65 - Randomized Comparison of Initiating Insulin Glargine or Iglarlixi in South Asian Canadians With Type 2 Diabetes: VARIATION 2 SA Trial
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): Harpreet Bajaj, Lisa Chu, Nandini Bansal, Ruth Brown, Gagandeep Dhillon, Rishabh Gupta, Jatminderpal S. Bhela, Jagjit Padda, Hasnain Khandwala, Karri Venn, Ronnie Aronson (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

66 - Elimination of Hepatocyte Dpp4 Does Not Alter Markers of Liver Disease Progression in Aged, High-Fat, High-Cholesterol-Fed Mice
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): Natasha Trzaskalski, Branka Vulesevic, Evgenia Fadzeyeva, My-Anh Nguyen, Erin E. Mulvihill (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

67 - Diabetes Prescribing Patterns of SGLT2i and GLP-1RA in Northern Alberta Primary Care: A Closer Look at Those With Cardiovascular Disease, Heart Failure and Chronic Kidney Disease
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): Robin C. Hao, Tyler Myroniuk, Nandini Desai, Donna Manca, Denise Campbell-Scherer, Roseanne O. Yeung (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

68 - Flaxseed Lignan Complex Consumption Fails to Reduce Hypertension in Older Type 2 Diabetes Patients
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): Douglas E. Barre (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

69 - Age- and Sex-Specific Incidence of Severe Hypoglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes (InHypo-DM Study)
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): Alexandria Ratzki-Leewing, Kathryn Stirling, Susan Webster-Bogaert, Judith B. Brown, Sonja M. Reichert, Bridget l. Ryan, Stewart Harris (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

70 - The Next Generation Birth Cohort: Screening for Dysglycemia and Albuminuria in High-Risk Children
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): Yash Rawal, Elizabeth Sellers, Allison Dart, Christy Pylypjuk, Brandy A. Wicklow (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

71 - Insulin (Ins2) Is Expressed in the Brain and Its Global Deletion Leads to Learning Deficits, Anxiety and Reduced Hippocampal Cyclin D1 Expression in Female Mice
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): Stella Baehring, Timothy O’leary, Neeki Alavi, Danae Holenka, Hong Li, Arya Mehran, Manuel Belmadani, Paul Pavalidis, Shernaz Bamji, James Johnson (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

72 - Single Cell RNA Sequencing Points to Altered IL-10 Signalling and Metabolism in Hyperinsulinemia-Driven Pancreatic Cancer Initiation
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): Anni Zhang, Twan De Winter, Xioake Hu, Hong Li, Janel Kopp, James Johnson (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

73 - Characterization and Flaws of a New Potential β-Cell-Specific Mouse Line
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): Nathalie Jouvet, Jennifer l. Estall, Khalil Bouyakdan, Thierry Alquier, Emilie Courty (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

74 - Reactive Oxygen Species Are Implicated in Nutrient-Induced β-Cell Proliferation
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): Alexis Vivoli, Julien Ghislain, Anne-Laure Castell, Alain Pacis, Robert Sladek, Vincent Poitout (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

75 - The Gly482Ser Polymorphism Affects PGC-1α Stability and Function in INS-1 β-Cells
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): Maria Galipeau, Roxanne Vandenbeek, Naveen Khan, Jennifer l. Estall (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

76 - Antiapoptotic Bcl-xL Preserves the Transcriptional, Morphological and Functional Integrity of β-Cell Mitochondria During Chronic Glucose Excess
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): Daniel Pasula, Rocky Shi, Alexis Shih, Ahsen Chaudry, Ben Vanderkruk, Brad Hoffman, Dan S. Luciani (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

77 - Ins2 Gene Bursting Activity Defines a Mature β-Cell State
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): Honey Modi, Jamie Chu, Søs Skovsø, Cara Ellis, Nicole A.J. Krentz, Yiwei Zhao, Haoning Howard Cen, Nilou Noursadeghi, Evgeniy Panzhinskiy, Xioake Hu, Derek A. Dionne, Shouhong Xuan, Timothy J. Kieffer, Francis C. Lynn, James Johnson (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

78 - β-Hydroxybutyrate Acutely Promotes Basal Insulin Secretion From Human Islets
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): Jelena Kolic, Serena Zhu, James Johnson (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

79 - Differential Effects of Voclosporin and Tacrolimus on Insulin Secretion From Human Islets
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): Jelena Kolic, Leanne Beet, Peter Overby, Haoning Howard Cen, Jennifer Cross, Robert Huizinga, James Johnson, Evgeniy Panzhinskiy (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

80 - Sex Differences in β-Cell Protein Folding Machinery
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): George P. Brownrigg, James Johnson, Elizabeth J. Rideout (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

81 - The Association of Albuminuria in Youth With Type 2 Diabetes With In-Utero Type 2 Diabetes Exposure Is Not Mediated Through Altered Renal Volume
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): Brandy A. Wicklow, Elizabeth Sellers, Jon Mcgavock, Brenden Dufault, Allison Dart (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

82 - Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Exercise Blood Glucose Responses to Exercise in Females With Type 1 Diabetes
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): Kaya l. Persad, Meagan A. Pringnitz, Jane E. Yardley (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

83 - INS rs3842753 SNP Genotype Associated With Type 1 Diabetes Risk Modulates Insulin mRNA Expression Distribution in Single Nondiabetic Human Beta Cells
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): Su Wang, Stephane Flibotte, Joan Camunas-Soler, Patrick E. Macdonald, James Johnson (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

84 - The HNF-1a G319S Gene Variant, Which Associates With Early-Onset Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) in Anishininiiwuk Youth, Affects Liver Metabolism and Endogenous Glucose Production in a Knock-In Mouse Model
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): Manuel Sebastian, Taylor S. Morriseau, Christine A. Doucette (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

85 - Sleep Quality Associated With Body Mass Index and Hemoglobin A1c in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): Jamie L. Benham, Jane E. Booth, Bernard Corenblum, Christine M. Friedenreich, Doreen M. Rabi, Gary S. Goldfield, Ronald J. Sigal (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

86 - Comparison of Maternal and Fetal Outcomes Using the 1-Step Vs 2-Step Canadian Diagnostic Strategies for GDM
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): Fanny Goyette, Bi Lan Wo, Marie-Hélène Iglesias, Evelyne Rey, Ariane Godbout (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

87 - Adverse Fetal and Neonatal Outcomes in Diabetic Pregnancies in Nova Scotia From 1988-2002 and 2003-2015
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): Dominique l. Piche, Elizabeth A. Cummings, Teresa E. Pinto (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

88 - Appropriateness of Clinical Indications for Ordering Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone in Noncritically Ill Adult Inpatients – A Modified Delphi Study
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): Anasuiya Surendran, Stephanie Lubchansky, Riley Epp, Meera Luthra, Steven Sovran, Zubin Punthakee (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

89 - Thyroid Laboratory Testing and Management in Women on Thyroid Replacement Prior to Pregnancy and Associated Pregnancy Outcomes
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): Patricia Lemieux, Jennifer Yamamoto, Kara Nerenberg, Alex Chin, Rshmi Khurana, Lois Donovan (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

90 - Evaluating the Risk of Malignancy (ROM) in Thyroid Nodules With Bethesda Category III and IV at St. Joseph’s Hospital, Hamilton Compared to the Malignancy Rates Reported in the Bethesda System
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): Manijeh Mohammadi, Ipshita Kak, Hertzel Gerstein, Harpreet Rai, Manoela Braga (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Author Index
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

2020 Appendix: Duality of Interest Disclosures
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

44 - Do-It-Yourself Artificial Pancreas System Use in Pregnancy in a Real-World Setting: A Case Report
Publication date: October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Volume 44, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): Patricia Lemieux, Jennifer Yamamoto, Lois Donovan (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Prevalence of Autoimmune Diseases in Longstanding Diabetes: Results from the Canadian Study of Longevity in Type 1 Diabetes.
Publication date: Available online 27 October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): Nancy Cardinez, Leif E. Lovblom, Andrej Orszag, David Z.I. Cherney, Bruce A. Perkins (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Variability of Clinical Practice Management of Diabetes during Surgery across Canada
Publication date: Available online 27 October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): Janine Malcolm, Ilana Halperin, Sarah Moore, Robyn L. Houlden, Canadian Standards for Perioperative/Periprocedure Glycemic Management Expert Consensus Panel (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Glycemic Impact of Metformin in Diabetes Caused by Heterozygous Insulin Gene Mutation R46Q
Publication date: Available online 2 September 2020Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): Shivraj S. Riar, Noah B. Toppings, Lois E. Donovan (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 25, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Diabetic retinopathy: important biochemical alterations and the main treatment strategies
Publication date: Available online 21 October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): A.S. Valdez-Guerrero, J.C. Quintana-Pérez, M.G. Arellano-Mendoza, F.J. Castañeda-Ibarra, F. Tamay-Cach, D. Alemán-González-Duhart (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 23, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Conversations and Reactions Around Severe Hypoglycemia Study: Results of Canadian Adults With Insulin Treated Diabetes and Caregivers
Publication date: Available online 2 September 2020Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): Donna Mojdami, Beth D. Mitchell, Erik Spaepen, Kristen Syring, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret, Zubin Punthakee, Frank Snoek, Mark Peyrot (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 19, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Moving Towards Precision Medicine with Diabetes, Exercise, and Physical Activity
Publication date: Available online 17 October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): Jane E. Yardley, Matthew D. Campbell (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

An Evaluation of Reach and Effectiveness of a Diabetes Prevention Behaviour Change Program Situated in a Community Site
Publication date: Available online 15 October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): Corliss Bean, Tineke Dineen, Sean R. Locke, Brooklyn Bouvier, Mary E. Jung (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

HbA1c and Blood Pressure Levels in Type 2 Diabetes: How Many Patients are on Target?
Publication date: Available online 15 October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): C.B. Farias, S. Coelli, F. Satler, L. Brondani, T. Zelmanovitz, S.P. Silveiro (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Assessing the Quality of Evidence Presented at the Annual Conferences of Diabetes Canada
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): Muhammad Shoker, Logan Hahn, Ameen Patel, Nasim Zamir (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Older Adults Living in Social Housing: A Cross-sectional Study
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): Ricardo Angeles, Ying Zhu, Melissa Pirrie, Francine Marzanek, Gina Agarwal (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract (CAKUT): An Emerging Complication of Pre-Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Among First Nations and Non-First Nations People in Saskatchewan Results from the DIP: ORRIIGENSS Project
Publication date: Available online 14 October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): Roland F. Dyck, Chandima Karunanayake, Punam Pahwa, MaryRose Stang, Robin L. Erickson, Nathaniel D. Osgood (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Blind spots: gaps in disease knowledge and the role of patient education for Canadians with diabetic macular edema
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): Chad Andrews, Pradeepa Yoganathan, Jennifer A. Pereira (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 12, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Determinants of high dose insulin requirement and upper extremity muscle strength in type 2 diabetic patients
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): Eren Imre, Tugce Apaydin, Hatice Gizem Gunhan, Dilek Gogas Yavuz (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 12, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Esophageal Dysphagia and Recurrent Aspiration From Treatment-Induced Neuropathy of Diabetes in a Patient with Type 1 Diabetes
Publication date: Available online 14 August 2020Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): Christopher Oleynick, Graeme Prosperi-Porta, Ben J. Wilson (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Adults Presenting With Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitor-Associated Diabetic Ketoacidosis at a Canadian Academic Tertiary Care Hospital
Publication date: Available online 21 August 2020Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): Alexa Clark, Arifuddin Saad Mohammed, Amol Raut, Sarah Moore, Robyn Houlden, Sara Awad (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Beyond Glycated Hemoglobin: Harnessing Data From Sensor-Based Technology to Improve Glucose Variability, Time in Range and Hypoglycemia in Adult Patients With Type 1 Diabetes
Publication date: Available online 7 September 2020Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): Alvita J. Chan, Ilana J. Halperin (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Quality of diabetic foot ulcer care: evaluation of an interdisciplinary wound care clinic using an extended donabedian model based on a retrospective cohort study
Publication date: Available online 5 October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): Jérôme Patry, André Tourigny, Marie-Philippe Mercier, Clermont E. Dionne (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 6, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Assessing the impact of quality improvement strategies for organization of care on type 2 diabetes (t2dm) outcomes: aim-strait
Publication date: Available online 1 October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): Alice Y.Y. Cheng, Harpreet S. Bajaj, Maureen Clement, Diana Sherifali, Doron Eisen, Olaf Heisel, Paul Keown, Jean-Francois Richard (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Pseudo-reversal of non-insulin treated type-2 diabetes on the ketogenic diet
Publication date: Available online 1 October 2020Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): Mohammed Abrahim (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - October 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Glycemic control among people with diabetes in Ontario: a population-based cross-sectional study
Publication date: Available online 25 September 2020Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): Baiju R. Shah, Lorraine L. Lipscombe, Gillian Booth (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - September 26, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Increasing access to patient-centred care: Initial observations and feasibility of a pediatric diabetes Drop-In Clinic
Publication date: Available online 25 September 2020Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): Gloria M. Wheeler, Michelle Bauman, Mary M. Jetha, Elizabeth T. Rosolowsky (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - September 26, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research