Prevention of pre-eclampsia after infertility treatment: Preconceptional minimalisation of risk factors
Publication date: Available online 15 May 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Hanna Hürter, Shane Vontelin van Breda, Lenka Vokalova, Marlene Brandl, Marc Baumann, Irene Hösli, Evelin Annegret Huhn, Christian De Geyter, Simona W. Rossi, Olav LapaireAbstractAlthough an increased risk of pre-eclampsia in pregnancies conceived after infertility treatment has been reported, it remains unknown whether preconceptional minimalisation of known risk factors would help in preventing pre-eclamsia. Obesity and preconceptional blood pressure are discussed as major risks f...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Therapeutic options after surgical failure in Cushing's disease: A critical review
Publication date: Available online 16 April 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): German Rubinstein, Andrea Osswald, Stephanie Zopp, Katrin Ritzel, Marily Theodoropoulou, Felix Beuschlein, Martin ReinckeCushing's disease (CD) is the most common etiology of Cushing's syndrome (CD) due to corticotroph pituitary adenoma, which are in most cases small (80–90% microadenomas) and in about 40% cannot be visualized on imaging of the sella. First-line treatment for CD is transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) with the aim of complete adenoma removal and preservation of pituitary gla...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

New Causes of Hypophysitis
Publication date: Available online 26 April 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Kevin C.J. Yuen, Vera Popovic, Peter J. TrainerAbstractHypophysitis is a rare entity characterized by inflammation of the pituitary gland and its stalk that can cause hypopituitarism and/or mass effect. Etiology can be categorized as primary or secondary to systemic disease, but may also be classified according to anatomical and hispathological criteria. Newly recognized causes of hypophysits have been recently described, mainly secondary to immunomodulatory medications and IgG4-related dis...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Pubertal Abnormalities In Adolescents with Chronic Disease
Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): K.T. Kao, M. Denker, M. Zacharin, S.C. WongAbstractPubertal disorders in the context of chronic disease especially in those with chronic inflammatory disorders or those requiring prolonged periods of treatment with glucocorticoid are common reasons for referral to the paediatric endocrine clinic. Disorders of puberty are also common in adolescents with disability requiring management by paediatric endocrinologists. In these adolescents, impaired skeletal development is also observed and thi...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Therapeutic options after surgical failure in Cushing’s disease: a critical review
Publication date: Available online 16 April 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): German Rubinstein, Andrea Osswald, Stephanie Zopp, Katrin Ritzel, Marily Theodoropoulou, Felix Beuschlein, Martin ReinckeAbstractCONTEXT:Cushing’s disease (CD) is the most common etiology of Cushing’s syndrome (CD) due to corticotroph pituitary adenoma, which are in most cases small (80-90% microadenomas) and in about 40% cannot be visualized on imaging of the sella. First-line treatment for CD is transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) with the aim of complete adenoma removal and preserv...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The risk/benefit ratio of radiotherapy in pituitary tumors
Publication date: Available online 16 April 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Giuseppe Minniti, John FlickingerAbstractRadiation therapy (RT) is an effective treatment for patients with either nonfunctioning or secreting pituitary adenomas unsuccessfully treated by surgery and/or medical therapy, resulting in local control of 90-95% at 5-10 years and variable normalization of hormonal hypersecretion for patients with GH-, ACTH-, and prolactin-secreting adenomas in the range of 40 to 80% at 5 years; however, its use has been limited because of concerns regarding poten...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Long-Term Outcome after DNA-Based Prophylactic Neck Surgery in Children at Risk of Hereditary Medullary Thyroid Cancer
Publication date: Available online 17 April 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Andreas Machens, Henning DralleAbstractAdvances in sequencing technology, providing unprecedented insights into cancer progression, have shifted the treatment paradigm towards precision medicine for hereditary medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), away from the ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach predicated on genetic risk alone.The DNA-based/biochemical concept, factoring serum calcitonin into the benefit-risk equation, optimizes biochemical cure while minimizing extent of prophylactic surg...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Puberty: Normal physiology (brief overview)
Publication date: Available online 30 March 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Claire L. Wood, Laura C. Lane, Tim CheethamPuberty is a defining phase of human development where growth ends and the ability to reproduce begins. An understanding of the events leading up to puberty highlights the fact that this is the culmination of a process of skeletal and gonadal activity that has been ongoing since conception. Although there is natural variation in the timing of events in and around puberty the basic underlying processes are common to all healthy human beings. This ch...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 17, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Management of pituitary incidentaloma
Publication date: Available online 13 April 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Cesar Luiz Boguszewski, Nina Rosa de Castro Musolino, Leandro KasukiAbstractPituitary incidentalomas (PIs) represent a modern clinical entity increasingly recognized due to advances and easier accessibility to imaging techniques. By definition, PIs should be detected during brain imaging performed for investigation of a non-pituitary disease. Although anatomic variations, technical artefacts or pituitary hyperplasia might also be interpreted as PIs, the most relevant incidentally detected l...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 14, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescents
Publication date: Available online 13 April 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Preeti DabadghaoAbstractMenstrual irregularity and evidence of hyperandrogenism are characteristic features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adolescents. Diagnosis of PCOS is challenging as clinical features cannot be differentiated from the events of normal development. The specific aetiology of PCOS is not known but it is a complex disease resulting from interplay of genetic susceptibility, intrauterine, extra-uterine and environmental factors. Obesity and insulin resistance are com...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 14, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Update on the genetics of differences of sex development (DSD)
Publication date: Available online 13 April 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Dorien Baetens, Hannah Verdin, Elfride De Baere, Martine CoolsAbstractHuman gonadal development is regulated by the temporospatial expression of many different genes with critical dosage effects. Subsequent sex steroid hormone production requires several consecutive enzymatic steps and functional hormone receptors. Disruption of this complex process can result in atypical sex development and lead to conditions referred to as differences (disorders) of sex development (DSD). With the advent ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 14, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Single embryo transfer: why and how to identify the embryo with the best developmental potential
Publication date: Available online 13 April 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Aila TiitinenAbstractMultiple pregnancies with higher risk of preterm birth and the associated higher morbidity have been a major obstacle from the early days of in vitro fertilization. A good strategy to avoid multiple pregnancies is elective single embryo transfer and cryopreservation of spare embryos. Important factors in adopting this strategy are good counselling of the patients and the selection of embryos with high implantation potential. Technical advances in embryo selection have b...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 14, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Peripheral Precocious Puberty including congenital adrenal hyperplasia: causes, consequences, management and outcomes
Publication date: Available online 13 April 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Nadine G. Haddad, Erica A. EugsterAbstractPeripheral precocious puberty results from peripheral production of sex steroids independent of activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis. It is much less common than central precocious puberty. Causes are variable and can be congenital or acquired. In this review, we will discuss the diagnosis and management of the most common etiologies including congenital adrenal hyperplasia, McCune Albright syndrome, familial male-limited precocious...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 14, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Preface
Publication date: Available online 1 April 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Christian De Geyter (Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Normal physiology (brief overview)
Publication date: Available online 30 March 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Claire Wood, Laura C. Lane, Tim CheethamAbstractPuberty is a defining phase of human development where growth ends and the ability to reproduce begins. An understanding of the events leading up to puberty highlights the fact that this is the culmination of a process of skeletal and gonadal activity that has been ongoing since conception. Although there is natural variation in the timing of events in and around puberty the basic underlying processes are common to all healthy human beings. Th...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 31, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

National acromegaly registries
In conclusion, acromegaly registries offer a global view of the disease with no “a priori” assumptions. This is of outmost importance, because of the large amount of data and the huge number of associated comorbidities. This will help to establish guidelines for management of this rare disease. (Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 7, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Assisted reproductive technology: impact on society and need for surveillance
Publication date: Available online 25 January 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Christian De Geyter (Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Central Precocious Puberty, Functional And Tumor-Related
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Leandro Soriano-Guillén, Jesús ArgenteAbstractPrecocious puberty is defined as the appearance of secondary sex characteristics before 8 years of age in girls and before 9 years of age in boys. Central precocious puberty (CPP) is diagnosed when activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is identified. It is a rare disease with a clear female predominance. A background of international adoption increases its risk, with other environmental factors such as endocrine disruptor...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 23, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

IUGR: genetic influences, metabolic problems, environmental associations/triggers, current and future management
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Feyza DarendelilerAbstractThe children with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) especially if they make a catch-up growth in early life have a higher risk for long term problems including short stature and also developing metabolic syndrome, Type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. The studies also support that these children may have abnormalities in pubertal timing, adrenarche and reproductive function. The aim of this review was to summarize the published rep...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 23, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Male fertility preservation in DSD, XXY, pre-gonadotoxic treatments – update, methods, ethical issues, current outcomes, future directions
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Maria Grazia Giudice, Federico Del Vento, Christine WynsAbstractThis paper aims at reviewing the fertility preservation strategies that could be considered in several conditions at risk of spermatogonial depletion such as 46,XY disorders of sexual development, Klinefelter syndrome and after gonadotoxic treatment in males highlighting current knowledge on diseases and processes involved in infertility as well as future directions along with their specific ethical issues.While sperm cryopre...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 23, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: December 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 32, Issue 6Author(s): (Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Treatment of hypoparathyroidism
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Francesco Tecilazich, Anna Maria Formenti, Stefano Frara, Raffaele Giubbini, Andrea GiustinaAbstractThe goal of the clinical management of hypoparathyroidism is to correct acute and chronic hypocalcemia. Treatment of acute hypoparathyroidism via intravenous infusion of Ca++ salts, is necessary only in symptomatic patients, or in asymptomatic patients in the setting of a rapid decrease in ionized Ca++ levels. The treatment cornerstones of chronic hypoparathyroidism are oral supplementation...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - December 7, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The surgical management of sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Richard J. Egan, David M. Scott-CoombesAbstractSporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is the commonest cause of hypercalcaemia in the ambulatory population. It has a female preponderance and its incidence is increasing. In 85% of cases it is caused by a single parathyroid adenoma, with four gland hyperplasia in up to 20%. Parathyroidectomy is the only cure and bilateral neck exploration remains the gold standard to achieve this. Several adjuncts have been developed to improve success...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - December 7, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Parathyroid Disorders
Publication date: Available online 7 December 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Sudhaker D. RaoAbstractParathyroid disorders are not as uncommon as once believed. Both hyper- and hyperparathyroidism are more prevalent in women, but for different reasons. The female preponderance in primary hyperparathyroidism may be pathogenically linked, as it is more common after menopause. By contrast, higher prevalence of hypoparathyroidism in women is related to thyroid surgery, which is performed more commonly in women; thus the female to male ratio of hyper- and hypoparathyroi...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - December 7, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Parathyroid Carcinoma
Publication date: Available online 1 December 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Antonio Stefano Salcuni, Filomena Cetani, Vito Guarnieri, Vincenzo Nicastro, Elisabetta Romagnoli, Danilo de Martino, Alfredo Scillitani, David EC. ColeAbstractParathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare disease with an indolent behavior due to the low malignant potential. The etiology is unknown. Somatic mutations of CDC73 gene, the same gene involved in the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome, can be identified in up to 70% of patients with PC and in one-third of cases the mutations are ger...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - December 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Molecular pathogenesis of parathyroid tumours
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Luigia Cinque, Flavia Pugliese, Antonio Stefano Salcuni, Alfredo Scillitani, Vito GuarnieriAbstractParathyroid tumors represent an elusive endocrine neoplasia, which lead to primary hyperparathyroidism, pHPT, a common endocrine calcium disorder characterized by hypercalcemia and normal-high parathormone secretion. Parathyroid tumours are benign adenomas or multiple glands hyperplasia in the vast majority (>99% of cases), while malignant neoplasms are rare (less than 1%). Despite pHPT ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - November 21, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: October 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 32, Issue 5Author(s): (Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - November 16, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Pharmacology of medications used for ovarian stimulation
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Alexander M. Quaas, Richard S. LegroAbstractMedications to stimulate the ovaries may be used to induce ovulation in patients with anovulatory infertility or to hyperstimulate the ovaries in a controlled fashion in ovulatory patients as part of assisted reproductive treatments (ART).The pharmacology of all current major medications used to stimulate ovarian function is reviewed in this article, including letrozole, clomiphene citrate, gonadotropins, and pulsatile gonadotropin releasing ho...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - November 14, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The role of Natural Cycle IVF in assisted reproduction
Publication date: Available online 9 November 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Michael von WolffAbstractNatural Cycle IVF (NC-IVF) with and without modifications is being increasingly performed. NC-IVF and conventional gonadotropin-stimulated IVF (cIVF) should not be understood as competing treatments, but as complementary treatments with different target groups and to some extent other indications. NC-IVF is particularly interesting for couples who wish to save money, wish a treatment with as few risks as possible for the woman who would like to avoid selection and...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - November 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Assisted reproduction in endometriosis
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Dominique de Ziegler, Paul Pirtea, Marie Carbonnel, Marine Poulain, Ettore Cicinelli, Carlo Bulletti, Konstantinos Kostaras, George Kontopoulos, David Keefe, Jean Marc AyoubiAbstractEndometriosis – a disease causing pain and infertility – is encountered in nearly 50% of infertile women. While medical treatment is effective on pain and recurrence of symptoms after surgical excision, it is of no help for treating infertility for which the only options considered are surgery and ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - November 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Towards complication-free assisted reproduction technology
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Samuel Santos-Ribeiro, Shari Mackens, Annalisa Racca, Christophe BlockeelAbstractAssisted reproductive technology (ART) has vastly improved over the last 40 years, from a frequently unsuccessful and complicated procedure requiring hospital admission and routine laparoscopy to a fairly simple outpatient technique with relatively high success rates. However, it is important to stress that ART is not without risk and medical complications may still occur. The incidence of most of these ART-r...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - November 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Chromatin condensation, fragmentation of DNA and differences in the epigenetic signature of infertile men
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Monica Muratori, Christian De GeyterAbstractEpidemiological studies report an increase of pathologies of male reproductive tracts and suggest a link between this trend and the increased exposure of men to endocrine disruptors (EDs). The mechanisms by which EDs impact male fertility are far to be elucidated although DNA, chromatin and epigenome of spermatozoa appear to be relevant targets for these molecules. Indeed, many studies report associations between increased levels of sperm DNA fr...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - November 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cryostorage of testicular tissue and retransplantation of spermatogonial stem cells in the infertile male
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Marc Kanbar, Francesca di Michele, Christine WynsAbstractTransplantation of own cryostored spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) is a promising technique for fertility restoration when the SSC pool has been depleted.In this regard, cryopreservation of pre-pubertal testicular tissue or SSCs suspensions before gonadotoxic therapies is ethically accepted and increasingly proposed.SSC transplantation has also been considered to treat other causes of infertility relying on the possibility of propag...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - November 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Management of familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes: MEN1, MEN2, MEN4, HPT-Jaw tumour, Familial isolated hyperparathyroidism, FHH, and neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism
Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Eller-Vainicher Cristina, Falchetti AlbertoWhile primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) generally represents a common endocrine disorder, being the more frequent cause of hypercalcemia in outpatients, familial forms of PHPT (FPHPT) account for no more than 2–5% of the overall PHPT. In the last decades, many technical progresses in both molecular and biochemical-radiological evaluation have been made, and substantial advancements in understanding these disorders have been reached. Diff...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 16, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Clinical presentation and management of hypoparathyroidism
Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Gemma Marcucci, Luisella Cianferotti, Maria Luisa BrandiThe clinical manifestations of hypoparathyroidism are variable and can involve almost any organ system. The main clinical features of the hypoparathyroidism are typically signs or symptoms due to neuromuscular irritability owing to low serum calcium level. In addition to hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia can contribute to long-term complications, including extra-skeletal calcifications. Bone turnover markers are generally decreased, ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Primary Hyperparathyroidism
Publication date: Available online 22 September 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Barbara C. Silva, Natalie E. Cusano, John P. BilezikianAbstractPrimary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), the most common cause of hypercalcemia, is most often identified in postmenopausal women with hypercalcemia and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels that are either frankly elevated or inappropriately normal. The clinical presentation of PHPT includes three phenotypes: target organ involvement of the renal and skeletal systems; mild asymptomatic hypercalcemia; and more recently, high PTH level...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 5, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Postmenopausal osteoporosis: Assessment and management
Publication date: Available online 22 September 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): René RizzoliOsteoporosis increases the risk of fractures, which are associated with increased mortality and lower quality of life. Patients with prevalent fracture are at high risk to of sustaining another one. Optimal protein and calcium intakes, and vitamin D supplies, together with regular weight bearing physical exercise are the corner stones of fracture prevention. Evidence for anti-fracture efficacy of pharmacological interventions relies on results from randomised controll...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 5, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Management of familial Hyperparathyroid syndromes: MEN1, MEN2, HPT-Jaw tumour, FHH, neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism, familial isolated hyperparathyroidism’
Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Eller-Vainicher Cristina, Falchetti AlbertoAbstractWhile primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) generally represents a common endocrine disorder, being the more frequent cause of hypercalcemia in outpatients, familial forms of PHPT (FPHPT) account for no more than 2-5% of the overall PHPT. In the last decades, many technical progresses in both molecular and biochemical-radiological evaluation have been made, and substantial advancements in understanding these disorders have been reached. Di...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 5, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Management of Normocalcemic Primary Hyperparathyroidism
Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Natalie E. Cusano, Cristiana Cipriani, John P. BilezikianAbstractTraditional hypercalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrine disease. Patients with a history of nephrolithiasis or a suspected metabolic bone disease are increasingly being identified with elevated PTH concentrations in the setting of consistently normal serum and ionized calcium concentrations. In the absence of secondary causes of hyperparathyroidism, a diagnosis of normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidi...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 5, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Genetics of parathyroids disorders: overview
Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Falchetti AlbertoAbstractSeveral familial forms of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHTP) have been discovered over the past 25 years, and molecular test for their risk assessment has been widely increasing. These syndromic and non-syndromic forms have received benefits from the identification of the responsible genes whose mutations account for the genetic susceptibility to develop parathyroid tumours as also other endocrine and nonendocrine tumours. In recent years, care options have been...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 5, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Non-surgical Management of Primary Hyperparathyroidism
Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Filomena Cetani, Federica Saponaro, Claudio MarcocciAbstractThe purpose of this chapter is to discuss the options available for patients with primary hyperparathyrodism (PHPT) not undergoing parathyroidectomy (PTx). Adequate hydration should be recommended in all patients. Calcium intake should not be restricted and vitamin D deficiency should be corrected aiming at a serum concentration of 25OHD of>20 ng/mL or even higher (>30 ng/mL according to some opinion leaders). Pharmacolog...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 5, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

"Clinical presentation and management of hypoparathyroidism"
Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Gemma Marcucci, Luisella Cianferotti, Maria Luisa BrandiAbstractThe clinical manifestations of hypoparathyroidism are variable and can involve almost any organ system. The main clinical features of the hypoparathyroidism are typically signs or symptoms due to neuromuscular irritability owing to low serum calcium level. In addition to hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia can contribute to long-term complications, including extra-skeletal calcifications. Bone turnover markers are generally dec...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 5, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Primary Hyperparathyroidism
Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Barbara C. Silva, Natalie E. Cusano, John P. BilezikianAbstractPrimary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), the most common cause of hypercalcemia, is most often identified in postmenopausal women with hypercalcemia and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels that are either frankly elevated or inappropriately normal. The clinical presentation of PHPT includes three phenotypes: target organ involvement of the renal and skeletal systems; mild asymptomatic hypercalcemia; and more recently, high PTH level...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 5, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Parathyroid hormone resistance syndromes – Inactivating PTH/PTHrP Signaling Disorders (iPPSDs)
Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Francesca Marta Elli, Arrate Pereda, Agnès Linglart, Guiomar Perez de Nanclares, Giovanna MantovaniAbstractMetabolic disorders caused by impairments of the Gsα/cAMP/PKA pathway affecting the signaling of PTH/PTHrP lead to features caused by non-responsiveness of target organs, in turn leading to manifestations similar to the deficiency of the hormone itself.Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) and related disorders derive from a defect of the α subunit of the stimulatory G ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 5, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Vitamin D insufficiency: definition, diagnosis and management
Publication date: Available online 3 October 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Roger Bouillon, Geert CarmelietAbstractSevere vitamin D deficiency can be defined as the dose of vitamin D or serum 25OHD concentrations needed to prevent nutritional rickets or osteomalacia. There is large international consensus that these diseases can be prevented by 400 IU of vitamin D/d and 25OHD above 30 nmol/l (12 ng/ml). Vitamin D deficiency can also accelerate the risk of fractures and probably also of falls in elderly subjects but there is no consensus on the required daily doses...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 5, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cryostorage and retransplantation of ovarian tissue as an infertility treatment
This study summarizes ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation indications, procedures, their efficacy and main results and proposes different strategies to improve this strategy. Although the main focus of this study is on ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation as a strategy to restore fertility, we believe that it is also important to discuss other applications for this approach. (Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 13, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Endometrium During And After Ovarian Hyperstimulation And The Role Of Segmentation Of Infertility Treatment
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Jorge Rodriguez-Purata, Nikolaos P. PolyzosAbstractControlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) is a key part of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) that resulted in a substantial increase in pregnancy rates from in vitro fertilization (IVF). However, in spite of the clear benefit of COH on an increase in the number of follicles and the number of oocytes retrieved, allowing for extended embryo culture and enabling the selection of the best quality embryo for transfer, several reports ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 13, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Classical complications of primary hyperparathyroidism
Publication date: Available online 12 September 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Salvatore Minisola, Laura Gianotti, Sanjay Bhadada, Shonni J. SilverbergAbstractTraditionally, classical complications of primary hyperparathyroidism are mainly represented by skeletal, kidney and gastrointestinal involvement. The old picture of osteitis fibrosa cystica is no longer commonly seen, at least in the western world. However, new imagining techniques have highlighted deterioration of skeletal tissue in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism not captured by traditional DXA ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 12, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: August 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 32, Issue 4Author(s): (Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 5, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Causes and pathophysiology of hypoparathyroidism
Publication date: Available online 29 July 2018Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Luisella Cianferotti, Gemma Marcucci, Maria Luisa BrandiAbstractHypoparathyroidism, a disorder characterized by hypocalcemia ensuing from inadequate parathyroid hormone secretion, is a rather rare disorder caused by multiple etiologies. When not caused by inadvertent damage or removal of the parathyroids during neck surgery, it is usually genetically determined. Epidemiological figures of this disease are still scarce and mainly limited to countries where non-anonymous databases are availabl...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - July 30, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research