Antioxidative enzymes and substances involve in the activity of improving the oxidative tolerance of Pichia caribbica by ascorbic acid
Publication date: Available online 28 February 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Qiya Yang, Yulin Li, Chaolan Li, Hongyin Zhang, Zhenhui Jiang, Xiaoyun Zhang, Boateng Nana Adwoa Serwah, Gustav Komla Mahunu, Shuyun Zhu The purpose of this research was to investigate the mechanisms involved in improving oxidative tolerance of Pichia caribbica by using ascorbic acid (VC). VC is noted for its ability to enhance oxidative tolerance. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of VC on the cellular oxidative damage as well as antioxidative enzymes activities of P. caribbica under oxidative stress. The results indicat...
Source: Biological Control - March 1, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Potential of fumigation of orange fruits with volatile organic compounds produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to control citrus black spot disease at postharvest
Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Leonardo Toffano, Mauricio Batista Fialho, Sérgio Florentino Pascholati Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from microbial origin are relevant in biological interactions and are considered promising environmentally safer fumigant agents to control postharvest diseases of fruits. The antagonist yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces VOCs able to inhibit the development of plant pathogens, including the filamentous fungus Phyllosticta citricarpa, causal agent of citrus black spot. Thus, it was evaluated the effectiveness of VOCs p...
Source: Biological Control - February 24, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Hydrogen cyanide, which contributes to Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain PA23 biocontrol, is upregulated in the presence of glycine
We present a model depicting how these regulators, in combination with media amendments, impact PA23 hcn expression. (Source: Biological Control)
Source: Biological Control - February 24, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Transcriptional analysis of the interaction between the oomycete biocontrol agent, Pythium oligandrum, and the roots of Vitis vinifera L
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): A. Yacoub, J. Gerbore, N. Magnin, R. Haidar, S. Compant, P. Rey The oomycete, Pythium oligandrum, has received considerable attention as a potential biocontrol agent against various pathogenic fungi of plants, including grapevine. However, much remains underexplored on the interaction between grapevine and P. oligandrum. In the present study, following root colonization with P. oligandrum, grape-genome microarray analyses showed significant changes in the grapevine root transcriptome. The main changes concerned the genes involved in t...
Source: Biological Control - February 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The optimal age and radiation dose for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs as hosts for mass-reared Fopius arisanus (Sonan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Pumo Cai, Xiaohong Gu, Mingyan Yao, Hehe Zhang, Jun Huang, Atif Idress, Qinge Ji, Jiahua Chen, Jianquan Yang Fopius arisanus (Sonan) is a dominant egg-pupal parasitoid of many fruit fly pests. Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is one of F. arisanus' hosts and is the usual host used for mass rearing F. arisanus. To obtain parasitoids without hosts suitable for the release of F. arisanus in the field—skipping the need to separate parasitoids and unparasitized hosts—radiation (15, 20, 25 and 30 Gy) was applied to B. dorsalis eggs ...
Source: Biological Control - February 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Symbiont-conferred resistance to parasitoids in aphids – challenges for biological control
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Christoph Vorburger Parasitoid wasps are frequently employed to control pest aphids in greenhouse crops. However, aphids can be infected with heritable bacterial endosymbionts that strongly increase their resistance to parasitoid wasps. These defensive symbionts have the potential to compromise the effectiveness of biological control. Unfortunately, we still lack the necessary studies to assess their effects at the scale of greenhouses, but laboratory experiments indicate clearly that defensive symbionts represent a problem. Selection...
Source: Biological Control - February 13, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Conditioning the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis megidis by pre-application storage improves efficacy against black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) at low and moderate temperatures
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Adam Guy, Michael Gaffney, Apostolos Kapranas, Christine T. Griffin Entomopathogenic nematodes (Heterorhabditis spp. and Steinernema spp.) are effective biocontrol agents for several insect pests, but their use is restricted by environmental constraints such as temperature and by their high cost. Use of nematodes against vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) is restricted by low temperatures prevailing at the time when control is required. Here we investigate the potential for “conditioning” – storing nematode infectiv...
Source: Biological Control - February 13, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Predicting spillover risk to non-target plants pre-release: Bikasha collaris a potential biological control agent of Chinese tallowtree (Triadica sebifera)
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Gregory S. Wheeler, James G. Duncan, Susan Wright Quarantine host range tests accurately predict direct risk of biological control agents to non-target species. However, a well-known direct effect of biological control of weeds releases is spillover damage to non-target species. Spillover damage may occur when the population of agents achieves outbreak densities, depletes the target weed, and some feeding occurs on non-target species. Similar to the assessment of direct risks to non-target species, we assessed the risk of spillover da...
Source: Biological Control - February 13, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Organic management of olive orchards increases the predation rate of overwintering pupae of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae)
In this study, we estimated the effect of predators on overwintering pupae sentinels considering both local and landscape variables in 18 olive orchards. We selected the experimental olive orchards in a Mediterranean-type environment, which had, as adjacent land use type olive, wood or Mediterranean garigue. In addition, we considered as local variables the distance of each pupae experimental unit from the edge with the semi-natural habitat, and the management of the fields while landscape scale variable considered the composition in semi-natural habitat type of the surrounding environment in buffer of 250 and 500 m radius...
Source: Biological Control - February 9, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The effect of photoperiod and light quality on Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur (Hemiptera: Miridae) nymphal development, fecundity and longevity
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): I. Nissinen Anne, M. Pinto-Zevallos Delia, Jauhiainen Lauri, Vänninen Irene Development time of immatures, fecundity, longevity and egg hatching of the predatory bug Macrolophus pygmaeus were studied over three years under artificial lighting in growth chambers to assess if light quality and photoperiod could explain its poor establishment in winter time tomato crops at northern latitudes. In the first year, the effect of photoperiod was assessed using fluorescent lamps (FLs) at 16L:8D, 13L:11D, 11L:13D and 8L:16D. In the second y...
Source: Biological Control - February 7, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Biological control of weed patches by seed predators; responses to seed density and exposure time
Publication date: Available online 1 February 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Heike Pannwitt, Paula R. Westerman, Friederike de Mol, Christian Selig, Bärbel Gerowitt Weeds typically occur in patches of different sizes and densities. Post-dispersal seed predators contribute to biological weed control by removing newly produced weed seeds before they can enter the seedbank. Seed predation can limit weed population growth if seed predators respond to seed densities so that seed predation is highest within weed patches.. To determine whether this relationship holds for Echinochloa crus-galli seeds in corn field...
Source: Biological Control - February 2, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Phylogeny within the Anacardiaceae predicts host range of potential biological control agents of Brazilian peppertree
Publication date: Available online 2 February 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): G.S. Wheeler, P.T. Madeira Predicting the host range of a biological control agent prior to release is one of the most important steps in the development of new agents. Knowing which species are most at risk of this non-target damage improves the predictability of these tests. To predict safety, the potential agent is exposed to a subset of the entire flora that represents valued native, agricultural and ornamental plant species. The list of plants includes those species that are the closest relatives to the target weed. To identify th...
Source: Biological Control - February 2, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

An endophytic Beauveria bassiana strain increases spike production in bread and durum wheat plants and effectively controls cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) larvae
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Antonio R. Sánchez-Rodríguez, Silvia Raya-Díaz, Ángel María Zamarreño, José María García-Mina, María Carmen del Campillo, Enrique Quesada-Moraga Entomopathogenic fungi have traditionally been assumed to help regulate insect populations. However, some hypocrealean ascomycetes, such as Beauveria bassiana, play other, poorly understood ecological roles that might be useful in developing novel strategies for both increased crop production and crop protection. The primary...
Source: Biological Control - January 29, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Susceptibility of the biocontrol fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Trichoderma asperellum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) to imbibitional damage is driven by conidial vigor
Publication date: Available online 27 January 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Marcos Faria, Irene Martins, Daniela A. Souza, Gabriel M. Mascarin, Rogério B. Lopes Imbibition damage (ID) is a phenomenon characterized by the death of dehydrated conidia when immersed in water at temperatures ⩽ ca. 25 °C, as a result of the transition in the conformation of the plasma membrane in the presence of free water. In the present study we evaluated the susceptibility to ID of eight major species or varieties of fungi used in biological control programs in several countries (Isaria farinosa, I. fumosorosea, I. j...
Source: Biological Control - January 27, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Can we use entomopathogenic fungi as endophytes for dual biological control of insect pests and plant pathogens?
This article reviews the literature currently available on the endophytic colonization of different host plants by fungal entomopathogens, and summarizes the negative effects of such colonization on insect pests and plant pathogens that have been reported to date. It also addresses the possible mechanisms of protection conferred by endophytic fungal entomopathogens and explores the potential use of these fungi as dual microbial control agents against both insect and pathogen pests. Moreover, interactions amongst endophytic fungal entomopathogens and other endophytes are discussed. Finally, current limitations and future re...
Source: Biological Control - January 26, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Reducing infection and secondary inoculum of Phytophthora ramorum on Viburnum tinus roots grown in potting medium amended with Trichoderma asperellum isolate 04-22
Publication date: Available online 25 January 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Timothy L. Widmer, Nina Shishkoff Phytophthora ramorum is a concern of the ornamental nursery business because it is implicated in the movement on ornamental plants such as rhododendron and viburnum. Since there is a soil phase that infects the roots, above-ground symptoms are not often manifested and easily detected. Government agencies require that a P. ramorum-positive nursery be placed under some type of quarantine until it can demonstrate that it has mitigated P. ramorum. Typical methods of mitigation are often expensive, harmful ...
Source: Biological Control - January 25, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Title: An endophytic Beauveria bassiana strain increases spike production in bread and durum wheat plants and effectively controls cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) larvae
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Antonio R. Sánchez-Rodríguez, Silvia Raya-Díaz, Ángel María Zamarreño, José María García-Mina, María Carmen del Campillo, Enrique Quesada-Moraga Entomopathogenic fungi have traditionally been assumed to help regulate insect populations. However, some hypocrealean ascomycetes, such as Beauveria bassiana, play other, poorly understood ecological roles that might be useful in developing novel strategies for both increased crop production and crop protection. The primary...
Source: Biological Control - January 24, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Lure and infect strategy for application of entomopathogenic fungus for the control of bean flower thrips in cowpea
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): David K. Mfuti, Saliou Niassy, Sevgan Subramanian, Hannalne du Plessis, Sunday Ekesi, Nguya K. Maniania The efficacy of spot spray and cover spray applications of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorok. in combination with the thrips attractant Lurem-TR (methyl-isonicotinate) was compared in field experiments for the management of bean flower thrips (BFT), Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybom), on a cowpea crop in two seasons (June-December 2014). Treatments were applied five days after the placement of Lurem-TR in the field. During the fi...
Source: Biological Control - January 24, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Surveys in Argentina and Uruguay reveal Cyrtobagous salviniae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) populations adapted to survive temperate climates in southeastern USA
The objectives of this study were to determine the regions of South America that are climatically similar to S. molesta habitats in temperate Louisiana, conduct surveys for new provenances of C. salviniae in these regions, establish the phylogenetic relationships among C. salviniae provenances, and compare the cold tolerance of populations of C. salviniae from Louisiana, USA and the Paraná-Uruguay Delta, South America. Foreign exploration of the Lower Paraná-Uruguay Delta region resulted in the first record of C. salviniae in Uruguay, and revealed the most southern distribution of this species in Argentina an...
Source: Biological Control - January 24, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Establishment, dispersal and impact of the flower-galling mite Aceria lantanae (Acari: Trombidiformes: Eriophyidae) on Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) in South Africa
This study was therefore conducted to determine the establishment, seasonal performance and dispersal rate of A. lantanae in the aforementioned South African provinces and neighbouring Swaziland. The effect of A. lantanae along with the other previously-established biological control agents on inflorescence and seed production of susceptible L. camara varieties was determined by insecticide exclusion experiments in the field. Aceria lantanae became established at 58.6% of the original release sites located in the four provinces. The mite has also established widely within the geographic range of L. camara in South Africa a...
Source: Biological Control - January 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Biological control of Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) in the northeastern United States using an exotic parasitic nematode
Publication date: Available online 18 January 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): David W. Williams, Ann E. Hajek The woodwasp Sirex noctilio is a devastating killer of pines in the southern hemisphere. Over the 20th Century, it has invaded exotic pine plantations in New Zealand, Australia, South America, and South Africa successively. In response to this woodwasp threat, in the 1960-70s CSIRO in Australia launched a major campaign of exploration for biological control agents in Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, the presumed indigenous range of S. noctilio. The most promising natural enemy discovered was a ...
Source: Biological Control - January 18, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Field efficacy of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae), Metarhizium brunneum (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), and chemical insecticide combinations for Diabrotica virgifera virgifera larval management
Publication date: Available online 18 January 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Hannes Rauch, Bernhardt M. Steinwender, Johanna Mayerhofer, Lene Sigsgaard, Jørgen Eilenberg, Jürg Enkerli, Roland Zelger, Hermann Strasser A two-year field study using a blend of entomopathogens in conjunction with chemical insecticides was carried out to determine to which extent they affect western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, survival, maize root damages, and grain yield and to assess the potential for side-effects on natural arthropod enemies. The products tested were conducted on a maize crop a...
Source: Biological Control - January 18, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Cold tolerance of Trissolcus japonicus and T. cultratus, potential biological control agents of Halyomorpha halys, the brown marmorated stink bug
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Erica Nystrom Santacruz, Robert Venette, Christine Dieckhoff, Kim Hoelmer, Robert L. Koch Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is native to Asia and has become a severe agricultural and nuisance pest in the U.S. Therefore, foreign exploration was conducted in Asia to identify potential classical biological control agents. Several Trissolcus spp. (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) parasitize H. halys eggs in Asia and are being evaluated for potential release in the U.S. Since H. halys has invaded regions that experience sub-...
Source: Biological Control - January 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Biocontrol effects of Brevibacillus laterosporus AMCC100017 on potato common scab and its impact on rhizosphere bacterial communities
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Shengfu Chen, Mingshuo Zhang, Jianyu Wang, Da Lv, Yanfang Ma, Bo Zhou, Bing Wang Potato common scab (PCS) is an economically important disease caused by Streptomyces spp. which occurs in potato planting areas worldwide. In this paper, pot experiments were conducted in the greenhouse to evaluate the biocontrol effects of Brevibacillus laterosporus AMCC100017 on potato common scab, and to assess the impact of the biocontrol bacterium on soil bacterial communities at four plant growth stages of potato. Results revealed that B. laterosporu...
Source: Biological Control - January 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Host specificity of Aphelinus species considered for introduction to control Diuraphis noxia
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Keith R. Hopper, Kathryn Lanier, Joshua H. Rhoades, Dominique Coutinot, Guy Mercadier, Nathalie Ramualde, Marie Roche, James B. Woolley, John M. Heraty Diuraphis noxia, the Russian wheat aphid, has become a major pest of wheat and barley since first being detected in the western USA in 1986. However, it is rarely a pest in Eurasia, its area of origin, and research has shown that natural enemies can limit its abundance there. Among the most important of natural enemies of D. noxia in Eurasia are parasitoids in the genus Aphelinus. Here ...
Source: Biological Control - January 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Trichoderma harzianum T1A constitutively secretes proteins involved in the biological control of Guignardia citricarpa
Publication date: Available online 10 January 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Fernanda Blauth de Lima, Carina Félix, Nádia Osório, Artur Alves, Rui Vitorino, Pedro Domingues, Rute.T. da Silva Ribeiro, Ana Cristina Esteves Citrus Black Spot caused by the fungus Guignardia citricarpa has an enormous economic impact. However, studies addressing the reduction or replacement of conventional fungicides for its control are scarce. Trichoderma harzianum is the most widely used species as a biological control agent. Nevertheless, only scarce reports describe the antagonism between T. harzianum and G....
Source: Biological Control - January 12, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Low Labor “in vivo” Mass Rearing Method for Entomopathogenic Nematodes
We describe in this paper an entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) “in vivo” mass rearing method, not based on the White trap concept, which is both “low technology” and “low labor”, reducing the cost of producing large quantities of EPN IJ to the level conducive for use in an area-wide biocontrol program. Rearing temperature has a significant impact on the number of EPN IJ produced per host larvae and the IJ viability at any point in time. Emerged IJs remain within a non-aqueous, high humidity environment with improved oxygen access without extra steps or equipment. Depending on storage condi...
Source: Biological Control - January 9, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Interaction between temperature and water nutrient levels on the fitness of Eccritotarsus catarinensis (Hemiptera: Miridae), a biological control agent of water hyacinth
Publication date: Available online 5 January 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Mohannad Ismail, Stephen.G. Compton, Margot Brooks Fitness traits of insect herbivores of aquatic weeds may change with environmental conditions including temperature and water nutrient levels. Both of these factors are likely to increase due to changes in global weather patterns and human activity. We tested the interaction of temperature and nutrient status on the fitness of Eccritotarsus catarinensis, a biocontrol agent against the invasive aquatic weed, water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes. Several life history traits were evaluated ...
Source: Biological Control - January 5, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Direct and indirect effects of the spatial context on the natural biocontrol of an invasive crop pest
The objectives of this study were to: 1) Evaluate the relative influence of natural enemies and spatial context on the natural biocontrol of the soybean aphid (direct effects), and 2) Determine the effect of the spatial context on the guild of natural enemies best associated with the natural biocontrol (indirect effects). Regarding the first objective, our results showed that, in 2011 (high infestation), the soybean aphid natural biocontrol was mainly explained by a shared effect of natural enemies (entomopathogenic fungi, predators, functional diversity) and spatial context (presence of buckthorn, proportion of soybean, c...
Source: Biological Control - January 5, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Flowers of Apiaceous species as sources of pollen for adults of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera)
The objectives of the present work were: (i) to evaluate the capacity of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) adults to feed on pollen of three different Apiaceous species (dill, coriander and fennel), and (ii) to evaluate the effects of the provision of Apiaceous flowers on the longevity and reproductive parameters of adult insects under laboratory conditions. C. externa adults (one male and one female) were placed in a polypropylene cage containing a cluster of approximately 200 flowers from one of the three test species, and the oviposited eggs were counted and collected every three days. Egg viability was determined and samples...
Source: Biological Control - December 29, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Recovery and Monitoring Methods for Parasitoids Released Against Emerald Ash Borer
Publication date: Available online 24 December 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Michael S. Parisio, Juli R. Gould, John D. Vandenberg, Leah S. Bauer, Melissa K. Fierke Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, EAB) is an invasive forest pest and the target of an extensive biological control program designed to mitigate EAB-caused ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality. Since 2007, hymenopteran parasitoids of EAB from northeastern Asia have been released as biological control agents in North America, including Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an egg parasitoid; Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Euloph...
Source: Biological Control - December 25, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Seasonal Shifts in Ground Beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Species and Functional Composition Maintain Prey Consumption in western Oregon agricultural landscapes.
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Michael C. Russell, John Lambrinos, Elizabeth Records, Gwendolyn Ellen Ground Beetles (Carabidae: Coleoptera) are generalist predators that contribute to biological control of agricultural pests. Different ground beetle species vary in terms of size, feeding habits, and season of adult and larval activity. Species with similar biology and feeding habits may form a functional group if they are also similar in their effect on the overall risk to a potential prey item in an area. Farm surveys and laboratory studies were conducted to test...
Source: Biological Control - December 24, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Addressing the Needs for Improving Classical Biological Control Programs in the USA
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Joseph M. DiTomaso, Robert A. Van Steenwyk, Robert M. Nowierski, Laura A. Meyerson, Otto C. Doering, Eric Lane, Phil E. Cowan, Kenneth Zimmerman, Michael J. Pitcairn, Christopher P. Dionigi For years, the development of classical biological has proven to be the most cost-effective and environmentally safe management tool for invasive species. Despite this, in the United States there are a number of political, regulatory and institutional challenges associated with the discovery stage, pre-release phase, and post-release monitoring tha...
Source: Biological Control - December 24, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Resistant and susceptible tomato genotypes have direct and indirect effects on Podisus nigrispinus preying on Tuta absoluta larvae
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Daline Benites Bottega, Bruno Henrique Sardinha de Souza, Nara Elisa Lobato Rodrigues, Wellington Ivo Eduardo, José Carlos Barbosa, Arlindo Leal Boiça Júnior Studies that focus on understanding complex interactions among resistant plants, herbivores, and their natural enemies are fundamental to elucidating whether plant herbivore defenses impose beneficial, adverse, or neutral effects on natural enemies. The impacts of resistant plant genotypes on natural enemies can determine the feasibility of integrating host p...
Source: Biological Control - December 23, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Reproductive biology of Holepyris sylvanidis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae)
Publication date: Available online 7 December 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Marco Amante, Matthias Schöller, Ian CW Hardy, Agatino Russo Holepyris sylvanidis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) is reported as a cosmopolitan parasitoid of coleopteran including a major pest of stored products, the confused flour beetle Tribolium confusum. The reproductive biology, and hence biocontrol potential of H. sylvanidis is relatively little known. Here we describe and evaluate aspects of egg size, immature development, adult mating behaviour, pre-oviposition time, fecundity, host attack and use, and adult longevity. Our key f...
Source: Biological Control - December 8, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Connecting natural enemy metrics to biological control activity for aphids in California walnuts
In this study, we evaluated natural enemy metrics to see how well they performed in predicting current and future biological control of Chromaphis juglandicola in California walnut orchards. Metrics based on more direct measures of natural enemy activity, such as percent parasitism and predator-prey ratio, were effective indicators of current biological control activity. Of the natural enemy metrics based on biodiversity, only evenness had a significant relationship with current aphid density, and only in organic orchards. There were two apparent negative relationships between the seasonal change in aphid density and natur...
Source: Biological Control - December 8, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Evaluating combined use of a parasitoid and a zoophytophagous bug for biological control of the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli
Publication date: Available online 7 December 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): María de Lourdes Ramírez-Ahuja, Esteban Rodríguez-Leyva, J. Refugio Lomeli-Flores, Alfonso Torres-Ruiz, Ariel W. Guzmán-Franco Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc.) is an important pest of solanaceous crops and a vector of the pathogen Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum. Biological control of this pest has been attempted using either the parasitoid, Tamarixia triozae (Burks), or the predatory bug, Dicyphus hesperus (Knight), but never in combination. Through a series of laboratory experiments we investigated thei...
Source: Biological Control - December 8, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Characterizing antagonistic activities and host compatibility (via simple endophyte-calli test) of endophytes as biocontrol agents of Ganoderma boninense
This study characterized the antagonistic activities of five fungal endophytes (Aspergillus calidoustous BTF07, Penicillium citrinum BTF08, Trichoderma asperellum T2, Diaporthe phaseolorum WAA02, Diaporthe phaseolorum MIF01) and evaluated their endophyte-host compatibility with the host plant (oil palm). The antifungal activities of the endophytes towards Ganoderma boninense (GB) were first established using the dual culture test, revealing antagonistic nature of endophytes via production of non-volatiles, volatiles and competitive exclusion. Endophyte-host compatibility was then assessed using a simple but rapid endophyte...
Source: Biological Control - December 4, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Biological activity of the lipopeptide-producing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PGPBacCA1 on common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. pathogens
Publication date: Available online 2 December 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): María Julia Torres, Carolina Pérez Brandan, Daniela C. Sabaté, Gabriela Petroselli, Rosa Erra-Balsells, Marcela Carina Audisio Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PGPBacCA1 was studied regarding its aptitude to protect common bean seeds from their intrinsic pathogens. Also, the inhibition of different environmental phytopathogenic fungi was tested. Two cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. were evaluated: cv. Nag (black bean) and cv. Alubia (white bean). Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp. and Fusarium spp. constituted the natu...
Source: Biological Control - December 3, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

A villainous hero: does the biological control agent, Anthonomus santacruzi, pollinate its target weed, Solanum mauritianum?
This study assessed the impact of A. santacruzi florivory as well as the potential of the agent to act as an indirect pollinator. Floral damage caused by A. santacruzi was trivial, with only ∼5% of the anther and ∼2% of petal areas being removed. However, the subsequent effects of A. santacruzi were considerably more damaging, with 25% and 66% reductions in the flowering and fruiting of S. mauritianum inflorescences respectively. Additionally, fruit produced from inflorescences exposed to A. santacruzi were smaller in size, with fewer viable seeds. This suggests that in areas with well-established A. santacruzi pop...
Source: Biological Control - December 1, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Performance of a predatory hoverfly feeding on Myzus persicae (Hem. Aphididae) reared on two brassicaceous plants varies with ant attendance
This study investigated how the presence of ants (Cataglyphis aenescens Nylander & Formica cunicularia Latreille) in colonies of a generalist aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) can influence (i) the performance of an important generalist aphidophage (the common hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus DeGeer) feeding on aphids growing on two host plants that express different levels of the glucosinolate sinigrin (Brassica napus L. & Brassica nigra L.); and (ii), the oviposition of the aphidophage on ant-free versus ant-tended aphid colonies. Individual fitness was calculated from performance measures, and the number of egg...
Source: Biological Control - November 27, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Classical biological control of two eucalyptus gall wasps; main outcome and conclusions
Publication date: Available online 26 November 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Zvi Mendel, Alex Protasov, John La Salle, Daniel Blumberg, David Brand, Manuela Branco The gall wasps Leptocybe invasa and Ophelimus maskelli (Hymenoptera Eulophidae) have become established in the Mediterranean Basin during the last 15 years. In contrast to the rarity of both gallers in Australia, they built up high, dense populations in their new areas. We examine and discuss the biological control project of both gallers in Israel and Portugal. Three species of parasitoids of O. maskelli – Closterocerus chamaeleon (Eulophidae...
Source: Biological Control - November 26, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Reproductive biology of Sclerodermus brevicornis, a European parasitoid developing on three species of invasive longhorn beetles
Publication date: Available online 21 November 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Daniela Lupi, Riccardo Favaro, Costanza Jucker, Celso O. Azevedo, Ian C.W. Hardy, Massimo Faccoli The reproductive performance of Sclerodermus brevicornis (Kieffer), a bethylid wasp native to Europe, was evaluated on three species of facticious hosts. These are longhorn beetles which have recently invaded Europe from Asia: Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) and Psacothea hilaris hilaris (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Sclerodermus brevicornis attacked all three species, but offspring only deve...
Source: Biological Control - November 22, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The impact of legume and cereal cover crops on rhizosphere microbial communities of subsequent vegetable crops for contrasting crop decline
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): L.M. Manici, F. Caputo, F. Nicoletti, F. Leteo, G. Campanelli Crop decline is a progressive soil health reduction commonly associated to the specialized cultivations. As a series of biotic factors are involved in this phenomenon, it can be controlled with essentially agronomic methods, the impact of winter cover crops on early growth at subsequent vegetable crops was investigated in a two-year field study. Barley and hairy vetch were incorporated into the soil following two mechanical terminations of cover crops (green manure and gree...
Source: Biological Control - November 20, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Identification of endophytic Bacillus velezensis ZSY-1 strain and antifungal activity of its volatile compounds against Alternaria solani and Botrytis cinerea
Publication date: Available online 17 November 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Zhenfeng Gao, Baojun Zhang, Huiping Liu, Jucai Han, Yongjie Zhang Soil microbes can release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that influence plant growth and pathogen resistance. Screening these microbial VOCs for their antifungal activity is a new strategy for developing biopesticides. However, the ability of endophytic bacteria to synthesize VOCs is understudied. Here, we characterized VOCs produced by Bacillus velezensis ZSY-1, and tested their antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi. Strain ZSY-1, isolated from Chinese ...
Source: Biological Control - November 18, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Pseudomonas putida – Induced response in phenolic profile of tomato seedlings (Solanum lycopersicum L.) infected by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Biological Control, Volume 105 Author(s): Hasan Murat Aksoy, Yilmaz Kaya, Murat Ozturk, Zafer Secgin, Hasan Onder, Ahmet Okumus Efficacy of Pseudomonas putida (CKPp9) was tested under in vitro and in vivo conditions for their ability to plant growth promoting characteristics in tomato seedlings against Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (CmmGo2) infection. A significant difference was observed between bacterized tomato seedlings with P. putida (CKPp9) and the other treatments (P <0.01). Also, CmmGo2 was detected significant difference the least plant growth paramet...
Source: Biological Control - November 18, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Prospects for biological control of Lonicera japonica (Caprifoliaceae) in New Zealand
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Quentin Paynter, Akihiro Konuma, Sarah L. Dodd, R.L. Hill, Lara Field, A. Hugh Gourlay, Christopher J. Winks Surveys in the native range of Japanese honeysuckle Lonicera japonica in Honshu, Japan, revealed a natural enemy biota attacking the plant that was rich in potential biocontrol agents for New Zealand (NZ), including 11 herbivorous insect species and one fungal pathogen. This contrasts with previously published surveys in NZ that found only generalist arthropod herbivores and only two weakly pathogenic specialist pathogens. The ...
Source: Biological Control - November 17, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The impact of winter legume and cereal cover crops on rhizosphere microbial communities of subsequent vegetable crops for contrasting crop decline
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): L.M. Manici, F. Caputo, F. Nicoletti, F. Leteo, G. Campanelli Crop decline is a progressive soil health reduction commonly associated to the specialized cultivations. As a series of biotic factors are involved in this phenomenon, it can be controlled with essentially agronomic methods, the impact of winter cover crops on early growth at subsequent vegetable crops was investigated in a two-year field study. Barley and hairy vetch were incorporated into the soil following two mechanical terminations of cover crops (green manure and gree...
Source: Biological Control - November 15, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The biology of Trichogramma pretiosum as atmospheric O2 becomes depleted and CO2 accumulates
This study evaluated the effect of modified atmospheric concentrations of O2 and CO2 on the biology of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley. For this purpose, cards with five different quantities of parasitized eggs were kept in hermetically sealed vials producing five different atmospheres as a function of different parasitoid respiration levels. Controls consisted of egg cards kept in an ambient atmosphere in ventilated vials. Concentrations of O2 and CO2 in vials were measured daily with a gas analyzer. No parasitoids emerged from vials where the CO2 concentration exceeded 16% and O2 was less than 2.5%. Only 47% of T. pretiosum...
Source: Biological Control - November 12, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Supplying high-quality alternative prey in the litter increases control of an above-ground plant pest by a generalist predator
Publication date: Available online 9 November 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Karen Muñoz-Cárdenas, Firdevs Ersin, Juliette Pijnakker, Yvonne van Houten, Hans Hoogerbrugge, Ada Leman, Maria L. Pappas, Marcus V.A. Duarte, Gerben J. Messelink, Maurice W. Sabelis, Arne Janssen Supplying predators with alternative food can have short-term positive effects on prey densities through predator satiation (functional response) and long-term negative effects through increases of predator populations (numerical response). In biological control, alternative food sources for predators are normally supplied on th...
Source: Biological Control - November 10, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research