Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) overexpression enhances the aggressive phenotype of SUM149 inflammatory breast cancer cells in a signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2)-dependent manner
Conclusions: These findings indicate that overexpression of IFITM1 enhances the aggressive phenotype of triple-negative SUM149 IBC cells and that this effect is dependent on STAT2/BRG1 interaction. Further studies are necessary to explore the potential of IFITM1 as a novel therapeutic target and prognostic marker for some subtypes of IBCs. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - February 20, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Joshua OgonyHye ChoiAsona LuiMassimo CristofanilliJoan Lewis-Wambi Source Type: research

Circulating insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 and terminal duct lobular unit involution of the breast: a cross-sectional study of women with benign breast disease
Background: Terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) are the primary structures from which breast cancers and their precursors arise. Decreased age-related TDLU involution and elevated mammographic density are both correlated and independently associated with increased breast cancer risk, suggesting that these characteristics of breast parenchyma might be linked to a common factor. Given data suggesting that increased circulating levels of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) factors are related to reduced TDLU involution and increased mammographic density, we assessed these relationships using validated quantitative methods in a...
Source: Breast Cancer Research - February 18, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hisani HorneMark ShermanRuth PfeifferJonine FigueroaZeina KhodrRoni FalkMichael PollakDeesha PatelMaya PalakalLaura LinvilleDaphne PapathomasBerta GellerPamela VacekDonald WeaverRachael ChicoineJohn ShepherdAmir MahmoudzadehJeff WangBo FanSerghei MalkovSa Source Type: research

Genetic predisposition to ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast
Background: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive form of breast cancer. It is often associated with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and is considered to be a non-obligate precursor of IDC. It is not clear to what extent these two forms of cancer share low-risk susceptibility loci, or whether there are differences in the strength of association for shared loci. Methods: To identify genetic polymorphisms that predispose to DCIS, we pooled data from 38 studies comprising 5,067 cases of DCIS, 24,584 cases of IDC and 37,467 controls, all genotyped using the iCOGS chip. Results: Most (67 %) of the 76 known bre...
Source: Breast Cancer Research - February 17, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Christos PetridisMark BrookVandna ShahKelly KohutPatricia GormanMichele CaneppeleDina LeviEfterpi PapouliNick OrrAngela CoxSimon CrossIsabel dos-Santos-SilvaJulian PetoAnthony SwerdlowMinouk SchoemakerManjeet BollaQin WangJoe DennisKyriaki MichailidouJavi Source Type: research

LIN7A is a major determinant of cell-polarity defects in breast carcinomas
Conclusion: This study therefore shows that LIN7A has a crucial role in the polarity abnormalities associated with breast carcinogenesis. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - February 17, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Nadège GruelLaetitia FuhrmannCatalina LodillinskyVanessa BenhamoOdette MarianiAurélie CédenotLaurent ArnouldGaëtan MacgroganXavier Sastre-GarauPhilippe ChavrierOlivier DelattreAnne Vincent-Salomon Source Type: research

Computational pathology of pre-treatment biopsies identifies lymphocyte density as a predictor of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer
Background: There is a need to improve prediction of response to chemotherapy in breast cancer in order to improve clinical management and this may be achieved by harnessing computational metrics of tissue pathology. We investigated the association between quantitative image metrics derived from computational analysis of digital pathology slides and response to chemotherapy in women with breast cancer who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: We digitised tissue sections of both diagnostic and surgical samples of breast tumours from 768 patients enrolled in the Neo-tAnGo randomized controlled trial. We subjected digi...
Source: Breast Cancer Research - February 16, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: H. AliAliakbar DariushElena ProvenzanoHelen BardwellJean AbrahamMahesh IddawelaAnne-Laure VallierLouise HillerJanet. DunnSarah BowdenTamas HickishKaren McAdamStephen HoustonMike IrwinPaul PharoahJames BrentonNicholas WaltonHelena EarlCarlos Caldas Source Type: research

Does primary neoadjuvant systemic therapy eradicate minimal residual disease? Analysis of disseminated and circulating tumor cells before and after therapy
Conclusions: Although CTCs were eradicated more effectively than DTCs, CTCs detected after treatment seemed to be associated with tumor cells showing tumor stem cell characteristics as well as with resistant tumor cell populations that might indicate a worse outcome in the future. Thus, these patients might benefit from additional second-line treatment protocols including bisphosphonates for the eradication of DTCs. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - February 12, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sabine Kasimir-BauerAnn-Kathrin BittnerLisa KönigKatharina ReiterThomas KellerRainer KimmigOliver Hoffmann Source Type: research

Male breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: pathology data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2
Conclusions: On the basis of the largest series analysed to date, our results show that BRCA1/2 MBCs display distinct pathologic characteristics compared with BRCA1/2 FBCs, and we identified a specific BRCA2-associated MBC phenotype characterised by a variable suggesting greater biological aggressiveness (i.e., high histologic grade). These findings could lead to the development of gender-specific risk prediction models and guide clinical strategies appropriate for MBC management. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - February 9, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Valentina SilvestriDaniel BarrowdaleAnna MulliganSusan NeuhausenStephen FoxBeth KarlanGillian MitchellPaul JamesDarcy ThullKristin ZornNatalie CarterKatherine NathansonSusan DomchekTimothy RebbeckSusan RamusRobert NussbaumOlufunmilayo OlopadeJohanna Ranta Source Type: research

Targeting the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) 4/6 in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers
Despite significant advances in early detection and treatment, breast cancer still remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality for women. Our understanding of the molecular heterogeneity of the disease has significantly expanded over the past decade and the role of cell cycle signaling in both breast cancer oncogenesis and anti-estrogen resistance has gained increasing attention. The mammalian cell cycle is driven by a complex interplay between cyclins and their associated cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) partners, and dysregulation of this process is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Despite this, initial results with bro...
Source: Breast Cancer Research - February 9, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Richard FinnAlexey AleshinDennis Slamon Source Type: research

High content screening application for cell-type specific behaviour in heterogeneous primary breast epithelial subpopulations
Conclusions: We demonstrate the practical application of a new method for assessing cell-type specific change in mixed cultures, especially the analysis of normal primary cultures, overcoming a major technical issue of dissecting the response of multiple cell types in a heterogeneous population. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - February 9, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Rebecca JohnstonLeesa WocknerAmy McCart ReedAdrian WiegmansGeorgia Chenevix-TrenchKum KhannaSunil LakhaniChanel Smart Source Type: research

Downregulation of histone H2A and H2B pathways is associated with anthracycline sensitivity in breast cancer
Conclusions: This study revealed a key pathway that contributes to anthracycline resistance and established model systems for investigating drug resistance in all four major breast cancer subtypes. As the histone modification can be targeted with small-molecule inhibitors, it represents a possible means of reversing clinical anthracycline resistance.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00003012. Registered on 1 November 1999. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - February 6, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Marsela BraunsteinLinda LiaoNicola LyttleNazleen LoboKaren TaylorPaul KrzyzanowskiIrina KalatskayaCindy YaoLincoln SteinPaul BoutrosChristopher TwelvesRichard MarcellusJohn BartlettMelanie Spears Source Type: research

The fibroblast Tiam1-osteopontin pathway modulates breast cancer invasion and metastasis
Conclusions: These findings suggest a new therapeutic paradigm for preventing breast cancer metastasis. Pro-malignant signals from the tumor microenvironment with long-lasting effects on associated cancer cells may perpetuate the metastatic potential of developing cancers. Inhibition of these microenvironment signals represents a new therapeutic strategy against cancer metastasis that enables targeting of stromal cells with less genetic plasticity than associated cancer cells and opens new avenues for investigation of novel therapeutic targets and agents. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - January 28, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kun XuXuejun TianSun OhMohammad MovassaghiStephen NaberCharlotte KuperwasserRachel Buchsbaum Source Type: research

p53 deficiency linked to B cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) loss enhances metastatic potential by promoting tumor growth in primary and metastatic sites in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of triple-negative breast cancer
Conclusions: Using paired isogenic PDX-derived metastatic TNBC cells, loss of p53 promoted tumor growth and consequently increased tumor cell shedding into the blood, thus enhancing metastasis. Loss of BTG2 expression in p53-deficient tumors contributed to this metastatic potential by enhancing tumor growth in primary and metastatic sites. Furthermore, clinical data support conclusions generated from PDX models and indicate that BTG2 expression is a candidate prognostic biomarker for TNBC. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - January 27, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Emily PowellJiansu ShaoYuan YuanHsiang-Chun ChenShirong CaiGloria EcheverriaNipun MistryKeith DeckerChristopher SchlosbergKim-Anh DoJohn EdwardsHan LiangDavid Piwnica-WormsHelen Piwnica-Worms Source Type: research

Lymphocyte depletion and repopulation after chemotherapy for primary breast cancer
We examined circulating titres of antibodies against pneumococcal and tetanus antigens using ELISAs. Results: Levels of B, T and NK cells were significantly reduced 2 weeks after chemotherapy (p  (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - January 26, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Rashmi VermaRuth FosterKieran HorganKatherine MounseyHelen NixonNatuley SmalleThomas HughesClive Carter Source Type: research

Epigenetic silencing of CREB3L1 by DNA methylation is associated with high-grade metastatic breast cancers with poor prognosis and is prevalent in triple negative breast cancers
Conclusions: Our data further strengthens the role for CREB3L1 as a metastasis suppressor in breast cancer and demonstrates that epigenetic silencing is a major regulator of the loss of CREB3L1 expression. We also highlight that CREB3L1 expression is frequently altered in many cancer types suggesting that it could have a broader role in cancer progression and metastasis. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - January 25, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Alison WardPaul MellorShari SmithStephanie KendallNatasha JustFrederick VizeacoumarSabuj SarkerZoe PhillipsRiaz AlviAnurag SaxenaFranco VizeacoumarSvein CarlsenDeborah Anderson Source Type: research

The cell surface mucin podocalyxin regulates collective breast tumor budding
Conclusions: Podocalyxin is a tumor cell-intrinsic regulator of experimental collective tumor cell invasion and tumor budding. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - January 22, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Marcia GravesJane CipollonePamela AustinErin BellJulie NielsenC. GilksKelly McNagnyCalvin Roskelley Source Type: research

Breast cancer brain metastases: biology and new clinical perspectives
Because of improvements in the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer, the development of brain metastases (BM) has become a major limitation of life expectancy and quality of life for many breast cancer patients. The improvement of management strategies for BM is thus an important clinical challenge, especially among high-risk patients such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive and triple-negative patients. However, the formation of BM as a multistep process is thus far poorly understood. To grow in the brain, single tumor cells must pass through the tight blood–brain barrier (BBB). The B...
Source: Breast Cancer Research - January 19, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Isabell WitzelLeticia Oliveira-FerrerKlaus PantelVolkmar MüllerHarriet Wikman Source Type: research

Targeted Pten deletion plus p53-R270H mutation in mouse mammary epithelium induces aggressive claudin-low and basal-like breast cancer
Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that WAP-Cre:Pten f/f :p53 lox.stop.lox_R270H mice represent a tractable model to study basal-like breast cancer because unlike p53 deletion, p53 R270H mutation in the mouse does not skew tumors toward the claudin-low subtype. The WAP-Cre:Pten f/f :p53 lox.stop.lox_R270H mice develop basal-like breast cancer that is enriched in TICs, can readily form lung metastasis, and provides a preclinical model to study both basal-like and claudin-low TNBC in immune-competent mice. (Source: B...
Source: Breast Cancer Research - January 19, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sharon WangJeff LiuDanbi KimAlessandro DattiEldad Zacksenhaus Source Type: research

Breast primary epithelial cells that escape p16-dependent stasis enter a telomere-driven crisis state
We report here that breast primary epithelial cells propagated in vitro with WIT medium on Primaria plates express some luminal characteristics, but not a complete luminal lineage phenotype. They undergo a p16-dependent stress-induced senescence (stasis), and the cells that escape stasis finally enter a crisis state with rampant chromosome instability. Chromosome instability in these cells is driven by excessive telomere attrition, as distributions of chromosomes involved in aberrations correlate with the profiles of telomere signal-free ends. Importantly, ectopic expression of the human TERT gene rescued their chromosomal...
Source: Breast Cancer Research - January 13, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Purificación FeijooMariona TerradasDavid SolerDaniel DomínguezLaura TusellAnna Genescà Source Type: research

Antitumor activity of Cetuximab in combination with Ixabepilone on triple negative breast cancer stem cells
Background: Developing novel strategies against treatment-resistant triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells remains a significant challenge. The ErbB family, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), plays key roles in metastasis, tumorigenesis, cell proliferation, and drug resistance. Recently, these characteristics have been linked to a small subpopulation of cells classified as cancer stem cells (CSC) which are believed to be responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. Ixabepilone is a new generation microtubule-stabilizing agent, which has been expected to be more efficacious than conventional taxanes...
Source: Breast Cancer Research - January 12, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tomonori TaneiDong ChoiAngel RodriguezDiana LiangLacey DobroleckiMadhumita GhoshMelissa LandisJenny Chang Source Type: research

Increased peri-ductal collagen micro-organization may contribute to raised mammographic density
Conclusions: These preliminary data suggest that remodelling, and hence stiffening, of the existing stromal collagen microarchitecture promotes high mammographic density within the breast. In turn, this aberrant mechanical environment may trigger neoplasia-associated mechanotransduction pathways within the epithelial cell population. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - January 8, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: James McConnellOliver O¿ConnellKeith BrennanLisa WeipingMiles HoweLeena JosephDavid KnightRonan O¿CualainYit LimAngela LeekRachael WaddingtonJane RoganSusan AstleyAshu GandhiCliona KirwanMichael SherrattCharles Streuli Source Type: research

ELF5 isoform expression is tissue-specific and significantly altered in cancer
Conclusions: Alternative promoter use, conferring differential regulatory responses, is the main mechanism governing ELF5 action rather than differential transcriptional activity of the isoforms. This understanding of expression and function at the isoform level is a vital first step in realizing the potential of transcription factors such as ELF5 as prognostic markers or therapeutic targets in cancer. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - January 7, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Catherine PigginDaniel RodenDavid Gallego-OrtegaHeather LeeSamantha OakesChristopher Ormandy Source Type: research

Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor expression and IGF1R 3129G > T polymorphism are associated with response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients: results from the NEOZOTAC trial (BOOG 2010-01)
Conclusions: Absent or diminished expression of IGF-1R after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was associated with a better pathological response. Additionally, we found a SNP (rs2016347) in IGF1R as a potential predictive marker for chemotherapy efficacy in BC patients treated with TAC.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT01099436. Registered April 6, 2010. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - January 6, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Stefanie de GrootAyoub CharehbiliHanneke van LaarhovenAntien MooyaartN. Dekker-EnsinkSaskia van de VenLaura JanssenJesse SwenVincent SmitJoan HeijnsLonneke KesselsTahar van der StraatenStefan BöhringerHans GelderblomJacobus van der HoevenHenk-Jan Guchela Source Type: research

Assessment of the prognostic and predictive utility of the Breast Cancer Index (BCI): an NCIC CTG MA.14 study
Conclusions: BCI had a strong prognostic effect on RFS in patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with tamoxifen alone or with tamoxifen and octreotide. BCI was prognostic in both LN− and LN+ patients. This retrospective study is an independent validation of the prognostic performance of BCI in a prospective trial. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - January 4, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dennis SgroiJudy-Anne ChapmanT. Badovinac-CrnjevicElizabeth ZarellaShemeica BinnsYi ZhangCatherine SchnabelMark ErlanderKathleen PritchardLei HanLois ShepherdPaul GossMichael Pollak Source Type: research

“New” metastases are associated with a poorer prognosis than growth of pre-existing metastases in patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with chemotherapy
IntroductionProgression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) endpoints often only weakly correlate. This analysis investigates how different progression events impact on OS, using data from two phase 3 studies with eribulin in women with advanced/metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Methods: In Study 301, 1102 women with ≤2 prior chemotherapies for advanced/MBC were randomized to eribulin mesylate (1.4 mg/m 2 on days 1 and 8 every 21 days) or capecitabine (1.25 g/m 2 twice daily on days 1–14 every 21 days). Study 305/EMBRACE enrolled 762 patients ...
Source: Breast Cancer Research - December 9, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Christopher TwelvesJavier CortesPeter KaufmanLouise YelleAhmad AwadaTerri BinderMartin OlivoJames SongJoyce O¿ShaughnessyMaria JoveEdith Perez Source Type: research

HDAC6 activity is a non-oncogene addiction hub for inflammatory breast cancers
Conclusion: Our finding that IBC cells are sensitive to HDAC6 inhibition provides a foundation to rapidly develop novel, efficient, and well-tolerated targeted therapy strategies for IBC patients. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - December 8, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Preeti PutchaJiyang YuRuth Rodriguez-BarruecoLaura Saucedo-CuevasPatricia VillagrasaEva Murga-PenasSteven QuayleMin YangVeronica CastroDavid Llobet-NavasDaniel BirnbaumPascal FinettiWendy WoodwardFrançois BertucciMary AlpaughAndrea CalifanoJose Silva Source Type: research

Dual inhibition of Type I and Type III PI3 kinases increases tumor cell apoptosis in HER2+ breast cancers
Conclusions: These studies highlight the important role of Vps34-mediated autophagy in limiting the anti-tumor response to inhibitors of HER2 or type I PI3K in HER2+ breast cancers. The type III PI3K Vps34 represents a potential therapeutic target to block treatment-induced autophagy and enhance tumor cell killing. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - December 4, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Christian YoungCarlos ArteagaRebecca Cook Source Type: research

Mammographic density adds accuracy to both the Tyrer-Cuzick and Gail breast cancer risk models in a prospective UK screening cohort
Conclusions: Breast density may be usefully combined with the Tyrer-Cuzick model or the Gail model. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - December 1, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Adam BrentnallElaine HarknessSusan AstleyLouise DonnellyPaula StavrinosSarah SampsonLynne FoxJamie SergeantMichelle HarvieMary WilsonUrsula BeetlesSoujanya GaddeYit LimAnil JainSara BundredNicola BarrValerie ReeceAnthony HowellJack CuzickD. Evans Source Type: research

Longer term effects of the Angelina Jolie effect: increased risk-reducing mastectomy rates in BRCA carriers and other high-risk women
No description available (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - November 25, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: D. EvansJulie WiselyTara ClancyFiona LallooMary WilsonRichard JohnsonJonathon DuncanLester BarrAshu GandhiAnthony Howell Source Type: research

β2-adrenoceptor signaling regulates invadopodia formation to enhance tumor cell invasion
Conclusion: These findings provide insight into conditions that control tumor cell invasion by identifying signaling through β 2 -adrenoceptors as a regulator of invadopodia formation. These findings suggest novel pharmacological strategies for intervention, by using β-blockers to target β 2 -adrenoceptors to limit tumor cell dissemination and metastasis. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - November 25, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sarah CreedCaroline LeMona HassanCindy PonSabine AlboldKeefe ChanMatthew BerginskiZhendong HuangJames BearJ. LaneMichelle HallsDavide FerrariCameron NowellErica Sloan Source Type: research

The sialyl-glycolipid stage-specific embryonic antigen 4 marks a subpopulation of chemotherapy-resistant breast cancer cells with mesenchymal features
Conclusions: In this study, we identified SSEA4 as highly expressed in a subpopulation of tumor cells resistant to multiple commonly used chemotherapy drugs, as well as ST3GAL2, the rate-limiting enzyme of SSEA4 synthesis, as a predictive marker of poor outcome for breast and ovarian cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Both biomarkers and additionally identified regulatory miRNAs may be used to further understand chemoresistance, to stratify patient groups in order to avoid ineffective and painful therapies, and to develop alternative treatment regimens for breast cancer patients. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - November 25, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Andrea AloiaEvgeniya PetrovaStefan TomiukUte BisselsOlivier DéasMassimo SainiFranziska ZickgrafSteve WagnerSaskia SpaichMarc SütterlinAndreas SchneeweissManuel ReitbergerSilvia RübergBernhard GerstmayerDavid AgorkuSebastian KnöbelAnnalisa TerranegraMo Source Type: research

Erratum to: Quantitative assessment of background parenchymal enhancement in breast MRI predicts response to risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy: preliminary evaluation in a cohort of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers
No description available (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - November 24, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Shandong WuSusan WeinsteinMichael DeLeoEmily ConantJinbo ChenSusan DomchekDespina Kontos Source Type: research

Upregulation of EGFR signaling is correlated with tumor stroma remodeling and tumor recurrence in FGFR1-driven breast cancer
Conclusion: These studies have revealed a correlation between tumor recurrence and changes of stromal microenvironment accompanied by altered EGFR signaling. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - November 18, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Xue HoldmanThomas WelteKimal RajapaksheAdam PondCristian CoarfaQianxing MoShixia HuangSusan HilsenbeckDean EdwardsXiang ZhangJeffrey Rosen Source Type: research

Mammographic density defined by higher than conventional brightness threshold better predicts breast cancer risk for full-field digital mammograms
IntroductionWhen measured using the computer-assisted method CUMULUS, mammographic density adjusted for age and body mass index predicts breast cancer risk. We asked if new mammographic density measures defined by higher brightness thresholds gave better risk predictions. Methods: The Korean Breast Cancer Study included 213 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer and 630 controls matched for age at full-field digital mammogram and menopausal status. Mammographic density was measured using CUMULUS at the conventional threshold (Cumulus), and in effect at two increasingly higher thresholds, which we call Altocumulus and ...
Source: Breast Cancer Research - November 18, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tuong NguyenYe AungChristopher EvansChoi Yoon-HoMark JenkinsJoohon SungJohn HopperYun-Mi Song Source Type: research

Effect of physical activity on sex hormones in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Conclusions: Although the effect is relatively modest, physical activity induces a decrease in circulating sex hormones and this effect is not entirely explained by weight loss. The findings emphasize the benefits of physical activity for women. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - November 5, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kaoutar Ennour-IdrissiElizabeth MaunsellCaroline Diorio Source Type: research

Puberty-specific promotion of mammary tumorigenesis by a high animal fat diet
Conclusions: In obesity-resistant mice, peripubertal HFD is sufficient to irreversibly promote carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis. Increased macrophage recruitment is likely a contributing factor. These results underscore the importance of early life exposures to increased adult cancer risk and are consistent with findings that an HFD in normal weight premenopausal women leads to increased breast cancer risk. Notably, short-latency tumors occurring after peripubertal HFD had characteristics similar to human basal-like breast cancers that predominantly develop in younger women. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - November 2, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mark AupperleeYong ZhaoYing TanYirong ZhuIngeborg LangohrErin KirkJason PironeMelissa TroesterRichard SchwartzSandra Haslam Source Type: research

Multipotent luminal mammary cancer stem cells model tumor heterogeneity
Conclusions: Since the majority of human tumors are of the luminal subtype, understanding the cell of origin of these tumors and how they relate to other tumor subtypes will impact cancer therapy. Analysis of clonal cell lines derived from different tumor subtypes suggests a developmental hierarchy of MaCSCs, which may provide insights into the progression of human breast cancer. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - October 14, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lei BaoRobert CardiffPaul SteinbachKaren MesserLesley Ellies Source Type: research

Circulating DNA as biomarker in breast cancer
As the release of tumor-associated DNA into blood circulation is a common event in patients with cancer, screening of plasma or serum DNA may provide information on genetic and epigenetic profiles associated with breast cancer development, progression, and response to therapy. Quantitative testing of circulating DNA can reflect tumor burden, and molecular characterization of circulating DNA can reveal important tumor characteristics relevant to the choice of targeted therapies in individual patients. Contrary to circulating DNA from blood that presents molecular changes in tumor DNA in real time, tissue biopsies can delive...
Source: Breast Cancer Research - October 9, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Heidi SchwarzenbachKlaus Pantel Source Type: research

Tumor-induced inflammation alters neutrophil phenotype and disease progression
Neutrophils are essential to combat infectious agents but contribute to collateral inflammatory damage. Likewise, neutrophils can kill cancer cells and have been shown to promote malignant growth and metastasis through immunosuppressive functions. Two articles in a recent issue of Nature reveal new mechanisms by which tumors induce changes in neutrophil phenotype through production of inflammatory cytokines. Although the two studies report different outcomes on the effects of neutrophils on tumor growth and metastasis, they delineate novel molecular pathways influencing neutrophil phenotype that may provide new approaches ...
Source: Breast Cancer Research - October 6, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Charaf Benarafa Source Type: research

Next generation sequencing of triple negative breast cancer to find predictors for chemotherapy response
Conclusions: In this homogenous cohort of TNBCs few recurrent mutations were found. However, PIK3CA mutations were associated with BRCA proficiency, which can have clinical consequences in the near future. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - October 3, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Esther LipsMagali MichautMarlous HoogstraatLennart MulderNicolle BesselinkMarco KoudijsEdwin CuppenEmile VoestRene BernardsPetra NederlofJelle WesselingSjoerd RodenhuisLodewyk WesselsOn behalf of the Center for Personalized Cancer Treatment Source Type: research

Transformation of enriched mammary cell populations with polyomavirus middle T antigen influences tumor subtype and metastatic potential
Conclusions: Expression of PyMT within different mammary cell populations influences tumor histology, molecular subtype, and metastatic potential. The data demonstrate that luminal CD133+ cells give rise to less metastatic tumors, luminal CD133− cells preferentially establish basal tumors, and the cell of origin for squamous metaplasia likely resides in the basal and stem cell populations. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - October 1, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Daria DrobyshevaBrittni SmithMaria McDowellKatrin GuillenHuseyin EkizBryan Welm Source Type: research

The relationship between quantitative human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene expression by the 21-gene reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay and adjuvant trastuzumab benefit in Alliance N9831
IntroductionThe N9831 trial demonstrated the efficacy of adjuvant trastuzumab for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) locally positive tumors by protein or gene analysis. We used the 21-gene assay to examine the association of quantitative HER2 messenger RNA (mRNA) gene expression and benefit from trastuzumab. Methods: N9831 tested the addition of trastuzumab to chemotherapy in stage I–III HER2-positive breast cancer. For two of the arms of the trial, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel (AC-T) and doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel and trastuzumab con...
Source: Breast Cancer Research - October 1, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Edith PerezFrederick BaehnerSteven ButlerE. ThompsonAmylou DueckFarid JamshidianDiana CherbavazCarl YoshizawaSteven ShakPeter KaufmanNancy DavidsonJulie GralowYan AsmannKarla Ballman Source Type: research

Expression of functional toll like receptor 4 in estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor-negative breast cancer
Conclusions: These findings suggest that TLR4 is expressed in a functional form in ER/PR-negative breast cancers. Studies regarding TLR4-antagonist therapies should be focusing on ER/PR-negative breast cancer particularly. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - September 22, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Meliha MehmetiRoni AllaouiCaroline BergenfelzLao SaalStephen EthierMartin JohanssonKarin JirströmKarin Leandersson Source Type: research

An ecological measure of immune-cancer colocalization as a prognostic factor for breast cancer
Conclusions: Our study demonstrates how ecological methods applied to the tumor microenvironment using routine histology can provide reproducible, quantitative biomarkers for identifying high-risk breast cancer patients. We found that the clinical value of immune-cancer interaction patterns is highly subtype-specific but substantial and independent to known clinicopathologic variables that mostly focused on cancer itself. Our approach can be developed into computer-assisted prediction based on histology samples that are already routinely collected. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - September 22, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Carlo MaleyKonrad KoelbleRachael NatrajanAthena AktipisYinyin Yuan Source Type: research

The influence of obesity on survival in early, high-risk breast cancer: results from the randomized SUCCESS A trial
IntroductionObese breast cancer patients have worse prognosis than normal weight patients, but the level at which obesity is prognostically unfavorable is unclear. Methods: This retrospective analysis was performed using data from the SUCCESS A trial, in which 3754 patients with high-risk early breast cancer were randomized to anthracycline- and taxane-based chemotherapy with or without gemcitabine. Patients were classified as underweight/normal weight (body mass index (BMI)  (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - September 18, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Peter WidschwendterThomas FriedlLukas SchwentnerNikolaus DeGregorioBernadette JaegerAmelie SchrammInga BekesMiriam DenizKrisztian LatoTobias WeissenbacherBernd KostUlrich AndergassenJulia JueckstockJulia NeugebauerElisabeth TrappPeter FaschingMatthias Bec Source Type: research

ALK alteration is a frequent event in aggressive breast cancers
IntroductionBreast cancer is the most common female malignancy worldwide and, despite improvements in treatment modalities, there are increased chances of recurrence and metastasis in a substantial number of cases and it remains one of the major causes of mortality among female cancer patients. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene has been found to be altered in several solid and hematologic tumors. We aimed to comprehensively study the prevalence of ALK expression, and changes in copy number and translocation in a large cohort of breast cancer cases in a Middle Eastern population. Methods: ALK protein expression was inve...
Source: Breast Cancer Research - September 17, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Abdul SirajShaham BegZeenath JehanSarita PrabhakaranMaqbool AhmedAzhar R.HussainFouad Al-DayelAsma TulbahDahish AjarimKhawla Al-Kuraya Source Type: research

Expression profiling of in vivo ductal carcinoma in situ progression models identified B cell lymphoma-9 as a molecular driver of breast cancer invasion
Conclusion: BCL9 is a molecular driver of DCIS invasive progression and may predispose to the development of basal like invasive breast cancers. As such, BCL9 has the potential to serve as a biomarker of high risk DCIS and as a therapeutic target for prevention of IDC. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - September 17, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hanan ElsarrajYan HongKelli ValdezWhitney MichaelsMarcus HookWilliam SmithJeremy ChienJason HerschkowitzMelissa TroesterMoriah BeckMarc InciardiJason GatewoodLisa MayTherese CusickMarilee McGinnessLawrence RicciFang FanOssama TawfikJeffrey MarksJennifer K Source Type: research

Erratum to: Humanization of the mouse mammary gland by replacement of the luminal layer with genetically engineered preneoplastic human cells
No description available (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - September 16, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Stephanie VerbekeElodie RichardElodie MonceauXenia SchmidtBenoit RousseauValerie VelascoDavid BernardHerve BonnefoiGaetan MacGroganRichard Iggo Source Type: research

Applicability of HIN-1, MGMT and RASSF1A promoter methylation as biomarkers for detecting field cancerization in breast cancer
IntroductionIt has been shown in some articles that genetic and epigenetic abnormalities cannot only be found in tumor tissues but also in adjacent regions that appear histologically normal. This phenomenon is metaphorically called field cancerization or field defect. Field cancerization is regarded as clinically significant because it is assumed to be an important factor in local recurrence of cancer. As the field showing these molecular abnormalities may not be removed completely by surgery, these changes might lead to neoplasms and subsequent transformation to a tumor. We aimed to investigate the applicability of the me...
Source: Breast Cancer Research - September 14, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Melanie SpitzwieserElisabeth HolzweberGeorg PfeilerStefan HackerMargit Cichna-Markl Source Type: research

A hypoxic ticket to the bone metastatic niche
Hypoxia is a well-characterized driver of aggressive cancer phenotypes, including metastasis. Accumulating evidence suggests that, in addition to having local effects, the consequences of tumour hypoxia can be systemic, leading to the formation of pre-metastatic niches that can later foster metastatic colonization in distant organs. Recent findings have demonstrated that such niches can also form in the bone, possibly revealing new avenues for therapeutic intervention. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - September 4, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sakari Vanharanta Source Type: research

Prosaposin activates the androgen receptor and potentiates resistance to endocrine treatment in breast cancer
Conclusion: The HOXC11 target gene, PSAP, is an AR activator which facilitates adaptation to a more invasive phenotype in vitro. These findings have particular relevance to the development of resistance to AI therapy which is an emerging clinical issue. PSAP is a secreted biomarker which has potential in identifying patients failing to exhibit sustained response to hormonal treatment. (Source: Breast Cancer Research)
Source: Breast Cancer Research - September 4, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Azlena AliLaura CreeveyYuan HaoDamian McCartanPeadar O¿GaoraArnold HillLeonie YoungMarie McIlroy Source Type: research