case control study
Intracranial cysts are heterogeneous lesions and common findings in brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), with a broad hystopathological spectrum [1]. Two studies discovered that individuals in the general population present with a variety of abnormalities on neuroimaging: Katzman et al. (1999) reported that 18% of healthy asymptomatic subjects demonstrated incidental abnormal findings, including very rare cysts ie. nasopharygeal cysts (0.1%), choroid and pineal cysts (0.2%), and arachnoid cysts (0.3%) [2], and Vernooij et al. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 12, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Ivan Nikoli ć, Aleksandar Ristić, Nikola Vojvodić, Vladimir Baščarević, Andrej Ilanković, Ivana Berisavac, Tijana Đukić, Dragoslav Sokić Source Type: research

The interventional effect of new drugs combined with the Stupp protocol on glioblastoma: A network meta-analysis
Glioblastoma (GBM), an invasive solid tumor, is the most common primary tumor of the brain [1,2]. The standard treatment is radiotherapy (RT) plus concomitant and adjuvant therapy, with six cycles of temozolomide (TMZ) following surgical removal of the maximum safe scope, which is currently the internationally accepted treatment protocol (also was the Stupp protocol). However, despite the availability of advanced treatment, patients with GBM have a poor prognosis, with average survival of only 14.6 –16 months and a 5-year survival rate of less than 10%, thus representing a significant treatment challenge [3–5]....
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 11, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Mei Li, Xiangqi Song, Jun Zhu, Aijun Fu, Jianmin Li, Tong Chen Source Type: research

One-stage posterior grade 4 osteotomy and bone graft fusion at pseudarthrosis for the treatment of kyphotic deformity with Andersson lesions in ankylosing spondylitis
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by ossification of the ligaments of the spinal column, annulus fibrosis, endplates, and apophyseal joints, resulting in the formation of a “bamboo spine” [1–3]. Ankylosis of the spine also causes vertebral osteoporosis and biomechanical alterations [4,5]. Spinal pseudarthrosis is a well-known complication in AS patients [3,6]. This pseudarthrosis often progresses to destructive lesions of the intervertebral disc and vertebral bod y at the site of pseudarthrosis [6,7], known as Andersson lesions (ALs) [3]; ALs lead to persistent b...
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 11, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tingxian Ling, Bangjian Zhou, Ce Zhu, Xi Yang, Yueming Song, Zhe Qiang, Limin Liu Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 10, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Predictors of poor visual outcome in patients with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH): an ambispective cohort study
Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH) is characterized by features of raised intracranial pressure (ICP), causing headache, papilledema and potential visual loss in the absence of a space-occupying lesion or other identifiable cause. Initially described as serous meningitis by Quincke in 1893 [1], IIH still remains a disorder of uncertain pathogenesis. The clinical course is very variable with headache causing long term disability and visual loss being a potential threat. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are important because permanent visual field loss is common and blindness occurs in 10% of affected individuals [2,3]...
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 10, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Amit Agarwal, Deepti Vibha, Kameshwar Prasad, Rohit Bhatia, Mamta Bhushan Singh, Ajay Garg, Rohit Saxena Source Type: research

Analysis of extracellular brain chemistry during percutaneous dilational tracheostomy: a retrospective study of 19 patients
The use of tracheostomy in critical care patients, requiring long term mechanical ventilation is well established [9,21]. In the treatment of patients with severe acute brain injury (ABI) long-term ventilation is used widely, due to a poor conscious state or for specific neuroprotective effects [16,23]. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 10, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Jan K üchler, Jann Wojak, Abdulkareem Abusamha, Claudia Ditz, Volker Martin Tronnier, Jan Gliemroth Source Type: research

CT and MRI-based Door-Needle-Times for acute stroke patients A quasi-randomized clinical trial
The aim of this study was to compare DNT for CT versus MRI-based acute stroke-evaluation. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 10, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Christine Krarup Hansen, Anders Christensen, Helen Rodgers, Inger Havsteen, Christina Kruuse, Janus Nybing, Mari-Anne Kaasb øl, Hanne Christensen Source Type: research

Comparison of the efficacy of fixed-dose enoxaparin and adjusted-dose unfractionated heparin in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis
Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a potentially fatal disease [1]. The incidence of CVT in Europe and America was estimated to be 3 to 4 patients per million population while the incidence in the Asian population was not well documented [2]. Although there are various precipitating factors that contribute to CVT, different genetic backgrounds lead to a lower incidence of thrombophilia-related CVT in the Asian population than in the Western population [3]. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 10, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Pat Korathanakhun, Chusana Petpichetchian, Wongchan Petpichetchian, Pornchai Sathirapanya Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Relevance of non-specific MRI features in multiple system atrophy
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by autonomic failure, Parkinsonism (poorly responsive to levodopa), cerebellar ataxia and corticospinal dysfunction [1 –5]. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 9, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Sunil Pradhan, Ruchika Tandon Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics and PRRT2 gene mutation analysis of sporadic patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia in China
Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is a rare kind of paroxysmal movement disorders, which is characterized by recurrent brief episodes of dystonia,athetosis,chorea or a combination. And PKD is triggered by initiation of voluntary movements. It mainly affects children. Each occurrence last a few seconds, with recurring at variable frequency, and without any disturbance of consciousness. Severity of attacks diminished with age. PKD response well to anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) [1,2]. Most of the reported cases of PKD are familial and inherited in an autosomal dominant trait. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 8, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Yu Zhang, Lin Li, Wei Chen, Jing Gan, Zhen guo Liu Source Type: research

Comparison of electromagnetic neuronavigation system and free-hand method for ventricular catheter placement in internal shunt
Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is a frequent surgery mainly characterized by a high risk of re-intervention reaching more than 50% [1] in some series. The most frequent cause for re-intervention is obstruction of the proximal catheter, followed by infection and disconnection [2]. It is commonly admitted that the position of the proximal catheter determines the rate of success of the procedure [1]. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 8, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Vianney Gilard, Nicolas Magne, Emmanuel Gerardin, Sophie Curey, Val érie Pelletier, Pierre Hannequin, Stéphane Derrey Source Type: research

Eagle Syndrome: A Comprehensive Review
Eagle Syndrome is a rare and poorly understood clinical condition that presents with a myriad of symptoms that typically include pain in the anterolateral neck. These symptoms are associated with an abnormal styloid process. Fig. 1 shows a schematic of normal anatomy along with an elongated styloid process. Eagle initially described a pain syndrome associated with an elongated styloid process in 1937 as “stylalgia” [1]. Eagle subsequently expanded on his initial descriptions [2–6]. Historically stylohyoid pain syndromes have been delineated based upon their etiology, i.e. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 6, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Arvind Badhey, Ameya Jategaonkar, Alexander Joseph Anglin Kovacs, Sameep Kadakia, Peter Paul De Deyn, Yadranko Ducic, Stimson Schantz, Edward Shin Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Chorea gravidarum associated with Moyamoya angiopathy treated with alpha-methyldopa
We recently published a first systematic study concerning movement symptoms in Moyamoya disease in this journal [1]. Moyamoya disease is a cerebrovascular disorder characterized by bilateral progressive narrowing and occlusion of the distal internal carotid artery and adjacent basal cranial vessels with development of characteristic collateral circulation. We recently published that movement symptoms are more often than traditionally thought to be [1]. Several underlying mechanisms have been discussed, comprising cerebral ischemia and diffuse hypoperfusion as well as hormonal factors [1]. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 6, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Jens Platzen, Peter Berlit, Markus Kraemer Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Resource Utilization for Non-operative Cervical Radiculopathy: Management by Surgeons versus Non-surgeons
Cervical radiculopathy is a relatively prevalent condition with an estimated incidence of 1.79 occurrences per 1000 person-years [1]. It is most commonly attributed to disc or spondylotic pathologies [2], although other etiologies include degenerative changes and inflammatory responses [3,4]. The vast majority of patients with such conditions improve with non-operative modalities such as medications, physical therapy, corticosteroid injections, or chiropractic and acupuncture techniques [1,5]. In specific situations, such as failure to improve with non-operative treatment, surgery may be an appropriate option [6,7]. (Sourc...
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 6, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Sophie H. Chung, Daniel D. Bohl, Jonathan T. Paul, Jeffrey A. Rihn, James S. Harrop, Zoher Ghogawala, Alan S. Hilibrand, Jonathan N. Grauer Source Type: research

Different patterns of gelatinolytic activity in pituitary macro- and microadenomas
Gelatinases, Matrix MetalloProteinase(MMP)-2 and MMP-9, belong to zinc-dependent endopeptidases involved in several physiological and pathological processes including inflammation and tumor development [1]. Both enzymes are capable of damaging extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins leading to the facilitation of carcinogenesis [2,3]. Although gelatinases are studied in numerous aggressive tumors the literature about their role in the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas (PA) is scant. Overexpression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in tumor tissue was noticed in an invasive PA [4,5]. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 4, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Daniel Babula, Joanna Kocot, Anna Horecka, Marcin Baran, Jacek Kurzepa Source Type: research

Guillain-Barr é Syndrome, variants & forms fruste: Reclassification with new criteria
Clinical phenotypes and electrophysiology characteristics play important roles in Guillain-Barr é syndrome (GBS) diagnosis, subtypes classification and prognosis. Although GBS commonly presents as acute flaccid paralytic polyradiculoneuropathy with or without cranial nerves involvement, several clinically distinctive forms fruste have been described, in addition to Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS ), which is defined by the unique clinical triad, or in isolation, of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia [1,2]. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 4, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Fu Liong Hiew, Rahmansah Ramlan, Shanthi Viswanathan, Santhi Puvanarajah Source Type: research

Genetic and epigenetic alterations in meningiomas
Meningiomas represent the most common primary tumors of the central nervous system, making up nearly one third of all primary intracranial tumors [1] and having an incidence of 4.4 cases per 100,000 person-years [2]. Intracranial meningiomas are more common in women than men and frequently occur in patients aged 50 –60 years [3]. There is evidence that the incidence of meningiomas in patients older than 70 is 3.5 times higher than in those under 70 in both sexes [4]. Autopsy and imagingstudies indicate that the incidence of meningiomas is roughly 3% in the population [5]. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 3, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Vasiliki Galani, Evangeli Lampri, Anna Varouktsi, George Alexiou, Antigoni Mitselou, Athanasios P. Kyritsis Tags: Topic review Source Type: research

Oxidant and anti-oxidant status in common brain tumors: Correlation to TP53 and human biliverdin reductase
In neurological oncology surgery practice, meningiomas as extra-axial and gliomas as intra-axial tumors are the most common brain tumors and despite modern treatment modalities, we are still far from the total cure, especially in high-grade gliomas (HGG) and again in high-grade meningiomas. Even in low-grade gliomas (LGG), recurrence or up-grading is encountered within 5 –7 years following the first surgery, although total removal has been achieved. Low-grade meningiomas such as grade-I, has also recurrence rate which is very low but possible. (Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 3, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Pinar Atukeren, Sena Oner, Oguz Baran, Rahsan Kemerdere, Bulent Eren, Ufuk Cakatay, Taner Tanriverdi Source Type: research

Revisiting racial disparities in access to surgical management of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy post implementation of Affordable Care Act
Racial and socioeconomic disparities have existed in the United States (US) healthcare system for decades [1]. Disparities in access to healthcare facilities for maintenance of chronic medical conditions, non-surgical interventions and surgical treatments have been exemplified in many previous studies. [2 –5] These disparities are more profound for elective surgical procedures, both in receipt of surgery and post-surgical outcomes. In neurosurgery, disparities in access to neuro-oncologic care at high-volume hospitals and outcomes have been noted particularly in African Americans (AAs) and Hispanic s as compared to C...
Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery - May 2, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Kanika Sharma, Piyush Kalakoti, Miriam Henry, Vikas Mishra, Rosario Maria Riel-Romero, Christina Notarianni, Anil Nanda, Hai Sun Source Type: research