Non-consumptive predator effects on a primary greenhouse pest: predatory mite harassment reduces western flower thrips abundance and plant damage
This study demonstrates that NCEs of predatory mites can induce a trophic cascade by reducing pest feeding and fitness. Such beneficial effects of natural enemies are often overlooked in simple predation and efficacy studies. Graphical abstract (Source: Biological Control)
Source: Biological Control - December 25, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Intra-plant spatial interaction between Delphastus catalinae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and its effect on predation rates
Publication date: Available online 24 December 2015 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Diego F. Rincon, Luis A. Cañas, Casey W. Hoy Predictive models developed to provide recommendations about release rates and application methods for augmentative biological control often assume a constant probability of encounter between prey and predators within plants. We tested the assumed uniform probability of encounter between the coccinellid predator Delphastus catalinae and nymphs of the sweetpotato whitefly (SWF), Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), on tomato plants. We hypothesized that D. catalinae ...
Source: Biological Control - December 25, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Expression analysis of the α-1,2-mannosidase from the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma harzianum
Publication date: Available online 24 December 2015 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Paulo Roberto da Mota, Marcela Suriani Ribeiro, Raphaela de Castro Georg, Gabrielle Rosa Silva, Renato Gracciano de Paula, Roberto do Nascimento Silva, Cirano Jose Ulhoa A range of hydrolytic enzymes are involved in mycoparasitism, including chitinases, β-glucanases and proteases. Recent studies of Trichoderma harzianum interaction with certain phytopathogens have shown that other enzymes may also be involved in this mechanism, among them α-1,2-mannosidases. These enzymes play an essential role in glycoprotein recyc...
Source: Biological Control - December 25, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Biological control of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto, causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat, using formulated antagonists under field conditions in Argentina
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2015 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Juan M. Palazzini, Enrique Alberione, Adriana Torres, Christina Donat, Jürgen Köhl, Sofia Chulze Fusarium head blight (FHB) mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum is a devastating disease that causes extensive yield and quality losses to wheat in humid and semi-humid regions of the world. The biocontrol effect of two bacterial strains on FHB incidence, severity and deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation in wheat was evaluated in field trials during 2010 and 2011 at Marcos Juarez, Córdoba province, Argentina. Bacillus...
Source: Biological Control - December 23, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Web-based Outreach for Orchard Management Decision-Makers
Publication date: Available online 22 December 2015 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Wendy E. Jones, Ute Chambers, Angela Gadino, Jay F. Brunner The traditional role of extension has been to provide the bridge between research-generated knowledge and technology to stakeholders through instruction, practical demonstrations, and developing applications of existing, improved or novel practices and technology. However, the number of educators and extension specialists has been decreasing and their roles changing, while stakeholder groups have become more dependent on timely information to cope with rapid changes in m...
Source: Biological Control - December 23, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

A Multiyear Year Study of Three Plant Communities with Purple Loosestrife and Biological Control Agents in Virginia
Publication date: Available online 17 December 2015 Source:Biological Control Author(s): T.J. McAvoy, L.T. Kok, N. Johnson Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) native to Eurasia has become an invasive weed in North America since its introduction in the late eighteenth century. To control L. salicaria; Galerucella calmariensis L., G. pusilla Duftschmidt, and Hylobius transversovittatus Goeze were released at Coeburn (Sites 1 and 2) and Big Island, Virginia in 1992 and 1999, respectively. The biocontrol agents and plant community parameters were studied for 11 and 14 years at Big Island and Coeburn, respectively. T...
Source: Biological Control - December 18, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Testing the selectivity of pesticide effects on natural enemies in laboratory bioassays
Publication date: Available online 15 December 2015 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Kaushalya G. Amarasekare, Peter W. Shearer, Nicholas J. Mills The toxic effects of older classes of pesticides on natural enemies are typically acute and exposure usually occurs through direct contact with foliar residues. However, older chemistries are being replaced by newer classes of pesticides that can cause sublethal effects in addition to direct mortality. We developed a set of life table response protocols to quantify the effects of multiple routes of exposure to pesticides on individual-level life history parameters of pr...
Source: Biological Control - December 16, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

A perspective on the extension of research-based information to orchard management decision-makers: lessons learned and potential future directions
Publication date: Available online 15 December 2015 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Angela N. Gadino, Jay F. Brunner, Ute Chambers, Wendy E. Jones, Steve Castagnoli, Vincent P. Jones A central element of the Specialty Crop Research Initiative (SCRI) on ‘enhancing biological control in western orchards’ was to disseminate research-based information generated by the project for adoption and implementation by decision-makers. As the landscape of publicly supported extension and outreach has been changing, our goal was to employ effective and timely strategies that would provide a legacy of project inf...
Source: Biological Control - December 16, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Exacerbation of photosynthetic damage through increased heat-light stress resulting from Gargaphia decoris sap-feeding
Publication date: Available online 15 December 2015 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Blair W. Cowie, Marcus J. Byrne, Ed T.F. Witkowski, Nic Venter Solanum mauritianum (Bugweed) is one of the world’s worst ecological weeds, being targeted for biological control in South Africa since 1984. One of two promising biocontrol agents released against S. mauritianum is a sap-sucking lace bug, Gargaphia decoris (Hemiptera: Tingidae). There are few studies on physiological changes induced by feeding damage of biological control agents on their target weeds. Chlorophyll removal by G. decoris feeding caused metabolic i...
Source: Biological Control - December 16, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Plants from the Caatinga biome harbor endophytic Trichoderma species active in the biocontrol of pineapple fusariosis
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2015 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Jorge T. De Souza, Rafael O. Trocoli, Fernando P. Monteiro Fusariosis incited by Fusarium guttiforme is the main limiting factor for pineapple cultivation in Brazil and other South American countries. Disease management based on biological agents is desired because resistant varieties are not yet widespread through the producing areas and there is no information on the durability of the resistance. Fungicide application has led to the selection of resistant populations of the fungus in the field, besides the negative effects of th...
Source: Biological Control - December 13, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Efficacy of Steinernema carpocapsae plus fire gel applied as a single spray for control of the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2015 Source:Biological Control Author(s): David I. Shapiro-Ilan, Ted E. Cottrell, Russell F. Mizell, Dan L. Horton The efficacy of aboveground applications of entomopathogenic nematodes (Heterorhabditis spp. and Steinernema spp.) can be severely limited by the nematode’s susceptibility to UV radiation and desiccation. The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes, is a major pest of stone fruit; larvae attack trees aboveground by tunneling into the trunk and scaffold limbs. In previous research, S. carpocapsae, caused high levels of S. pictipes mortality when a ...
Source: Biological Control - December 13, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Optimization of a freeze-drying process for the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas spp. and its influence on viability, storability and efficacy
Publication date: Available online 10 December 2015 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Dietrich Stephan, Ana-Paula Matos Da Silva, Isabella L. Bisutti Our objective was to investigate the practicability of freeze-drying to formulate and stabilize pseudomonads. Using a not optimized freeze-drying protocol the viability of five Pseudomonas strains after freeze-drying ranged only between 2 and 10%. To improve the viability, three different freezing rates, three drying temperatures and 20 cryo-protective agents (CPAs) were compared. The viability after freeze-drying was particularly influenced by the CPAs. Especially, s...
Source: Biological Control - December 11, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Synergistic effect of Trichoderma-derived antifungal metabolites and cell wall degrading enzymes on enhanced biocontrol of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum
Publication date: Available online 8 December 2015 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Kandasamy Saravanakumar, Chuanjin Yu, Kai Dou, Meng Wang, Yaqian Li, Jie Chen Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is an important vegetable crop grown worldwide. However, its productivity is largely suppressed the phytopathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). We screened 100 isolates of Trichoderma as potential biocontrol agents against FOC. Both in vitro and in vivo methods were used, followed by the analysis of synergistic effect of cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) and its secondary metabolites. In addition, molecula...
Source: Biological Control - December 9, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Biocontrol potential of endophytic fungi in medicinal plants from Wuhan Botanical Garden in China
Publication date: Available online 8 December 2015 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Libo Xiang, Shuangjun Gong, Lijun Yang, Jianjun Hao, MinFeng Xue, FanSong Zeng, XueJiang Zhang, WenQi Shi, Hua Wang, Dazhao Yu Many medicinal plants possess antimicrobial activities, and have antagonistic endophytic fungi that help them protect from pathogen attack. The aim of this study was to examine endophytic fungi in traditional Chinese medicinal plants, and understand if these organisms have antimicrobial activities and they can be potentially used for biological control of plant diseases. A total of 208 endophytic fun...
Source: Biological Control - December 9, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Rhizosphere and endorhiza of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plant harbor bacteria with multifaceted beneficial effects
In conclusion, the B. subtilis CEN3 and B. cereus CEN5 strains analyzed here exert multiple PGP and antagonistic mechanisms, show positive root colonization capability, and represent an excellent option to be used as either potent bio-promoting or bio-control agents in crops such as rice. Graphical abstract (Source: Biological Control)
Source: Biological Control - December 9, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Two fungal endophytes reduce the severity of pitch canker disease in Pinus radiata seedlings
In this study, 154 endophyte isolates were selected from a collection of 546 fungi tested in a preliminary confrontation assay. These isolates were then tested against F. circinatum in an in vitro antagonism experiment. Four different types of indicators (length of the central axis of the colony of the pathogen, the shape coefficient, percentage inhibition of radial growth and percentage inhibition zone) were used to detect and quantify the antagonistic activity directed towards the pathogen by the endophytes. The six isolates that showed the most promising results were inoculated in the field, together with the pathogen, ...
Source: Biological Control - December 6, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Selecting non-target species for arthropod biological control agent host range testing: evaluation of a novel method
Publication date: Available online 2 December 2015 Source:Biological Control Author(s): B.I.P. Barratt, J.H. Todd, L.A. Malone Regulators often require risk assessment to ascertain biosafety of biocontrol agents before approval for release. Selecting the most informative non-target species for host range testing can be challenging. Here we compare traditional test list selection with a more objective method that selects species from a dataset of invertebrates from the receiving environment. A model, PRONTI (Priority Ranking of Non-Target Invertebrates) ranks species using five criteria: hazard, exposure, potential eco...
Source: Biological Control - December 4, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

A theoretical study on effects of cultivation management on biological pest control: A spatially explicit model
Publication date: Available online 1 December 2015 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Yusuke Ikegawa, Kotaro Mori, Makiko Ohasa, Ippei Fujita, Takeo Watanabe, Hideo Ezoe, Toshiyuki Namba Cultivation management to improve quality or yield of crops causes periodic disturbances in agricultural fields and increases mortality of arthropods. Thus, it may interfere with biological control of pests. An herbivorous pest thrips (Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom)) is a significant pest for strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) in a greenhouse and a polyphagous predatory thrips (Haplothrips brevitubus (Karny)) is its natural enemy....
Source: Biological Control - December 2, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Long Term Dynamics of Aphelinid Parasitoids Attacking Bemisia tabaci
Publication date: Available online 24 November 2015 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Steven E. Naranjo, Shujuan Li Aphelinid parasitoids are widely known natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), a serious pest of agriculture globally. Here we examine pest-parasitoid interactions and dynamics in Arizona cotton from 1996–2010, during which a classical biological control program was implemented. Two native species, Eretmocerus eremicus Rose and Zolnerowich and Encarsia meritoria (Gahan) were either largely or completely displaced by exotic Eretmocerus sp. (Ethiopia) and Encarsia sophia (Gahan) in the early...
Source: Biological Control - November 27, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Development and verification of SNP arrays to monitor hybridization between two host-associated strains of knotweed psyllid, Aphalara itadori
Publication date: Available online 19 November 2015 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Jeremy C. Andersen, Robert S. Bourchier, Fritzi S. Grevstad, Roy Van Driesche, Nicholas J. Mills Three species of invasive knotweeds (Fallopia japonica, F. sachalinensis, and F. x bohemica) cause extensive damage to riparian and roadside habitats in North America. Currently, two strains of the psyllid Aphalara itadori are being evaluated for introduction into the United States and Canada for the biological control of these knotweeds following the introduction of A. itadori into the United Kingdom. If approved and released, hybri...
Source: Biological Control - November 22, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Interspecific competition among Cotesia kazak, Microplitis croceipes, and Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), larval parasitoids of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in New Zealand
Publication date: Available online 21 November 2015 Source:Biological Control Author(s): G.P. Walker, F.H. MacDonald, A.R. Wallace, P.J. Cameron Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Hymenoptera; Braconidae) is a polyphagous parasitoid known to have an extremely wide host range, attacking larvae from at least 11 lepidopteran families. It was first detected in New Zealand in 1996 and spread rapidly, raising concerns that it may disrupt an integrated pest management program for Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) that relied on two introduced larval parasitoids: Cotesia kazak and Microplitis croceipes. A series of laborator...
Source: Biological Control - November 22, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The effect of an irrigated buckwheat cover crop on grape vine productivity, and beneficial insect and grape pest abundance in southern California
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2015 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Nicola A Irvin, Alison Bistline-East, Mark S. Hoddle The effect of an irrigated buckwheat cover crop on populations of beneficial insects and grape pests, vine growth, grape yield, and berry quality was investigated over one year in a commercial organic vineyard in southern California, USA. Buckwheat was grown in the spring and summer with additional irrigation that supplemented prevailing vine watering regimens. Treatments replicated four, three and six times respectively were: (1) buckwheat cover crop with supplemental irrigatio...
Source: Biological Control - November 22, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Developmental stage affects survival of the ectoparasitoid Tamarixia triozae exposed to the fungus Beauveria bassiana
In conclusion, biological control of B. cockerelli may require the synchronized use of high B. bassiana concentrations, applied only on T. triozae late pupal stage (8-12 days of development), in order to allow the parasitoid to survive and also achieve good overall pest control. Graphical abstract Highlights (Source: Biological Control)
Source: Biological Control - November 19, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Developing a strategy for using entomopathogenic nematodes to control the African black beetle (Heteronychus arator) in New Zealand pastures and investigating temperature constraints
Publication date: Available online 10 November 2015 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Michael J. Wilson, Derrick J. Wilson, Andrea Rodgers, Philippa J. Gerard The African black beetle (Heteronychus arator F.) is a pest of pastures in the North Island of New Zealand. Except during dispersal activity, adult beetles live in the soil and feed at the base of grass stems during spring and fall and to a lesser amount over-winter. Larvae develop over summer months feeding on the grass roots. We tested three life-stages of H. arator (first and third instar larvae and adults) for susceptibility to the four entomopathogenic ...
Source: Biological Control - November 13, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Nutrient amendments affect Trichoderma atroviride conidium production, germination and bioactivity
Publication date: Available online 10 November 2015 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Amir Daryaei, E. Eirian Jones, Travis R. Glare, Richard E. Falloon Trichoderma atroviride LU132, the active organism in two commercialised biological control products, was grown under different in vitro culture carbon to nitrogen ratios, to assess effects on conidium production, germination and bioactivity. Sucrose as a carbon source in agar-based growth media was adjusted to 4.2, 8.4, or 16.8 g/l carbon, and soy peptone as a nitrogen source to 0.03, 0.05, 0.11, 0.21, 0.42, 0.84, 1.68, or 3.36 g/l, to give C:N ratios in the growt...
Source: Biological Control - November 13, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Entomopathogenic nematodes induce systemic resistance in tomato against Spodoptera exigua, Bemisia tabaci and Pseudomonas syringae
Publication date: Available online 10 November 2015 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Ruisheng An, Diego Orellana, Larry P. Phelan, Luis Cañas, Parwinder S. Grewal Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are important biocontrol agents for soil-inhabiting insect pests in many high-value cropping systems. EPNs have also been shown to be antagonistic to plant-parasitic nematodes but the mechanisms are poorly understood. It has been recently discovered that soil application of EPNs can induce components of systemic resistance in hosta and Arabidopsis plants. Here, we hypothesized tha...
Source: Biological Control - November 13, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Landscape diversity enhances parasitism of cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) eggs by Trichogramma chilonis in cotton
This study provides a primary understanding of the relationship between landscape variables and ecosystem services for insect pest management in Chinese small farming systems. (Source: Biological Control)
Source: Biological Control - November 13, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Is induced systemic resistance the mechanism for control of black rot in Brassica oleracea by a Paenibacillus sp.?
This study has provided a starting point for further research at the molecular level to better understand the apparent systemic resistance induced by P16 in cabbage in response to Xcc infection. Graphical abstract (Source: Biological Control)
Source: Biological Control - November 13, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Does local habitat management or large-scale landscape composition alter the biocontrol services provided to pumpkin agroecosystems?
This study illustrates that patterns relating landscape and localized habitat management to crop pest predation are not constants, they can vary among years within a crop as well as among agricultural cropping systems. Graphical abstract (Source: Biological Control)
Source: Biological Control - November 13, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Improving the biocontrol efficacy of Pichia caribbica with phytic acid against postharvest blue mold and natural decay in apples
Publication date: January 2016 Source:Biological Control, Volume 92 Author(s): Gustav Komla Mahunu, Hongyin Zhang, Qiya Yang, Xiaoyun Zhang, Dandan Li, Yongxia Zhou Phytic acid integrated with Pichia caribbica or as separate treatments for the control of wound infections, spoilage of intact apple fruits and enzymatic activities were investigated. The combined treatment of P. caribbica and phytic acid (0.2% v/v) showed significant improvement in the control of Penicillium expansum infections on apples than either yeast or phytic acid alone. Disease incidence and lesion diameter in treated fruits were significantly l...
Source: Biological Control - November 13, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Biological control of tobacco bacterial wilt using Trichoderma harzianum amended bioorganic fertilizer and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae
In conclusion, a synergistic biological approach integrating application of Gm and BOF for TBW protection seems promising. (Source: Biological Control)
Source: Biological Control - November 13, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Integrated management of Fusarium crown rot of wheat using fungicide seed treatment, cultivar resistance, and induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR)
Publication date: January 2016 Source:Biological Control, Volume 92 Author(s): Ernesto A. Moya-Elizondo, Barry J. Jacobsen Fusarium crown rot (FCR) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a perennial problem for wheat producers worldwide. Integration of the different management tools was assessed to determine a new strategy to reduce FCR. Difenoconazole–mefenoxam fungicide seed treatment reduced FCR severity 29–50% in glasshouse trials, while seed treatment with Bacillus pumilis isolate 314-16-5 and Trichoderma harzianum T-22 provided control statistically different than the untreated or seed treated with Bacill...
Source: Biological Control - November 13, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Environmental drivers of trait changes in Photorhabdus luminescens
In this study the EPN symbiont Photorhabdus luminescens was monitored for the deterioration of three traits; inclusion body production, reproductive potential, and virulence, in three different nutritional environments; lipid liquid medium (LLM), nutrient broth (NB), and tryptic soy broth+yeast extract (TSY). Significant trait deterioration did not occur for any of the traits in any environment. There was an increase in inclusion body production in TSY. Additionally, there was variation in growth within NB and TSY sub-cultured population lines and one TSY sub-population line was less virulent than the other two. However, r...
Source: Biological Control - November 13, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Effects of habitat type and spatial scale on density dependent parasitism in Anagrus parasitoids of leafhopper eggs
Publication date: January 2016 Source:Biological Control, Volume 92 Author(s): Michal Segoli The ability of parasitoids to maintain a high rate of parasitism under varying conditions is considered crucial to their ability to control the populations of their hosts. Here, I tested parasitism rate by Anagrus parasitoids and its dependency on the density of Erythroneura leafhopper eggs at two spatial scales (leaf and field) and two habitat types (natural vs. agricultural). The rate of parasitism differed among field sites, increased across the season, and was similar in natural and agricultural sites. At the leaf scale, the...
Source: Biological Control - November 13, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Trichoderma metabolites as biological control agents against Phytophthora pathogens
In this study, metabolites from 128 Trichoderma isolates were extracted from liquid cultures using ethyl acetate and tested for their activities against seven Phytophthora isolates. Following preliminary analysis, eight Trichoderma isolates were selected for further tests. Among them, the metabolites from Trichoderma atroviride/petersenii (KACC, Korea Agricultural Culture Collection, 40557) and Trichoderma virens (KACC 40929) showed the strongest inhibitory activities against Phytophthora isolates. Treatment with KACC 40557 extract inhibited Phytophthora growth, induced defense-related genes, and caused plant hormonal chan...
Source: Biological Control - November 13, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Laboratory and field-based temperature-dependent development of a monophagous weevil: Implications for integrated weed management
Publication date: January 2016 Source:Biological Control, Volume 92 Author(s): Judith Hough-Goldstein, Ellen C. Lake, Kimberley J. Shropshire, Rebecca A. Moore, Vincent D’Amico The stem-boring weevil, Rhinoncomimus latipes Korotyaev (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was imported from Asia to North America and approved for release as a classical biological control agent for the invasive annual vine Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross (Polygonaceae) in 2004. Its impact on the weed has been somewhat variable, depending in part on environmental conditions. We reared R. latipes in environmental chambers at different temp...
Source: Biological Control - November 13, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Demography and parasitic effectiveness of Aphelinus asychis reared from Sitobion avenae as a biological control agent of Myzus persicae reared on chili pepper and cabbage
Publication date: January 2016 Source:Biological Control, Volume 92 Author(s): Sheng-Yin Wang, Hsin Chi, Tong-Xian Liu To develop a bank plant system for the biological control of vegetable aphids, we used wheat, Triticum aestivum L., as a host plant to rear the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae Fabricius, as an alternative host for rearing the parasitoid Aphelinus asychis Walker. A. asychis reared from S. avenae were allowed to parasitize second instar Myzus persicae nymphs feeding on chili pepper and cabbage plants. We compared the life history and life table parameters of A. asychis, including development time, ...
Source: Biological Control - November 13, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Combined use of entomopathogenic fungi and their extracts for the control of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
Publication date: January 2016 Source:Biological Control, Volume 92 Author(s): G. Resquín-Romero, I. Garrido-Jurado, E. Quesada-Moraga Both the virulence and insecticidal activities of the crude extracts of 26 isolates of the entomopathogenic mitosporic ascomycetes Metarhizium sp. and Beauveria sp. (Ascomycota, Hypocreales) were evaluated against the second-instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a very harmful polyphagous insect pest. Although all isolates caused infection when the second-instar S. littoralis larvae were immersed in the conidial suspensions, only four isola...
Source: Biological Control - November 13, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Compatibility of soil-dwelling predators and microbial agents and their efficacy in controlling soil-dwelling stages of western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis
Publication date: January 2016 Source:Biological Control, Volume 92 Author(s): Taro Saito, Michael Brownbridge Western flower thrips (WFT) generally pupate in the soil. This laboratory study was designed to examine the compatibility of soil-dwelling predators with microbial biocontrol agents and assess their combined efficacy against pupating WFT, with a view to their integrated use. The following commercially available biocontrol agents were evaluated: a rove beetle, Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz); predatory mites, Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Womersley) and Gaeolaelaps gillespiei Beaulieu; entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium ...
Source: Biological Control - November 13, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Predation by Neoseiulus cucumeris and Amblyseius swirskii on Thrips palmi and Frankliniella schultzei on cucumber
Publication date: January 2016 Source:Biological Control, Volume 92 Author(s): Garima Kakkar, Vivek Kumar, Dakshina R. Seal, Oscar E. Liburd, Philip A. Stansly Thrips palmi Karny and Frankliniella schultzei Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) are serious pests of various crops of economic importance across the globe. Two species of phytoseiid mites were evaluated as potential predators of T. palmi and F. schultzei in the laboratory, a shade house and a commercial cucumber production field. In a no-choice lab bioassay, both Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus cucumeris Oudemans (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiida...
Source: Biological Control - November 13, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Genotyping and identification of broad spectrum antimicrobial volatiles in black pepper root endophytic biocontrol agent, Bacillus megaterium BP17
Publication date: January 2016 Source:Biological Control, Volume 92 Author(s): Vibhuti Munjal, Agisha Valiya Nadakkakath, Neelam Sheoran, Aditi Kundu, Vibina Venugopal, Kesavan Subaharan, Suseelabhai Rajamma, Santhosh J. Eapen, Aundy Kumar Black pepper root endophytic Bacillus BP17 was identified as Bacillus megaterium (BmBP17) by a panel of phenotypic and genotypic methods. BmBP17 was found genetically close to industrially significant B. megaterium WSH002 and divergent from clinical Bacillus strains. Tracking with genetically tagged BmBP17 revealed its endophytism in diverse plant species such as Piper nigrum,...
Source: Biological Control - November 13, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Mechanisms underlying the innate attraction of an aphidophagous coccinellid to coriander plants: implications for conservation biological control
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2015 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Pedro H.B. Togni, Madelaine Venzon, Caroline A. Muniz, Elem F. Martins, Angelo Pallini, Edison R. Sujii Intercropping tomato plants with coriander is known to attract natural enemies of aphids, mostly coccinellids, but the cues involved in such attraction are not yet known. We investigated why coriander plants attract Cycloneda sanguinea, a generalist aphid predator. We performed a series of controlled experiments with coriander plants in vegetative and reproductive stages to examine the cues attracting C. sanguinea adults and la...
Source: Biological Control - October 10, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Multi-organ screening of efficient bacterial control agents against two major pathogens of grapevine
Publication date: January 2016 Source:Biological Control, Volume 92 Author(s): R. Haidar, A. Deschamps, J. Roudet, C. Calvo-Garrido, E. Bruez, P. Rey, M. Fermaud Botrytis cinerea and Neofusicoccum parvum are devastating fungal pathogens of grapevines. A total of 46 bacterial strains isolated from grapevines were screened for their antagonistic activity toward B. cinerea, which causes gray mold, and N. parvum, which causes cankers, trunk diseases and berry rot. In vivo screening using detached berries and leaf discs and in planta screening using growing grapevine cuttings were compared to select the most efficient ...
Source: Biological Control - October 8, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Cowpea resistance induced against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum by crustaceous chitosan and by biomass and chitosan obtained from Cunninghamella elegans
Publication date: January 2016 Source:Biological Control, Volume 92 Author(s): Lúcia Raquel Ramos Berger, Newton Pereira Stamford, Lilia Gomes Willadino, Delson Laranjeira, Marcos Antonio Barbosa de Lima, Samuel Marcus Montarroyos Malheiros, Wanderson José de Oliveira, Thayza Christina Montenegro Stamford Pathogenic microorganisms increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the response can cause oxidative damage and even death in a plant. Plant resistance inducers activate antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX). The aims of this study were to evaluate the ...
Source: Biological Control - September 30, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The capability of the fungus Mucor circinelloides to maintain parasiticidal activity after the industrial feed pelleting enhances the possibilities of biological control of livestock parasites
Publication date: January 2016 Source:Biological Control, Volume 92 Author(s): F.L. Arroyo, M.S. Arias, C.F. Cazapal-Monteiro, J.A. Hernández, J. Suárez, S. Miguélez, A. Romasanta, R. Sánchez-Andrade, A. Paz-Silva The ability of the spores of the ovicide fungus Mucor circinelloides to resist the industrial manufacturing of pelleted feed and retain their biological and parasitological activities has been tested. Firstly, survival of M. circinelloides spores at elevated temperatures was in vitro assayed. In a second assay, the spores of M. circinelloides were added in the mixing phase o...
Source: Biological Control - September 29, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Testing various biocontrol agents against the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in cucumber plants identifies a combination of Syncephalastrum racemosum and Paecilomyces lilacinus as being most effective
Publication date: January 2016 Source:Biological Control, Volume 92 Author(s): Wen-Kun Huang, Jiang-Kuan Cui, Shi-Ming Liu, Ling-An Kong, Qing-Song Wu, Huan Peng, Wen-Ting He, Jian-Hua Sun, De-Liang Peng The root-knot nematode (RKN) (Meloidogyne incognita) is one of the most important pathogens on greenhouse-cultivated cucumber in northern China, and chemical nematicides are neither ecofriendly nor cost-effective. Thus, more benign and acceptable biological control measures for this destructive pathogen are required. The in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activities of Syncephalastrum racemosum, Paecilomyces lilac...
Source: Biological Control - September 29, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Parasitoid learning: Current knowledge and implications for biological control
Publication date: November 2015 Source:Biological Control, Volume 90 Author(s): G. Giunti, A. Canale, R.H. Messing, E. Donati, C. Stefanini, J.P. Michaud, G. Benelli Many hymenopterous parasitoids are biological control agents that contribute significant mortality to economically important arthropod pests of agriculture, forestry, and natural ecosystems. These critically important species forage for food, mates and hosts in complex environments, relying on a variety of stimuli including visual, olfactory, tactile and vibrational cues. In these contexts, learning is often key to optimizing fitness. Here we review c...
Source: Biological Control - September 26, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

pH and water activity in culture media affect biological control activity of Trichoderma atroviride against Rhizoctonia solani
This study has demonstrated that manipulation of culture conditions as such may improve conidium fitness (quantity and quality). However, these factors may not have caused independently effects on the fungus. Effects of physical growth conditions (besides nutritional requirements) are likely to be important for optimum production of biocontrol agents based on T. atroviride LU132, and other similar biocontrol agents. Graphical abstract (Source: Biological Control)
Source: Biological Control - September 25, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Endophytes from wheat as biocontrol agents against tan spot disease
Publication date: January 2016 Source:Biological Control, Volume 92 Author(s): S. Larran, M.R. Simón, M.V. Moreno, M.P. Santamarina Siurana, A. Perelló Endophytes from wheat cultivars isolated in Buenos Aires province, Argentina, were assessed for their potential as biocontrol agents against Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Died.) Drechsler (anamorph Drechslera tritici-repentis) (Died.) Shoem (Dtr), the causal agent of tan spot of wheat. Endophytes were screened using dual culture techniques and examining the effect on growth, sporulation and the antifungal activity in greenhouse assays. The most of endop...
Source: Biological Control - September 21, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Ability of Pythium oligandrum strains to protect Vitis vinifera L., by inducing plant resistance against Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, a pathogen involved in Esca, a grapevine trunk disease
Publication date: January 2016 Source:Biological Control, Volume 92 Author(s): A. Yacoub, J. Gerbore, N. Magnin, P. Chambon, M.-C. Dufour, M.-F. Corio-Costet, R. Guyoneaud, P. Rey Biological control of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, a pathogen involved in Esca, a grapevine trunk wood disease, was performed using the oomycete, Pythium oligandrum. Three 4-month greenhouse assays showed that necrosis of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon cuttings caused by P. chlamydospora was significantly reduced (40–50%) when P. oligandrum colonized the plant root systems. The expression of a set of 22 grapevine defense...
Source: Biological Control - September 6, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research