Autoimmune Addison's disease
Publication date: Available online 30 January 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Serena Saverino, Alberto FalorniPrimary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) occurs in 1/5000–1/7000 individuals in the general population. Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is the major cause of PAI and is a major component of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) and type 2 (APS2). Presence of 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies (21OHAb) identifies subjects with ongoing clinical or pre-clinical adrenal autoimmunity. AAD requires life-long substitutive therapy with two-three daily dose...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

What is the role of medical therapy in adrenal-dependent Cushing's syndrome?
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Leah T. Braun, Martin ReinckeMedical therapy to control hypercortisolism in adrenal Cushing's syndrome is currently not the first-line therapy. However, in many clinical scenarios like pre-surgical treatment, in patients who are not suitable candidates for surgery or in patients with bilateral hyperplasia, medical therapy can be important representing the only viable treatment option. Adrenal steroidogenesis inhibitors and glucocorticoid receptor blockers have been used for many years: me...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Endocrine disruptors and thyroid autoimmunity
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Salvatore Benvenga, Giusy Elia, Francesca Ragusa, Sabrina Rosaria Paparo, Mattia Maria Sturniolo, Silvia Martina Ferrari, Alessandro Antonelli, Poupak FallahiAbstractMany papers evaluated the effect of the environmental, or occupational endocrine disruptors (ED), on the thyroid gland, that can lead to thyroid autoimmunity. A higher prevalence of “autoimmune thyroid diseases” (AITD) was observed in people living in polluted areas near to petrochemical plants, and in petrochemi...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 12, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cushing's syndrome: Treatment and new therapeutic approaches
Publication date: Available online 30 January 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Amandine Ferriere, Antoine TabarinOvert Cushing's syndrome is a severe condition responsible for multiple comorbidities and increased mortality. Effective treatment is essential to reduce mortality, improve comorbidities and long-term quality of life. Surgical resection of the causal lesion(s) is generally the first-line and most effective treatment to normalize cortisol secretion. Adjunctive symptomatic treatments of co-morbidities are often necessary both during the active phase of the ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 6, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Graves' disease: epidemiology, genetic and environmental risk factors and viruses
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Alessandro Antonelli, Silvia Martina Ferrari, Francesca Ragusa, Giusy Elia, Sabrina Rosaria Paparo, Ilaria Ruffilli, Armando Patrizio, Claudia Giusti, Debora Gonnella, Alfonso Cristaudo, Rudy Foddis, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Poupak FallahiAbstractGraves' disease (GD) is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in developed Countries. It is more common between 30-60 years; 5-10 times more frequent in women. The genetic predisposition accounts for 79% of the risk for GD, while environmental factor...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Adrenocortical hyperplasia: a multifaceted disease
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Isabelle Bourdeau, Stéfanie Parisien-La Salle, André LacroixAbstractAdrenocortical hyperplasia may develop in different contexts. Primary adrenal hyperplasia may be secondary to primary bilateral macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (PBMAH) or micronodular bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (MiBAH) which may be divided in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) and isolated micronodular adrenocortical disease (i-MAD). Both lead to oversecretion of cortisol and...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 4, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Graves' disease: clinical manifestations, immune pathogenesis (cytokines and chemokines) and therapy
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Alessandro Antonelli, Poupak Fallahi, Giusy Elia, Francesca Ragusa, Sabrina Rosaria Paparo, Ilaria Ruffilli, Armando Patrizio, Debora Gonnella, Claudia Giusti, Camilla Virili, Marco Centanni, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Silvia Martina FerrariAbstractGraves’ disease (GD) is characterized by thyrotoxicosis, caused by the presence of circulating thyroid stimulating antibodies (TSAb), that are determinant also in the pathogenesis of its extrathyroidal manifestations [Graves’ ophthalmopathy ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 4, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Autoimmune Addison’s Disease
Publication date: Available online 30 January 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Serena Saverino, Alberto FalorniAbstractPrimary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) occurs in 1/5,000-1/7,000 individuals in the general population. Autoimmune Addison’s disease (AAD) is the major cause of PAI and is a major component of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) and type 2 (APS2). Presence of 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies (21OHAb) identifies subjects with ongoing clinical or pre-clinical adrenal autoimmunity. AAD requires life-long substitutive therapy with two-three ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 31, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cushing’s syndrome – Disease monitoring: Recurrence, surveillance with biomarkers or imaging studies
Publication date: Available online 30 January 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Oskar RagnarssonAbstractPituitary surgery is the first-line treatment for patients with Cushing’s disease. For patients who are not considered candidates for pituitary surgery, pituitary radiation and bilateral adrenalectomy are further treatment alternatives. Not all patients are cured with pituitary surgery, and a substantial number of patients develop recurrence, sometimes many years after an apparently successful treatment. The same applies to patients treated with radiotherapy....
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 31, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cushing’s syndrome: treatment and new therapeutic approaches
Publication date: Available online 30 January 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Amandine Ferriere, Antoine TabarinAbstractOvert Cushing’s syndrome is a severe condition responsible for multiple comorbidities and increased mortality. Effective treatment is essential to reduce mortality, improve comorbidities and long-term quality of life. Surgical resection of the causal lesion(s) is generally the first-line and most effective treatment to normalize cortisol secretion. Adjunctive symptomatic treatments of co-morbidities are often necessary both during the active...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 31, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy: emergence of teprotumumab as a promising medical therapy
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Terry J. SmithAbstractThyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) remains a vexing autoimmune component of Graves’ disease that can diminish the quality of life as a consequence of its impact on visual function, physical appearance and emotional well-being. Because of its relative rarity and variable presentation, the development of highly effective and well-tolerated medical therapies for TAO has been slow relative to other autoimmune diseases. Contributing to the barriers of greater i...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 31, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Management of central diabetes insipidus
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Aoife Garrahy, Christopher J. ThompsonAbstractThe treatment of central diabetes insipidus has not changed significantly in recent decades, dDAVP and replacement of free water deficit remain the cornerstones of treatment. Oral dDAVP has replaced nasal dDAVP as a more reliable mode of treatment for chronic central diabetes insipidus. Hyponatraemia is common, occurring in one in four patients, and should be avoided by allowing a regular break from dDAVP and resultant aquaresis. Hypernatraemi...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 31, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

What is the role of medical therapy in adrenal-dependent Cushing’s syndrome?
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Leah T. Braun, Martin ReinckeAbstractMedical therapy to control hypercortisolism in adrenal Cushing’s syndrome is currently not the first-line therapy. However, in many clinical scenarios like pre-surgical treatment, in patients who are not suitable candidates for surgery or in patients with bilateral hyperplasia, medical therapy can be important representing the only viable treatment option. Adrenal steroidogenesis inhibitors and glucocorticoid receptor blockers have been used for ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 31, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Impact of thyroid disease on fertility and assisted conception
Publication date: Available online 30 January 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): David Unuane, Brigitte VelkeniersAbstractThyroid auto-immunity (TAI) and/or thyroid dysfunction are prevalent in women of reproductive age and have independently been associated with adverse fertility and pregnancy outcomes, in the case of spontaneous conception or after assisted reproductive technology (ART). Thus, it seems reasonable to screen for thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (TPO-abs) in infertile women attempting pregnancy. However, even if the relationship ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cushing's syndrome: overview of clinical presentation, diagnostic tools and complications
This article discusses clinical presentation of CS with an eye on the most frequent cortisol-related comorbidities and discuss the main pitfalls of first- and second-line test in endogenous hypercortisolism diagnostic workup. (Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Old and new genes in primary aldosteronism
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Sheerazed Boulkroun, Fabio Luiz Fernandes-Rosa, Maria-Christina ZennaroAbstractPrimary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common form of secondary hypertension affecting 5% to 10% of patients with arterial hypertension. In PA, high blood pressure is associated with high aldosterone and low renin levels, and often hypokalemia. In a majority of cases, autonomous aldosterone production by the adrenal gland is caused by an aldosterone producing adenoma (APA) or bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BAH)...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 24, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Autoimmunity and the Endocrine System: thyroid, hypophysis and pregnancy
Publication date: Available online 9 January 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Alessandro Antonelli, Yehuda Shoenfeld (Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Hypophysitis: An update on the novel forms, diagnosis and management of disorders of pituitary inflammation
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Sriram Gubbi, Fady Hannah-Shmouni, Joseph G. Verbalis, Christian A. KochAbstractHypophysitis is a heterogeneous condition that leads to inflammation of the sella and/or suprasellar region, potentially resulting in hormonal deficiencies and/or mass effects. A preponderance of hypophysitis subtypes have an underlying autoimmune aetiology. The overall incidence and prevalence of hypophysitis has dramatically increased over the past decade, mainly due to increased awareness of the condition ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - December 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The aggregation between AITD with rheumatologic, or dermatologic, autoimmune diseases
Publication date: Available online 11 December 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Poupak Fallahi, Giusy Elia, Francesca Ragusa, Ilaria Ruffilli, Stefania Camastra, Claudia Giusti, Sabrina Rosaria Paparo, Debora Gonnella, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Silvia Martina Ferrari, Alessandro AntonelliAbstractAutoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are organ-specific autoimmune disorders mediated by Th1 lymphocytes, whose main clinical presentations are Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT), or Graves’ disease (GD). HT, GD, thyroid autoantibodies and thyroid dysfunctions have been shown in...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - December 12, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Thyro-entero-gastric autoimmunity: pathophysiology and implications for patient management
Publication date: Available online 11 December 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Edith Lahner, Laura Conti, Francesco Cicone, Silvia Capriello, Maria Cazzato, Marco Centanni, Bruno Annibale, Camilla ViriliAbstractThe association between autoimmune atrophic gastritis and thyroid disorders has been observed since the early 1960s and the expression “thyrogastric syndrome” was coined to indicate the presence of thyroid autoantibodies or autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with pernicious anemia, a late clinical stage of autoimmune atrophic gastritis. More ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - December 12, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

New insight in endocrine-related adverse events associated to immune checkpoint blockade
Publication date: Available online 11 December 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Giusy Elia, Silvia Martina Ferrari, Maria Rosaria Galdiero, Francesca Ragusa, Sabrina Rosaria Paparo, Ilaria Ruffilli, Gilda Varricchi, Poupak Fallahi, Alessandro AntonelliAbstractAnticancer immunotherapy, in the form of immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI), is a paradigm shift that has transformed the care of patients with different types of solid and hematologic cancers. The most notable improvements have been seen in patients with melanoma, non-small-cell lung, bladder, renal, cervical,...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - December 12, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Prevalence, Diagnosis and Outcomes of Treatment for Primary Aldosteronism
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Yuhong Yang, Martin Reincke, Tracy Ann WilliamsAbstractPrimary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common potentially curable form of hypertension. The overproduction of aldosterone leads to an increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events as well as adverse effects to the heart and kidney and psychological disorders. PA is mainly caused by unilateral aldosterone excess due to an aldosterone-producing adenoma or bilateral excess due to bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia. The di...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - December 6, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Thyroid gland and brain: Enigma of Hashimoto's encephalopathy
Publication date: Available online 23 November 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Leonid P. Churilov, Polina A. Sobolevskaia, Yuri I. StroevThe versatile clinical manifestations of the Hashimoto's chronic autoimmune thyroiditis often include psycho-neurological disorders. Although hypothyroidism disturbs significantly the ontogenesis and functions of central nervous system, causing in severe cases of myxedema profound impairment of cognitive abilities and even psychosis, the behavioral, motor and other psychoneurological disorders accompany euthyroid and slightly hypo...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - December 2, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Infertility in women with systemic autoimmune diseases
Publication date: Available online 2 December 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Jamilya Khizroeva, Cecilia Nalli, Victoria Bitsadze, Andrea Lojacono, Sonia Zatti, Laura Andreoli, Angela Tincani, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Alexander MakatsariyaAbstractInfertility consists by definition in ” failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected intercourse” while the term subfertility means a delay to achieve pregnancy. Several factors can contribute to infertility or subfertility in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases. The as...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - December 2, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Novel Therapies for Thyroid Autoimmune Diseases: an update
Publication date: Available online 28 November 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Silvia Martina Ferrari, Poupak Fallahi, Giusy Elia, Francesca Ragusa, Stefania Camastra, Sabrina Rosaria Paparo, Claudia Giusti, Debora Gonnella, Ilaria Ruffilli, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Alessandro AntonelliAbstractA Th1 immune-preponderance has been shown in the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune thyroiditis (AT), Graves’ disease (GD) and Graves’ Ophthalmopathy (GO), in which the Th1-chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11), and their (C-X-C)R3 receptor, have a crucial role. Methimazole, ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - November 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Hashimotos’ Thyroiditis: epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinic and therapy
Publication date: Available online 26 November 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Francesca Ragusa, Poupak Fallahi, Giusy Elia, Debora Gonnella, Sabrina Rosaria Paparo, Claudia Giusti, Leonid.P. Churilov, Silvia Martina Ferrari, Alessandro AntonelliAbstractHashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT), the most frequent autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITDs), is the leading cause of hypothyroidism in the iodine-sufficient areas of the world. About 20-30% of patients suffers from HT, whose cause is thought to be a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors that...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - November 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Primary Aldosteronism: treatment of the disease, and new therapeutic approaches
Publication date: Available online 26 November 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): John FunderAbstractPrimary aldosteronism is currently considered to represent 5-13% of hypertension, yet fewer than 1% of patients with the disorder are ever diagnosed and treated. Current management of patients screened and confirmed positive for primary aldosteronism involves imaging, and with very few exceptions adrenal venous sampling to lateralize (or not) hyperaldosteronism. Unilateral disease is treated by adrenalectomy: bilateral disease by mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - November 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Thyroid Nodules and Cancer during Pregnancy, Post-partum and Preconception Planning: Addressing the Uncertainties and Challenges
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Maria Papaleontiou, Megan R. HaymartAbstractThyroid nodules and thyroid cancer have become increasingly common worldwide. When discovered during pregnancy, they pose unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for both the treating physician and the patient. The benefits of treatment should be carefully weighed against risks that may adversely impact maternal and fetal health. In this review, we present current knowledge and controversies surrounding the management of thyroid nodules an...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - November 23, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Thyroid Gland And Brain: Enigma Of Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy
Publication date: Available online 23 November 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Leonid P. Churilov, Polina A. Sobolevskaia, Yuri I. StroevAbstractThe versatile clinical manifestations of the Hashimoto’s chronic autoimmune thyroiditis often include psycho-neurological disorders. Although hypothyroidism disturbs significantly the ontogenesis and functions of central nervous system, causing in severe cases of myxoedema profound impairment of cognitive abilities and even psychosis, the behavioural, motor and other psychoneurological disorders accompany euthyroid a...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - November 23, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: October 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 33, Issue 5Author(s): (Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - November 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Metastatic Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma: Management of Endocrine Manifestations, Surgery and Ablative Procedures, and Systemic Therapies
Publication date: Available online 24 October 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Sina Jasim, Camilo JimenezAbstractMetastatic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (MPPGs) are rare neuroendocrine tumors. Most patients present with advanced disease that is associated with manifestations of catecholamine release. Surgical resection of the primary tumor and ablative therapies of metastases—whenever possible—may improve clinical outcomes and, perhaps, lengthen the patient’s overall survival. Significant steps in understanding the genetic alterations linke...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 26, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Modern endocrine surgery – Striving for a better quality of life
Publication date: August 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 33, Issue 4Author(s): Henning Dralle, Frank Weber (Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 24, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: August 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 33, Issue 4Author(s): (Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 24, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Disease monitoring of patients with pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma by biomarkers and imaging studies
Publication date: Available online 21 October 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Florentine Schreiner, Felix BeuschleinAbstractPheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumors, a large proportion of which secrete catecholamines. PPGL are associated with a high cardiovascular morbidity and come with a risk of malignancy. The therapy of choice is surgical resection. Nevertheless, PPGL are associated with a lifelong risk of tumor persistence or recurrence. Currently, there are no clinical, biochemical, histopathological or imaging characteristics,...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 23, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Pheochromocytoma: An Approach To Diagnosis
Publication date: Available online 22 October 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Emilia Sbardella, Ashley B. GrossmanAbstractPheochromocytomas are rare neuroendocrine chromaffin-derived tumors that arise within the adrenal medulla. They are usually benign, but if not diagnosed or if left untreated, they can have devastating consequences. Clinical consideration of the diagnosis is paramount, as they may have protean manifestations, and a high index of suspicion is essential if serious consequences are to be avoided.An accurate biochemical diagnosis is crucial for the m...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 23, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: June 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 33, Issue 3Author(s): (Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 9, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Autoimmune Polyglandular Diseases
Publication date: Available online 4 October 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): George J. Kahaly, Lara FrommerAbstractAutoimmune polyglandular diseases (APD) are defined as the presence of two autoimmune –induced endocrine failures. With respect to the significant morbidity and potential mortality of APD, the diagnostic objective is to detect APD at an early stage, with the advantage of less frequent complications, effective therapy and better prognosis. This requires that patients at risk be regularly screened for subclinical endocrinopathies prior to clinical ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Modern endocrine surgery – striving for a better quality of life
Publication date: Available online 28 September 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Henning Dralle, Frank Weber (Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Value of ileus-prophylactic surgery for metastatic neuroendocrine midgut tumours
Publication date: Available online 25 September 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Frank Weber, Henning DralleAbstractNeuroendocrine tumours of the small intestine (SINET) are a rare disease. However, a rising incidence rate and excellent long-term survival, even in the setting of metastatic disease lead to a high prevalence of SINET of up to 11/100.000. At the time of diagnosis, most patients already suffer from metastatic disease.About one third of patients demonstrate localized or regional metastatic disease at time of presentation. For those patients the indicatio...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 26, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: April 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 33, Issue 2Author(s): (Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 25, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of Prolactinomas: The old and the new
Publication date: April 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 33, Issue 2Author(s): Philippe Chanson, Dominique MaiterPrevalence and incidence of prolactinomas are approximately 50 per 100,000 and 3–5 new cases/100,000/year. The pathophysiological mechanism of hyperprolactinemia-induced gonadotropic failure involves kisspeptin neurons. Prolactinomas in males are larger, more invasive and less sensitive to dopamine agonists (DAs). Macroprolactin, responsible for pseudohyperprolactinemia is a frequent pitfall of prolactin assay.DAs still represent the primary therapy f...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 25, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Autoimmune diseases and pregnancy
Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Angela Tincani, Cecilia Nalli, Jamilya Khizroeva, Victoria Bitsadze, Andrea Lojacono, Laura Andreoli, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Alexander MakatsariyaPregnancy in autoimmune diseases remains an argument of debate. In last years great improvements were done and with the correct medical support women with disease such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus or Antiphospholipid Syndrome can afford a pregnancy and have healthy babies. The starting point is a good counselling. Women should be informed about ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 19, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Insights into the autoimmune aspect of premature ovarian insufficiency
Publication date: Available online 16 September 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Kassem Sharif, Abdulla Watad, Charlie Bridgewood, Darja Kanduc, Howard Amital, Yehuda ShoenfeldAbstractPremature ovarian insufficiency (POI) refers to a continuum of decreasing ovarian function in women before the age of 40. To date, the cause of POI in the majority of cases remain unresolved. Many cases has been linked to genetic, toxic, infections, enzymatic and iatrogenic causes.A key function of the immune system is to identify and differentiate “self” and “non sel...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 17, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Treatment of patients with Graves' disease and the appropriate extent of thyroidectomy
Publication date: Available online 31 August 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Iuliana D. Bobanga, Christopher R. McHenryGraves' disease is an autoimmune disorder caused by thyroid stimulating auto-antibodies directed against the thyrotropin receptor on thyroid follicular cells. It is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism and is associated with cardiovascular, ophthalmologic and other systemic manifestations. Three treatment options are available for Graves' disease: anti-thyroid drugs, radioactive iodine and thyroidectomy. While thyroidectomy is the least common ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 16, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Prolactin and autoimmunity: the hormone as an inflammatory cytokine
Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Vânia Vieira Borba, Gisele Zandman-Goddard, Yehuda ShoenfeldAbstractNowadays, more than 80 autoimmune disorders are recognized, in which an aberrant immune response against different organs and tissues plays a crucial role. Hormonal homeostasis has great influence in achieving competent and healthy immune system function. Prolactin has a bioactive function acting as a hormone and a cytokine. It influences the immune system modulation, mainly inhibiting the negative selection of au...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 11, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

“Autoimmune Diseases and Pregnancy”
Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Angela Tincani, Cecilia Nalli, Jamilya Khizroeva, Victoria Bitsadze, Andrea Lojacono, Laura Andreoli, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Alexander MakatsariyaAbstractPregnancy in autoimmune diseases remains an argument of debate. In last years great improvements were done and with the correct medical support women with disease such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus or Antiphospholipid Syndrome can afford a pregnancy and have healthy babies. The starting point is a good counselling. Women should be informe...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 11, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Exacerbations of autoimmune diseases during pregnancy and postpartum
Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Vânia Vieira Borba, Gisele Zandman-Goddard, Yehuda ShoenfeldAbstractAutoimmune diseases represent a complex heterogeneous group of disorders that occur as a results of immune homeostasis dysregulation and loss of self-tolerance. Interestingly, more than 80% of the cases are found among women at reproductive age. Normal pregnancy is associated with remarkable changes in the immune and endocrine signaling required to tolerate and support the development and survival of the placenta ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 11, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Universal Screening For Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy Should Be Performed
Publication date: Available online 6 September 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Alex Stagnaro-Green, Allan Dong, Mary D. StephensonAbstractThyroid disease can significantly impact the pregnant woman and her child. Human and animal studies have firmly linked overt hypothyroidism and overt hyperthyroidism to miscarriage, preterm delivery and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Overt hypothyroidism and overt hyperthyroidism affect 1% of all pregnancies. Treatment is widely available, and if detected early, results in decreased rates of adverse outcomes. Universal screeni...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 6, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Constitutional delay of puberty versus congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: genetics, management and updates
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismAuthor(s): Taneli Raivio, Päivi J. MiettinenAbstractDelayed puberty (DP) affects approximately 2% of adolescents. In the vast majority of patients in both sexes, it is due to constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP), a self-limited condition in which puberty starts later than usual but progresses normally. However, some CDGP patients may benefit from medical intervention with low-dose sex steroids or peroral aromatase inhibitor letrozole (only for boys). Other causes of DP include per...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Management of disorders of sex development – With a focus on development of the child and adolescent through the pubertal years
This articles will discuss clinical and genetic diagnosis, decisions regarding sex of rearing, ethical dilemmas, medical management of the infant and of the child or adolescent presenting for the first time with a DSD. Surgical options, timing and management are outlined. (Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 4, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research