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Effects of primary care physician density, urologist presence, and insurance status on stage of diagnosis for urologic malignancies
Conclusions Increased PCP density and insurance coverage reduced the odds of an advanced diagnosis. Implementation of policies to improve access to healthcare including through increasing PCP density and reducing the number of uninsured patients should result in diagnosis at an earlier stage, which will likely improved cancer-related outcomes. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - November 14, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Childhood brain tumours, early infections and immune stimulation: A pooled analysis of the ESCALE and ESTELLE case-control studies (SFCE, France)
Conclusions Our findings suggest a protective effect of early farm visits and contact with pets, but not with other markers of early immune stimulation. This might be related to immune stimulation but needs further investigation. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - November 10, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cervical cancer screening in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) in four US-Affiliated Pacific Islands between 2007 and 2015
Conclusion This is the first report of cervical cancer screening and outcomes of women served in the USAPI through the NBCCEDP with similar results for abnormal Pap tests, but higher proportion of precancers and cancers, when compared to national NBCCEDP data. The USAPI face significant challenges in implementing cervical cancer screening, particularly in providing and recording data on diagnostic tests and follow-up. The screening programs in the USAPI should further examine specific barriers to follow-up of women with abnormal Pap results and possible solutions to address them. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - November 8, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Radiotherapy in small countries
Conclusion There are no radiotherapy services in any LMIC islands. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - November 8, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cost-benefit analysis of establishing and operating radiation oncology services in Fiji
Conclusions Based on the CBA results from using GNI per capita instead of the NMW, this project would be cost-beneficial. Introducing a radiation oncology center in Fiji would have potential impacts on financial sustainability, financial protection, and accessibility and equity of the health system. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - November 8, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Epidemiology of areca (betel) nut use in the mariana islands: Findings from the University of Guam/University of Hawai`i cancer center partnership program
Conclusion The 5-year areca (betel) nut chewing prevalence in Guam is comparable to the world estimate (10–20%), though rising among Non-Chamorros. Adult and youth chewers may be at an increased risk for oral cancer. Adult chewers have an increased risk of other chronic health conditions. Cancer prevention and intervention strategies should incorporate all aspects of health. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - November 8, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Areca (betel) nut chewing practices of adults and health behaviors of their children in the Freely Associated States, Micronesia: Findings from the Children ’s Healthy Living (CHL) Program
Conclusion The FAS areca (betel) nut chewing prevalence (42%) is above the world prevalence of 10–20%, with wide variability across the islands. The oral health findings in this study may inform future oral cancer prevention programs or policies. Regular monitoring of areca (betel) nut use is needed to measure the impact of such programs or policies. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - November 8, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Risk factors for breast cancer in the breast cancer risk model study of Guam and Saipan
Conclusions The results provide a basis for cancer prevention guidance for women in the Mariana Islands. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - November 8, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The efficacy of respondent-driven sampling for the health assessment of minority populations
Conclusions For a more diverse sample, data collection should not be conducted in just one location. Fewer questions about network estimates should be asked, and more careful consideration should be given to the kind of incentives offered to participants. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - November 8, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Detection and estimation of the increasing trend of cancer incidence in relatively small populations
Conclusions The Cuscore test coupled with visual inspection of the temporal pattern of the events seems to be more efficient than regression analysis in detecting and interpreting data suspected to be at elevated risk. A confirmatory analysis is expected to weed out 75% of the superfluous significant results. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - November 8, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cancer in Guam and Hawaii: A comparison of two U.S. Island populations
Conclusion Smoking, infectious agents, and betel nut chewing appear to be important contributors to the burden of cancer in Guam. Earlier onset of cancer in Guam suggests earlier age of exposure to key risk factors and/or a more aggressive pathogenesis. Contrasting cancer patterns within Guam and between Guam and Hawaii underscore the potential influence of genes, lifestyle, and environmental factors on cancer development and progression. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - November 8, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cancer control in the Pacific: A South Pacific collaborative approach
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Cancer Epidemiology, Volume 50, Part B Author(s): Sunia Foliaki, Chris Bates, Isimeli Tukana, Neal A. Palafox (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - November 8, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cancer epidemiology in the small nations of Pacific Islands
Conclusion Cancer incidence in the PICTs was recorded to be relatively low, with New Caledonia and French Polynesia being exceptions. Low recorded incidence is likely to be explained by incomplete cancer registration as cancer had an important contribution to mortality. Further endeavors are needed to develop and strengthen cancer registration infrastructure and practices and to improve data quality and registration coverage in the PICTs. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - November 8, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cancer in the Solomon Islands
Conclusion The Solomon Islands is challenged in preventing, diagnosing, treating and palliating cancer. Stakeholders recommend establishing specialty expertise (in the form of a cancer unit), improved registry processes and increased collaboration between the sole tertiary hospital nationwide and other Solomon health services as important targets for incremental improvement. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - November 8, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cancer in small states – No small matter
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Cancer Epidemiology, Volume 50, Part B Author(s): Charlotte J. Logeman, John Flanigan, Sunia Foliaki, Freddie Bray, Michael Barton, Freddy Sitas (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - November 8, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Seasonal trends of diagnosis of childhood malignant diseases and viral prevalence in South Korea
Conclusion This study tentatively suggests that the diagnosis of childhood malignancy follows a seasonal trend in Korea, and has a possible correlation with viral prevalence in several diseases. Further long-term analysis of epidemiological data is needed to explore possible causality. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - November 8, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Older cancer patients in cancer clinical trials are underrepresented. Systematic literature review of almost 5000 meta- and pooled analyses of phase III randomized trials of survival from breast, prostate and lung cancer
Conclusions We recommend the age distribution of patients be clearly reported in all clinical trials, as per guidelines. Clinical trials ought to be more representative of the populations most affected by the disease for which treatments are being tested. This should lead to better knowledge of effectiveness of treatments and better translation of trial results to optimal care of older cancer patients. Graphical abstract (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - November 7, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Smoking cessation and subsequent risk of cancer: A pooled analysis of eight population-based cohort studies in Japan
Conclusions Our study suggests that longer duration of smoking cessation may attenuate the risk of cancer in both men and women, and that even heavy smokers (more than 20 pack-years) were found to benefit from quitting smoking. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - November 6, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Pattern of hematological malignancies in adolescents and young adults in Bangladesh
Conclusion This is the first attempt to provide a glimpse on the pattern and distribution of HMs among AYA in Bangladesh. Future studies are essential to get a better insight on the epidemiology, biology, potential risk factors and treatment outcomes for the AYA age group. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - November 6, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The remarkable geographical pattern of gastric cancer mortality in Ecuador
Conclusion There is a substantial geographic variation in gastric cancer mortality rates among Ecuadorian provinces. The spatial analysis indicates the presence of high occurrence clusters throughout the Andes Mountains. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - November 6, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Assessment of salivary cotinine concentration among general non-smokers population: Before and after Spanish smoking legislations
Conclusion There was a large reduction in the salivary cotinine concentration among adult non-smokers and higher cotinine concentrations among those declaring exposure to SHS at home after both legislations. Moreover, after both Spanish smoke-free laws salivary cotinine concentration was homogenized according to sociodemographic variables. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - November 6, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Epidemiology of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma: A population-based study
Conclusions Our study indicates that MPeM in Finland is rare and fatal, which is in accordance with previous reports from other countries. MPeM is also a fatal disease, since most of the patients died due to MPeM. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - November 6, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cancer in adolescents and young adults: National incidence and characteristics in Japan
Conclusion A substantial number of AYA are diagnosed with cancer every year. The distribution of cancer types in AYA was dependent on age and sex. These diversities in cancer types can inform researchers and policy makers to fine-tune their studies and policies. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - November 6, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

An epidemiologic perspective on the stem cell hypothesis in human carcinogenesis
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Cancer Epidemiology, Volume 50, Part A Author(s): David Schottenfeld Background Tomasetti and Vogelstein have hypothesized that the patterns of cancer incidence in various cells and tissues are highly correlated with the estimated lifetime number of stem cell divisions. The authors reviewed the risks in tissues of 17 types of cancer from the United States and 69 additional countries. Positive correlations were observed consistently between the tissue − specific cancer incidence and the estimated lifetime number of stem cell divisions. The authors concluded that approximately two...
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - October 27, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Differences between peritoneal and pleural mesothelioma in Lombardy, Italy
Conclusion The higher frequency of pleural plaques in PEM cases confirm the association between asbestos and peritoneal mesothelioma. The higher proportions of asbestosis and of past employment in the asbestos-cement sector among PEM cases suggest a possible role of high exposures to asbestos in the peritoneal mesothelioma genesis. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - October 24, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Risk of cardiovascular disease among women with endometrial cancer compared to cancer-free women in the Women ’s Health Initiative
Conclusion Despite our null findings, women with EC should still receive counseling and support to make lifestyle changes aimed at reducing weight as appropriate, given the high prevalence of CVD risk factors at diagnosis. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - October 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Distribution of cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa
Conclusion There is a need to further investigate the factors related to the differences in cancer mortality by province in South Africa. Raising awareness of risk factors and screening for cancer in the population along with improved access and quality of health care are also important. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - October 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A systematic review of instrumental variable analyses using geographic region as an instrument
Conclusions We recommend caution and an investigation of IV assumptions when considering the use of geographic region as an instrument in observational studies of cancer treatments. The value of geographic region as an instrument should be critically evaluated in other areas of medicine. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - October 14, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Methodological issues of assessing the risk of a second cancer occurring in the same site as a first cancer using registry data
Conclusion The inclusion, or not, of an SPC at the same site can impact on SPC risk estimates. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - October 14, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Acne in late adolescence is not associated with a raised risk of subsequent malignant melanoma among men
Conclusions Acne in late adolescence is unlikely to represent a raised risk for subsequent MM in men. Overweight or obesity was identified as a raised risk for MM, possibly due to the associated increased skin surface area. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - October 14, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Peri-operative blood transfusion for resected colon cancer: Practice patterns and outcomes in a population-based study
Conclusions Peri-operative transfusion rates among patients with colon cancer have decreased over time. Transfusion is associated with inferior long-term CSS and OS. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - October 14, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Conditional survival of pediatric, adolescent, and young adult soft tissue sarcoma and bone tumor patients
Conclusion Conditional survival for short- and long-term STS and BT improve as time from diagnosis increases. Short-term survival was significantly affected by patients' sex, age at diagnosis, cancer site, and relapse status. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - October 8, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Self-rated health and associated factors in elderly patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Conclusion Variation in perceived health status supports the hypothesis that self-rated health is related to multiple issues, regardless of disease status. The risk profile for poor self-rated health identified may be a useful tool in care for older cancer patients, as it points to those at higher risk of adverse health outcomes. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - October 7, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Meta-analysis of the clinicopathological characteristics and peri-operative outcomes of colorectal cancer in obese patients
Conclusion This meta-analysis demonstrates that obese patients undergoing resection for CRC are more likely to have node positive disease, longer surgery and higher failure rates of minimally invasive approaches. The challenges of colorectal cancer resection in obese patients are emphasized. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - October 5, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Improving cancer patient emergency room utilization: A New Jersey state assessment
Conclusion Web based symptom questionnaires, patient navigators, end of life nursing and clinical cancer pathways can identify, guide and prompt early initiation of treat before progression of symptoms in cancer patients most likely to visit the ED. Thus, improving cancer patient satisfaction, outcomes and reduce health care costs. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - October 5, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Associations between oral hygiene habits, diet, tobacco and alcohol and risk of oral cancer: A case –control study from India
Conclusion Good oral hygiene habits – as characterized by healthy gums, brushing more than once daily, use of toothpaste, annual dental check-ups, and a minimal number of missing teeth – can reduce the risk of oral cancer significantly. In addition to refraining from chewing/smoking tobacco, a diet adequate in fruits and vegetables may protect against the disease. Graphical abstract (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - September 30, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Trends in prescribing systemic treatment and overall survival for non-small cell lung cancer stage IIIB/IV in the Netherlands: 2008 –2012
Discussion We provided detailed overview of day-to-day systemic treatment of NSCLC for six hospitals that (a) can fuel interhospital discussion to streamline treatment towards best practice and (b) can serve as reference data for follow-up of the adoption of novel systemic treatment options for advanced lung cancer. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - September 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

MDS classification is improving in an era of the WHO 2016 criteria of MDS: A population-based analysis among 9159 MDS patients diagnosed in the Netherlands
Conclusion The classification of MDS is improving in the Netherlands. Nevertheless, particular diagnostic and prognostic procedures that are essential for the diagnosis and subsequent treatment decision-making of MDS were not fully utilized in particular patient subsets. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - September 12, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

“Assessing the methodological quality of systematic reviews in radiation oncology: A systematic review”
Conclusions Systematic reviews and meta-analyses may introduce a high risk of bias if applied to inform decision-making based on AMSTAR. We recommend that decision-makers in Radiation Oncology scrutinize the methodological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses prior to assessing their utility to inform evidence-based medicine and researchers adhere to methodological standards outlined in validated guidelines when embarking on a systematic review. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - September 12, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Long-term trends in incidence and survival of penile cancer in France
Conclusion Penile cancer remains rare in France, but survival is still low − probably because of delays in diagnosis and limited improvements in care. International clinical trials are needed to develop care recommendations based on an adequate level of evidence. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - September 9, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Helicobacter pylori serological biomarkers of gastric cancer risk in the MCC-Spain case-control Study
Conclusions In our population, people seropositive for H. pylori were characterized by two patterns of antibody reactivity against H. pylori proteins: 1) Combined high seroreactivity against several proteins, associated with a lower non-cardia gastric cancer risk, and 2) High seroreactivity against CagA and VacA, associated with an increased risk. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - September 7, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Calcium channel blockers and breast cancer incidence: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Cancer Epidemiology, Volume 50, Part A Author(s): Cameron M. Wright, Rachael E. Moorin, Enayet K. Chowdhury, Bruno H. Stricker, Christopher M. Reid, Christobel M. Saunders, Jeffery D. Hughes Controversy exists regarding the potential association between taking calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and the development of breast cancer. As a positive association would have important public health implications due to the widespread use of CCBs, this study aimed to incorporate new evidence to determine whether an association is likely to exist. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Libra...
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - September 2, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Association between the neighborhood obesogenic environment and colorectal cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort
Conclusion Findings from our large racial/ethnically diverse cohort suggest neighborhood obesogenic characteristics are not strongly associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - September 1, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Clinical epidemiology of tracheal invasion from thyroid cancer in Japanese population: Functional outcomes and effect of aging
Conclusion The peak incidence of tracheal invasion from thyroid cancer was observed at ages of >70years. In addition, conventional surgical management appears to be limited in its ability to reconstruct tracheal defects. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - September 1, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Is there a socioeconomic variation in survival from renal tumours in children and young people resident in northern England (1968 –2012)?
Conclusions This study did not detect a significant social gradient in renal tumour survival. The identification of tumour stage as a strong predictor of survival irrespective of age, necessitates the development of appropriate public health interventions that target early diagnosis and treatment. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - August 24, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Risk of second primary cancers among patients with a first primary gastric cancer: A population-based study in North Portugal
Conclusions Patients with a gastric FPC were found to be at increased risk of developing SPC, mainly in digestive organs, when compared to the general population. Close surveillance of these patients may allow early detection of SPC. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - August 23, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Patient characteristics and cancer prevalence in the Danish cancer patient pathway for patients with serious non-specific symptoms and signs of cancer —A nationwide, population-based cohort study
Conclusions The prevalence of cancer in the NSSC-CPP was 11%. The most common cancer diagnosis was breast cancer, hematopoietic and lymphoid cancer and malignant melanoma. A small proportion of patients receiving a non-cancer diagnosis in the NSSC-CPP were diagnosed with cancer in the six months following their NSSC-CPP course. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - August 17, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Are there regional tendencies toward controversial screening practices? A study of prostate and breast cancer screening in a Medicare population
Conclusions Regional rates of PSA screening rates were independent of screening mammography, thus these practices appear to be driven by different factors. Unlike mammography, PSA screening was associated with local enthusiasm for testing and treatment. Efforts to reduce over-testing should contemplate these practices differently, and future research should examine the factors motivating these screening practices. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - August 17, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

CITRUS, cervical cancer screening trial by randomization of HPV testing intervention for upcoming screening: Design, methods and baseline data of 18,471 women
Conclusions Insights from CITRUS will provide future prospects for cervical cancer screening focused on the use of HPV testing in Japan. Clinical trial registration number: NCT01895517, UMIN000010843, TRIUC1312. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - August 17, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Time trends for prostate cancer mortality in Brazil and its geographic regions: An age –period–cohort analysis
Conclusion The increase in prostate cancer mortality rates in Brazil and its regions was mainly due to population aging. The differences in mortality rates and APC effects between regions are related to demographic differences and access of health services across the country. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - August 17, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research